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Tempus Institution Building Seminar Context Background

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Experience

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Budapest 1-3 October 1998


Tempus Institution Building

Context Background

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Experience

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CONTENTS CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Phare Institution Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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The Tempus Institution Building Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Key Actors of the Organisation and Implementation of TIB JEPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN OVERALL IMPRESSION OF THE TIB JEP APPLICATIONS SUBMITTED IN THE PHARE COUNTRIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Target Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 11 14

The Overall Quality and the Main Aspects of TIB JEP Applications in Need of Further Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Role of the NTOs in Tempus Institution Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TIB JEP APPLICATIONS WITH HUNGARIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE FIRST TIB SELECTION PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . .

15 16

Other Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17 17 18 20 23 23

ANNEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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The Co-ordinating Institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . European Dimension with Special Regard to the Phare IB Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Target Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND Introduction The adoption and implementation of the acquis communautaire by the EU-associated countries of Central Europe (CE-10 countries or CE candidate countries 1 ) gained a special importance in the enhanced pre-accession strategy. There has not been any doubt over the preceding applicants' capacity to implement and enforce EU legislation, however, with regard to the CE-10 countries it has been repeatedly pointed out as a key problem of the enlargement process since the Madrid European Summit in December 1995. This very special and completely new problem arose due to the special situation of the CE-10 countries' transition in consequence of which the accession burden on candidates from Central and Eastern Europe is far greater than for other candidates or previous entrants. Compared to Austria, Finland or Sweden, they have to travel a greater distance from their starting position to achieve the conditions that will make Membership possible. Compared to the situation when Greece, Portugal and Spain joined, the "acquis" is significantly larger and is still expanding. The European Commission (further on: Commission) is deliberately pursuing a broader interpretation of the acquis. The task is not just adoption and interpretation of 80,000 pages of legal texts but also includes developing the ability to manage the acquis. Candidate countries must integrate, within a relatively short period of time, the entire "acquis communautaire" and they must be able to implement effectively Community directives and policies in their domestic contexts. In accordance with the C o p e n h a g e n c r i t e r i a EU membership requires (i) that the candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities; (ii) the existence of a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union; (iii) the ability to take on the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union. Ensuring that the CE-10 countries have the appropriate institutional and administrative capacity to manage the acquis is a common interest of the CE candidate countries and the Member States. The present Member States must be satisfied that new members are able to meet their obligations and guarantee that Community rules are implemented with the same effectiveness as in the Member

1 Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia.

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States whereas the CE candidate countries are interested in acquiring adequate capacity to draw their legitimate benefits from membership in defence of their national interest. The Commission's Opinions on the applications for membership (adopted in July 1997 with Agenda 2000) and the Luxembourg European Council's examination of these criteria took the view that none of the CE-10 countries fully satisfies all of the Copenhagen criteria at the present. Therefore the development of the administrative and institutional capacity of the CE candidate countries in order to ensure the implementation of the acquis was identified as a main task of the enhanced pre-accession strategy and tailor-made institution building activities were anticipated in order to support this process. Institution building is a well-known concept and it has been widely used as an effective tool for building and developing effective and democratic institutions for decades. Institution building projects are common in most United Nations Development Programme country portfolios. An institution building project is called for if the need identified is to improve the capacity of an organisation to serve its purpose as part of an institution of the society. 'Institution' means in this context 'a system of rules and structures evolved to serve a purpose in society'. Institutional capacity building is the process of providing the organisations of an institution with the capabilities and the resources necessary for each to satisfactorily serve its purpose within the institution. An i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t is a set of interrelated tasks amenable to unified management which is aimed at achieving specific objectives within a given budget and a given period whose primary objective is institutional capacity building - i.e., improving the


efficiency, effectiveness and/or responsiveness of an organisation to better enable it to serve its purpose within an institution. Institution building is a flexible tool which must be tailored to the specific needs identified in the specific context. In the present context the Phare programme is seen as the main instrument for EU-CE-10 co-operation, providing the necessary technical and financial assistance to the integration process. Therefore related institution building activities are incorporated in the Phare scheme.

Phare Institution Building In March 1997 the Commission set new guidelines for the Phare programme concerning pre-accession assistance. For the CE-10 countries Phare was converted from a 'demand-driven' to an 'accession-driven' programme, i.e. instead of satisfying the demands identified by the CE-10 countries in a wide range of subject areas Phare projects will be focused on accession-related tasks in the future.

The 'demand-driven' period: in its early days, Phare activities addressed the immediate needs of Phare countries 2 for critical aid and institutional reform. As the economic transition progressed, the scope of programmes widened to address the longer term requirements of economic development. Phare proved itself to be very flexible and responsive to diverse and rapidly evolving needs. But programmes tended to become rather thinly spread, as priorities proliferated. The 'accession-driven' period: the preparation of the Opinions produced an additional constraint to re-focus Phare on a small number of accession-related priorities. Therefore in the ten CE candidate countries Phare was integrated into the Accession Partnerships and from 1998 onwards the programme has one clear and simple objective: to prepare the CE applicant states for membership in the European Union. Phare’s effectiveness will be strengthened by reformed administrative methods, too, such as improved budgetary implementation, a radical increase in the size of projects and continued decentralisation of management in favour of the recipient countries. Programmes for other Phare countries which did not apply for EU membership - Albania, FYROM and Bosnia -, however, will not be changed. The programme in its new phase addresses two major difficulties facing the CE-10 countries as they prepare for accession, namely (i) their capacity to implement the acquis communautaire and (ii) the upgrading of enterprises and major infrastructure to community standards by funding investment. All Phare assistance will henceforth be directed forwards two overriding priorities: financing investment (70% of the budget) and institution building (30% of the budget). 2 Phare countries: Central and Eastern European countries benefitting from the Phare aid (at the date of printing this document the CE-10 countries, Albania, FYROM and Bosnia).

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The cornerstone of any P h a r e I n s t i t u t i o n B u i l d i n g (Phare IB) activity is the implementation of administrative training aimed at national administrators of the CE candidate countries in order to prepare them for their relations with the European institutions. It must be emphasised that Phare IB is clearly linked to the acquis communautaire. It has nothing to do with administration in general. This means that the 500 MECU which will be made available annually to train personnel in the CE-10 countries will be tied directly to areas of EU responsibility and will not affect other areas/persons having no contact with the EU. Target institutions were proposed to be limited to a number of key ministries, at least for 1998, covering the following sectors: Agriculture, Environment, Finance, Justice and Home Affairs for all countries and possibly a fifth sector specific to each country if there is a need. The specific needs of the individual CE candidate countries were summarised in the National Programmes for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA). All CE candidate countries endorsed the choice of priority areas and a significant number attributed top priority to Justice and Home Affairs. Also the National Office for Standardisation was recurrently mentioned as being of high priority. The Commission supports the special emphasis on Justice and Home Affairs, especially border control. In the ten CE candidate countries a total of 111 IB projects were included in the Phare programming for 1998 3 . The distribution of the 111 IB projects among the Phare sectors is the following: 33 projects in the field of Finance, 25 projects in Agriculture, 25 in Justice and Home Affairs, 18 projects in Environment and 10 projects in the Other sectors defined for the individual CE-10 countries. Issues covered by the Other sector vary from country to country and include among others the development of a market surveillance system and training for the national nuclear safety regulatory agency. The backbone of Phare IB projects is the long-term secondment of EU practitioners to CE-10 institutions on a full-time basis in order to provide technical know-how to the adoption and implementation of the acquis. The Commission is favourable to "package" proposals, which could involve other different types of long and short term staff exchanges to complement long-term secondments and also expertise from different Member States to reflect the diversity of solutions adopted by present Member States as well as private sector staff. The set of complementary activities should be the most appropriate combination of missions by extremely specialised or top-level experts in specific areas, training of trainers (i.e. of CE candidate country officials who will run the new organisations after twinning), provision of services and intangible equipment (e.g. translation services, computer software), etc. It is important to notice, however, that EUCE-10 long-term secondments are in the focus and all other activities are of secondary importance.

3 The distribution of the projects among the ten countries is the following: Bulgaria 11, the Czech Republic 9, Estonia 4, Hungary 19, Latvia 6, Lithuania 9, Poland 6, Romania 19, the Slovak Republic 14 and Slovenia 14.

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Phare IB activities are to be carried out within the framework of t w i n n i n g arrangements between administrative institutions of the CE candidate countries and the relevant bodies in the EU Member States. Phare IB twinning agreements do not result in exclusive relationships between certain CE-10 countries and EU Member States but in a very targeted matching of needs with relevant know-how in each specific case. Twinning agreements are not declarations of willingness to co-operate in general for an indefinite period of time but they must be aimed at achieving specific objectives within a given budget and a given period. The establishment of twinning arrangements, i.e. surveying and matching needs in the CE candidate countries and supply in the Member States, is facilitated by several organisational actors who undertake an interface role in this process, e.g. the Commission and the National Contact Points for IB both in the Member States and the CE candidate countries. In addition, the Commission's active participation is required at all stages of twinning. The Commission is developing also some other core mechanisms in support of Institution Building, e.g. for co-operation between professional bodies, training of the judiciary, etc. Costs for actual projects under such mechanisms will also have to be covered by the national Phare envelopes. The fulfilment of the objective of Phare IB with its emphasis on in-depth training for key officials cannot be expected in a few years. IB activities will stretch well into the next century. The first twinnings will already be launched in the second half of 1998 yet IB in the CE-10 countries is planned as a 10 to 15year programme and one that goes well beyond enlargement.


The Tempus Institution Building Concept In the new phase of Tempus (Tempus II bis) the orientations of Tempus Phare were updated in accordance with the new Phare orientations. In the CE candidate countries, Tempus will focus on the implementation of the pre-accession strategy within the new Phare guidelines and enabling beneficiary institutions to develop their management policy and skills, in view of their active participation in European Union education programmes such as Socrates-Erasmus. The actual activities were restructured and redefined in order to serve these objectives in the most effective way. In the CE-10 countries all Tempus activities are focused on pre-accession issues. A major task is the preparation of the higher education sector for integration into the EU which is addressed by the University Management Joint European Projects (JEP). Classical academic JEPs focusing on curriculum development are supported only in subject areas directly related to EU accession (as indicated in the national priorities). Accession-related activities are preferred also within the IMG framework 4 , e.g. conference travels aimed at establishing links with Socrates’ Thematic Networks. The restructured traditional project types were complemented by a new sub-type of academic JEP which was designed specifically for institution building purposes: the T e m p u s I n s t i t u t i o n B u i l d i n g J E P or TIB JEP. In those CE-10 countries which have already joined the Socrates programme Tempus Institution Building activities immediately gained top priority. A TIB JEP aims at developing and delivering short-cycle (1-6 month) (re-)training courses for national administrators, professional associations, the semi-public sector and local administrators who are involved in the implementation of the pre-accession strategy. The (re-)training programme must be tailormade, practice-oriented and it must be focused on factual knowledge and skills (e.g. language and computing skills) directly related to the adoption and implementation of the acquis by the target institutions. The training courses organised in the framework of a TIB JEP should meet the following requirements: (i) ensure a balance between training provided by academic institutions and that provided by non-academic partners. Appropriate language and computer training components must be incorporated into the training programme according to the modalities chosen by the partners in the network; (ii) envisage a study visit in an EU Member State for the participants at the end of each module of the course;

4 Project type IMG is open only to those Phare countries which have not joined the Socrates programme yet (at the date of printing this document the following Phare countries were eligible for the Socrates programme: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Slovak Republic).

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(iii) involve a significant number of CE-10 country officials as course participants balanced in relation to the financing received; (iv) foresee a follow-up to the JEP after the expiry of the contract, which could be the integration of project results into genuine university curricula. The courses are organised by a CE-10 country higher education institution (HEI) which is the “centre of excellence” in the project. A TIB network must be established which complies both with the minimum Tempus consortium criteria (i.e. at least one HEI from an EU Member State, at least one institution from another Member State and at least one HEI per Phare country involved) and the special TIB consortium requirements, i.e. involvement of non-academic institutions such as professional associations, national and local administrations and a partner who can provide linguistic support for the specific training modules. The TIB network incorporates the Phare idea of twinning, i.e. the CE-10 country non-academic partners should be twinned with relevant EU nonacademic partners, moreover, it lends an opportunity to establish not only bilateral but multilateral arrangements, i.e. pairing the CE-10 country non-academic partners with relevant partners from more than one EU Member State. A TIB twinning arrangement combines the advantages of Phare IB and Tempus JEP networks, i.e. on the one hand, it provides a demand-driven training opportunity at local level for the CE-10 countries on the implementation of which the EU gets direct feedback, on the other hand, it could lead to the establishment of longterm networks between EU Member States’ and CE-10 countries’ officials and institutions. Tempus Institution Building (TIB) is not merely a task related to Phare activities but also a logical step in the development of the Tempus programme. Tempus has seen three main stages in its evolution: the first concentrated on university structures, the second on universities in their immediate environment and the third on universities in their institutional and national context. TIB naturally fits this third stage and makes use of the achievements of the previous stages, namely the adaptation of CE universities to the new European context by means of JEPs covering university management and European Studies; a wide range of active academic co-operation networks involving both EU and Phare country universities; links established between academic and non-academic institutions (“university-enterprise co-operation”).

The added value that Tempus offers to Phare IB is based on three pillars: ◆

enriching the training of national administrators with the theoretical support that only universities can provide;

a TIB network provides access to models in more than one EU countries due to the special Tempus consortium requirements;

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as TIB should address any sectors of society involved in the preaccession phase it facilitates the direct transfer of know-how related to the adoption and implementation of the “acquis” to the organisations of public administration and civil society below the national level.

Key Actors of the Organisation and Implementation of TIB JEPs The organisation of TIB JEPs is slightly different from the formulation of traditional Tempus projects. Tempus is a “bottom-up” programme offering a large scope to individual initiatives that enjoy institutional support; Tempus projects are traditionally initiated and formulated by individual P h a r e c o u n t r y H E I s (or even faculties or departments of HEIs) and they should be responsive to the specific needs of both the individual institutions concerned and the Phare countries involved. The projects are formulated in co-operation with the E U p a r t n e r i n s t i t u t i o n s which supply their know-how and experience to the implementation of the project. This special “bottom-up” organisational methodology of the programme is applied also in case of TIB JEPs and it is seen as a special opportunity offered by Tempus to enrich and expand Phare IB activities. The traditional model is, however, complemented by an extra service initiated by the European Commission in case of TIB JEPs: the N a t i o n a l T e m p u s O f f i c e s ( N T O s ) of the CE-10 countries undertake an interface role between HEIs and potential organisational partners (ministries, etc.) in the project organisation process which means that the NTOs assist in matching training needs with the appropriate teaching capacity. Therefore NTOs should survey both the project initiatives planned to be elaborated and submitted by the HEIs and the (re)training needs identified by the potential organisational partners. The active parti-cipation of the NTOs in this process is an effective way to ensure the proper matching of needs and supply. The T e m p u s N a t i o n a l C o n t a c t P o i n t s ( N C P s ) of the EU Member States should present the national needs of the CE candidate countries to the EU academic and non-academic world.

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Once needs and supply are matched and the TIB network/consortium is established with appropriate Phare country and EU academic and non-academic partners the implementation and monitoring of the project is the task of this international TIB consortium. The CE-10 country HEIs are responsible for the development, organisation and delivery of the training courses. The EU partner institutions, as mentioned above, provide technical assistance, i.e. supply their know-how and experience, participate in the training of trainers and also host study visits and/or practical placements of the CE-10 country course participants and teaching staff. The CE-10 country non-academic partners can undertake a wide range of tasks depending on the profile of the institution: assist in the development and delivery of the courses, participate in the recruitment and selection of course participants, exchange expertise with other partners, provide examples of good practice to course participants. It must be emphasised that the TIB JEP framework as described above is a very flexible tool that can and should be adapted to the specific needs, circumstances, actors, etc. defining the individual projects. The shaping of Tempus Institution Building is an interactive process. The Commission has already elaborated and offered a framework for the TIB projects. Now it is the project consortia’s turn; they should design and implement successful TIB projects, thus realising and slightly re-shaping the TIB concept at the same time.

AN OVERALL IMPRESSION OF THE TIB JEP APPLICATIONS SUBMITTED IN THE PHARE COUNTRIES The present section summarises the experiences of the first TIB selection round in the Phare countries based upon the reports of the National Tempus Offices (NTOs). After a statistical overview of the selection results the target groups of the applications are examined because of their defining role in TIB JEPs. This is followed by a presentation of the overall quality of TIB JEP applications and finally by the role of the NTOs played in TIB. Details on the results in the individual Phare countries are presented in the Annex.

Statistical Overview There were altogether 147 TIB JEP applications submitted in the first TIB selection round in the Phare countries, out of which 67 were proposed for funding 5 . In spite of the special importance attributed to the TIB priority the percentage of 5 With the entry of Phare countries into European programmes other than Tempus all applications are submitted to a so-called interservice consultation in order to examine whether they are not paralelly funded from other EU grants, too. Depending on the results of the consultation the list of supported applications mentioned in this publication is therefore subject to alteration.

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TIB JEP applications (27%) was lower than that of the other two JEP types, namely the curriculum development 6 (45%) and university management (28%) projects (UM JEPs). This follows from the fact that there is still a significant need for curriculum development at under- and post-graduate level, as well as for modernisation of the management strategies applied at higher education institutions (HEIs). The following tables and diagrams present the distribution of the submitted applications and those proposed for funding according to JEP type in the CE-10 countries 7 .

Distribution of Submitted Applications According to JEP Type in the CE-10 Countries

Country

N

IB R

T

N

UM R

T

N

CD R

T

N

TOTAL R

T

Bulgaria Czech Republic Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Poland Romania Slovak Republic Slovenia

13 26 4 34 2 7 20 16 16 4

1 2 1 2 2 3 2 -

13 27 6 35 4 9 23 16 18 4

16 11 3 21 4 7 58 16 12 3

1 1 1 1 1 -

16 12 4 21 5 8 59 16 12 3

33 9 2 32 6 7 26 76 8 12

6 6 5 8 4 4 7 12 4 1

39 15 7 40 10 11 33 88 12 13

62 46 9 87 12 21 104 108 36 19

6 8 8 9 7 7 11 12 6 1

68 54 17 96 19 28 115 120 42 20

TOTAL

142

5

147

151

2

153

211

28

239

504

35

539

N= National, R= Regional 8 , T= Total of national and regional projects

Distribution of Applications Proposed for Funding

Country

N

TIB R

Total

UM N

N

CD R

Total

N

TOTAL R

Total

Bulgaria Czech Republic Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Poland Romania Slovak Republic Slovenia

8 7 2 14 2 1 13 7 11 1

1 1 1 -

8 7 3 14 3 2 13 7 11 1

6 3 3 6 2 1 20 6 8 2

6 1 2 2 3 7 10 3 2

-

6 1 2 2 3 7 10 3 2

20 11 5 22 6 5 40 23 22 5

1 1 1 -

20 11 6 22 7 6 40 23 22 5

Total

66

1

67

57

36

0

36

159

1

160

6 In order to differentiate between the new subtype TIB academic JEP and the traditional academic JEP this latter one is often referred to as curriculum development JEP (CD JEP). 7 According to the database of the European Training Foundation (ETF). 8 A regional JEP application is submitted by a consortium including HEIs of more than one Phare countries.

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Distribution of Applications Proposed for Funding

CD 23% TIB 41% UM 36%

Out of the 5 regional TIB JEP applications the one proposed for funding was a Baltic regional project with the participation of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. This indicates that the three Baltic states managed to comply with the special common regional priorities defined for their co-operation by the Tempus authorities on the one hand and that the institution building concept was difficult to realise at regional level in the case of other country groups on the other hand. The high proportion of approved TIB applications indicates that within the Tempus programme the European Commission applies the greatest part of its financial resources and its special attention to the JEP type directly related to the issues of European enlargement. In many countries a high percentage of the applications were formulated within the Phare IB sectors 9 defined in the National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis of the country in question - Latvia: 75%, Czech Republic: 74%, Poland and Hungary: 69%, Estonia: 67%; - which shows that the contribution provided by the Tempus programme to the integration process is in harmony with the policy defined by the highest EU and national authorities (see table below). This is also reflected in the fact that out of the four Phare IB sectors the most TIB applications were submitted in the area of Justice and Home Affairs, which is attributed top priority both by the European Commission and the national authorities of all CE-10 countries.

Distribution of TIB JEP Applications by Phare IB Sectors in the CE-10 Countries

Justice and Home Affairs Finance Environment Agriculture

20%

2%

„Other“ Phare sectors

7% 16% 8%

46%

Other areas

9 The four common Phare IB sectors are: Agriculture; Environment; Finance; Justice and Home Affairs.

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Target Groups

Projects in other than the four common Phare IB sectors were formulated with the objective of providing expertise on European regulations in various fields of civil society, such as journalism, sport administration, arts and humanities, business and management, consumer protection, standardisation, information technology, biotechnology, telecommunication, energy, work and social affairs, including the training of trade unions, as well as the following EU regulated professions: medicine, nursing and architecture. In accordance with the high proportion of TIB JEPs formulated in the Phare IB sectors the relevant ministries featured frequently in the consortia. As mentioned above the most TIB JEPs were submitted in the sector of Justice and Home Affairs, which was attributed top priority both by the EU and the national authorities. Lawyers, judges, notaries and police officers expressed their willingness to take part in the training courses. A most significant issue in this sector, border control, was also addressed in two countries by applications submitted for the training of border guards. Since both countries in question lie along the external borders of the EU Tempus in these cases will contribute not only to realising the objectives of the Phare policy but also those laid down in frame of the Co-operation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, the third pillar of the EU, in which special emphasis is put on strengthened control at the external borders of the Member States (Schengen Agreement). One of the most frequent subject areas of TIB JEP applications apart from the Phare IB sectors was the training of public administrators in EU policy matters both at central and local level. Consequently, the participation of the various governmental institutions and local authorities at town, county and regional level in the consortia was significant. Besides the state institutions which define the pre-accession strategy of the CE-10 countries organisations in the business sphere and the public service, as well as various non-governmental organisations of industry, agriculture, environment protection and other fields were also involved in numerous applications. The training to be realised in frame of the approved TIB JEPs in the various sectors of society provides an indispensable contribution to the implementation of the acquis which ensures that EU regulations are understood at the institutions where they will be applied. The added value of Tempus Institution Building consists in developing adapted forms of training for professionals working in the most diverse social institutional structures where the acquis communautaire has to be transferred and ensuring hereby the social balance between institutions and citizenship in the pre-accession phase.

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The Overall Quality and the Main Aspects of TIB JEP Applications in Need of Further Development Among the NTOs of all Phare countries only three were satisfied with the quality of the TIB applications submitted in the first TIB selection round. Many NTOs found that the HEIs did not always prove to be ready to take the responsibility of functioning as centres of excellence in their region providing expertise on the acquis communautaire and were rather concentrating on development within and according to the needs of their own structures. Often HEIs remained the primary agents of the projects whereas the target groups were not clearly defined and consequently the degree of their involvement was not measurable either. In some applications only the training of trainers and not the actual delivery of courses for the professionals was foreseen for the lifetime of the project. It is important that applicants should be aware of the differences in the possibilities of the first, demand-driven period of the Tempus programme during which CD JEPs could be formulated according to the actual needs of the HEI in question and those of the accession-driven phase in which projects should focus on the development of tailor-made courses corresponding to the exact needs of professionals involved in the implementation of the acquis in a certain field. To this end HEIs have to survey the training needs resulting from the integration process in their country and formulate their applications accordingly. Due to the newness of the TIB priority and the shortness of time that the NTOs had at their disposal to present this concept to the potential applicants not all TIB components proved to be equally well integrated in the applications and many contained CD elements. The following aspects need to gain more emphasis in the future: twinning; European dimension; networking; language and computer training; presentation of EU management, PR and marketing practices. In accordance with the twinning concept the transfer of know-how is to be realised through the active involvement of EU professionals in the development and delivery of the courses on the one hand, and the participation in the training and consequent study visits paid by the Phare country professionals to the EU institutions on the other hand. In most Phare countries a wide scale of organisations were addressed from ministries and other governmental institutions, regional and local authorities, various NGOs, chambers, SME, news agencies, to trade unions, armed forces, political parties and various institutions of the civil society. With regard to involving the EU counterparts of these organisations the results can be considered less favourable: there are significantly fewer non-academic partners from the EU than from the Phare countries and in many applications the role and commitment of the EU partners are not clear. The NTOs are aware of the need of developing effective partner searching strategies in order to assist in involving at least one twinning partner for each Phare country non-academic institution so that the professionals of the candidate countries can be familiarised with the practises applied in the various Member States and design their own model based upon their experiences.


In order to provide their project with a European dimension and to guarantee its sustainability applicants need to be better informed on the acquis communautaire in general and the integration policy of their country in particular, as well as on the activities of other European programmes with special regard to the Phare programme in their country. It is important that ways of dissemination are foreseen and integrated in the application in order to ensure the sustainability and multiplier effect of the project results. Contacts among the various institutions established during the lifetime of the project should be maintained in the systematic form of networks, which accelerates the transfer of information and facilitates the formation of new contacts.

The Role of the NTOs in Tempus Institution Building The NTOs consider that one of their main tasks consists in acting as interface between potential JEP partners, i.e.: HEIs and non-academic institutions. It is of major importance that the new opportunities offered by Tempus in the frame of TIB should reach those sectors of society which did not traditionally participate in previous Tempus projects but constitute the main target groups of TIB JEPs, such as the central and local administration, NGOs, the public service, as well as agricultural and economical organisations. In order that the applications comply with the requirements of the TIB concept NTOs have to follow carefully the development of the EU policy with special regard to the enlargement strategy and the Phare programme. Based upon the experiences of the first TIB selection period the national Tempus priorities need to be further clarified in a way which reflects the actual changes in the Tempus policy so that applicants can become acquainted with the constraints and possibilities of the programme. Since the objective and the structure of a TIB JEP are entirely different from the other project types special guidelines for their assessment, as well as for monitoring need to be worked out. The courses are developed according to the demands of the non-academic partners thus their assessment of the objectives, the progress and the utility value of the results of the project need to be given full attention. Finally, NTOs can assist in the forming of TIB JEP applications through consulting with applicants on their draft plans and drawing their attention to aspects that need further elaboration.

â—† All in all it can be said that most NTOs grasped the unique opportunities lying in TIB and the long-term impact it may make not only on higher education but also on society as a whole. The courses offered by the HEIs in the frame of TIB JEPs will be developed in correspondence with the actual needs of the country in question and a wide scale of organisations may benefit from their professionals being skilled to handle the issues raised by the integration process and from the new contacts established with other organisations of their type, as well as with

16


the authorities regulating their activities. Thus Tempus Institution Building may become far more than an occasional tool for the execution of some urgent tasks on the way to EU accession. If it is well understood both by the governmental institutions and the citizens Tempus Institution Building can unite the various sectors of society urging them to share tasks and activities, to harmonise their interests and to launch a fruitful and comprehensive co-operation among them to an extent which is probably without precedent in their history.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TIB JEP APPLICATIONS WITH HUNGARIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE FIRST TIB SELECTION PERIOD The aim of this analysis is to share the Hungarian experiences of the first TIB JEP selection period as a case study with all the stakeholders of institution building, from potential applicants in the academic and non-academic spheres to those in charge of the definition of the Phare and Tempus policy. This study examines how the most important components of the Tempus Institution Building concept were realised in the first selection round in Hungary, focusing on the following aspects: the co-ordinating institutions; European dimension with special regard to the Phare IB sectors; twinning; target groups and other aspects.

The Co-ordinating Institutions In the selection period of the year 1998 thirty-five TIB JEP applications with Hungarian participation were submitted by 19 different co-ordinating institutions. The co-ordinating institution 10 of a TIB project assumes the role of the centre of excellence. This entails developing, organising and delivering the courses. The co-ordinating institution may preserve its function as a centre of excellence after the expiry of the project by continuing the delivery of the courses, the development of their curriculum, their integration into graduate education, as well as the involvement of new target groups. In this way co-ordinating institutions may play a major role in the integration process providing the necessary educational basis. The following tables present the Hungarian co-ordinating institutions of the TIB JEP proposals according to their study profile (Table 1) and their proportion in the capital versus the country (Table 2) respectively. 10 In the case of JEPs with Hungarian participation a special requirement stipulates the co-ordination and contractorship of a Hungarian higher education institution (HEI).

17


Distribution of Co-ordinator Institutions, Institutional Units According to Study Profile 9 6

6 3

3

3 2

2

Sports

Social Sciences

Natural Sciences

Law and Public Administration

Humanities

Teacher Training

Agricultural and Food Sciences

Management and Business

Engineering and Technologies

1

Table 1 - shows the distribution of the co-ordinating institutions of the JEP proposals by type. The graph demonstrates that a wide range of HEIs of different profiles applied for a Tempus grant. This indicates the flexibility and multidisciplina-rity of TIB.

Proportion of Co-ordinators in the Capital to those in the Country

capital 34%

the country 66%

Table 2 - one third of the applications were submitted by universities of the capital. In view of the size and number of the HEIs of Budapest this can be considered as a well-balanced proportion.

European Dimension with Special Regard to the Phare IB Sectors It follows from the very nature of the Tempus programme in general, and of TIB in particular, that a TIB JEP has to have a European dimension. Applicants should define the place of their project in the integration process e.g.: by making a specific reference either to a running Phare IB project, to one of the objectives

18


defined in the National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis - NPAA or to the guidelines defined for the country in question in Agenda 2000. The application should include a detailed description of the parts of the acquis communautaire addressed, its links with other European programmes and the other grants applied for in its support. The aim of TIB is to prepare the participants of the training for active involvement in the integration process, as well as for effective work and co-operation within the EU. Out of the four Phare IB sectors defined by the European Commission for all Phare countries the most TIB JEP applications with Hungarian participation were formed in the field of Environment (8), probably because this field concerns a wide range of HEIs of different study profiles. There was an even distribution of the applications in the three other sectors: six in the field of Agriculture, five both in the field of Finance and in that of Justice and Home Affairs (Cf. Table 3). There was no project submitted in the field of Internal Market, which is the fifth, country-specific Phare IB sector defined for Hungary. From the 35 applications 11 cannot be directly linked with the key sectors supported by Phare but even these set in general the objective of training administrators at national or local level, as well as civil servants and professionals who are directly involved in the approximation of legislation between Hungary and the EU.

Distribution of the Applications According to Phare IB Sectors

Other Areas 32%

Finance 14%

Justice and Home Affairs 14%

Environment 23%

Agriculture 17%

Table 3 - expresses the distribution of applications according to Phare IB sectors as a percentage. The diagram demonstrates that a relatively high proportion has no direct links with the Phare IB sectors.

From the applications submitted in the four key Phare sectors 18 can be linked directly to running Phare IB projects in Hungary, 4 applications respond to the IB needs identified by the Commission and 4 contribute to achieving the objectives defined in the National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis - NPAA. The activities planned in the frame of almost each project contribute to the implementation of the pre-accession strategy in Hungary and are strongly related to the guidelines of Agenda 2000 respectively.

19


As a result of the selection 14 TIB applications were proposed for funding 11 in fields such as retraining representatives of the local administration in order to enable them to administer and utilise the EU Regional Funds, presentation of the Common Agricultural Policy to the professionals working for the sectoral and legal administration of Hungarian agriculture, training of border guards and police officers on the Schengen Agreement, etc. 11 of these can be linked to running Phare IB projects: 4 in the sector of Finance, 3 in Justice and Home Affairs and 2 both in the sectors of Environment and in that of Agriculture. The remaining three projects deal with employment and social affairs, the EU Regional Development & Cohesion Policy and sport administration respectively. Table 4 shows the distribution of the applications proposed for funding according to Phare IB sectors.

Distribution of TIB JEPs Proposed for Funding by Phare IB Sectors

Other Areas 21% Justice and Home Affairs 21%

Agriculture 14%

Environment 14%

Finance 30%

Table 4 Twinning As regards the Phare idea of twinning the JEP consortia did not fully comply with the TIB requirements. Though there were only two applications not fulfilling the primary condition of the participation of at least one Hungarian non-academic partner, there were already 12 consortia not meeting the other important criterion of involving at least one EU non-academic partner. Due to the newness of the TIB priority the true essence of the twinning concept is not reflected in most of the applications yet and this also explains the insufficient number of EU non-academic partners (Cf. Table 5).

11 With the entry of Phare countries into European programmes other than Tempus all applications are submitted to a so-called interservice consultation in order to examine whether they are not paralelly funded from other EU grants, too. Depending on the results of the consultation the list of supported applications mentioned in this publication is therefore subject to alteration.

20


Proportion of Hungarian to EU Non-academic Institutions Participating in the TIB JEP Applications

108

46 Hungarian non-academic institutions

EU non-academic institutions

Table 5 - shows clearly that there are more than twice as many Hungarian nonacademic partners as EU non-academic partners The number of EU academic partners is at present much higher than that of the non-academic partners (see Table 6) presumably as a result of the thriving cooperation between the Hungarian and EU HEIs established during the previous stages of the Tempus programme. Corresponding to the TIB JEP requirements it is indispensable to survey potential EU non-academic partners, in which the EU academic partners can assist using their existing contacts.

Proportion of EU Academic Partners to EU Non-academic Partners

79 46 EU academic partners

EU non-academic partners

Table 6 As mentioned above the great advantage offered by Tempus Institution Building is that the Hungarian institutions and organisations can design their own models on the basis of their contacts and co-operation with partners from several EU Member States making use of their comparative evaluation of various experiences

21


and practices. The involvement of EU academic partners proved to be very versatile in the first year, since HEIs from all Member States with the exception of Luxemburg feature in the consortia. As far as non-academic partners are concerned it may be pointed out that connections have been established mainly with partners from those Member States that have traditionally closer relationship with Hungary. Table 6 illustrates the distribution of academic and non-academic partners by country:

Distribution of EU Partners by Member States 20

Table 7 EU academic partners

15

EU non-academic partners

11 10 8

7 6 5

5

5

5

5 4

4

1

1

I

P

E

IRL

F

B

AT

GR

NL

D

UK

1 DK

1

1

2

SE

3 2

FI

3

Twinning arrangements can operate most effectively if the profiles and the competence of the corresponding EU and Hungarian non-academic institutions are similar. The following tables show the various activity profiles of the EU and Hungarian non-academic institutions participating in the consortia.

Distribution of the Hungarian Non-academic Partner Institutions According to their Scope of 18

Table 8 14 13 12 10

10 9

9

22

3

Research Institutes

Other

3

Health Service Organisations

Relief Organisations

Armed Forces

Organisations of Public Adminis tration

Organisations for Environment Protection/Regional Develeopment

Chambers

Enterprises

Ministries

Local Governments

7


Distribution of the EU Non-academic Partner Institutions According to their Scope of Activity

20

7 5 4 1

1

Chambers

Research Institutes

2

Trade Unions

2

Ministries

2

Organisations for Environment Protection/Regional Development

Armed Forces

Local Governments

Relief Organisations

Educational/ Employment Organisations

Enterprises

2

Table 9 Tables 8 and 9 show that the profiles of the EU and Hungarian organisations are almost alike but their proportions are different, and the above mentioned divergence in their number can also be observed here.

Target Groups The 35 applications set as their objective to train nearly 6,000 persons (administrators at national or local level, civil servants and professionals involved in the approximation of legislation between Hungary and the EU), which in average means target groups of 150-200 persons per project. The 14 supported projects will assure the training of approx. 3,000 persons. Among the target groups featured representatives of ministries and local governments; notaries, lawyers; politicians, media experts, journalists; chamber members; social workers, doctors, nurses; teachers; policemen and border guards; engineers; experts of sports administration; small investors, managers, businessmen, financial experts; smallholders, agricultural, nature conservation and environment protection experts, etc. It is clear from this list that applicants understood the idea of the European Commission according to which the mission of TIB includes the development of civil society in the CE-10 countries by promoting the integration of various social spheres and developing the relations of EU institutions with citizens.

Other Aspects The Hungarian JEP applications received in the first TIB selection round tried to comply with the criteria detailed above. In some cases, however, insufficient information was provided on the

23


delivery of the courses though the detailed presentation of the courses, the number of trainers and trainees, the length and timing of the courses and the teaching methodology applied weighs heavily in favour of an application during the evaluation. Besides the vocational courses the language training of the participants is also very important. Through the involvement of universities, university departments or recognised language schools the teaching of at least one Community language has to be assured with emphasis laid on the special vocabulary of the field in question. Not all the applications incorporated language training but there were several detailed and thoughtfully planned projects formulated in this field, too. The presentation of EU management, PR and marketing practices were not sufficiently stressed. In order to facilitate the work of the professionals the training may be completed with the teaching of computing skills necessary for their activities. This training component appeared only in a limited number of applications.

â—† In our analysis we examined to what degree the most important components of the Tempus Institution Building idea were realised in the TIB JEPs with Hungarian participation of the first selection round. It has been demonstrated that some elements of the TIB concept have been assimilated properly by the applicants - active engagement of the HEIs in the pre-accession strategy as centres of excellence; recruiting professionals directly involved in the integration process as target groups of the training and specification of the parts of the acquis communautaire addressed by the project. Clearly there are aspects of the Tempus Institution Building philosophy that should gain more emphasis in the future, such as involving non-academic twin partners from the EU; integrating language and computer modules, as well as the presentation of EU management, PR and marketing practices into the training. The first TIB JEP selection in Hungary was preceded by intensive information and consultation activities on the part of the Hungarian Tempus Office in order to introduce the potential applicants to the new Tempus priority. As a result, the applications generated were very satisfactory both in terms of quality and quantity according to the experiences of the European Commission. Nevertheless it has been shown that there is still plenty of room for improvement in the case of Hungarian TIB JEPs, too. It lies with the National Tempus Offices that the Tempus Institution Building idea should come across to the HEIs and to the sectors of society in need of training so that this tool can be used effectively in the construction of a new Europe.

â—† 24


ANNEX


26 ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆

8 mixed CD and TIB elements not clearly defined or missing target group the needs of the target group not well defined failure to specify the responsibility of each partner in the project failure to find the appropriate non-academic partner institution from BG failure to find the counterpart from the EU lack of strong and active participation of the non-academic partners in the project the “acquis” dimension missing or not clearly defined no linkage with the pre-accession strategy in a given area

* according to the ETF database

The quality of the submitted TIB applications as a whole is satisfactory. A very positive feature is that in a great number of TIB applications the BG universities succeeded in redirecting their efforts towards the real needs of the BG society in the pre-accession period. The projects were initiated and presented in important IB areas such as finance and tax policy, EU standards and quality control, environmental protection, food control and product liability, public administration . Another positive point of the TIB projects is the presence of 6 BG ministries and 3 other national authorities, as well as 6 municipalities and 13 NGOs . The EU counterparts are mainly associations, training institutions, consultancy agencies etc. The presence of industrial partners both from BG and EU is not satisfactory. The prevailing number of TIB applications were in the public administration sector, addressing target groups from different governmental institutions at national, regional and local level, NGOs and private companies.

The overall impression of the NTO

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

NGOs National Association of Municipalities; National Association of General Secretaries in the Republic of BG; European Policy Forum; Regional Information Centre and European Documentation Centre; Centre for European Studies; International Banking Institute; Bulgarian Industrial Association; Scientific and Technical Union of Textiles; Agricultural Credit; Association of Private Farmers; Union of Taxpayers, Union of Private Companies; Albena Tourist; BG Red Cross

Regional projects: 0 TIB, 0 UM, 6 CD

Other areas: public administration standards on quality control European Law European Studies improvement of legislation and structure of the BG HE system

Regional and local administration the municipalities of 6 BG towns, regional administration unit

Ministries and other governmental institutions Ministry of Education and Science; Ministry of Environment and Waters; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Integration Dept.; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Personnel Dept.; Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Agrarian Reform; Ministry of Finance; Tax Administration; Ministry of Urbanisation; National Audit Office, National Employment Service at the Council of Ministers; Committee for Standardisation and Metrology Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors Agriculture: 8% Environment: 16% Finance: 8% Justice and Home Affairs: 0% “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% Other areas: 68%

BULGARIA 68 National projects: 13 TIB, 16 UM, 33 CD

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs


27

CZECH REPUBLIC 54 National projects: 26 TIB, 11 UM, 9 CD Regional projects: 1 TIB, 1 UM, 6 CD M i n i s t r i e s : Ministry for Regional Development; Ministry of Environment; Ministry of Agriculture; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s : Institute of Local Administration; municipality; under- and postgraduate students; civil servants O t h e r a r e a s : business, biotechnology, sport, information technology Agriculture: 7% Environment: 19% Finance: 0% Justice and Home Affairs: 48% “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% Other areas: 26% 7 ◆ Generally the quality was low in comparison with CD or UM JEPs. ◆ More TIB JEPs aimed to develop new curricula for existing degree programmes or new postgraduate courses in public administration than to develop courses for civil servants. ◆ The JEP co-ordinators very often mixed different target groups – the courses were partly prepared for university students, partly for public administrators and civil servants. ◆ The JEP results were not clear and measurable. In many projects nobody from the target group took part actively in the project (mainly in the case of TIB JEPs developing courses for civil servants and public administrators).

* according to the ETF database

Generally the applications fulfilled the TIB requirements. The training of approx. 2,500 professionals is foreseen during the lifetime of the projects and in the majority of projects good strategies for dissemination are worked out. The twinning concept was realised only in a few projects. If the ministries or governmental authorities have a clear concept of the pre-accession strategy and of the continuing education of their employees then it is easier for universities to establish new contacts with them and to apply for a grant together. The current problem is the lack of governmental support for the training of public administrators. In this situation the universities must initiate co-operation with these organisations or institutions themselves and the result is a very vague and wide objective for co-operation. For that reason universities prefer to develop under- or postgraduate curricula, which is a clear and tangible objective.

The overall impression of the NTO

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs


28 Other areas: Agriculture: 17% Environment: 17% journalism Finance: 0% civil engineering Justice and Home Affairs: 33% “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% Other areas: 33% 3 ◆ in general the quality of applications was rather low probably due to the very vague understanding of TIB concept and philosophy ◆ in some applications target groups included university teaching staff and regular students as well (CD) ◆ applicants could not qualify their applications according to TIB codes but used academic codes for TIBs, too.

* according to the ETF database

Out of the four national TIB applications only one had a ministry as partner, two applications submitted supporting letters from e.g. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Court, etc. but these were not involved as partners.

The overall impression of the NTO

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors

Regional projects: 2 TIB (Baltic regional), 1 UM, 5 CD

Baltic regional projects: judges; various groups related to agriculture (academic staff of agricultural units, staff of agricultural research institutes, consultants in the field of agriculture, etc.)

ESTONIA 17 National projects: 4 TIB, 3 UM, 2 CD

National projects: civil engineers; civil servants at local and regional level; judges; journalists

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs


29

◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆

few or missing EU non-academic partners no active co-operation between twinning partners role and responsibilities of non-academic partners not specified target group not clearly defined presentation of courses not detailed enough exaggerated budget formal requirements not fulfilled - e.g.: endorsement letters missing insufficient emphasis on the following aspects: language training; presentation of EU management, PR and marketing practices; computer training plans for dissemination, further functioning of the network missing

* according to the ETF database

The overall impression of the NTO The TIB applications were of good quality generally, which is reflected in the fact that 14 out of 35 applications were proposed for funding. The Hungarian co-ordinating HEIs managed to involve sufficient Hungarian non-academic partners in the consortia in accordance with the special TIB requirements. The ministries, governmental authorities, trade unions, and chambers made out about half of the Hungarian partners (see list above). The estimated number of professionals to be trained amounts to 3,000. Almost all TIB applications had European dimension, i.e.: the applicants formulated their objectives referring to the relevant EU regulations and tried to define the place of their project in the integration process. The twinning concept was not fully realised - the number of EU non-academic partners was much lower than that of the Hungarian non-academic partners. The EU non-academic partners were mainly enterprises (almost half of them).

Comments on the quality of TIB applications

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported* 14

Country: HUNGARY Number of JEPs submitted * 96 Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * National projects: 34 TIB, 21 UM, 32 CD Regional projects: 1 TIB, 0 UM, 8 CD Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs: The following p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s featured as target groups: representatives of ministries and local governments; notaries, lawyers; politicians, media experts, journalists; chamber members; social workers, doctors, nurses; teachers; policemen and border guards; engineers; experts of sport administration; small investors, managers, businessmen, financial experts; smallholders, agricultural, nature conservation and environment protection experts, etc. (approx. 6,000 people). Employer organisations: Chambers (at national, regional, local level) Ministries and Governmental Institutions Ministry of Agriculture; Ministry of Environment and Regional Policy; Ministry chamber of agriculture, chamber of commerce and industry, professional chamber of engineers of Culture and Education; Ministry of Home Affairs; Ministry of Industry, Trade N G O s Hungarian Academy of Sciences, National Confederation of Hungarian Trade Unions, Hungarian and Tourism; Government Control Office; Environmental Committee of the Employers’ Association, Hungarian Foundation of Enterprise Development, Hungarian Institute Hungarian Parliament for Urban and Regional Planning, National Office of Physical Education and Sport, Federation of Local Authorities Hungarian Food Industry, Hungarian Horticultural Council, National Institute for Agricultural regional and local authorities, council of local government associations Quality Control, Pollution Prevention Centre, National Water Management Authority, Armed Forces Federation of Hungarian Notaries police, border guards Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors Other areas: Agriculture: 17% Environment: 23% training of civil servants on EU policy matters and adaptation of European standards Finance: 14% Justice and Home Affairs: 14% “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% Other areas: 32%


30 LATVIA 19 National projects: 2 TIB, 4 UM, 6 CD Regional projects: 2 TIB (Baltic regional), 1 UM, 4 CD ◆ ministerial and municipal officials ◆ judges ◆ journalists ◆ agricultural scientists O t h e r a r e a : journalism Agriculture: 25% Environment: 0% Finance: 0% Justice and Home Affairs: 50% “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% Other areas: 25% 3 ◆ 50% were of good quality ◆ non-academic partners missing or insufficient ◆ lack of proper commitment at governmental level (for public administration) or at the governing bodies of professional associations

* according to the ETF database

For the first TIB selection period the action can be considered successful, however, it should be noted that TIB concepts are not quite clear to the consortia. Thus twinning between professional bodies or governmental bodies in East and West are missing. Projects tend to emphasise training without concrete links to “structure building” activities needed for civil society.

The overall impression of the NTO

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs


31

LITHUANIA 28 National projects: 7 TIB, 7 UM, 7 CD Regional projects: 2 TIB (Baltic regional), 1 UM, 4 CD ◆ civil servants (officials of ministries, regional organisations, municipalities) ◆ judges ◆ journalists ◆ professionals from the private sector ◆ administrators of Lithuanian sport and recreation system Other areas: Agriculture: 11% Environment: 0% journalism Finance: 0% sport and recreation Justice and Home Affairs: 22% health care “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% training of civil servants and professionals from the private sector Other areas: 67% 2 ◆ the quality of some projects is rather good ◆ low involvement of governmental institutions, especially from the EU ◆ low commitment of LT HEIs ◆ more activities are concentrated inside universities and less are targeted on the social environment

* according to the ETF database

The overall impression is very good, however, with present TEMPUS funding possibilities in Lithuania, good TIB projects cannot be funded for budgetary reasons. Good examples are TIB projects with EU ministries involved, and these realise indirect twinning of authorities by means of academic networks.

The overall impression of the NTO

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs


32 * according to the ETF database

The overall impression of the NTO Positive aspects A number of submitted projects involved local and regional administration and self-governments, including applications with good-quality endorsement letters from target institutions. In some projects training foreseen concerns middle-level officials/staff of a given area from the whole country, while in others the staff from communes/towns of one region. In both cases the expected impact is strong. Estimated number of trainees amounts to several hundreds. Visits to EU partner institutions foreseen (though infrequently). Some universities plan to establish permanent training centres. Dissemination forms are sometimes integral part of the project, with media involved also as partners; modern dissemination tools, e.g. CD ROMs, homepages to be used. Several projects are well prepared with very modest and reasonable budget. Negative aspects In general, the expectations were not all met. The number of TIB JEPs submitted was less than expected in spite of an extensive information/encouragement campaign. The level of these projects was lower than expected, in spite of training sessions for potential applicants (see “Comments” above). The response from ministries and professional associations was rather weak. The idea of twinning was not fully realised though the PL NTO was in the position to help identifying twin institutions (due to much help from the NCPs); the demand from applicants was, however, limited. This is due to the fact that the idea of network building is not well understood. The acquis communautaire was too rarely referred to, which coincided with missing details about the contents of the training courses. In some projects the relation of costs to outputs is hardly acceptable (too long preparatory phase; too short training event). Generally, universities seem to be better prepared for TIB and more flexible than the target institutions though this will be verified during field monitoring. A number of non-accepted projects, after slight modifications, could be submitted next year.

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors

local and regional administration, members of self-governments, ministry officials, administrators of justice, border guards, education administrators, customs officers, police officers, urban planners, postal staff, teachers, entrepreneurs, social service officers Other areas: Agriculture: 4% Environment: 17% European integration for civil servants Finance: 9% European Studies Justice and Home Affairs: 26% communication “Other” Phare IB sector (Economic Affairs, Work & Social Affairs, Consumer Protection): 13% Other areas: 31% 13 ◆ average quality - medium, generally lower than in case of previous JEP applications ◆ target group not defined ◆ target group defined but endorsement letter(s) from target institution(s) missing ◆ only preparatory phase within project lifetime; training foreseen after two years ◆ areas/subject of training not defined (European integration, EU accession) ◆ exaggerated budget, mainly for mobility and administrative staff costs (the latter highly inflated even in projects with Polish co-ordinator/contractor)

Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs

Regional projects: 3 TIB, 1 UM, 7 CD

POLAND 115 National projects: 20 TIB, 58 UM, 26 CD

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB *


33

An academic project with “IB ingredients” combines curriculum development or teacher training with training courses for civil servants. * according to the ETF database

in SME issues to improve the bilateral EU-RO private businesses; training managerial staff of environmental protection, governmental and NGO agencies of ecological management) ◆ training of high-level public servants, local authorities on EU policy issues ◆ the network dimension of TIBs (e.g. creation of networks for European Studies)

◆ evidence of language and/or computer training ◆ the open society dimension (e.g. training for NGO experts specialised in children protection; training the experts

Added value for TIBs:

120 National projects: 16 TIB, 16 UM, 76 CD Regional projects: 0 TIB, 0 UM, 12 CD academic staff, students, SME and NGO staff, civil servants Other areas: Agriculture: 0% Environment: 6% social welfare: 1 Finance: 13% public administration: 2 Justice and Home Affairs: 13% management and business administration (incl. relation with SMEs): 2 “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% European Studies: 2 Other areas: 68% compatibility with EU standards (EU quality standards, ECTS): 2 languages: 1 harmonisation of curricula in EU regulated professions: 1 7 ◆ TIB/UM/CD elements mixed within one proposal ◆ target group: limited to or mixed with students and teachers ◆ the EU dimension was not specific enough to EU legislation or directives for a precise sector ◆ reduced impact on pre-accession society (training limited to teachers for CD, and only after the end of the TIB offered to the TIB target group) ◆ reduced network dimension (speaking of the number and type of EU partners and often only EU universities)

ROMANIA

Two types of TIBs were identified: “real” TIBs and academic projects with “TIB” ingredients. A “real” TIB project having as elements: ◆ target group: public servants from local/regional/national authorities and/or staff from trade unions/civil society ◆ focus on training the above target group, in consultation with relevant Romanian authorities (e.g. ministries) ◆ well developed EU aspect (focused on specific areas relevant to pre-accession) ◆ vocation-oriented curriculum (courses on EU issues, with focus on EU directives, policies and programmes directly linked to the pre-accession process) ◆ language and computer training ◆ good network dimension (involvement of different levels of society)

The overall impression of the NTO

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors


34 SLOVAK REPUBLIC 42 National projects: 16 TIB, 12 UM, 8 CD Regional projects: 2 TIB, 0 UM, 4 CD ◆ NGOs (environmental protection, social work, political parties, libraries) ◆ local governments (regional mainly) ◆ enterprises (EU standards and norms) ◆ trade union (security of work) ◆ civil servants (ministries - Department of European Integration) Other areas: Agriculture: 6% Environment: 19% social work Finance: 0% security of work Justice and Home Affairs: 0% telecommunications “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% European integration Other areas: 75% 11 More than 50% of the applications were of good quality, the others did not understand the “concept” of TIB (mixture of all priorities, modernisation of universities and training academic staff, too many activities - unreal objectives…)

* according to the ETF database

The high proportion of the Slovak non-academic partners in the proposals and their willingness to co-operate and participate in the training organised by the universities in the frame of TIB projects was rather impressive. Not only ministries but also many local governments, NGOs, trade unions and even political parties expressed their interest in the applications.

The overall impression of the NTO

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs


35

SLOVENIA 20 National projects: 4 TIB, 3 UM, 12 CD Regional projects: 0 TIB, 0 UM, 1 CD ◆ civil servants for European affairs and structural funds ◆ government officers and utility staff in electric energy ◆ government officials, professional associations and journalists dealing with EU affairs (security issues, international relations, social policy, management of public institutions) ◆ environmental protection and energy issues for civil servants, environmental health engineers, civil engineers and architects ◆ graduates in arts, humanities and EU languages Other area: Agriculture: 0% Environment: 25% energy Finance: 25% Justice and Home Affairs: 25% “Other” Phare IB sector: 0% Other areas: 25% 1 In general the quality of TIB applications was good; the most frequent mistakes were that some TIB applications were not written in TIB priority areas but rather general curriculum development projects in areas covered by TIB. In one case there was a TIB application with a co-ordinator from an EU country.

* according to the ETF database

Generally, the criteria required for a TIB project were respected with regard to the twinning concept, participation of ministries and other governmental institutions, professional institutions, chambers of commerce, etc.

The overall impression of the NTO

The approximate number of TIB JEPs to be supported * Comments on the quality of TIB applications

Distribution of TIB JEPs per Phare IB sectors

Country: Number of JEPs submitted * Distribution of projects between CD, UM, TIB * Main target groups of submitted TIB JEPs


Tempus Public Foundation/Hungarian TEMPUS Office

Editors: Attila Hilbert, György Ispánki, Éva Kellermann, Lívia Ruszthy, Szilvia Besze, Valéria Holczheim Graphic design: László Restyánszki Printed by: Galartusz Print Manager: Rezsô Nemes

© Hungarian TEMPUS Office, 1998 Published by the Hungarian TEMPUS Office Responsible for publication: Attila Hilbert, director

The publication is funded by the Phare programme of the European Union.

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Prepared by the Hungarian TEMPUS Office with the support of the European Commission Hungarian TEMPUS Office H-1143 Budapest, Ida u. 2. H-1438 Budapest 70. POB. 508. Hungary Phone: (36-1) 343-0012, 343-0013. Fax: (36-1) 343-0164 tempus@tpf.hu www.tpf.iif.hu


Restyánszki Design