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CLIENT FINDINGS from the

HUMAN TRAFFICKING INTERVENTION COURTS

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TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S OUR MISSION

01

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

02

BACKGROUND: OUR COUNSELING PROGRAM WITH HTIC REFERRALS

04

OVERVIEW OF 2014

06

REFERRAL COURTS

07

IMMIGRATION STATUS

08

EDUCATION LEVELS

11

AGE

12

"HOMETOWN"

13

EMERGING PROFILE OF TRAFFICKING VICTIMS

14

UNABLE TO WORK LEGALLY IN THE US

14

LESS EDUCATED

15

MORE LIKELY FROM FIVE PROVINCES

16

DIVORCED WITH CHILD LEFT OVERSEAS

16

IN HER 40'S

18

ARRESTED MULTIPLE TIMES

18

VARIETY OF LIVING ARRANGEMENTS

19

MORE LIKELY WORKING WHILE IN COUNSELING

20

HIGHER RATES OF TRAFFICKING REPORTED AMONG KOREAN-CHINESE

20

APPENDIX: DATA TABLES

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RESTORE NYC 2014 CLIENT FINDINGS

OUR MISSION Restore NYC’s mission is to end sex trafficking in New York and restore the well-being and independence of foreign national survivors. Working to this end, we: Find victims through our outreach strategies and partnerships with law enforcement, the court system, and community-based organizations. Restore survivors through our groundbreaking safehome and court counseling programs.

WE BELIEVE… In always putting the well-being of the survivor first. In complete restoration. In God’s desire and power to transform. That community is essential. In delivering best-in-class care.

Restore NYC helps victims regardless of their religion and spiritual activities are optional for every client.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Restore NYC has the privilege of providing care and services to some of the most exploited women in our country. The commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking of vulnerable populations is not only a heinous injustice, but also a problem we can solve. In order to solve this problem we need better data and knowledge of how and why victims are exploited. We believe this report is one small step in providing better data and knowledge. 2014 marks the first year Restore has consistently collected and analyzed client data across a variety of dimensions from our partnership with the Human Trafficking Intervention Courts (HTIC). Our goal was to not only deepen our understanding of this population but also to identify gaps in programs available to them. This report is an initial effort to share our learnings and add to the field’s understanding about Mandarin-speaking clients who participate in the HTIC diversion programs. It is by no means a complete view nor definitive picture into this population but a starting point for analysis and understanding. We also recognize that there may be more findings to be had and more that we can learn from, so we have included many of the data tables in the appendix to encourage others to expand upon our learnings. These findings provide a richer, more data-driven picture of the women we serve and the vulnerabilities that led many to be trafficked. Specifically, Mandarin speaking trafficked victims are some of the most vulnerable in our population: ▪

Uneducated – Nearly half (48%) did not make it high school.

Legally unable to work in the US – 76% lack work authorization.

Older - The average age is 42, with 64% over the age of 40. This becomes even more of a challenge if you are uneducated and undocumented.

Mothers who struggle to support their children – 80% have at least one child; 84% of their children are overseas.

This evolving picture of a trafficked victim is contrary to what most in the public perceives.


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It is not a young girl falling victim but of a mother desperate to give a better life for her children and likely deceived looking for work. The remainder of the document contains a richer picture of these women and their situation. The following highlights priorities that have emerged from the analyses presented in this report. ▪

Economic empowerment and sustainable income are fundamental to ensuring that these women’s vulnerabilities are no longer exploited.

Providing immigration education, particularly about the risks for seeking asylum as well as developing policies or programs to provide more immediate immigration remedies related to work authorization, are necessary.

Outreach and communication must be tailored to the realities of this population.

Further investment in data collection and outcomes measurement is needed to understand what interventions are making the greatest difference in the lives of the women we serve. While this is a start, there is much more that can be gathered to help the field learn how better to prevent exploitation, identify victims, and help survivors.

We hope this early set of findings will contribute to a more robust understanding of trafficking and help us develop better interventions to prevent trafficking and provide appropriate and effective services. We will continue to build on this baseline findings report in the months and years ahead. As we build on these findings, we look forward to deepening our understanding and partnering with others across New York and the country to find more victims and restore more survivors.


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BACKGROUND: OUR COUNSELING PROGRAM WITH HTIC REFERRALS Restore partners with courts across New York and the northeast to work with foreign-national women who have been arrested for prostitution or illegal massage. Courts in New York State and elsewhere along the east coast are recognizing that many who are arrested for prostitution or illegal massage may actually be victims of sex trafficking. New York has the first statewide court system in the country to deal with human trafficking – in fact, it is called The Human Trafficking Intervention Courts (HTIC). These courts require defendants to participate in a diversion program with social service providers like Restore NYC so that they receive resources and education that will ultimately put them on a better path. Restore’s program provides court advocacy, trauma-informed counseling, education, and access to resources, while helping to identify trafficking victims who typically would not have come forward otherwise. For those who have been arrested for the first time, they are mandated to receive five counseling sessions. For those with multiple arrests, the number of sessions increases and Restore works with those women individually to tailor a program that ensures they receive appropriate resources and prevents re-arrest. Below is the basic structure of these sessions for first time defendants. •

Session 1: Intake and pre-screening (one-on-one): If possible, Restore counselors will meet with potential clients at the courts before the intake process to build trust and rapport. The intake process includes pre-screening for any emergency or immediate mental health risks and connecting clients with resources if urgent needs are identified. They will also collect basic case and demographic information, introduce Restore, provide context, reiterate the court process, and lay out what to expect for the remaining sessions.

Sessions 2-4: Education and psycho-education (in group): Clients referred from the courts will gather over the next few weeks to learn about their rights and what trafficking looks like for women in their community. Trauma-informed exercises and creative activities are introduced for clients to learn about trauma and self-care and encourage expression.

Session 5: Recap, counseling, and resource coordination (one-on-one): Content from the prior sessions is reviewed, and clients are provided an opportunity to share their case, trafficking history, or other concerns. Counselors will work with clients who may be trafficking


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victims to understand their case and administer a TVIT questionnaire (Vera Institute’s Trafficking Victim Identification Tool). Counselors will also use this time to coordinate legal, immigration, or other resources. Fundamental to this program are healthy counselors. Vicarious trauma and “burn-out” are all too common in this field and will weaken the effectiveness of any counseling. One of the key responsibilities of our Director of Programs is to provide an environment and structure that is restorative to our program team. She currently provides individual and group clinical supervision weekly to our counselors. During these sessions, client cases are discussed and next steps proposed. It is also an opportunity for counselors to process many of the harsh realities they are encountering. Trainings and self-care are another important component critical to effective support. A partner organization has graciously donated 8 free counseling sessions available for Restore staff who would like even further support. The program also recognizes that building trust is critical to clients’ cooperation and have incorporated other factors into the overall experience. Our Mandarin speaking counselors conduct all sessions in the client’s native language. Clients have a Restore on-call phone number in case of emergency. We designed a counseling physical environment to be soothing and hospitable. We also provide notes of encouragement from volunteers and gifts of small plants as a symbolic reminder of their new life and the continued need to nurture it.

BACKGROUND: THE DATA IN THIS REPORT 2014 was first year that Restore NYC began to systematically collect and analyze case and demographic data. All data is based on referrals we received in 2014. We recognize that this is not a complete or definitive picture of trafficking in the New York metro region but an emerging picture of the Mandarin-speaking clients Restore serves through the HTIC. Beginning in 2015, Restore will expand its analysis to incorporate other data and track results over time to deepen our learnings.


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OVERVIEW OF 2014 In 2014, Restore served 209 clients from the Human Trafficking Intervention Courts (HTIC) with 26% identified as trafficking victims.

JAN – DEC 2014

# of Clients Served

% of Total

Not trafficked

96

46%

Trafficked

54

26%

Unknown

59

28%

TOTAL WOMEN SERVED

209

100%

Categorization based on self-reported information during counseling sessions.

While 26% are definitively trafficked as reported by the clients, we believe the actual percentage of women trafficked that we see through the courts may be as high as 50% or more. The “Unknown” cases are when counselors suspect but clients provide unclear information. We are still seeking to understand why more trafficked women do not self-identify. We suspect that many factors contribute – shame from acknowledging involvement in commercial sex, fear from traffickers’ threats, mistrust of the legal system to bring justice, desire to go back to “work” to send money to their families/ pay back debts, and trauma that may limit reasoning. Beginning in the summer of 2014, Restore began to explore various counseling models (individual, group), hired an additional counselor, and introduced more structured supervision and self-care for the counselors. As a result, we began to see increases in the numbers of women self-identifying as trafficking victims (from historical 10% levels). It is important to note that the time and location of trafficking experience is not data that has been collected to date. That is, women may have been trafficked years ago but are only now reporting it. One of our goals as we refine our program is to continue to decrease the percentage of “unknowns” by providing better support to trafficked victims who can in turn share with other women and encourage more to come forward.


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REFERRAL COURTS While most clients are from Queens County, we also received referrals from across metro New York and the east coast. Percentages on the left are based on the number of referrals from each court. Percentages on the right are based on the numbers of referrals of that court.

% Trafficked

2014 Number of Referrals by Courts Queens Criminal Court (NYC)

149 21%

71%

26%

Nassau District (NY)

43

Suffolk County (NY)

9 4%

44%

Henrico County (VA)

4 4, 2%

100%

Midtown Community (NYC)

3 3, 1.5%

67%

New Castle County (DE)

1 1, 0.5%

100%

12%

Referrals from Queens County reflect the typical breakdown of trafficking percentages while out-ofstate referrals were disproportionately all trafficked victims. Referrals from Nassau County Court, on the other hand, were less likely to identify as being trafficking victims. Referrals from Nassau have been charged with either prostitution or illegal massage (i.e., operating without a license) or both, while referrals from the other courts have been charged solely with prostitution, which may explain the skewed results.


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OVERVIEW: WOMEN SERVED THROUGH HTIC The population in this section describes all women that were referred to us through the courts in 2014, including those who were not necessarily trafficked.

IMMIGRATION STATUS Most of the women we serve have unstable immigration status and are unauthorized to work legally (67%).

Immigration Status Green card 24%

33% are authorized to work legally

US Citizen 6% Asylum 3% Travel Visa 5% Student Visa 3%

Undocumented 59%

2014, based on total served (n=209)

Most in the “Undocumented� category originally came to the US on a travel visa and have overstayed their visa by the time we met with them. In the US, those with travel or student visas are not authorized to work. For many, they came to the US through a travel visa by paying or borrowing significant amount of money ($10,000 - $40,000), but ended up in a tragically different situation than what they were told. Interestingly, there were a higher than expected number of women who had green cards and were citizens. This is because Nassau County Court had a disproportionately highly number of citizens and


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green cards (58% of US citizens and 29% of the green card holders were from Nassau while Nassau only represented 21% of the population we serve). It is no surprise that when we see clients, one of their primary fears/concerns is about being deported and how they will find work. Without a legal work permit, it is difficult to find a job, which is why we believe many of them applied for asylum. While we do not have the data from 2013 regarding asylum applications, we did observe a larger than expected population of undocumented clients seeking political asylum in 2014. 63% of undocumented clients were in the midst of applying for asylum – many who were told by local, potentially unscrupulous, immigration lawyers that this was a viable option to getting a work permit and becoming a legal resident in the US.

Immigration Status - Asylum Applications

Green card 24%

US Citizen 6% Asylum 3%

9%

Applied for green card, status pending

28%

Undocumented

63%

Applied for asylum, status pending

Undocumented 59%

Travel visa 5% Student visa 3%

2014, based on total served (n=209)

We see clear signs of exploitation by these immigration attorneys. If a client is denied asylum (which is likely), they face deportation and cannot return to the US for a designated number of years. We hear


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from many of the clients they were never told of the risk of deportation, were “expensive” (several thousand dollars), and were mostly unresponsive. Some have even claimed that their cases were not handled by attorneys but by “story tellers” who craft their case. One example was of a women in her mid-40’s who was told her story was about how she wanted to have another child but couldn’t under China’s one-child policy. Given her age, this case would likely have gotten denied. We are learning that many found these attorneys through local newspapers, ads on the street particularly in Flushing, people they met in family hostels and at the massage parlors. Note: In Spring 2015, Restore NYC partnered with Sanctuary for Families to provide free immigration support prior to the client’s final counseling session, focusing on asylum education and legal options.


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EDUCATION LEVELS 84% of the women we serve are not college educated while 43% did not study beyond middle school. Virtually all education would have taken place in China. For the college graduates, similar with the other findings, a disproportionate percentage are from Nassau County Court. 32% of those with college degrees were referred by Nassau while Nassau represented only 21% of referrals.

Highest Level of Education

41% 43% never graduated from high school

34%

15% 7% 1%

2%

Undisclosed

Never

Elementary

Middle School

High School

2014, based on total served (n=209)

College


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AGE The average age of the women we serve is 42 years old. The general public perception of those arrested for prostitution or victimized by sex trafficking is that these women are younger. In contrast, 63% of the women we have counseled are over the age of 40.

Distribution of Women by Age 44%

Over 63% of Mandarin speaking women arrested for prostitution or illegal massage are over 40 years old

28% 19%

8%

20-29

30-39

40-49

>50


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"HOMETOWN” Of the 30 provinces mentioned by the clients, 42% originated from this small number of provinces in China (see map below).

Jilin (9%) Shanghai (8%) Jiangxi (7%) Henan (7%) Hubei (6%) Liaoning (5%)

These areas are some of the poorest and/or fastest growing regions of China. The stories shared with us indicate that poverty and a desire to participate in China’s rapid development may have contributed to the women’s vulnerability. Many were lured into “better work opportunities” to come to New York.


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EMERGING PROFILE OF TRAFFICKING VICTIMS This section highlights characteristics of self-reported trafficking victims compared against those that were not trafficked. The “unsure� category was not included to better isolate and understand vulnerabilities of trafficked women.

UNABLE TO LEGALLY WORK IN THE US Comparison of Immigration Status Political Asylum Student Visa

4% 4%

2% 2% 4%

9%

US Citizen

19% 7%

Travel Visa 23%

Green card

73%

Undocumented 53%

Not Trafficked

Trafficked

While the majority of the client base has an unstable immigration status, victims who self-reported their trafficking history were more likely to be undocumented (by 22 percentage points). Almost three quarters (74%) of all trafficked victims were undocumented, and 80% were not able to legally work in the U.S. Based on the stories shared with counselors, the inability to work legally was a significant factor in their exploitation and continues to be a major hurdle to rebuilding their lives even after the counseling program.


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Obtaining a T-Visa, which is offered by the US government to trafficking survivors, would provide a path towards work authorization and economic empowerment, but in many instances it is not an attractive option for our clients as it can take six to 18. Meanwhile, for many of the women we serve, their top priority is their own financial survival and sending money to their often poor families back in China. Many of these families had lent them money to come to the US or are taking care of their children. Suddenly not sending money to them may require exposing what happened and inducing shame or putting their families’ well-being at risk.

LESS EDUCATED Trafficked women were less educated than those that were not. 50% of clients who were trafficked have less than a high school level of education compared with 38% of clients who were not trafficked. The highest level of education most trafficked women received was middle school (39%) while most of the overall population we served received high school education.

Highest Level of Education

42.00% 42% 39% 35% 30.00% 30%

20.00% 20% 15%

2% 2.00% 2% Undisclosed

6% 5.00% 5%

4% 1.00% 1% Never

Elementary Trafficked

Middle School Not Trafficked

High School College and beyond


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Based on stories shared with counselors, many of the trafficked women felt that they had limited job opportunities because of their education so they pursued jobs that did not require prior experience, a degree, or English. Many did not learn basic English as many others do in China due to their limited school years, and their limited literacy level made learning English in the US that much harder.

MORE LIKELY FROM FIVE PROVINCES 48% of all trafficking victims indicated they are from one of five provinces – Jiangxi, Jilin, Henan, Shanghai, and Hubei, while only 18% of the Chinese population1 are from these provinces. As indicated earlier, these are all poor yet rapidly developing areas. We do not have enough data on where the women were originally trafficked (China or in the US), but it does suggest concentrated efforts are based in particular communities.

DIVORCED WITH CHILD LEFT OVERSEAS The proportion of divorced women among the trafficked population was nearly double (46%) that compared with clients who were not trafficked (24%). Divorce is not common among Chinese – 2.6 out of 1000 couples get divorced2. There are difficult consequences to face both socially from the stigma as well as financially because of the lack of an organized safety net. In China divorce is typically seen as an option only when circumstances are Comparison of Marital Status 5%

13%

13%

41% 58%

46% 24%

Not Trafficked trafficked Not

Trafficked Trafficked

1

Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2013

2

Source: China’s Social Service Development Statistical Bulletin, 2013

Comparison of Marital Status

Other Single Married Divorced


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extreme. Based on the stories shared with our counselors, many of the women we serve had husbands who were abusive or violent, which may explain the higher divorce rate among trafficked women. In other words, the tragic picture is that many of these women may have finally managed to leave their abusive husbands only to be exploited in another abusive situation. Of the divorced women we served, the vast majority (91%) had children. There was a slightly higher percentage among those women who were trafficked. % of Divorced Women with Children Percentage of Divorced Women with Children 92%

87%

NotTrafficked trafficked Not

Trafficked Trafficked

Based on the anecdotal information from the counselors, being divorced and with a child left these women in more vulnerable and desperate for work. There was a greater proportion of trafficked women who had left their children behind in China or elsewhere overseas. Only 16% of the trafficked women had their children in the US compared with

Location of Children

Location of children 1%

2%

10%

7% 16%

33% Other (non-US) Undisclosed U.S. China 74% 56%

Not Not Trafficked

Trafficked Trafficked


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nearly a third of non-trafficked women. We suspect that their need to support their child overseas was a primary reason they were exploited.

IN HER 40’S The average age for trafficked women is similar to women who were not trafficked. They are in their early 40’s. Not Trafficked

Trafficked

Average

41

42

Min

24

20

Max

59

57

ARRESTED MULTIPLE TIMES For the majority (87%) of the clients we see, this was their first arrest. However, those who had 3 arrests were more likely to be trafficking victims.

Percentage Trafficked # of Arrests % Trafficked BasedBased on # ofon Arrests 50%

29% 24%

1 Arrest

2 Arrests 1 Arrest

2 Arrests

3 Arrests 3 Arrests


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VARIETY OF LIVING ARRANGEMENTS There were a variety of living arrangements. Trafficked women were more likely to live alone with female roommates (58% versus 45%). Interestingly, a few noted “landlord”, “boss”, and “male friend” as individuals the women lived with. Because it is unclear when these women were trafficked, it’s unclear if the current living situation reveals anything about a vulnerability. Interestingly, only 2% of the women who self-reported their trafficking indicated they would like assistance with housing based our Needs Assessment. Living Situation

Not Trafficked

Trafficked

Alone

21%

30%

Female friend or roommate

24%

28%

NA

6%

13%

Spouse

10%

6%

Landlord

1%

6%

Child

9%

6%

Male friend

5%

4%

Roommate and child

0%

4%

Boyfriend and female friend

0%

2%

Relatives

4%

2%

Spouse and relatives

2%

2%

Spouse and friend

1%

0%

Spouse and child

8%

0%

Boyfriend and child

0%

0%

Relatives and child

5%

0%

Landlord and child

1%

0%

Boss

1%

0%

Grand Total

100%

100%


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MORE LIKELY WORKING WHILE IN COUNSELING Trafficking victims were more likely working compared with those who were not trafficked (59% versus 43%). This is another reason why we suspect many women who were trafficked are in “survival” mode and desperate to support themselves and/or their families back in China. About 11% of those who were trafficked willingly admitted they were still working in the “sex massage” field (compared with 1% who claimed they were not trafficked). And 22% indicated they were still working at a massage or spa compared with 13% who were not. It’s unclear though if those were illicit businesses or legitimate jobs. Even with challenges related to work authorization, education and language most of the trafficked women were able to find employment on their own in low-skill fields (e.g. restaurant, retail, nail salon, etc.). Employment While In Counseling (Top 5 Indicated Areas for Trafficked Clients)

Not Trafficked

Trafficked

Unemployed

57%

41%

Massage/ spa

13%

22%

Nail work

8%

11%

Sex Massage/Sex

1%

11%

Restaurant

2%

4%

HIGHER RATES OF TRAFFICKING REPORTED AMOUNG KOREAN-CHINESE The trafficking rate reported in our overall population was 26%. Although we serve Mandarinspeaking clients, there is a small subset (about 10%) who are ethnically Korean but grew up in China

Ethnicity 47% 39%

33% 25%

Trafficked

Not Trafficked


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and can speak Mandarin. Among these Korean-Chinese, 33% were trafficked – clearly higher than the overall population we serve. The trafficked Korean-Chinese victims are also less educated. 39% of Korean-Chinese indicated middle school as the highest level of education while 34% of Chinese indicated this level. One typical example of a Korean-Chinese client is “Kim". She grew up in the province of Jilin, China, where the majority of Korean Chinese community reside. Although she identifies herself as Chinese, she has very limited Chinese speaking skills. When she was young she went to schools in the local- Korean Chinese neighborhood where most of her classes were taught in Korean. Her limited Mandarin-speaking language skills also prevented her from receiving higher education in Mainland China; therefore, she decided to discontinue her education after completing high school. Soon after she left school, she was married and gave birth to her first child when she was 18 years old. Kim believed it should be her responsibility to take care of her family as her husband had been irresponsible with work and their finances, but she had a very difficult time finding a job due to her limited education. She found even harder to find work outside of the Korean-Chinese community due to her limited Mandarin-speaking skills and job skills.  She heard from her friend that massage service was very popular in the US and many Korean-Chinese women had been making money out of this business, so she decided to move to New York. She borrowed the $30,000 that she was told was needed to forge papers and get to the US. As soon as she arrived in New York City, she bought a Korean newspaper where she found the ad for the massage job where she got trafficked.


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APPENDIX: DATA TABLES OVERVIEW OF DATA Trafficked?

#

%

No

96

46%

Unknown

59

28%

Yes

54

26%

Grand Total

209

100%

Court Referral Sources

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

% of total

Queens Criminal Court

70

41

38

149

71.3%

Nassau District Court

21

17

5

43

20.6%

Suffolk County Court

4

1

4

9

4.3%

Henrico County District Court, VA

0

0

4

4

1.9%

Midtown Community Court

1

0

2

3

1.4%

Delaware New Castle County Court

0

0

1

1

0.5%

Grand Total

96

59

54

209

100%

% of Arrests

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

%

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

1

86

52

44

182

87%

47%

29%

24%

100%

2

8

4

5

17

8%

47%

24%

29%

100%

3

2

3

5

10

5%

20%

30%

50%

100%

Total

96

59

54

209

100%


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Immigration Status

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Overall

Asylum pending

33

18

25

76

34%

31%

46%

36%

Green Card

22

18

10

50

23%

31%

19%

24%

Undocumented

14

9

12

35

15%

15%

22%

17%

U.S. Citizen

9

2

1

12

9%

3%

2%

6%

Travel Visa

7

2

2

11

7%

3%

4%

5%

Green Card pending

3

6

2

11

3%

10%

4%

5%

Asylum approved

4

3

0

7

4%

5%

0%

3%

Student Visa

4

1

1

6

4%

2%

2%

3%

Asylum denied

0

0

1

1

0%

0%

2%

0%

Grand Total

96

59

54

209

100%

100%

100%

100%

FAMILY & DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

Age

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Overall

Average

41

43

42

42

Min

24

22

20

20

Max

59

55

57

60

Age range

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

20’s

11

4

2

17

30’s

27

12

20

59

40’s

43

30

20

93

50’s

15

13

12

40

Grand Total

96

59

54

209


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Marital Status

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Overall

Divorced

23

20

25

68

24%

34%

46%

33%

Married

56

32

22

110

58%

53%

41%

52%

Single

12

7

7

26

13%

12%

13%

12%

Undisclosed

2

0

0

2

2%

0%

0%

1%

Widowed

2

0

0

2

2%

0%

0%

1%

Separated

1

0

0

1

1%

0%

0%

0%

Grand Total

96

59

54

209

100%

100%

100%

100%

# of Children

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Overall

0

23

14

11

48

24%

24%

20%

23%

1

58

35

36

129

60%

59%

67%

62%

2

13

7

7

27

14%

12%

13%

13%

3

2

3

0

5

2%

5%

0%

2%

Grand Total

96

59

54

209

100%

100%

100%

100%

Location of Children

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Overall

China

41

28

32

101

56%

62%

74%

63%

U.S.

24

14

7

45

33%

31%

16%

28%

Undisclosed

7

1

3

11

10%

2%

7%

7%

Other (non-US)

1

2

1

4

1%

4%

2%

2%

Grand Total

73

45

43

161

100%

100%

100%

100%


RESTORE NYC 2014 CLIENT FINDINGS

!25

Education

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

%

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Never

1

1

2

4

2%

1%

2%

4%

Elementary

5

6

3

14

7%

5%

10%

6%

Middle School

29

21

21

71

34%

30%

36%

39%

High School

40

26

19

85

41%

42%

44%

35%

College

19

5

7

31

15%

20%

8%

13%

Graduate school

0

0

1

1

0%

0%

0%

2%

Undisclosed

2

1

3

1%

2%

0%

2%

Grand Total

96

54

209

100%

100%

100%

100%

59

Province of Origin (Top Five)

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

Indicated as “China”

26

12

12

50

Jiangxi

6

2

7

15

Jilin

7

5

7

19

Henan

5

4

6

15

Shanghai

7

6

4

17

Hubei

2

0

3

5

Ethnicity

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

%

Chinese

89

52

48

189

90%

Korean

0

2

0

2

1%

Korean-Chinese

7

5

6

18

9%

Grand Total

96

59

54

209

100%


RESTORE NYC 2014 CLIENT FINDINGS

!26

LIVING & WORK SITUATION Living Situation

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

Female friend or roommate

23

10

15

48

Alone

20

10

16

46

Spouse

10

10

3

23

NA

6

5

7

18

Kid

9

5

3

17

Spouse and child

8

6

0

14

Male friend

5

5

2

12

Relatives

4

2

1

7

Landlord

1

2

3

6

Relatives and kid

5

0

0

5

Spouse and relatives

2

1

1

4

Roommate and child

0

0

2

2

Spouse and friend

1

1

0

2

Boyfriend and child

0

2

0

2

Boyfriend and female friend

0

0

1

1

Landlord and child

1

0

0

1

Boss

1

0

0

1

Grand Total

96

59

54

209

Indicated employment

Not Trafficked

Unknown

Trafficked

Total

Unemployed

55

33

22

110

Massage/ spa

12

2

12

26

Nail work

8

4

6

18

Part-time

1

12

0

13

Sex Massage/Sex

1

0

6

7

Undisclosed

4

2

0

6

Domestic (babysitter, cleaning)

1

2

2

5

Restaurant

2

0

2

4

Massage parlor owner

3

1

0

4

Retail

0

1

3

4

Student

3

0

0

3

Cook in a gambling place

0

0

1

1


RESTORE NYC 2014 CLIENT FINDINGS

!27

Cosmetic product sales

1

0

0

1

Handing out fliers

1

0

0

1

Model company

1

0

0

1

Dry cleaning store

1

0

0

1

Full-time job

1

0

0

1

Receptionist

1

0

0

1


PO BOX 1003 Bowling Green Station N e w Yo r k , N e w Yo r k 1 0 2 7 4 restorenyc.org

2014 Client Findings Report