Page 1

[ FB&L ]

Fall 2019 Vol. 2 ⚫ No. 1 www.fblmag.com

FOOD, BEVERAGE, & LABOR COST CONTROL QUARTERLY

The Missing Components of Today’s Hospitality Curriculum | p 7

Understanding Wine & Oxygen | p 17

2020 FOOD, BEVERAGE, & LABOR COST MANAGEMENT SUMMITS Columbus, OH 04/20/2020 | Washington, DC 06/15/2020


Š 2019 Restaurant Institute LLC All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher. Cover Photo: Shutter Stock# 492964198 Restaurant Institute LLC P.O. Box 2387 Westerville, Ohio 43086-2387

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[ FB&L ] FOOD, BEVERAGE, & LABOR COST CONTROL QUARTERLY

Vol. 2 | No. 1 | Fall 2019

7

The Missing Components of Today’s Curriculum

9

How to Apply Densities for Recipe Costing

Culinary and hospitality management programs throughout the nation and missing some key courses to prepare students for their careers.

10

22

Food Grading

40

U.S. and Metric Conversion Tables

41

Beer Keg and Wine Bottle Conversions

42

Ounce to Gram / Gram to Ounce Conversions

Learn and apply densities to improve the accuracy of your recipe costing.

Densities

Chocolate | 10 Dairy | 10 Dry Goods | 11 Flours | 12 Nuts | 13 Poultry | 13 Produce | 13 Produce by Bushel | 14 Salts & Sugars | 14 Spices | 14

17

Understanding Wine & Oxygen

19

Sizes

Beef | 22 Dairy | 22 Fruits | 24 Lamb | 30 Nuts | 31 Poultry | 32 Rabbits | 33 Specialty | 33 Vegetables | 34

Understanding how oxygen can affect an open bottle of wine is important to overall management.

Dairy | 19 Produce | 19 Seafood | 20

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


44

56

60

Can Yields

Beans | 44 Dessert Fillings | 45 Dessert Toppings | 46 Dry Goods | 47 Fruit | 49 Sauces | 50 Seafood | 52 Tomatoes | 52

Process Yields Dairy | 56 Dry Goods | 56 Meat | 56 N/A Beverage | 56 Pasta | 57 Poultry | 57 Produce | 57 Seafood | 59

64

Establishing Accurate Labor Time Standards

65

Labor Time Conversions

66

Temperature Conversions

Conversions of minutes and seconds to hours.

o

C to oF and oF to oC

Advertisers Index

Prime Cost Snapshot

Entrepreneurial Chef … 9, 18 Ethics Suite … 60 [ FB&L ] … 61 Hylant Insurance … 5 Restaurant Institute … 3, 5, 6, 68, 69 Return On Ingredients … 8, Back Cover xtraChef … 55

Bloomin Brands, Inc. (NASDAQ: BLMN) FY 2016 prime cost trends through Q3 2019. Labor cost increases have effected the company several consecutive years.

62

Determine proper prep time standards with conversions to fractional direct labor hours.

Food Pan Capacities

Various food pan sizes and depths with their associated fluid ounce capacities.

Coming in the next edition!

63 64

Disher and Scoop Capacities

[ FB&L ] Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

Various size dishers and scoops with their associated capacities.

Issue 2, Number 2, Winter 2019:

New Product Review

A Hospitality Technology Directory will be added as an ongoing component to future publications of [ FB&L ]. ⚫

Themoworks Time Stack assists in the ability to establish attainable and accurate time standards.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[2]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


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Publisher’s Letter

Vol. 2 | No. 1 | Fall 2019 P.O. Box 2387 Westerville, OH 43082

614.558.2239 www.fblmag.com www.RestaurantInstitute.com @RestaurantInst

The second volume is now here! It’s hard to believe that we are launching our second year of this publication. We hope that this has become a tool that you will refer to over and over again. This quarter I have written an article as a relates to today’s hospitality curriculum and improvements that can be made. I hope that it challenges today’s universities and colleges to review and possibly make the improvements that I feel ar needed to better prepare our future industry leaders. Feel free to reach out to me with comments, article submissions, and questions at any point. I look forward to hearing from you.

[ FB&L ] Food, Beverage, and Labor Cost Control Quarterly is published four times per year by Restaurant Institute LLC, P.O. Box 2387, Westerville, OH 43086-2387. All subscriptions are paid is United States dollars. Payment must accompany order. To subscribe, see the fblmag.com website or the Restaurant Institute LLC website www.restaurantinstiute/publications. Address changes should be submitted via email to info@restaurantinstitute,com or in writing to Restaurant Institute LLC, P.O. Box 2387, Westerville, OH 43086-2387. Contents copyright © 2019 Restaurant Institute LLC. Reproduction without the express written consent of the publisher is strictly prohibited, Restaurant Institute LLC.

Mark Mark Kelnhofer, CFBE, CTA, MBA mark@restaurantinstitute.com ◼ 614-558-2239

Restaurant Institute is dedicated to the success of restaurant and foodservice operators through education and training. Speakers Bureau | Publications Food & Beverage Cost Management Summits RestaurantInstitute.com | @RestaurantInst

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


The Missing Components of Today’s Hospitality Curriculum By Mark Kelnhofer, CFBE, CTA, MBA Over the past ten decade of professionally speaking not only at tradeshows and industry events, but also volunteering to speak at a numerous hospitality management and culinary programs, I have been able to identify some opportunities with the various program curriculums that I have been exposed to. In general, I have identified a number of topic areas of the programs where critical changes are needed not only to improve the overall program, but better prepare the students for today’s workforce challenges. It is well known that the number of business failures in the industry are quite high. Improvements in the curriculum can install a new era of discipline and knowledge to prevent these failures. These changes certainly would prepare the student to better be able to manage the difference facets of the business. Although there may be cases where some of the courses below may be present, very rarely are ALL the courses part of the curriculum: Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Management. Few have a solid course in cost management. In many cases, a purchasing class is offered where recipe documentation, recipe costing, and cost management comprises of a chapter and it is a just a brushstroke on such a vital component of management. Ideally, there should be a solid cost management course that does not just end at the conclusion of the term, but lives on in real application throughout the remainder of the program. In addition to the course, the concepts that the course teaches should be Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


applied in future courses as well. As an example, in a food preparation course, they should apply recipe documentation and costing learned from the course as part of their ongoing experience. Hospitality Accounting. In many cases, a traditional financial accounting course may be required which instructs students generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), debit and credit rules, transactions, and basic financial statement preparation and analysis, but not as it relates to the hospitality industry. In most cases, these courses are taught by certified public accountants (CPAs) and possibly other certifications, but almost certainly, no hospitality experience. There are significant differences between financial accounting and hospitality accounting. As an example, cost of goods sold (COGS) is very different for hospitality operations versus manufacturing operations. By sending hospitality and culinary students to the standard financial accounting course does them a disservice. Entrepreneurship. Many students, especially culinary students, as a result of their education, has a dream and desire to start a business. In most cases it may be an elective course, but not required. Students have no real experience to the components of a business plan. As an example, students are not example to the true start up costs for an operation. Equipment costs alone would open their eyes to the reality of the investment needed. Today’s students not only should exposed to financial side of the business, but also the other components (i.e. marketing and advertising, human resources, etc.). By adding entrepreneurship course can only benefit the student. In addition to these courses above, there are some skills and value added programs that can be implemented to compliment the overall programs: Hospitality Related Certificates. As a value add service to students, there should be certificate exams to test their proficiency. When the students receives a certificate, it enhances their resume and Linked In profile greatly and makes them more attractive to prospective employer. The American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute (AHLEI.org) is one association that can provide certificate programs in a wide array of subjects. Student will always benefit from this value added service. When it can, certificate programs should be implemented to make the students more marketable to the industry. Applied Math. General math skills need to be improved. Unit of measure of conversions, as an example, should be taught and reinforced constantly. Students in today’s classroom experience, still have a real fear of math and how to convert conversions properly. Struggles still exist, as an example, converting a percentage to a decimal or understanding quantities to convert certain unit of measures (i.e. that there are 128 fluid ounces to one gallon). The understanding of densities, yields, weights, and measures is knowledge that every student should possess. They do not need to be incredible mathematicians, but they certainly need the basics reinforced throughout the program. Hopefully with these changes, we’ll see a real shift in how prepared the students are once they graduate. The goal would be to better prepare the student not only to manage the operation, but be successful in doing so. Mark Kelnhofer, CFBE, CTA, MBA, is the President and CEO of Return On Ingredients LLC and has nearly three decades in management accounting experience including 17 years restaurant and foodservice industry. Additionally, he is also adjunct faculty at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio for their Hospitality Management program and Georgetown University, in Washington, DC, for their Global Hospitality Leadership (GLH) masters program. He has published several books, numerous articles, and a periodical publication entitled [ FB&L ] Food, Beverage, and Labor Cost Control Quarterly, He can be reached at (614) 558-2239 and Mark@ReturnOnIngredients.com.

BRINGING THE ART AND THE NUMBERS TOGETHER TO MAXIMIZE QUALITY AND PROFITABILITY Recipe Documentation Recipe Costing Menu Development Menu Engineering Wine List Marketing

614.558.2239

ReturnOnIngredients.com Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[8]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ DENSITIES ] [ den-si-tee ] noun, plural densities 1. the state or quality of being dense; compactness; closely set or crowded condition.

How to Apply Densities for Recipe Costing

Although this resource gives you weights in ounces for those items using common portion control tools of cup, tablespoon, and teaspoon, you may run into the circumstance where a different tool is used. This is where we can put to work the density percentages that we find in this resource. Let use the example below with ground mustard. If on a recipe I wanted to document utilizing a 2-oz spoodle, but wanted to determine the actual weight of the ground mustard, it can be done with the information provided. The density of ground mustard is listed as 36.3%. A 2-oz spoodle actually has a capacity of 2 fluid ounces. To determine the actual weight of the cinnamon using that utensil you would multiply 2 fluid ounces by the density percentage to determine the ounce weight (2 * 36.3% = 0.73 oz). This is then the correct weight to use for ground mustard for costing and depletion. Although this pocket resources provides cup, tablespoon and teaspoon weights and densities, variations may exist slightly depending on brand name.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

Utensil

fl. oz.

Density

Oz. Wt.

2-oz spoodle

2.0 fl oz.

36.3%

0.73 oz.

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Densities—Chocolate ] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Accra 62% Coins

68.8%

1.38 oz.

0.69 oz.

5.5 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.12 oz.

Gastro 58% Coins

65.0%

1.30 oz.

0.65 oz.

5.2 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Maracaibo 65% Clasificado Coins

61.3%

1.22 oz.

0.61 oz.

4.9 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Maracaibo 38% Criolait Coins

67.5%

1.36 oz.

0.68 oz

5.4 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Matterhorn 35% Coins

58.8%

1.18 oz.

0.59 oz.

4.7 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Ultra Dark Rondo Coins

57.5%

1.16 oz.

0.58 oz.

4.6 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Van Lear Callebaut

72.5%

1.46 oz.

0.73 oz.

5.8 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

White Ivoire 35%

57.5%

1.16 oz.

0.58 oz.

4.6 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

White Pate

52.5%

1.06 oz.

0.53 oz.

4.2 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Cheese, Asaigo

37.5%

0.76 oz.

0.38 oz.

3.0 oz

0.2 oz

0.06 oz.

Cheese, Blue Crumbles

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.0 oz

0.3 oz

0.08 oz

Cheese, Cheddar Grated

52.5%

1.06 oz.

0.53 oz.

4.2 oz.

0.3 oz

0.09 oz

Cheese, Cheddar, Shredded

37.5%

0.76 oz.

0.38 oz.

3.0 oz.

0.2 oz

0.06 oz

Cheese, Cheddar Jack Shredded

37.5%

0.76 oz.

0.38 oz.

3.0 oz.

0.2 oz

0.06 oz

Cheese, Colby Grated

48.8%

0.98 oz.

0.49 oz.

3.9 oz.

0.2 oz

0.08 oz

105.0%

2.10 oz.

1.05 oz.

8.4 oz.

0.5 oz

0.18 oz

Cheese, Feta

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.0 oz.

0.3 oz

0.08 oz

Cheese, Gouda Smoked

43.8%

0.88 oz.

0.44 oz.

3.5 oz.

0.2 oz

0.07 oz.

100.0%

2.00 oz

1.00 oz.

8.0 oz

0.5 oz

0.17 oz

Cheese, Monterey Jack

37.5%

0.76 oz.

0.38 oz.

3.0 oz.

0.2 oz

0.06 oz

Cheese, Mozzarella fresh

75.0%

1.50 oz.

0.75 oz.

6.0 oz

0.4 oz

0.13 oz

Cheese, Mozzarella/Provolone Diced

56.3%

1.12 oz.

0.56 oz.

4.5 oz

0.3 oz

0.09 oz

Cheese, Parmesan grated

43.8%

0.88 oz.

0.44 oz.

3.5 oz

0.2 oz

0.07 oz

Cheese, Ricotta

75.0%

1.50 oz.

0.75 oz.

6.0 oz

0.4 oz

0.13 oz

Cream, Heavy 40%

117.1%

2.34 oz.

1.17 oz.

9.4 oz.

0.6 oz.

0.20 oz.

Cream, Half and Half

117.1%

2.34 oz.

1.17 oz.

9.4 oz.

0.6 oz.

0.20 oz.

52.5%

1.06 oz.

0.53 oz.

4.2 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

[ Densities—Dairy ] ITEM

Cheese Cream

Cheese, Mascarpone

Cream, Sour

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Densities—Dairy ] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

114.0%

2.28 oz.

1.14 oz.

9.1 oz.

0.6 oz.

0.19 oz.

Egg, whites

95.0%

1.90 oz.

0.95 oz.

7.6 oz

0.5 oz

0.16 oz

Margarine

95.0%

1.90 oz.

0.95 oz.

7.6 oz.

0.5 oz

0.16 oz.

Milk, Buttermilk

123.4%

2.46 oz.

1.23 oz.

8.0 oz.

0.6 oz

0.21 oz.

Milk, evaporated

95.0%

1.90 oz.

0.95 oz.

7.6 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.16 oz.

117.1%

2.34 oz.

1.17 oz.

9.4 oz

0.6 oz.

0.20 oz.

Cream, Whipping 30%

Milk, Whole

[ Densities—Dry Goods ] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

105.0%

2.10 oz.

1.05 oz.

8.4 oz.

0.5 oz

0.18 oz.

Apples, dried

40.0%

0.80 oz.

0.40 oz.

3.2 oz

0.2 oz

0.07 oz

Applesauce

90.0%

1.80 oz.

0.90 oz.

7.2 oz.

0.5 oz

0.15 oz.

Apricots, dried

66.3%

1.32 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz

Baking Powder

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.4 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Baking Soda

105.0%

2.10 oz.

1.05 oz.

8.4 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.18 oz.

Barley

103.8%

2.08 oz.

1.04 oz.

8.3 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.17 oz.

Bread Crumbs, Japanese, Coarse

35.0%

0.70 oz.

0.35 oz.

2.8 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Chocolate Chips

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.4 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Cocoa Powder

48.8%

0.98 oz.

0.49 oz.

3.9 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.08 oz.

Coconut, shreaded

33.8%

0.68 oz.

0.34 oz.

2.7 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Coffee, ground

40.0%

0.80 oz.

0.40 oz.

3.2 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Corn Meal

52.5%

1.06 oz.

0.53 oz.

4.2 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Corn Starch

61.3%

1.22 oz.

0.61 oz.

4.9 oz

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Corn Syrup

152.5%

3.06 oz.

1.53 oz.

12.2 oz.

0.8 oz.

0.25 oz.

Cream of Wheat

66.3%

1.32 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

.11 oz.

Crisco, solid

95.0%

1.90 oz.

0.95 oz.

7.6 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.16 oz.

Currants

66.3%

1.32 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Figs, dried

73.8%

1.48 oz.

0.74 oz.

5.9 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

Garlic, chopped

75.0%

1.50 oz.

0.75 oz.

6.0 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Graham Cracker crumbs

40.0%

0.80 oz.

0.40 oz.

3.2 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Honey

153.8%

3.08 oz.

1.54 oz.

12.3 oz.

0.8 oz.

.26 oz.

Horseradish

105.0%

2.10 oz.

1.05 oz.

8.4 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.18 oz.

Karo Syrup

67.5%

1.36 oz.

0.68 oz.

5.4 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Anchovies

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 11 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Densities—Dry Goods ] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

112.5%

2.26 oz.

1.13 oz.

9.0 oz.

0.6 oz.

0.19 oz.

Lard

93.8%

1.88 oz.

0.94 oz.

7.5 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.16 oz.

Lentils

87.5%

1.76 oz.

0.88 oz.

7.0 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.15 oz.

Marshmallows, Small

22.5%

0.46 oz.

0.23 oz.

1.8 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.04 oz.

Mayonnaise

95.0%

1.90 oz.

0.95 oz.

7.6 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.16 oz.

Milk, powdered

51.3%

1.02 oz.

0.51 oz.

4.1 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Molasses

153.8%

3.08 oz.

1.54 oz.

12.3 oz.

0.8 oz.

0.26 oz.

Mustard, Dijon, Extra Smooth

110.0%

2.20 oz.

1.10 oz.

8.8 oz.

0.6 oz.

0.18 oz

Mustard, Seed

66.3%

1.32 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Mustard, Whole Grain

38.8%

0.78 oz.

0.39 oz.

3.1 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Olives, chopped

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.4 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Peanut Butter

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.4 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Pickle Relish

91.3%

1.82 oz.

0.91 oz.

7.3 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.15 oz.

Raisins

66.3%

1.32 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Sesame Seeds

71.3%

1.42 oz.

0.71 oz.

5.7 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

105.0%

2.10 oz.

1.05 oz.

8.4 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.18 oz.

55.0%

1.10 oz.

0.55 oz.

4.4 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

125.0%

2.50 oz.

1.25 oz.

10.0 oz.

0.6 oz.

0.21 oz.

Ketchup

Shallots Wheat Germ Yeast, Dry

[ Densities—Flours ] DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Flour, All Purpose

ITEM

68.8%

1.38 oz.

0.69 oz.

5.5 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Flour, Almond

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.0 oz

0.25 oz.

0.08 oz.

Flour, Buckwheat

73.8%

1.48 oz.

0.74 oz.

5.9 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

Flour, Cake

40.0%

0.80 oz.

0.40 oz.

3.2 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Flour, Legume

57.5%

1.16.oz.

0.58 oz.

4.6 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Flour, Potato

73.8%

1.48 oz.

0.74 oz.

5.9 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

Flour, Rice

66.3%

1.32 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Flour, Rye

40.0%

0.80 oz.

0.40 oz.

3.2 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Flour, Semolina

75.0%

1.50 oz.

0.75 oz.

6.0 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Flour, Wondra

63.8%

1.28 oz.

0.64 oz.

5.1 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 12 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Densities—Nuts ] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Almonds, ground

37.5%

0.76 oz.

0.38 oz.

3.0 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Almonds, sliced

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.4 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Almonds, whole

73.8%

1.48 oz.

0.74 oz.

5.9 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

Brazil Nuts, whole

66.3%

1.32 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Cashews, roasted

48.8%

0.98 oz.

0.49 oz.

3.9 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.08 oz.

Hazelnuts, whole

73.8%

1.48 oz.

0.74 oz.

5.9 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

Peanuts, chopped

71.3%

1.42 oz.

0.71 oz.

5.7 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

Peanuts, roasted

66.3%

1,32 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Pecans, chopped

52.5%

1.06 oz.

0.53 oz.

4.2 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Pecans, ground

45.0%

0.90 oz.

0.45 oz.

3.6 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.08 oz.

Pecans, shelled

52.5%

1.06.oz

0.53 oz.

4.2 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Pine Nuts

55.0%

1.10 oz.

0.55 oz.

4.4 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Walnuts, chopped

51.3%

1.02 oz.

0.51 oz.

4.1 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Walnuts, ground

37.5%

0.76 oz.

0.38 oz.

3.00 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz

[ Densities—Poultry ] ITEM Duck Confit

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.40 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

[ Densities—Produce] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Apples, sliced

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.4 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Bananas, sliced

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.4 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

153.8%

3.08 oz.

1.54 oz.

12.3 oz.

0.8 oz.

0.26 oz.

Celery, chopped

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.0 oz

0.3 oz.

0.08 oz.

Corn

62.5%

1.25 oz.

0.63 oz.

5.0 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Garlic, minced

66.3%

1.33 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

100.0%

2.00 oz.

1.00 oz.

8.0 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.17 oz.

Mushrooms, chopped

33.8%

0.68 oz.

0.34 oz.

2.7 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Mushrooms, sliced

28.8%

0.58 oz.

0.29 oz.

2.3 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.05 oz.

Onion, Yellow, chopped

56.3%

1.13 oz.

0.56 oz.

4.5 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.08 oz.

Onion, minced

87.5%

1.75 oz.

0.88 oz.

7.0 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.15 oz.

Cabbage, shreaded

Ginger, fresh

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 13 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Densities—Produce] ITEM

DENSITY

1/4 b

1/2 b

1b

Parsley, fresh

17.5%

0.35 oz.

0.18 oz.

1.4 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.03 oz.

Peas, uncooked

66.3%

1.33 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Peppers, chili, chopped

73.8%

1.48 oz.

0.74 oz.

5.9 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

Strawberries

66.3%

1.33 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

DENSITY

1/4 b

1/2 b

1b

Eggplant

53.7%

10 lbs.

20 lbs.

40 lbs.

Peppers, Green Bell

30.5%

5.6 lbs.

11.4 lbs.

22.7 lbs.

Peppers, Red Bell

30.5%

5.6 lbs.

11.4 lbs.

22.7 lbs.

Peppers, Serrano

36.6%

6.8 lbs.

13.6%

27.2 lbs.

Zucchini

33.6%

6.25 lbs.

12.5 lbs.

25 lbs.

[ Densities—Produce by Bushels ] ITEM

[ Densities—Salts & Sugars ] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Salt, Iodized

131.3%

2.63 oz.

1.31 oz.

10.5 oz.

0.7 oz.

0.22 oz.

Salt, Kosher

107.5%

2.15 oz.

1.08 oz.

8.6 oz

0.5 oz.

0.18 oz.

Salt, Sea, Fine

105.0%

2.10 oz.

1.05 oz.

8.4 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.18 oz.

Salt, Sea, Smoked, Fine

97.5%

1.95 oz.

0.98 oz.

7.8 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.16 oz.

Sugar, Brown, Medium

72.5%

1.45 oz.

0.73 oz.

5.8 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.12 oz.

Sugar, Cane, Granulated

85.0%

1.70 oz.

0.85 oz.

6.8 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.14 oz.

Sugar, Caster

83.8%

1.68 oz.

0.84 oz.

6.7 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.14 oz.

Sugar, Confectionary

82.5%

1.65 oz.

0.83 oz.

6.6 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.14 oz.

Sugar, Powdered

57.5%

1.15 oz.

0.58 oz.

4.6 oz

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

100.0%

2.00 oz.

1.00 oz.

8.0 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.17 oz.

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Allspice, ground

80.0%

1.60 oz.

0.80 oz.

6.4 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Allspice, whole

40.0%

0.80 oz.

0.40 oz.

3.2 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Anise Seeds

85.0%

1.70 oz.

0.85 oz.

6.8 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.08 oz.

100.0%

2.00 oz.

1.00 oz.

8.0 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.17 oz.

2.5%

0.05 oz.

0.03 oz.

0.20 oz.

0.0 oz.

0.00 oz.

58.8%

1.18 oz.

0.59 oz.

4.7 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Sugar, Sanding

[ Densities—Spices ] ITEM

Arrowroot Basil Leaves Black Sesame Seed

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Densities—Spices ] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Caraway, whole

48.8%

0.98 oz.

0.49 oz.

3.9 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.08 oz.

Cardamom, ground

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.0 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.08 oz.

Celery Seed, whole

46.3%

0.93 oz.

0.46 oz.

3.7 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.08 oz.

2.5%

0.05 oz.

0.03 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.0 oz.

0.00 oz.

Cinnamon, ground

43.8%

0.88 oz.

0.44 oz.

3.5 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Cloves, ground

55.0%

1.10 oz.

0.55 oz.

4.4 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Cloves, whole

33.8%

0.68 oz.

0.34 oz.

2.7 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Coriander, whole

33.8%

0.68 oz.

0.34 oz.

2.7 oz

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Cream of Tartar

75.0%

1.50 oz.

0.75 oz.

6.0 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Cumin Seed, whole

45.0%

0.90 oz.

0.45 oz.

3.6 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.08 oz.

Cumin, ground

32.5%

0.65 oz.

0.33 oz.

2.6 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.05 oz.

Curry Powder

40.0%

0.80 oz.

0.40 oz.

3.2 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Dark Chili Powder

48.8%

0.98 oz.

0.49 oz.

3.9 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.08 oz.

Fennel, whole

41.3%

0.83 oz.

0.41 oz.

3.3 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Fenugreek Seed

75.0 %

1.50 oz.

0.75 oz.

6.0 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.13 oz.

Garam Masala

38.8%

0.78 oz.

0.39 oz.

3.1 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Garlic Powder

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.00 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.08 oz.

107.5%

2.15 oz.

1.08 oz.

8.6 oz.

0.5 oz.

0.18 oz.

Ginger, Ground

38.8%

0.78 oz.

0.39 oz.

3.1 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Herb de Provence

18.8%

0.38 oz.

0.19 oz.

1.5 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.03 oz.

Hibiscus Flower

10.0%

0.20 oz.

0.10 oz.

0.8 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.02 oz.

Juniper Berries

36.3%

0.73 oz.

0.36 oz.

2.9 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Mustard, Ground

36.3%

0.73 oz.

0.36 oz.

2.9 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Nutmeg, Ground

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.0 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.08 oz.

Old Bay Seasoning

63.8%

1.28 oz.

0.64 oz.

5.1 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Onion Powder

52.5%

1.05 oz.

0.53 oz.

4.2 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Onion, Granulated

61.3%

1.23 oz.

0.61 oz.

4.9 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Oregano, leaves

13.8%

0.28 oz.

0.14 oz.

1.1 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.02 oz.

Paprika, Smoked, Hot

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.0 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.08 oz.

Paprika, Spanish

45.0%

0.90 oz.

0.45 oz.

3.6 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.08 oz.

5.0%

0.10 oz.

0.05 oz.

0.4 oz.

0.03 oz

0.01 oz.

Pepper, Black, cracked

53.8%

1.08 oz.

0.54 oz.

4.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Pepper, Black, ground

56.3%

1.13 oz.

0.56 oz.

4.5 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Chives, chopped

Garlic Salt

Parsley Flakes

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Densities—Spices ] ITEM

DENSITY

2 oz

1 oz

1 cup

1 Tbl

1 tsp

Pepper, Black, whole

57.5%

1.15 oz.

0.58 oz.

4.6 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Pepper, Red, Cayenne

40.0%

0.80 oz.

0.40 oz.

3.2 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.07 oz.

Pepper, Red, Crushed

36.3%

0.73 oz.

0.36 oz

2.9 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Pepper, White, Ground

50.0%

1.00 oz.

0.50 oz.

4.0 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.08 oz.

Peppercorn, Black

58.8%

1.18 oz.

0.59 oz.

4.7 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.10 oz.

Peppercorn, Szechuan

20.0%

0.40 oz.

0.20 oz.

1.6 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.03 oz.

Peppercorn, White

66.3%

1.13 oz.

0.66 oz.

5.3 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Pickling Spice Mix

35.0%

0.70 oz.

0.35 oz.

2.8 oz.

0.2 oz.

0.06 oz.

Popcorn Seasoning

115.0%

2.30 oz.

1.15 oz.

9.2 oz.

0.6 oz.

0.19 oz.

Poppy Seed

65.0%

1.30 oz.

0.65 oz.

5.2 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.11 oz.

Pure Beet Powder

55.0%

1.10 oz.

0.55 oz.

4.4 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.09 oz.

Rosemary, whole

20.0%

0.40 oz.

0.20 oz.

1.6 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.03 oz.

Rubbed Sage

20.0%

0.40 oz.

0.20 oz.

1.6 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.03 oz.

Tarragon, leaves

11.3%

0.23 oz.

0.11 oz.

0.9 oz.

0.1 oz.

0.02 oz.

Thyme, leaves

62.5%

1.25 oz.

0.63 oz.

5.0 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.1 oz.

Tumeric, ground

62.5%

1.25 oz.

0.63 oz.

5.0 oz.

0.3 oz.

0.1 oz.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Understanding Wine and Oxygen By Gary Gottfried

Understanding the relationship between wine and oxygen can often be considered a little confusing or even complex, because there are mixed messages often associated with it. As a result, all too often many people and even operators may shy away from it due to a concern of not being correct. The truth is that, although it can be a lot more involved, as an operator it can be simplified so that you can be of the best benefit of knowledge and value to your customers. There are always exceptions; however, you having a general understanding can help customers gain a comfort level of knowledge that will aid a majority of their wine experiences when dining with you. Be familiar with this knowledge and you will enjoy sharing it with customers new and old alike. The confusion starts with the fact that oxygen can be both a friend and a foe when it comes to wine experiences. There is the act of aeration, which helps the wine (predominantly reds) “open up” or soften the wine. This is the “friend” part as the tannins in the wine mellow with their exposure to oxygen. For those of us engaged with wine for a long time, we can probably reflect back to hearing of and/or performing the practice of allowing the wine to “breathe”. This could be through the use of a decanter, the simple act of pouring a glass and allowing it to sit, or more recently accelerating the process by the use of products known as aerators. The traditional method, tended to be using a decanter which served several purposes. By placing wine in a decanter, the design was established to allow the wine to have a greater surface area exposed to air, which affords better aeration. 20 minutes +/- in advance of drinking usually was about the time needed to allow the breathing to impact the wine. A second benefit of decanting is/was the ability to help separate the sediment from the wine when poured while a third is the pouring of wine with ease from an attractive vessel. Although a seemingly formal process, this is still a nice way to go, especially if done in a manner not meant to be “stuffy”, but one that enhances Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


the wine consumer’s experience. Aerating in a glass is perfectly fine (and smart) for those by themselves or simply getting things done informally. The third using an aerator, is the newer contemporary way to “force” feed the aeration process on the wine with the advantage of time. No wait. Easy and effective this has become a popular way to aerate. The second act with oxygen is oxidation where it becomes the “foe”. Oxidation is what cause iron to turn in to rust, or an apple turn brown, or wine to being impacted and thus taste bad. In the short term the oxygen acts like a friend, but wait too long and suddenly it turns on you. The lighter the wine, the more susceptible it tends to be to oxidation. For example, whites will oxidize quickly; however, since most people keep their whites chilled in the fridge, the refrigeration process will not eliminate but will slow down oxidation. Fortunately there are a number of wine preservation products now on the market and the list seems to keep growing. Various methods work to varying degrees, however, the fact that there are options that can help can be extremely beneficial for consumer and operator alike. There are gas, vacuum, oxygen scavenger methods and even within those methods options to consider. We will look forward to helping share more detailed information on the various means in a future article, although if any immediate questions, certainly feel free to contact me. Gary Gottfried is the Founding Principal of Crosslink Marketing LLC and has over 30 years in the food and wine industry. He serves on the Preparedness/Education Working group for the Specialty Food Association based in NYC . He is also a partner in Silvadore Brands, a wine essentials company. He can be reached at (440) 463-4663 and gary@xlinkmarketing.com.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Sizes—Dairy ] Eggs

SIZE

WEIGHT / DOZEN

SIZE

WEIGHT / DOZEN

Jumbo

30 ounces

Medium

21 ounces

Extra Large

27 ounces

Small

18 ounces

Large

24 ounces

Peewee

15 ounces

[ Sizes—Produce ] Apples

Asparagus

Avocados

Kiwifruit

SIZE (IN OZ.)

DIAMETER

CASE COUNT

SIZE (IN OZ.)

DIAMETER

CASE COUNT

14.0

3.64”

48

5.4

2.75”

125

12.0

3.52”

56

4.8

2.68”

138

10.5

3.40”

64

4.5

2.62”

150

9.3

3.29”

72

4.1

2.54”

163

8.4

3.19”

80

3.8

2.46”

175

7.6

3.05

88

3.4

2.39”

198

6.7

2.93”

100

3.1

2.31”

216

5.9

2.84”

113

SIZE

MINIMUM DIAMETER

SIZE

MINIMUM DIAMETER

Colossal

1”

Standard

5/16”

Jumbo

13/16”

Small

3/16”

Extra Large

10/16”

Extra Small

< 3/16”

Large

7/16”

SIZE

WEIGHT RANGE

SIZE

WEIGHT RANGE

#84

3.75-4.75 oz.

#40

9.50-10.50 OZ.

#70

4.75-6.25 oz.

#36

10.50-11.75 oz.

#60

6.25-7.50 oz.

#32

11.75-13.75 oz.

#48

7.50-9.50 oz.

#28

> 13.75 oz.

SIZE

COUNT 1-LAYER

COUNT 3-LAYER

SIZE

COUNT 1 LAYER

COUNT 3-LAYER

23

23

69

36

36

108

25

25

75

39

39

117

27

27

81

42

42

126

30

30

90

45

45

135

33

33

99

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Sizes—Produce ] Potatoes

SIZE

50# CASE COUNT

WEIGHT RANGE

SIZE

50# CASE COUNT

WEIGHT RANGE

40

37—43

> 15 oz.

40

37—43

> 15 oz.

50

47—53

12—19 oz.

50

47—53

12—19 oz.

60

57—63

10—16 oz.

60

57—63

10—16 oz.

70

67—73

9—15 oz.

70

67—73

9—15 oz.

80

77—83

8—13 oz.

80

77—83

8—13 oz.

90

87—93

7—12 oz.

90

87—93

7—12 oz.

100

97—103

6—10 oz.

100

97—103

6—10 oz.

110

107—113

5—9 oz.

110

107—113

5—9 oz.

120

117—123

4—8 oz.

120

117—123

4—8 oz.

SIZE

DIAM.

SIZE

MIN. DIAM.

SIZE

MIN. DIAM.

3/4”

3/4”

A

1-7/8”

B

1-1/2”

[ Sizes—Seafood ] Crab

Shrimp

CLAW SIZE

# CLAWS/LB.

CLAW SIZE

# CLAWS/LB.

Colossal

1-2

Med. Select

6-7

Jumbo

3-4

Medium

7-8

Large

4-5

SIZE

COUNT / LB.

AVE. COUNT

AVE. WEIGHT

SIZE

COUNT / LB.

AVE. COUNT

AVE. WEIGHT

Extra Colossal

U/10

< 10

Min. 1.6 oz.

Large

31/35

33

0.49 oz.

Colossal

U/12

< 12

Min. 1.3 oz.

Medium Large

36/40

38

0.42 oz.

Colossal

U/15

< 15

Min. 1.1 oz.

Medium

41/50

45.5

0.35 oz.

Small

51/60

55.5

0.29 oz.

Extra Jumbo

16/20

18

0.89 oz.

Extra Small

61/70

66

0.24 oz.

Jumbo

21/25

23

0.70 oz.

Extra Large

26/30

28

0.57 oz.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Sizesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Seafood ] Scallops

TYPE

COUNT / LB.

AVE. COUNT

AVE. WEIGHT

Dry/Processed

U/10

< 10

Min. 1.6 oz.

Dry/Processed

10/20

15

1.07 oz.

Dry/Processed

20/30

25

0.64 oz

Dry/Processed

30/40

35

0.46 oz.

Bay

60/80

70

0.23 oz.

Bay

89/120

100

0.16 oz.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Beef ] Beef

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

USDA Prime

Produced from young, well-fed beef cattle. Slightly abundant marbling. Is generally sold upscale restaurants.

USDA Choice

Choice is high quality, but has less marbling than Prime. It has at least small amount of marbling.

USDA Select

Select beef is very uniform in quality and normally leaner than the higher grades. It is fairly tender, but because has less marbling, it may lack juiciness and flavor of the higher grades. It has at least a slight amount of marbling.

USDA Certified Tender

Identifying specific cuts that are consistently tender and meets American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) tenderness standard.

USDA Very Tender

Identifying specific cuts that are consistently very tender and meets American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) tenderness standard.

[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Dairy ] Butter

GRADE U.S. Grade AA

DESCRIPTION Possess a fine and highly pleasing butter flavor.

U.S. Grade A

Possess and pleasing and desirable butter flavor. May posses to a slight degree: acid, aged, bitter, coarse, flat, smothered, and storage.

U.S. Grade B

Possess a fairly pleasing butter flavor. May possess to a slight degree: malty, musty, neutralizer, scorched, utensil, weed, and whey.

All U.S. grades of butter should be free of foreign materials and mold.

Butter, Whipped

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade AA

Possess a fine and highly pleasing butter flavor. May also have a lactic culture flavor, slight feed or a cooked flavor.

U.S. Grade A

Possess and pleasing and desirable butter flavor. May posses to a slight degree: acid, aged, bitter, coarse, flat, smothered, and storage.

All U.S. grades of whipped butter should be free of foreign materials and mold.

Buttermilk, Dry

GRADE U.S. Extra Grade

U.S. Standard Grade

DESCRIPTION Possess a pleasing flavor and a uniform cream to light brown color. Other factors include bacterial estimate, milkfat content, moisture content, scorched particle content, solubility index, titratable acidity, and protein content. Possess a fairly pleasing flavor and a uniform cream to light brown color free of lumps except those ready to break up. Other factors include bacterial estimate, milkfat content, moisture content, scorched particle content, solubility index, titratable acidity, and protein content.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Dairy ] Cheese, Bulk

GRADE U.S. Extra Grade U.S. Standard Grade U.S. Commercial Grade

Cheese, Cheddar

DESCRIPTION Flavor pleasing to the variety and type. Other requirements for body, texture, finish, and appearance. Flavor pleasing but may contain flavor defects to a certain degree. Other requirements for body, texture, finish, and appearance. May contain flavor defects to a certain degree. Other requirements for body, texture, finish, and appearance.

GRADE U.S. Grade AA

DESCRIPTION Flavor free from undesirable flavor and odors. May be colored or uncolored.

U.S. Grade A

Flavor free from undesirable flavor and odors. May possess feed, acid and bitter flavors with limited tolerances. May be colored or uncolored.

U.S. Grade B

Flavor may possess certain undesirable flavors to a limited degree based on the aging of the cheese. May be colored or uncolored.

U.S. Grade C

Flavor may have objectionable flavors and odors with increased tolerances in accordance with the degree of curing.

Other factors include body and texture and the finish and appearance of the product.

Cheese, Colby

GRADE U.S. Grade AA

DESCRIPTION Flavor free from undesirable flavor and odors. May should be uniformed and bright.

U.S. Grade A

Flavor free from undesirable flavor and odors or it may be lacking in flavor development. May should be uniformed and bright.

U.S. Grade B

Flavor free from undesirable flavor and odors or it may be lacking in flavor development. It may also contain flavors of bitter, flat, fruity, malty, rancid, and others. May should be uniformed and bright.

Other factors include body and texture and the finish and appearance of the product.

Cheese, Monterey Jack

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade AA

Product should possess a fine flavor free from undesirable flavors and odors; or may be lacking in flavor development. The color should be natural, uniform, and bright.

U.S. Grade A

Product should possess a fine flavor free from undesirable flavors and odors; or may be lacking in flavor development. It may also contain flavors of bitter, flat, acid or feed. The color should be natural, fairly uniform, and bright.

U.S. Grade B

Product may possess a fine flavor free from undesirable flavors and odors; or may be lacking in flavor development. It may also contain flavors of bitter, flat, acid or feed. Color may be dull, faded and unnatural.

Other factors include body and texture and the finish and appearance of the product.

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[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Dairy ] Cheese, Swiss

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade A

Flavor is pleasing and desirable consistent with aging, free of undesirable flavors. Color should be natural and attractive.

U.S. Grade B

Flavor is pleasing and desirable consistent with aging, free of undesirable flavors. May possess flavors of acid, bitter, feed, flat, and utensil. Color should be white to light yellow and a slight degree of bleached surface.

U.S. Grade C

Flavor is pleasing and desirable consistent with aging, free of undesirable flavors. May possess flavors of barny, fruity, metallic, old milk, onion, rancid, sour, and others. Color may have colored spots, dull or faded, mottled and pink ring and possibly a degree of bleached surface.

Other factors include body, eyes, and texture and the finish and appearance of the product.

Eggs

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Consumer Grade AA

The freshest and highest quality.

U.S. Consumer Grade A

Very high quality.

U.S. Consumer Grade B

Lower in quality, usually used for baking and institutional use and not found in retail stores.

Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Fruits Apple Butter

GRADE U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy

Possesses a good color and consistency. Practically free from defects.

U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard

Possesses a fairly good color and consistency. Fairly free from defects.

Substandard

Apricots

DESCRIPTION

Product fails to meet U.S. grades A or C standards.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

One variety, not soft or overripe. Free of decay, cuts, cracks, and more factors.

U.S. No. 2

One variety, not soft or overripe. Free of decay, cuts, cracks, and more factors.

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[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Fruits ] Apples

GRADE U.S. Extra Fancy

One variety, mature not overripe, fairly well formed, free of decay, internal browning and broken skins.

U.S. No. 1

Meets U.S. Fancy grade except for color, russeting and invisible water core. In this grade, less color is required.

U.S. Utility

One variety, mature not overripe, not seriously deformed and free from decay, internal browning, internal breakdown. Free from broken skins, discoloration and other factors.

One variety, firm, well colored and developed. Not overripe and free from mold and decay.

U.S. No. 2

Meets requirements of U.S. No. 1 but do not have > 10% by volume damaged by any cause. Does not meet U.S. No. 1 or No. 2 standards.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION One variety, clean, well colored. Not overripe, crushed, split, and wet. Free from mold, decay and damage from a variety of sources.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

One variety, clean, well colored. Not overripe, crushed, split, and wet. Free from mold, decay and damage from a variety of sources.

U.S. Fancy

Meet U.S. No. 1 grade except they possess good internal quality and uniform appearance.

U.S. Commercial

Currants

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

U.S. No. 1

Cantaloupe

Combination of grades are available (i.e. grades of Extra Fancy and Fancy).

GRADE

Unclassified

Blueberries

One variety, mature not overripe, well formed, free of decay and injury caused by bruises.

U.S. Fancy

Combination

Blackberries

DESCRIPTION

Consist of one type, mature and good internal quality but not overripe. Well formed and fairly well netted. Free of decay and damage from a variety of sources.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Similar type, well colored, free from mold and decay.

U.S. No. 2

Meet U.S. No. 1 grade except tolerances related to proper handling.

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[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Fruits ] Dates

Grapefruit (Florida)

GRADE U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy

One variety, whole or pitted, that possess good color and uniform in size. Free from defects.

U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice

One variety, whole or pitted, that possess reasonably good color and uniform in size. Reasonably free from defects.

U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard

One variety, whole or pitted or of date pieces that possess fairly good color and uniform in size. Fairly free from defects.

Substandard

Failure to meet the requirements for U.S. Grade C or U.S. Grade Standard.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Firm, mature, smooth texture, well colored. Free from decay and injury.

U.S. No. 1 Bright

Same as U.S. No. 1 except the fruit should not have < 20% of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface affected by discoloration.

U.S. No. 1

No more than 33% surface affected by discoloration, fairly well colored and smooth.

U.S. No. 1 Golden

Same as U.S. No. 1 at least 30% by count have more than 33% surface affected by discoloration.

U.S. No. 1 Bronze

Same as U.S. No. 1 at least 30% by count have more than 33% surface affected by discoloration. The predominating color should be rust mite type.

U.S. No. 1 Russet

Same as U.S. No. 1 at least 30% by count have more than 33% surface affected by any type of discoloration.

U.S. No. 2 Bright

Same as U.S. No. 2 except not more than 20% of the surface is affected by discoloration.

U.S. No. 2

U.S. No. 2 Russet

U.S. No. 3

Honeydew

DESCRIPTION

Not more than 50% of the surface has discoloration. Firm, mature, free from decay. Same as No. 2 except at least 10% of the fruit have more than 50% surface discoloration. Matured, misshapen, poorly colored. Free from decay and very serious damage.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Mature, firm, well formed, free from decay and damage.

U.S. Commercial

Meets U.S. No. 1 except increased tolerances for defects.

U.S. No. 2

Mature, firm, fairly well formed, free from decay and from serious damage.

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[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Fruits ] Kiwifruit

Lemons

GRADE U.S. Fancy

Mature, not soft, well formed, clean. Free from decay and injury.

U.S. No. 1

Mature, not soft, fairly ell formed, clean. Free from decay and damage from a variety of sources.

U.S. No. 2

Mature, not soft, not badly misshapen, clean. Free from decay and serious damage from a variety of sources.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

U.S. Combination

Combination of No. 1 and No. 2 grades. At least 40% by count meet No. 1 grade. Mature, fairly firm, reasonably well formed and smooth. Fairly well colored.

GRADE

U.S. Combination U.S. No. 2

Nectarines

Mature, fairly well formed, fairly smooth and free from decay. Fairly well colored. Mature, fairly well formed, fairly smooth and free from decay. At least 50% free from damage. Fairly moderately colored.

U.S. No. 1

Mango

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Export No. 1

U.S. No. 2

Limes

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION Persian limes, firm, fairly well formed and free of decay, 75% of the surface should have good color. Combination of No. 1 and No. 2 grades with a minimum of 60% by count No. 1 grade. Persian limes, fairly firm, not badly deformed, free from decay. 90% must pass requirements.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Mature, clean, well formed, free from decay and overripe. 90% must meet the standard.

U.S. No. 1

Mature, clean, well formed, free from decay and overripe. 90% must meet the standard, < 5% allowed for defects and < 2% allowance for decay.

U.S. No. 2

Mature, clean, fairly well formed, free from decay and overripe. 90% must meet the standard. 90% must meet the standard, < 2% allowance for decay.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

One variety, mature, no soft or overripe, free from decay, > 33.3% surface red color.

U.S. Extra No. 1

One variety, mature, no soft or overripe, free from decay, > 75% showing some blushed or red color, > 33.3% surface red color.

U.S. No. 1

One variety, mature, no soft or overripe, free from decay,

U.S. No. 2

One variety, mature, no soft or overripe, not badly misshapen, free from decay.

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[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Fruits ] Oranges (Florida)

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

< 10% discoloration by count, firm, mature, well colored and formed, free from injury.

U.S. No. 1 Bright U.S. No. 1

< 50% fairly well colored, < 33.3% surface discoloration, firm mature, free from damage.

U.S. No. 1 Golden

Same as U.S. No. 1 except < 30% by count shall have < 33.3% surface discoloration.

U.S. No. 1 Bronze

Same as U.S. No. 1 except > 30% by count shall have < 33.3% surface discoloration. Predominating discoloration is rust mite type.

U.S. No. 1 Russet

Same as U.S. No. 1 except > 30% by count shall have < 33.3% surface discoloration.

U.S. No. 2 U.S. No. 2 Russet U.S. No. 3

Peaches

U.S. Extra No. 1

Pineapples

< 50% surface discoloration, fairly firm, mature, reasonably well colored, slightly misshapen, free from decay Same as No. 2 except > 10% by count have > 50% surface discoloration. Mature, misshapen, poorly colored, rough texture, free from decay.

GRADE U.S. Fancy

Pears

Same as U.S. No. 1 except < 20% surface discoloration.

DESCRIPTION One variety, mature, not soft or overripe, well formed, free from decay and damage. Meets U.S. No. 1 except 50% by count have < 25% surface showing blushed, pink, or red color.

U.S. No. 1

One variety, mature, not soft or overripe, well formed, free from decay and damage.

U.S. No. 2

One variety, mature, not soft or overripe, not badly misshapen, free from decay and serious damage.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

One variety, mature, firm, well formed, free from decay. Color should be advanced of yellow green appearance

U.S. No. 2

One variety, mature, firm, not seriously deformed, free from decay. Color should be yellowish green.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Similar variety, mature, well formed, stems removed, single varietal color, modestly straight. Free from cracks, overripe and decay.

U.S. No. 1

Similar variety, mature, well formed, stems removed, single varietal color, modestly straight. Free from cracks, overripe and decay.

U.S. No. 2

Similar variety, mature, fairly well formed, stems removed, simular varietal color, modestly straight. Free from cracks, overripe and decay.

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[ Food Grading—Fruits ] Plums and Prunes

Raisins, Seedless

Raspberries

GRADE U.S. Fancy

One variety, well formed, clean, mature, not overripe or soft. Free from decay and damage

U.S. No. 1

One variety, well formed, clean, mature, not overripe or soft. Free from decay and damage. > 1-1/4” in diameter.

U.S. Combination

Combination of No. 1 and No. 2 with < 75% meeting the No. 1 standard

U.S. No. 2

One variety, not badly misshapen, clean, mature, not overripe or soft. Free from decay and serious damage.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade A

Similar varietal characteristics, good typical color, flavor, > 80% from well matured or reasonably well matured.

U.S. Grade B

Similar varietal characteristics, reasonably good typical color, flavor, > 70% from reasonably well matured grapes.

U.S. Grade C

Similar varietal characteristics, fairly good typical color, flavor, > 55% from reasonably well matured grapes.

Substandard

Fails to meet the minimum requirements for U.S. Grade C.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

One variety, well colored, developed, not soft or overripe. > 90 must meet the requirement, < 5% affected by serious damage, < 1% affected by mold or decay.

U.S. No. 2

Does not meet U.S. grade No. 1 requirements.. < 10% affected by serious damage, < 1% affected by mold or decay.

Unclassified

Strawberries

DESCRIPTION

No grade and does not meet the minimum requirement for U.S. Grade No. 2.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, firm, not overripe or underdeveloped, free from mold , decay and damage. > 90% should meet this requirement. < 5% can have defects or damage, > 2% affected by decay. > 95% must be > 3/4” in diameter.

U.S. Combination

U.S. No. 2

Combination of No. 1 and No. 2 grades with >80% meeting No. 1 standards. Free from decay and serious damage. > 90% should meet this requirement. < 10% can have serious defects or damage, > 3% affected by decay. > 95% must be > 5/8” in diameter.

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[ Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Fruits ] Tangerines

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Mature, firm and well formed. Free from skin breaks, decay and damage. < 10% surface may have a light shade of brown discoloration.

U.S. No. 1

Mature, firm and well formed. Free from skin breaks, decay and damage. < 33.3% surface may have a light shade of brown discoloration.

U.S. No. 1 Bronze

Same as No. 1 except at least 75% by count may show some discoloration and > 20% with more than 1/3 surface bronze russeting.

U.S. Combination

Combination of No. 1 and No. 2 grades with at least 40% meeting grade No. 1 standards.

U.S. No. 2

Mature, fairly firm and fairly well formed. Free from skin breaks, decay and serious damage. < 2/3 surface discoloration.

U.S. No. 2 Russet U.S. No. 3

Watermelon

Same as No. 2 except > 20% have more than 2/3 surface discoloration. Mature, not flabby or seriously lumpy. Free from skin breaks.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Similar varietal, mature, fairly well formed, not overripe. Free from decay and damage.

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, mature, fairly well formed, not overripe. Free from decay and damage.

U.S. No. 2

Similar varietal, mature, fairly well formed, not overripe. Free from serious damage.

Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Lamb Lamb

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

Prime

Thickly muscled throughout, are moderately wide and thick in relation to the length. Moderately narrow fat streakings, slightly fat rib bones.

Choice

Slightly thickly muscled throughout, are slightly wide and thick in relationship to the length. Moderately narrow fat streakings, slightly fat rib bones.

Good

Slightly thin muscled throughout, moderately narrow in relationship to the length. Moderately narrow fat streakings, slightly fat rib bones.

Utility

Includes those lamb carcasses whose characteristics do not meet the minimum requirements of the Good grade.

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Food Gradingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Nuts Almonds (In Shell)

GRADE U.S. No. 1 U.S No. 1 Mixed U.S. No. 2 U.S. No. 2 Mixed

Brazil Nuts (In Shell)

Peanut Butter

Meets No. 1 requirements except two or more varieties of sweet almonds are mixed. Same as No. 1 standard except < 20% allowed for shells damaged by discoloration. Consists of No. 2 grade except has two or more varieties of sweet almonds mixed. DESCRIPTION Similar varietal, free from loose and foreign material, free from damage and decay. Has tolerances on defects and loose extraneous and foreign material.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

Mixed Nuts

Similar varietal, free from foreign material. Clean, fairly bright, fairly uniform color. < 28/64â&#x20AC;? in thickness. Has tolerances.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

Filberts (In Shell)

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION Similar type, shells well formed, clean, free from damage. Kernels reasonably well developed. Free from decay, mold and damage. Tolerances exists for mixed types, defects and size.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Extra Fancy

Mixed with almonds, brazils, filberts, pecans and walnuts. Minimum/ maximum percentages for each type as well as minimum sizes and grades.

U.S. Fancy

Mixed with almonds, brazils, filberts, pecans and walnuts. Minimum/ maximum percentages for each type as well as minimum sizes and grades.

U.S. Commercial or U.S. Select

Mixed with almonds, brazils, filberts, pecans and walnuts. Minimum/ maximum percentages for each type as well as minimum sizes and grades.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy

Good color, consistency, practically free from defects, good flavor and aroma and has a score of > 90 from this subpart.

U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice

Reasonably good color, reasonably good consistency, reasonably free from defects, good flavor and aroma and has a score of > 80 from this subpart.

Substandard

Does not meet the requirements for U.S. Grade B.

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Food Grading—Nuts Peanuts (In Shell)

GRADE

Tolerances exist for foreign material and damage.

Pecans (In Shell)

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked

Mature, dry, free from dirt and foreign material. Lots should average counts < 176 / lb.

U.S. Fancy Hand Picked

Mature, dry, free from dirt and foreign material. Lots should average counts < 225/ lb.

GRADE

Pistachios (In Shell)

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Free from foreign material, fairly uniform in color, free from damage. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 2

Same as No. 1 except no uniformity of color and increased tolerances.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Free from foreign material, shell pieces, particles and dust. Free from serious damage. The nuts have a size > 30/64”. Tolerances exist.

U.S. Extra No. 1

Free from foreign material, shell pieces, particles and dust. Free from serious damage. The nuts have a size > 30/64”. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 1

Free from foreign material, shell pieces, particles and dust. Free from serious damage. The nuts have a size > 30/64”. Tolerances exist.

U.S. Select

Free from foreign material, shell pieces, particles and dust. Free from serious damage. The nuts have a size > 30/64”. Tolerances exist.

GRADE

Walnuts (In Shell)

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Dry, practically clean, free from splits and damage. At least 70% by count have kernels which are not darker than light amber. 40% of the 70% are not darker than light.

U.S. No. 2

Dry, practically clean, free from splits and damage. At least 60% by count have kernels which are not darker than light amber. > 40% of the 70% are not darker than light.

U.S. No. 3

Dry, fairly clean, free from splits and damage. No percentage requirements on color.

Food Grading—Poultry Poultry

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade A

A lot of ready-to-cook poultry rabbit carcasses or parts that conforms to the quality of Grade A.

U.S. Grade B

A lot of ready-to-cook poultry rabbit carcasses or parts that conforms to the quality of Grade B.

U.S. Grade C

A lot of ready-to-cook poultry rabbit carcasses or parts that conforms to the quality of Grade C.

More specific information regarding the grading of poultry on the USDA website. Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

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Food Grading—Rabbits Rabbits

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade A

A lot of ready-to-cook poultry rabbit carcasses or parts that conforms to the quality of Grade A.

U.S. Grade B

A lot of ready-to-cook poultry rabbit carcasses or parts that conforms to the quality of Grade B.

U.S. Grade C

A lot of ready-to-cook poultry rabbit carcasses or parts that conforms to the quality of Grade C.

Food Grading—Specialty Horseradish Root

Maple Syrup

Olive Oil

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Firm, well trimmed, well shaped, free from decay and damage. Roots > 8” and 1-1/4” in diameter.

U.S. No. 1

Firm, well trimmed, fairly well shaped, free from of decay and damage. Roots > 6” and 1-1/4” in diameter.

U.S. No. 2

Firm, well trimmed, free of decay and serious damage. Roots > 4” and 1/2” in diameter.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade A

Has good color, flavor and odor. Practically free from defects and practically clear.

U.S. Grade B

Has fairly good color, flavor and odor. Fairly free from defects and fairly clear.

Substandard

Fails to meet Grade B requirements.

GRADE U.S. Extra Virgin

U.S. Virgin

DESCRIPTION Excellent flavor and odor. Defects = 0 and median fruitiness > 0, oleic acid < 0.8 grams per 100 grams. Additional requirements. Reasonably good flavor and odor. Defects = < 2.5 and median fruitiness > 0, oleic acid < 2 grams per 100 grams. Additional requirements.

U.S. Virgin not for consumption

Poor flavor and odor. Defects = < 6 and median fruitiness > 0, oleic acid < 2 grams per 100 grams. Additional requirements.

U.S. Olive Oil

Blend of refined and virgin oils. Oleic acid < 1 grams per 100 grams. Additional requirements.

U.S. Refined

Virgin olive oil used in refining methods that do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure.

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Food Grading—Specialty Molasses

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy

Good flavor and color, practically free from defects that scores > 90 rating points.

U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice

Reasonably good flavor and color, reasonably free from defects that scores > 80 rating points.

U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard

Fairly good flavor, and color, fairly free from defects that scores > 70 rating points.

Substandard

Does not meet the requirements for U.S. Grade C.

Food Grading—Vegetables Asparagus

Beets

Brussels Sprouts

Carrots, Bunched

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Fresh, well trimmed, fairly straight, free of decay and damage, diameter > 1/2”, > 2/3 of the stalk length shall be the color of the lot. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 2

Fresh, fairly well trimmed, not badly misshappen, free of decay and serious damage, diameter > 5/16”, > 1/2 of the stalk length shall be the color of the lot. Tolerances exist.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Similar in varietal, well trimmed, fairly smooth, shaped and clean. Diameter > 1-1/2”.

U.S. No. 2

Similar in varietal, well trimmed, not excessively rough, not seriously misshaped and clean. Free from serious damage. Diameter > 1-1/2”.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Well colored, firm, free from decay, diameter > 1” and the length < 23/4”.

U.S. No. 2

Fairly well colored, fairly firm, free from decay, diameter > 1” and the length < 2-3/4”.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

U.S. Commercial

DESCRIPTION Similar in varietal, firm, fairly clean, fairly well colored. Tolerances exist for roots, top defects, lengths and size. Meets standards for No. 1 except the tolerances are larger for roots, top defects, lengths and size.

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Food Grading—Vegetables Cabbage

GRADE U.S. No. 1

U.S. Commercial

Cauliflower

U.S. Commercial

Cucumbers

Heads are of one variety, reasonably solidity, free from soft rot and damage. Tolerances exist. Meets standards of No. 1 with increased tolerances.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

Celery

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION Heads are of one variety, clean, compact, consistent color, free from soft rot and serious damage. Tolerances exist. Meets standards of No. 1 with increased tolerances.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Extra No. 1

Stalks similar varietal, well developed, well formed, clean, well trimmed, and compact. Average midrib length > 7”. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 1

Stalks similar varietal, fairly well developed, fairly well formed, clean, well trimmed, and compact. Average midrib length > 6”. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 2

Stalks similar varietal, reasonably well developed, reasonably well formed, clean, well trimmed, and compact. Average midrib length > 4”. Tolerances exist.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Well colored, well formed, not overgrown, free from decay, maximum diameter < 2-3/8” and length > 6”

U.S. Extra No. 1

At least 50% of the lot should meet U.S. Fancy, maximum diameter < 2-3/8” and length > 6”

U.S. No. 1

Fairly well colored, fairly well formed, not overgrown, free from decay, maximum diameter < 2-3/8” and length > 6”

U.S. No. 1 Small

Meets all the requirements of No. 1 except size. Diameter range 1-1/2” to 2”. No requirements for length.

U.S. No. 1 Large

Meets all the requirements of No. 1 except size. Diameter > 2-1/4” and length > 6”.

U.S. No. 2

Moderately colored, not badly deformed, not overgrown, free of decay and damage. Diameter < 2-3/8” and length > 5”.

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Food Grading—Vegetables Eggplant

Garlic

GRADE U.S. Fancy

Similar varietal, well colored, firm, well shaped, free from decay and injury.

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, fairly well colored, firm, fairly well shaped, free from decay and injury.

U.S. No. 2

Firm, free from decay and serious damage.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

Kale

Lima Beans

Mushrooms

DESCRIPTION Similar varietal, mature, well cured, compact, cloves well filled, free of decay. Minimum diameter > 1-1/2”. Tolerances exist for defects and size.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

Lettuce

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION Similar type, well trimmed, not stunted, free of decay and damage.

U.S. Commercial

Meets requirements of No. 1 except for color. Bronze or yellowish color affecting the edges of the leaves shall be permitted. Edges are not dried.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Similar varietal, fresh, green, free from decay and injury, fairly well trimmed. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, fresh, green, free from decay and injury, fairly well trimmed or closely trimmed. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 2

Similar varietal, free from decay and serious damage, reasonably trimmed. Tolerances exist.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal characteristics, fairly well filled, not excessively small, free from decay. > 90% by weight must meet the requirement. Tolerances exist on damage.

U.S. Combination

Combination of U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 with > 75% by weight meeting No. 1 standards.

U.S. No. 2

Similar varietal characteristics, reasonably well filled, not over mature, free from decay. > 90% by weight must meet the requirement. Tolerances exist.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal characteristics, mature, fairly well shaped, well trimmed, from decay and damage. Small diameter < 1-5/8”, Large > 1-5/8”.

U.S. No. 2

Same requirements as U.S. No. 1 except greater tolerances for defects.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 36 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Food Grading—Vegetables Orka

GRADE U.S. No. 1

Parsley

Pea Pods

Pickles

Potatoes

DESCRIPTION Similar varietal, good green color, free from decay and damage. Tolerances exist for damage.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, well trimmed, fairly well formed, fairly smooth and clean, free from soft rot, diameter > 1-1/2”. Tolerances exist for damage and size.

U.S. No. 2

Well trimmed, not badly deformed, free from soft rot, size > 1-1/2”. Tolerances exists for defects and size.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Fancy

Similar varietal, clean, well formed, good color, free from decay and injury. Length > 2-1/2”.

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, clean, fairly well formed, fairly good color, free from decay and injury. Length > 2”.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Grade A

Meets requirements of multiple tables and scores > 90 points.

U.S. Grade B

Meets requirements of multiple tables and scores > 80 points.

Substandard

Fails to meet the requirements of Grade B.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

U.S. Commercial U.S. No. 2

Radishes

Pods of similar varietal, fresh, tender, not badly damaged, not badly misshapen, free from decay and damage. Tolerances exist for damage.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

Parsnips

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION Similar varietal, firm, fairly clean, fairly well shaped, free from dry rot and damage. Diameter > 1-7/8”. Tolerances exist. Meets No. 1 requirements except free from serious damage and increased tolerances. Similar varietal, not seriously misshapen, free from serious damage. Diameter > 1-1/2”. Tolerances exist.

GRADE U.S. No. 1

U.S. Commercial

DESCRIPTION Similar varietal, roots are clean, well formed, firm, free from decay and damage. Tolerances exist. Same requirements as No. 1 except increased tolerances.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 37 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Food Grading—Vegetables Rhubarb

Romaine

GRADE U.S. Fancy

Similar varietal, very well colored, fresh, clean, well trimmed. Diameter > 1”, Length > 10”.

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, well colored, fresh, clean, well trimmed. Diameter > 3/4”, Length > 10”.

U.S. No. 2

Similar varietal, fairly well colored, fresh, clean, well trimmed. Diameter > 1/2”, Length > 8”.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Sweet Corn

Similar varietal, fresh, well developed, well trimmed, free from decay and damage.

GRADE U.S. Fancy U.S. Fancy Husked U.S. No. 1

Sweet Potatoes

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION Similar varietal, well trimmed and developed, free from decay and injury. Tolerances exist. Meets requirements for U.S. Fancy except ears are husked, trimmed, well clipped. Length > 5”. Similar varietal, well trimmed and developed, free from decay, injury, and damage. Length > 5”. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 1 Husked

Meets requirements for U.S. No. 1 except ears are husked, trimmed, well clipped. Length > 4”.

U.S. No. 2

Similar varietal, fairly well trimmed and developed, free from decay and serious damage. Length > 4”.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. Extra No. 1

Similar varietal, firm, smooth, fairly clean, fairly well shaped. Length range 3” - 9”, maximum weight 18 oz., diameter range 1-3/4” - 3-1/4”.

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, firm, smooth, fairly clean, fairly well shaped. Length range 3” - 9”, maximum weight < 20 oz., minimum diameter > 1-3/4”.

U.S. No. 1 Petite

Similar varietal, firm, smooth, fairly clean, fairly well shaped. Length range 3” - 7”, diameter range 1-1/2” - 2-1/4”.

U.S. Commercial

Meets the requirements for U.S. No. 1 except increased tolerances for defects.

U.S. No. 2

Similar varietal, free from internal breakdown and serious damage. Minimum diameter > 1-1/2” and maximum weight 36 oz.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 38 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Food Grading—Vegetables Tomatoes

GRADE U.S. No. 1

U.S. Combination

Turnips

DESCRIPTION Similar varietal, mature, no overripe, clean, well developed, free from decay and damage. Tolerances exist. Combination of U.S. No. 1 and No. 2 with at least 60% by count being No. 1 grade.

U.S. No. 2

Similar varietal, mature, no overripe, clean, well developed, reasonably well formed, free from decay and serious damage. Tolerances exist.

U.S. No. 3

Similar varietal, mature, no overripe, clean, well developed, may be misshapen, free from decay and not very serious damage. Tolerances exist.

GRADE

DESCRIPTION

U.S. No. 1

Similar varietal, well trimmed, fairly well shaped, free from decay and damage, Length > 1-3/4”.

U.S. No. 2

Similar varietal, well trimmed, not seriously misshapen, free from decay, Length > 1-3/4”.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 39 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


U.S. Measurements GALLON

QUART

PINT

CUP

FL. OZ.

TBL

1 gal.

4 qt.

8 pt.

16 c

128 fl. oz.

256 Tbl

1/2 gal.

2 qt.

4 pt

8c

64 fl. oz.

128 Tbl

1/4 gal.

1 qt.

2 pt.

4c

32 fl. oz.

64 Tbl

1/2 qt.

1 pt.

2c

16 fl. oz.

32 Tbl

1/4 qt.

1/2 pt.

1c

8 fl. oz.

16 Tbl

3/4 c

6 fl. oz

12 Tbl

2/3 c

5-1/3 fl. oz.

10-2/3 Tbl

1/2 c

4 fl. oz.

8 Tbl

1/3 c

2-2/3 fl. oz.

5-1/3 Tbl

16 tsp

1/4 c

2 fl. oz.

4 Tbl

12 tsp

0.5 fl. oz.

1 Tbl

3 tsp

0.25 fl. oz

0.5 Tbl

1.5 tsp

0.17 fl. oz.

TSP

1 tsp

Mass Weight Conversions DESCRIPTION

KILOGRAM (kg)

POUNDS (lb)

Milligrams (mg)

OUNCES (oz)

GRAMS (gm)

0.000035 oz.

0.0010 gm.

Grams (gm)

0.0010 kg.

0.0022 lbs.

0.0353 oz.

1 gm.

Kilograms (kg)

1.0000 kg.

2.2046 lbs.

35.274 oz.

1,000 gm.

Volume Conversions

DESCRIPTION

GALLON (gal)

LITER (l)

QUART (qt)

FLUID OUNCE (fl. oz.)

Milliliters (ml)

0.0003 gal.

0.001 l.

0.0011 qt.

0.0338 fl. oz.

Liter (l)

0.2642 gal.

1 l.

1.0567 qt.

33.814 fl. oz.

Bushel

9.3092 gal.

35.240 l.

37.237 qt.

1,191.596 fl. oz.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 40 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Beer Kegs & Wine Bottles

Wine Bottle Capacities

KEG SIZE

CAPACITY

1/2 BBL

1,984 fl. oz.

50-LITER

1,690 fl. oz.

30-LITER

1,016 fl. oz.

1/4 BBL

992 fl. oz.

20-LITER

678 fl. oz.

1/6 BBL

661 fl. oz.

SSlim Keg

640 fl. oz

BOTTLE SIZE

BOTTLE NAME

CAPACITY

187ML

Split

6.3403 fl. oz.

375ML

Half Bottle

12.6806 fl. oz.

750ML

Bottle

25.3613 fl. oz.

1.0 L

Liter

33.8150 fl. oz.

1.5 L

Magnum

50.7225 fl. oz.

1.75 L

59.1763 fl. oz.

3.0 L

Jerobaum

101.4450 fl. oz.

6.0 L

Methuselah

202.8900 fl. oz

9.0 L

Salmanazar

304.3350 fl. oz.

12.0 L

Balthazar

405.7800 fl. oz.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 41 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Ounces to Grams Conversions OUNCES

POUNDS

GRAMS

OUNCES

POUNDS

GRAMS

.1

0.007

2.834

4

0.250

113.398

16

1.000

453.592

.2

0.013

5.669

5

0.313

141.748

17

1.063

481.942

.3

0.019

8.504

6

0.375

170.097

18

1.125

510.291

.4

0.025

11.339

7

0.438

198.447

19

1.188

538.641

.5

0.032

14.174

8

0.500

226.796

20

1.250

566.990

.6

0.038

17.009

9

0.563

255.146

21

1.313

595.340

.7

0.044

19.844

10

0.625

283.495

22

1.375

623.690

.8

0.050

22.679

11

0.688

311.845

23

1.438

652.039

.9

0.057

25.514

12

0.750

340.194

24

1.500

680.389

1

0.063

28.340

13

0.813

368.544

25

1.563

708.738

2

0.125

56.699

14

0.875

396.893

26

1.625

737.088

3

0.188

85.049

15

0.938

425.243

27

1.688

765.437

OUNCES

POUNDS

GRAMS

OUNCES

POUNDS

GRAMS

OUNCES

POUNDS

GRAMS

28

1.750

793.787

40

2.500

1,133.98

52

3.250

1,474.18

29

1.813

822.136

41

2.563

1,162.33

53

3.313

1,502.52

30

1.875

850.486

42

2.625

1,190.68

54

3.375

1,530.87

31

1.938

878.835

43

2.688

1,219.03

55

3.438

1,559.22

32

2.000

907.185

44

2.750

1,247.38

56

3.500

1,587.57

33

2.063

935.534

45

2.813

1,75.73

57

3.563

1,615.92

34

2.125

963.884

46

2.875

1,304.08

58

3.625

1,644.27

35

2.188

992.233

47

2.938

1,332.43

59

3.688

1,672.62

36

2.250

1,020.58

48

3.000

1,360.78

60

3.750

1,700.97

37

2.313

1,048.93

49

3.063

1,389.13

61

3.813

1,729.32

38

2.375

1,077.28

50

3.125

1,417.48

62

3.875

1,757.67

39

2.438

1,105.63

51

3.188

1,445.83

63

3.938

1,786.02

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 42 ]

OUNCES POUNDS

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019

GRAMS


Grams to Ounces Conversions GRAMS

OUNCES POUNDS

GRAMS OUNCES POUNDS

GRAMS OUNCES POUNDS

1

0.035

0.002

75

2.65

0.17

650

22.93

1.43

2

0.071

0.004

100

3.53

0.22

700

24.69

1.54

3

0.106

0.007

150

5.29

0.33

750

26.46

1,65

4

0.141

0.009

200

7.05

0.44

800

28.22

1.76

5

0.176

0.011

250

8.82

0.55

850

29.98

1.87

6

0.212

0.013

300

10.58

0.66

900

31.75

1.98

7

0.247

0.015

350

12.35

0.77

950

33.51

2.09

8

0.282

0.018

400

14.11

0.88

1,000

35.27

2.20

9

0.317

0.020

450

15.87

0.99

1,050

37.04

2.31

10

0.353

0.022

500

17.64

1.10

1,100

38.80

2.43

25

0.882

0.055

550

19.40

1.21

1,150

40.57

2.54

50

1.76

0.11

600

21.16

1.32

1,200

42.33

2.65

GRAMS

OUNCES POUNDS

GRAMS OUNCES POUNDS

GRAMS OUNCES POUNDS

1,250

44.09

2.76

1,850

65.26

4.08

2,450

86.42

5.40

1,300

45.86

2.87

1,900

67.02

4.19

2,500

88.19

5.51

1,350

47.62

2.98

1,950

68.78

4.30

2,550

89.95

5.62

1,400

49.38

3.09

2,000

70.55

4.41

2,600

91.71

5.73

1,450

51.15

3.20

2,050

72.31

4.52

2,650

93.48

5.84

1,500

52.91

3.31

2,100

74.08

4.63

2,700

95.24

5.95

1,550

54.67

3.42

2,150

75.84

4.74

2,750

97.00

6.06

1,600

56.44

3.53

2,200

77.60

4.85

2,800

98.77

6.17

1,650

58.20

3.64

2,250

79.37

4.96

2,850

100.53

6.28

1,700

59.97

3.75

2,300

81.13

5.07

2,900

102.29

6.39

1,750

61.73

3.86

2,350

82.89

5.18

2,950

104.06

6.50

1,800

63.49

3.97

2,400

84.66

5.29

3,000

105.82

6.61

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 43 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Beans

INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Bush’s

#10

108.0

112.5%

Beans, Garbanzo

ComSource

#10

110.0

114.6%

Beans, Garbanzo

GFS

#10

110.0

114.6%

Beans, Garbanzo

Monarch

#10

11.0

114.6%

Beans, Great Northern

Monarch

#10

123.5

128.6%

Beans, Green

Monarch

#10

101.0

105.2%

Beans, Green Blue Lake

Allens

#10

106.0

110.4%

Beans, Green Blue Lake

Monarch

#10

108.0

112.5%

Beans, Green Short Cut

Harvest Value

#10

101.0

105.2%

Beans, Kidney

Chef’s Quality

#10

108.0

112.5%

Beans, Kidney Dark Red

El Pasado

#10

110.9

115.6%

Beans, Kidney Dark Red

GFS

#10

110.0

114.6%

Beans, Kidney Light Red

Monarch

#10

110.0

114.6%

Furmano’s

#10

108.0

112.5%

Monarch

#10

110.9

115.6%

Sysco

#10

116.0

120.8%

Beans, Pinto Baked

Ranch Style

#10

108.0

112.5%

Beans, Pinto Fancy

Bush’s Best

#10

111.0

115.6%

Beans, Pinto Fancy

El Pasado

#10

110.4

115.0%

Beans, Pinto Fancy

GFS

#10

108.0

112.5%

Beans, Pork & Beans

GFS

#10

78.0

81.3%

Beans, Pork & Deluxe

Monarch

#10

110.0

114.0%

Beans, Red Cream Style

Blue Runner

#10

128.0

133.3%

Beans, Refried

Casa Fiesta

#10

116.2

121.1%

Beans, Black Low Sodium

Beans, Kidney White Beans, Lima Green Beans, New England Style

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 44 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Beans

INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YILED (OZ.)

DENSITY

Beans, Refried

El Pasado

#10

115.0

119.8%

Beans, Refried

Rosarita

#10

112.0

116.7%

Beans, Refried Vegetarian

Rosarita

#10

112.0

116.7%

Ranch Style

#10

108.0

112.5%

Monarch

#10

120.0

125.0%

Bush’s Best

#10

108.0

112.5%

Beans, Texas Beans, Wax

Beans, White Hominy

Can Yields—Dessert Fillings INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YILED (OZ.)

DENSITY

Apple

GFS

#10

124.8

130.0%

Apple

Globe

#10

120.0

125.0%

Apple Deluxe

Globe

#10

120.0

125.0%

Hilltop Earth

#10

112.0

116.7%

Bavarian Cream

Globe

#10

122.67

127.8%

Blackberry

Globe

#10

120.0

125.0%

Blueberry

GFS

#10

128.8

134.2%

Blueberry

Globe

#10

122.7

127.8%

Hilltop Hearth

#10

112.0

116.7%

Cherry

GFS

#10

128.8

134.2%

Cherry

Globe

#10

120.0

125.0%

Harvest Value

#10

116.0

120.8%

Globe

#10

128.0

133.3%

GFS

#10

130.9

136.4%

French Lemon Cream

Globe

#10

128.0

133.3%

Lemon

Globe

#10

128.0

133.3%

Hilltop Hearth

#10

112.0

116.7%

Apple

Blueberry RTU

Cherry Pie RTU Chocolate Cream French Lemon

Peach Pie RTU

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 45 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Dessert Fillings

INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Peaches, Sliced

GFS

#10

128.8

134.2%

Peaches, Sliced

Globe

#10

120.0

125.0%

Pumpkin Filling

Lakeside Foods

#10

106.0

110.4%

GFS

#10

128.8

134.2%

Globe

#10

120.0

125.0%

Butterscotch

GFS

#5

66.0

137.5%

Caramel

GFS

#5

66.0

137.5%

Lyons

#10

138.0

143.8%

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Butterscotch

GFS

#5

66.0

137.5%

Caramel

GFS

#5

66.0

137.5%

Caramel Fudge

Lyons

#10

138.0

143.8%

Caramel Fudge

Monarch

#5

63.0

131.3%

J. Hungerford Smith

#5

62.0

129.2%

Lyons

#10

110.4

115.0%

J. Hungerford Smith

#10

125.33

130.6%

Monarch

#10

125.3

130.6%

Chocolate Liquid

Hershey’s

#10

128.0

133.3%

Chocolate, Liquid

Monarch

#10

130.7

136.1%

Mallow Cream

GFS

#5

63.0

131.3%

Marshmellow

J Hungerford Smith

#5

36.0

75.0%

Kitchen Essentials

#10

124.0

129.2%

Pineapple

GFS

#5

58.0

120.8%

Pineapple

Globe

#10

120.0

125.0%

Pineapple

Monarch

#5

46.0

95.8%

Strawberry

GFS

#5

57.0

118.8%

Velvet Cream Hot Fudge

GFS

#10

126.0

131.3%

Raspberry Red Raspberry

Caramel Fudge

Can Yields—Dessert Toppings INGREDIENT

Caramel RTU Chocolate Cone Dip Coating Chocolate Fudge Chocolate Hot Fudge

Milk Chocolate Fudge

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 46 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Dessert Toppings

INGREDIENT Wild Cherry

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

GFS

#5

57.0

118.8%

Can Yields—Dry Goods INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Applesauce

Monarch

#10

117.3

122.2%

Applesauce, Sweetened

Monarch

#10

108.0

112.5%

Applesauce, Unsweetened

Monarch

#10

108.0

112.5%

Rykoff-Sexton

3 kg.

105.6

110.0%

Sysco

#10

88.0

91.7%

GFS

#10

106.0

110.4%

Pacific Trade

10#

102.0

106.3%

College Inn

#5

48.0

100.0%

Corn Cream Style

GFS

#10

106.0

110.4%

Cream of Chicken

Campbell’s

#5

50.0

104.2%

Evaporated Milk

Nestle

#10

97.0

101.0%

Greens, Mustard

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

101.0

105.2%

Ketchup

Hunts

#10

114.0

118.8%

Ketchup, Tomato

Heinz

#10

114.0

118.8%

Ketchup, Tomato Fancy 33%

Monarch

#10

115.0

119.8%

Mustard Dijon Extra Strong

Sysco

3 kg.

144.0

150.0%

GFS

#10

55.0

57.3%

Roseli

#10

105.0

109.3%

Olives, Ripe Sliced

Harvest Value

#10

106.7

111.1%

Olives, Ripe Sliced

Monarch

#10

105.0

109.3%

Olives, Ripe Sliced

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

106.7

111.1%

Orange Marmalade

Monarch

#10

131.0

136.5%

Artichoke Hearts Artichoke Hearts Quartered Beets Diced Chestnuts, Water Sliced Chicken Broth

Olives, Black Sliced Olives, Ripe Pitted Medium

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 47 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yieldsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Dry Goods

INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Monarch

#10

109.3

113.9%

Paste, Tomato 26% Light

Roseli

#10

111.0

115.6%

Peppers, Jalapeno Sliced

Faro

#10

96.0

100.0%

Peppers, Jalapeno Sliced

Harvest Value

#10

101.3

105.6%

Peppers, Jalapeno Sliced

Rosarita

#10

102.7

106.9%

Peppers, Jalapeno Whole

El Pasado

#10

102.0

106.3%

Peppers, Jalapeno Whole

Rio Luna

#10

102.0

106.3%

Potatoes, Whole White

Monarch

#10

102.0

106.3%

Peppers, Jalapeno Sliced

Rosarita

#10

102.7

106.9%

Peppers, Jalapeno Whole

El Pasado

#10

102.0

106.3%

Peppers, Jalapeno Whole

Rio Luna

#10

102.0

106.3%

Potatoes, Whole White

Monarch

#10

102.0

106.3%

Sysco

#10

112.0

116.7%

GFS

#10

108.0

112.5%

Pudding, Chocolate

UniPro

#10

112.0

116.7%

Pudding, Lemon

UniPro

#10

112.0

116.7%

Pudding, Tapioca

GFS

#10

108.0

112.5%

Angela Mia

#10

104.0

108.3%

Sauerkraut, Shredded

GFS

#10

99.0

103.1%

Sauerkraut, Shredded

Monarch

#10

116.0

120.8

Tomatillo, Green Whole Mild

El Pasado

#10

124.8

130.0%

Hunts

#10

111.0

115.6%

Monarch

#10

106.0

110.4%

Paste, Tomato

Prunes Prunes Pitted

Salsa, Marinara

Tomato Paste

Tomato Paste Fancy

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 48 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Fruit INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Monarch

#10

108.0

112.5%

Apples, Sliced

GFS

#10

104.0

108.3%

Apples, Sliced

Monarch

#10

104.0

108.3%

Apples, Sliced In Water

Harvest Value

#10

104.0

108.3%

Apples, Whole, Cored Baked

Mussleman’s

#10

112.0

116.7%

Apricots, Half Unpeeled

Carbotrol

#10

125.3

130.6%

Apricot, Half Unpeeled

Seneca

#10

105.0

109.3%

Monarch

#10

104.0

108.3%

Food Innovations

#10

105.6

110.0%

Lucky Leaf

#10

103.0

107.3%

Roland

#10

117.3

122.2%

Fruit Cocktail

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

122.7

127.8%

Fix Mix Diced

Monarch

#10

109.3

113.9%

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

109.3

113.9%

GFS

#10

104.0

108.3%

Orange Manderine Segments

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

105.6

110.0%

Orange Manderine Whole

Harvest Value

#10

114.7

119.4%

Orange Manderine Whole

Pacific Jade

#10

106.9

111.4%

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

105.0

109.4%

Monarch

#10

105.0

109.4%

Peaches, Sliced Yellow

GFS

#10

105.0

109.4%

Pears Diced Bartlett

GFS

#10

105.0

109.4%

Pineapple, Chunks

GFS

#10

107.0

111.5%

Apples, Red Ring Spiced

Cherry, Dark Sweet Cherry, Amarena in Syrup Cherry, Red Tart Pitted

Fig, In Light Syrup Kodata

Fruit Salad in Light Syrup Orange Manderine

Peaches, Diced in Pear Peaches, Sliced

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 49 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Fruit

INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

GFS

#10

107.0

111.5%

Pineapple, Sliced

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

100.0

104.2%

Pineapple, Tidbit

Harvest Value

#10

106.7

111.1%

Pineapple, Tidbit

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

106.0

110.4%

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

GFS

#10

107.0

111.5%

Pineapple, Sliced

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

100.0

104.2%

Pineapple, Tidbit

Harvest Value

#10

106.7

111.1%

Pineapple, Tidbit

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Cheese

Gehl’s

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Cheese

Nathan’s

#10

120.0

125.0%

Gehl’s

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Cheese Cheddar

Award Cuisine

#10

106.00

110.4%

Sauce, Cheese Cheddar

Harvest Style

#10

112.0

116.7%

Sauce, Cheese Cheddar

Monarch

#10

112.0

116.7%

Sauce, Cheese Cheddar Aged

Pasado

#10

107.0

111.5%

Sauce, Cheese Cheddar Lite

Gehl’s

#10

96.00

100.0%

Sauce, Cheese Jalapeno

Gehl’s

#10

106.1

110.6%S

Sauce, Cheese Jalapeno Lite

Gehl’s

#10

106.1

110.6%

Sauce, Cheese Mild Original

Gehl’s

#10

106.0

110.4%

Rosarita

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Cheese Nacho Grt. Plains

Gehl’s

#10

106.1

110.6%

Sauce, Cheese Prem. Jalapeno

Gehl’s

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Cheese Prem. Sharp

Gehl’s

#10

106.0

110.4%

Pineapple, Crushed

Can Yields—Sauces INGREDIENT Pineapple, Crushed

Sauce, Cheddar Aged Original

Sauce, Cheese Nacho

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 50 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Sauces INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Sauce, Cheese Supr. Cheddar

Gehl’s

#10

106.1

110.6%

Sauce, Cheese Supr. Jalapeno

Gehl’s

#10

106.1

110.6%

Sauce Chili

Hunts

#10

115.0

119.8%

Sauce, Chili

Monarch

#10

113.0

117.7%

Sauce, Chili Fancy

Monarch

#10

113.0

117.7%

Sauce, Cocktail w Horseradish

Monarch

#10

115.0

119.8%

Sauce, Cranberry Jellied

Monarch

#10

125.3

130.6%

Sauce, Cranberry Whole

Ocean Spray

#10

117.0

121.9%

Sauce, Marinara

Angela Mia

#10

104.0

108.3%

Sauce, Marinara

Del Fratello

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Marinara

Monarch

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Marinara

Primo Gusto

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Marinara

Roseili

#10

116.0

120.8%

Sauce, Marinara No Salt

Angela Mia

#10

104.0

108.3%

Sauce, Pasta Bella Romano

Angela Mia

#10

105.0

109.4%

Sauce, Pizza

Aramark

#10

105.0

109.4%

Sauce, Pizza

Pizzaiola

#10

104.0

108.3%

Sauce, Pizza Extra Heavy

Angela Mia

#10

107.0

111.5%

Sauce, Pizza Fully Prepared

Angela Mia

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Pizza Prepared Season

Angela Mia

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Pizza Tomato

Monarch

#10

110.4

115.0%

Sauce, Pizza Tomato

Roseli

#10

110.4

115.0%

Sauce, Pizza with Basil

Monarch

#10

105.0

109.4%

Sauce, Pizza with Basil

Roseli

#10

117.3

122.2%

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 51 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Sauces INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Rio Luna

#10

104.7

109.0%

Sauce, Spaghetti

Angela Mia

#10

104.0

108.3%

Sauce, Spaghetti No Salt

Angela Mia

#10

104.0

108.3%

Sauce, Spaghetti Plain

Chef Boyardee

#10

108.0

112.5%

Sauce, Spaghetti Tomato

Monarch

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Tomato

Hunts

#10

105.0

109.4%

Sauce, Tomato

Monarch

#10

106.0

110.4%

Sauce, Tomato

Roseli

#10

109.3

113.9%

Monarch

#10

106.0

110.4%

Healthy Choice

#10

106.0

110.4%

Hunts

#10

105.0

109.4%

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Sea Alaska

#5

64.0

133.3%

Sysco

#5

51.0

106.3%

Chicken of the Sea

#5

48.0

100.0%

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Tomatoes, Chopped in Puree

Angela Mia

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Chopped Salsa RTU

Bienvenido

#10

97.0

101.1%

Tomatoes, Crushed Chunky

Angela Mia

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Crushed Concentrated

Monarch

#10

106.0

110.4%

Tomatoes, Crushed Extra Heavy Puree

Bellorto

#10

105.0

109.4%

Sauce, Red Enchilada

Sauce, Tomato Fancy Sauce, Tomato Herb & Garlic

Sauce, Tomato No Salt

Can Yields—Seafood INGREDIENT Salmon, Pink Sea Clams Chopped Tuna Chunk Light

Can Yields—Tomatoes INGREDIENT

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 52 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yields—Tomatoes INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Tomatoes, Crushed Fancy

Monarch

#10

105.0

109.4%

Tomatoes Crushed No Salt

Angela Mia

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Crushed Unpeeled in Puree

Angela Mia

#10

102.0

106.3%

GFS

#10

102.0

106.#5

Tomatoes, Diced 1” in Juice Peeled

Monarch

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Diced 1” in Juice Peeled

Roseli

#10

117.3

122.2%

Tomatoes, Diced 3/4”, Fire Roasted

El Pasado

#10

109.3

113.9%

Tomatoes, Diced In Juice

Angela Mia

#10

102.5

106.8%

Tomatoes, Diced In Juice No Salt

Angela Mia

#10

102.5

106.8%

Tomatoes, Diced in Juice Peeled

Angela Mia

#10

102.5

106.8%

Tomatoes, Diced in Juice Peeled

Roseli

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Diced In Puree

Angela Mia

#10

103.0

107.3%

Tomatoes, Diced Petite

Angela Mia

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes. Fire Roasted

Angela Mia

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Fire Roasted

Supreme Italiano

#10

102.3

106.5%

Christina’s

#10

107.0

111.4%

Valroso

#10

104.0

108.3%

Tomatoes, Plum Ground Unpeeled

Roseli

#10

106.0

110.4%

Tomatoes, Plum Whole with Basil

Alta Cucina

#10

103.0

107.3%

Tomatoes, Plum Whole with Basil

Roseli

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Pureed Heavy

Monarch

#10

106.0

110.4%

Tomatoes, Sliced Stewed Peeled

Monarch

#10

102.1

106.4%

Angela Mia

#10

103.0

107.3%

Tomatoes Diced

Tomatoes, Ground in Puree Organic Tomatoes, Pear Whole with Basil

Tomatoes, Stewed

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 53 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Can Yieldsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Tomatoes INGREDIENT

BRAND

CAN SIZE

YIELD (OZ.)

DENSITY

Tomatoes, Strip in Puree Peeled

Monarch

#10

97.3

101.4%

Tomatoes, Strip in Puree Peeled

Roseli

#10

97.0

101.1%

Tomatoes, Whole in Juice Peeled

San Benito

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Whole Peeled

Angela Mia

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Whole Peeled

Harvest Value

#10

102.0

106.3%

Tomatoes, Whole Plum Peeled

Alta Cucina

#10

103.0

107.3%

Tomatoes, Whole Plum Peeled

Roseli

#10

102.0

106.3%

Rykoff-Sexton

#10

105.8

110.2%

Tomatoes, Whole with Basil

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 54 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Process Yields—Dairy INGREDIENT

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Clarified

80.0%

20.0%

30.0 lbs.

24.0 lbs.

Diced

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

1.6 oz.

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Chipotle in Adobo

Pureed

N/A

N/A

11.0 oz.

13.8 fl. oz.

Hearts of Palm

Drained

75.0%

25.0%

28.0 oz.

21.0 oz.

Pickles, Dill, Spear

Chopped

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

1.3 oz.

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Bacon, Pork, Slab

Sliced

60.0%

40.0%

15.0 lbs.

9.0 lbs.

Beef, Corned Brisket

Sliced

90.0%

10.0%

8.0 lbs.

7.2 lbs.

Ham, Black Forest

Sliced

90.0%

10.0%

10.0 lbs.

9.0 lbs.

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Yielded

600.0%

N/A

5.0 gal.

30.0 gal.

Butter Solids Unsalted Eggs, Hard Cooked

Process Yields—Dry Goods INGREDIENT

Process Yields—Meat INGREDIENT

Process Yields—N/A Beverage INGREDIENT BIB Fountain Drinks

All starting weights are dry.

Process Yields—Pasta INGREDIENT

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Capellini

Cooked

226.0%

N/A

5.0 lbs.

11.3 lbs.

Cavatappi

Cooked

200.0%

N/A

5.0 lbs.

10.0 lbs.

Fettucine

Cooked

200.0%

N/A

5.0 lbs.

10.0 lbs.

Linguini

Cooked

220.0%

N/A

5.0 lbs.

11.0 lbs.

Penne Rigate

Cooked

220.0%

N/A

5.0 lbs.

11.0 lbs.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 56 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Process Yields—Poultry INGREDIENT Turkey Breast Whole

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Sliced

90.0%

10.0%

8.0 lbs.

7.2 lbs.

Process Yields—Produce INGREDIENT

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Sliced

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

5.5 oz.

Blanched

75.0%

25.0%

16.0 oz.

12.0 oz.

Bananas, Yellow

Peeled

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

4.5 oz.

Basil, Fresh

Picked

68.8%

31.2%

16.0 oz.

11.0 oz

Carrots, Jumbo

Diced

93.8%

6.2%

16.0 oz.

15.0 oz.

Carrots, Jumbo

Half Moon Cut

95.0%

5.0%

16.0 oz.

15.0 oz.

Carrots, Jumbo

Julienned

90.0%

10.0%

16.0 oz.

14.4 oz.

Celery, Stalks

Diced

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

22.0 oz.

Cilantro, Fresh

Picked

N/A

N/A

1.0 bunch

11.0 oz.

Shucked

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

3.0 oz.

Cucumbers Select (ct.)

Diced

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

9.6 oz.

Cucumbers, Select (wt.)

Sliced

91.7%

8.3%

6.0 lbs.

5.5 lbs.

Dill, Fresh

Picked

50.0%

50.0%

16.0 oz.

8.0 oz.

Julienned

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

7.0 oz.

Picked

85.0%

15.0%

4.0 lbs.

3.4 lbs.

Leeks, California

Julienned

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

9.6 oz.

Lettuce, Frisee

Chopped

N/A

N/A

1.0 head

11.0 oz.

Lettuce, Iceberg

Chopped

N/A

N/A

1.0 head

28.0 oz.

Lettuce, Radicchio

Chopped

N/A

N/A

1.0 head

4.0 oz.

Lettuce, Romaine

Chopped

N/A

N/A

1.0 head

13.0 oz.

Lettuce, Romaine Hearts

Chopped

N/A

N/A

1.0 eacj

5.0 oz.

Mint, Fresh

Picked

40.0%

60.0%

16.0 oz.

6.4 oz.

Mushrooms, Portabella

Sliced

75.0%

25.0%

16.0 oz

12.0 oz.

Chopped

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

4.0 oz.

Apples, Granny Smith Asparagus, Standard

Corn, Yellow, Ear

Fennel, Fresh Grapes, Red, Seedless

Onions, Green

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 57 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Process Yieldsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Produce INGREDIENT

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Onions, Red

Sliced

80.0%

20.0%

16.0 oz.

12.8 oz.

Onions, Spanish

Diced

78.8%

21.2%

16.0 oz.

12.6 oz.

Onions, Yellow

Peeled, Chopped

95.0%

5.0%

16.0 oz.

15.2 oz.

Onions, Yellow

Caramelized

43.8%

56.2%

16.0 oz.

7.0 oz.

Parsley, Italian

Chopped

N/A

N/A

5 bunches

10.0 oz

Pears, Buerre Bosc

Diced

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

5.5 oz.

Peppers, Green Bell

Chopped

95.0%

5.0%

16.0 oz.

15.2 oz.

Peppers, Jalapeno

Chopped

95.0%

5.0%

16.0 oz.

15.2 oz.

Peppers, Red (wt.)

Diced

95.0%

5.0%

16.0 oz.

15.2 oz.

Peppers, Red (ct.)

Diced

N/A

N/A

1.0 each

4.0 oz.

Potatoes, Idaho

Peeled

80.0%

20.0%

16.0 oz.

12.8 oz.

Radishes

Sliced

80.0%

20.0%

16.0 oz.

12.8 oz.

Rosemary, Fresh

Picked

75.0%

25.0%

16.0 oz.

12.0 oz.

Spinach, Baby

Cleaned, processed

90.0%

10.0%

2.0 lbs.

1.8 lbs.

Squash, Yellow

Half Moon Cut

95.0%

5.0%

16.0 oz.

15.2 oz.

Trimmed

87.5%

12.5%

16.0 oz.

14.0 oz.

Tarragon, Fresh

Picked

80.0%

20.0%

16.0 oz.

12.8 oz.

Thyme, Fresh

Picked

65.0%

35.0%

16.0 oz.

10.4 oz.

Tomatoes, 4x5

Diced

90.0%

10.0%

16.0 oz.

14.4 oz.

Tomatoes, 4x5

Sliced

83.3%

16.7%

12.0 lbs.

10.0 lbs.

Tomatoes, 4x5

Oven Dried

81.3%

18.7%

16.0 oz.

13.0 oz.

Strawberries

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 58 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Process Yields—Produce INGREDIENT

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Tomatoes, Cherry

Halved

N/A

N/A

1.0 pint

11.0 oz.

Tomatoes, Grape

Halved

N/A

N/A

1.0 pint

11.0 oz.

Tomatoes, Roma

Diced

80.0%

20.0%

16.0 oz.

12.8 oz.

Process Yields—Seafood

All fish are skin off before processing unless otherwise

INGREDIENT

PROCESS

YIELD %

LOSS %

STARTING

ENDING

Atlantic Salmon

See notes

90.0%

10.0%

16.0 oz.

14.4 oz.

Chilean Sea Bass

See notes

90.0%

10.0%

16.0 oz.

14.4 oz.

Grouper

See notes

90.0%

10.0%

16.0 oz.

14.4 oz.

Halibut

See notes

95.0%

5.0%

16.0 oz.

15.2 oz.

Mahi Mahi

See notes

90.0%

10.0%

16.0 oz.

14.4 oz.

New England Cod

See notes

86.9%

13.1%

16.0 oz.

13.9%

Redfish

See notes

90.0%

10.0%

16.0%

14.4 oz.

Shrimp P&D Tail On 16-20

Thawing

96.9%

3.1%

16.0 oz.

15.5 oz.

Shrimp P&D Tail On 31-40

Thawing

86.4%

13.6%

16.0 oz.

14.3 oz.

Snapper

See notes

90.0%

10.0%

16.0 oz.

14.4 oz.

Thawed, Drained

78.8%

21.2%

16.0 oz.

12.6 oz.

Striped Bass

See notes

90.0%

10.0%

16.0 oz.

14.4 oz.

Swordfish

See notes

85.0%

15.0%

16.0 oz.

13.6 oz.

Walleye, Skin On

See notes

60.0%

40.0%

16.0 oz.

9.6 oz.

Yellow Fin Tuna

See notes

76.9%

23.1%

16.0 oz.

12.3 oz.

Squid Rings & Tent IQF

SEAFOOD YIELD NOTES: The processing of fresh fish includes skin removal, deboning, deveining and trimming loss to get the appropriate portion size.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 59 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Prime Cost Snapshot: Bloomin Brands, Inc. (NASDAQ: BLMN) www.bloominbrands.com

Prime costs are the two largest costs that a restaurant will incur: cost of sales (food and beverage) and labor. 09/29/2016

3Q FY 2019 Restaurant Sales Cost of Sales Cost of Sales % Labor Labor % Prime Prime %

3,069,145 965,165 31.4% 908,780 29.6% 1,873,945 61.1%

FY 2018

FY 2017

4,060,871 1,295,588 31.9%

4,164,063 1,317,110 31.6%

1,197,297 29.5%

1,219,593 29.3%

2,492,885 61.4%

2,536,703 60.9%

Source: Form 10-K and 10-Q reports.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 60 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019

FY 2016 4,221,920 1,354,853 32.1% 1,211,250 28.7% 2,566,103 60.8%


The new industry standard for food, beverage, and labor cost control!

Subscribe today!

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FBLmag.com/subscribe/ Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 61 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Food Pan Capacities

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

PAN SIZE

DEPTH

CAPACITY

Full

1.25”

128.0 fl. oz.

Full

2.50”

265.6 fl. oz.

Full

4.00”

448.0 fl. oz.

Full

6.00”

672.0 fl. oz.

PAN SIZE

DEPTH

CAPACITY

Two-Thirds

1.25”

96.0 fl. oz.

Two-Thirds

2.50”

179.2 fl. oz.

Two-Thirds

4.00”

297.6 fl. oz.

Two-Thirds

6.00”

448.0 fl. oz.

PAN SIZE

DEPTH

CAPACITY

Half

1.25”

67.2 fl. oz.

Half

2.50”

137.6 fl. oz.

Half

4.00”

214.4 fl. oz.

Half

6.00”

320.0 fl. oz.

PAN SIZE

DEPTH

CAPACITY

One-Third

1.25”

41.6 fl. oz.

One-Third

2.50”

83.2 fl. oz.

One-Third

4.00”

131.2 fl. oz.

One-Third

6.00”

195.2 fl. oz.

PAN SIZE

DEPTH

CAPACITY

One-Fourth

2.50”

57.6 fl. oz.

One-Fourth

4.00”

96.0 fl. oz.

One-Fourth

6.00”

144.0 fl. oz.

PAN SIZE

DEPTH

CAPACITY

One-Sixth

2.50”

38.4 fl. oz.

One-Sixth

4.00”

57.6 fl. oz.

One-Sixth

6.00”

86.4 fl. oz.

PAN SIZE

DEPTH

CAPACITY

One-Ninth

2.50”

19.2 fl. oz.

One-Ninth

4.00”

35.5 fl. oz.

[ 62 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Disher & Scoop Capacities Stainless Steel Squeeze Dishers

Squeeze Dishers

SIZE

CAPACITY

#8

4.00 oz.

#10

3.75 oz.

#12

3.25 oz.

#16

2.75 oz.

#20

2.50 oz.

#24

1.75 oz.

#30

1.25 oz.

#40

0.875 oz.

#50

0.625 oz.

#60

0.563 oz.

#70

0.485 oz.

#100

0.375 oz.

Oval Squeeze Dishers

SIZE

CAPACITY

# of Cups

# of Tbl

#4

8.00 fl. oz.

1.00

16.00

#6

5.33 fl. oz.

0.67

10.67

#8

4.00 fl. oz.

0.50

8.00

#10

3.20 fl. oz.

0.40

6.40

#12

2.67 fl. oz

0.33

5.33

#16

2.00 fl. oz.

0.25

4.00

#20

1.60 fl. oz.

0.20

3.20

#24

1.33 fl. oz.

0.17

2.67

#30

1.07 fl. oz.

0.13

2.13

#40

0.80 fl. oz.

0.10

1.60

#50

0.64 fl. oz.

0.08

1.28

#60

0.533 fl. oz

0.07

1.07

#70

0.457 fl. oz

0.06

0.91

#100

0.320 fl. oz.

0.04

0.64

Ice Cream Scoops

SIZE

CAPACITY

SIZE

CAPACITY

#14

2.313 fl. oz.

10

4.00 fl. oz.

#20

1.625 fl. oz.

12

3.00 fl. oz.

#24

1.313 fl. oz.

16

2.50 fl. oz.

#30

0.938 fl. oz.

20

2.00 fl. oz.

#40

0.75 fl. oz.

24

1.50 fl. oz.

30

1.00 fl. oz.

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 63 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Establishing Accurate Labor Standards By Mark Kelnhofer, CFBE, MBA As part of improving our recipe documentation, we should establish prep times on our recipes. It becomes our means to cost out the direct labor and overhead associated with producing the recipe. It also creates a standard on how efficient we are on labor and develops a performance benchmark. The prep time that is placed on the recipes should only include “hands on” the process and not include cook time. Make sure that the prep portion is truly labor and not time involved in cooking (i.e. placing a product in the over for an hour). Do not guess at setting the time standard. Utilize digital stopwatches that have multiple task availability (see Time Stack below). The time standard needs to be conducted in the live environment with the personnel that are actually going to be executing the recipe. It should not be conducted at a research and development kitchen with the corporate chef. The skill sets between the line personnel and corporate chef are going to vary. Applying Labor Time Conversions To calculate labor costs on a recipe, time standards need to be developed. Since in most cases we develop labor rates by the hours, this pocket resource can assist in the converting any time to fraction hours so that costs can be determined. As an example, let’s say that for a recipe we have determined that time standard to produce the recipe is 9 minutes and 50 seconds. To determine the fraction hours, you can refer to this section to HOURS MINUTES SECONDS get the information: In this case, the total amount of time is 0.1500 9:00 0.1639 hours. To obtain a labor cost, you would take the time standard and multiple it by our standard labor rate (0.1639 * 0.0139 0:50 $20.50 per hour (wage and benefits) for a total cost of $3.36). TOTAL

0.1639

New product review—Time Stack by ThermoWorks During the NRA Show this year in Chicago this year I came across a new product by ThermoWorks called the Time Stack. It has the ability to count up or down on four simultaneous tasks. For establishing labor time standards this is a critical tool since in many cases, multiple recipes are being worked on at once. Remember to only include the amount of time that their hands are on the recipe. The Time Stack gives you the ability to track the time separately and accurately. I would highly recommend this product if you need to establish prep times on your recipes. Available in nine different colors, backlight, and splash proof housing.

https://www.thermoworks.com/TimeStack Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 64 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Labor Time Conversions HOURS

MINUTES

HOURS

MINUTES

HOURS

MINUTES

HOURS

MINUTES

HOURS

MINUTES

1.00

60.0

0.800

48.0

0.600

36.0

0.400

24.0

0.200

12.0

0.983

59.0

0.783

47.0

0.583

35.0

0.383

23.0

0.183

11.0

0.967

58.0

0.767

46.0

0.567

34.0

0.367

22.0

0.167

10.0

0.950

57.0

0.750

45.0

0.550

33.0

0.350

21.0

0.150

9.0

0.933

56.0

0.733

44.0

0.533

32.0

0.333

20.0

0.133

8.0

0.917

55.0

0.717

43.0

0.517

31.0

0.317

19.0

0.117

7.0

0.900

54.0

0.700

42.0

0.500

30.0

0.300

18.0

0.100

6.0

0.883

53.0

0.683

41.0

0.483

29.0

0.283

17.0

0.083

5.0

0.867

52.0

0.667

40.0

0.467

28.0

0.267

16.0

0.067

4.0

0.850

51.0

0.650

39.0

0.450

27.0

0.250

15.0

0.050

3.0

0.833

50.0

0.633

38.0

0.433

26.0

0.233

14.0

0.033

2.0

0.817

49.0

0.617

37.0

0.417

25.0

0.217

13.0

0.017

1.0

HOURS

SECONDS

HOURS

SECONDS

HOURS

SECONDS

HOURS

SECONDS

HOURS

SECONDS

0.0164

59.0

0.0131

47.0

0.0097

35.0

0.0064

23.0

0.0031

11.0

0.0161

58.0

0.0128

46.0

0.0094

34.0

0.0061

22.0

0.0028

10.0

0.0158

57.0

0.0125

45.0

0.0092

33.0

0.0058

21.0

0.0025

9.0

0.0156

56.0

0.0122

44.0

0.0089

32.0

0.0056

20.0

0.0022

8.0

0.0153

55.0

0.0119

43.0

0.0086

31.0

0.0053

19.0

0.0019

7.0

0.0150

54.0

0.0117

42.0

0.0083

30.0

0.0050

18.0

0.0017

6.0

0.0147

53.0

0.0114

41.0

0.0081

29.0

0.0047

17.0

0.0014

5.0

0.0144

52.0

0.0111

40.0

0.0078

28.0

0.0044

16.0

0.0011

4.0

0.0142

51.0

0.0108

39.0

0.0075

27.0

0.0042

15.0

0.0008

3.0

0.0139

50.0

0.0106

38.0

0.0072

26.0

0.0039

14.0

0.0006

2.0

0.0136

49.0

0.0103

37.0

0.0069

25.0

0.0036

13.0

0.0003

1.0

0.0133

48.0

0.0100

36.0

0.0067

24.0

0.0033

12.0

0.0001

0.5

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 65 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Temperature Conversions oF to oC o

F

o

F to oC

o

F

o

F to oC

o

F

o

F to oC

o

F

o

F to oC

o

F

o

F to oC

1

(17.22)

60

15.56

120

48.89

180

82.22

240

115.56

5

(15.00)

65

18.33

125

51.67

185

85.00

245

118.33

10

(12.22)

70

21.11

130

54.44

190

87.78

250

121.11

15

(9.44)

75

23.89

135

57.22

195

90.56

255

123.89

20

(6.67)

80

26.67

140

60.00

200

93.33

260

126.67

25

(3.89)

85

29.44

145

62.78

205

96.11

265

129.44

30

(1.11)

90

32.22

150

65.56

210

98.89

270

132.22

35

1.67

95

35.00

155

68.33

215

101.67

275

135.00

40

4.44

100

37.78

160

71.11

220

104.44

280

137.78

45

7.22

105

40.56

165

73.89

225

107.22

285

140.56

50

10.00

110

43.33

170

76.67

230

110.00

290

143.33

55

12.78

115

46.11

175

79.44

235

112.78

295

146.11

o

F

o

F to oC

o

F

o

F to oC

o

F

o

F to oC

o

F

o

F to oC

300

148.89

360

182.22

420

215.56

480

248.89

305

151.67

365

185.00

425

218.33

485

251.67

310

154.44

370

187.78

430

221.11

490

254.44

315

157.22

375

190.56

435

223.89

495

257.22

320

160.00

380

193.33

440

226.67

500

260.00

325

162.78

385

196.11

445

229.44

330

165.56

390

198.89

450

232.22

335

168.33

395

201.67

455

235.00

340

171.11

400

204.44

460

237.78

345

173.89

405

207.22

465

240.56

350

176.67

410

210.00

470

243.33

355

179.44

415

212.78

475

246.11

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 66 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


Temperature Conversions oC to oF C to oF

o

1

33.80

60

140.00

120

248.00

180

356.00

240

464.00

5

41.00

65

149.00

125

257.00

185

365.00

245

473.00

10

50.00

70

158.00

130

266.00

190

374.00

250

482.00

15

59.00

75

167.00

135

275.00

195

383.00

255

491.00

20

68.00

80

176.00

140

284.00

200

392.00

260

500.00

25

77.00

85

185.00

145

293.00

205

401.00

265

509.00

30

86.00

90

194.00

150

302.00

210

410.00

270

518.00

35

95.00

95

203.00

155

311.00

215

419.00

275

527.00

40

104.00

100

212.00

160

320.00

220

428.00

280

536.00

45

113.00

105

221.00

165

329.00

225

437.00

285

545.00

50

122.00

110

230.00

170

338.00

230

446.00

290

554.00

55

131.00

115

239.00

175

347.00

235

455.00

295

563.00

o

o

C

C

o

o

C to oF

o

C

C

o

o

C to oF

C to oF

o

o

C

C

o

o

C to oF

C to oF

o

o

C

C

o

o

C to oF

C to oF

300

572.00

360

680.00

420

788.00

480

896.00

305

581.00

365

689.00

425

797.00

485

905.00

310

590.00

370

698.00

430

806.00

490

914.00

315

599.00

375

707.00

435

815.00

495

923.00

320

608.00

380

716.00

440

824.00

500

932.00

325

617.00

385

725.00

445

833.00

330

626.00

390

734.00

450

842.00

335

635.00

395

743.00

455

851.00

340

644.00

400

752.00

460

860.00

345

653.00

405

761.00

465

869.00

350

662.00

410

770.00

470

878.00

355

671.00

415

779.00

475

887.00

Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly

[ 67 ]

Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019

o

C

o

C to oF


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Volume 2 | Number 1 | Fall 2019


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[ FB&L ] Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly, Volume 2, No. 1, Fall 2019  

[ FB&L ] Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly, Volume 2, No. 1, Fall 2019

[ FB&L ] Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly, Volume 2, No. 1, Fall 2019  

[ FB&L ] Food, Beverage, & Labor Cost Control Quarterly, Volume 2, No. 1, Fall 2019