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Waterfront Cascais

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Title

Keywords

Waterfront Urban Design (EWWUD)

Waterfront Regeneration, Port Cities, Urban Design, Cascais

Coordinator

Impressão e Acabamento

Pedro Ressano Garcia

SOARTES - ARTES GRÁFICAS, LDA

Organizing committee

Depósito Legal

Bernardo Vaz Pinto Maria João Matos Margarida Valla Nuno Griff

394523/15

Organizers

ISBN

978-989-757-026-1

Students committee

Adonis Quiawacana Elder Cardoso Gonçalo Casqueiro Miguel Martinho Nuno Barros Rui Neto

Todos os direitos reservados Edições Universitárias Lusófonas Campo Grande, 376 – 1749 – 024 Lisboa edições.lusofonas@ulusofona.pt

This publication contains the results of the European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design – EWWUD 2014

Editorial coordination

Pedro Ressano Garcia Editorial Assistants

Nuno Barros Rui Neto Graphic Design

Itemzero Composition and Graphic Arrangement Cover Design

Nunos Barros Rui Neto Publication date

2015 Permalink

ewwud.ulusofona.pt

Sponsor

Partners


Acknowledgments

5

The workshop has much to thank. At the time of publishing the results of EWWUD #4 should start by saying that this book is only possible because of the enthusiasm of all who have supported the event in so many different ways. It all begun with the Municipality of Cascais that provided accommodation and working space to host the extraordinary team of international professors coming to Lisbon and Portuguese teachers that supported passionately with each group. And at last, or first of all, the Universidade Lusófona that turned this project real. The workshop requires the energy of a crowd. It is an outstanding group of people, nearly eighty that work hard. They travel miles to be in Lisbon, have litle sleep and produce extraordinary material that we publish in this book.

Borucka, Kasia Urbanowicz, Lucyna Nyka, Mediha Gultek, Nikos Kalogirou and Renèe Tribble. From Universidade Lusófona professors Bernardo Vaz Pinto, Maria João Matos, Margarida Valla and Nuno Griff contaminated the group with their enthusiasm and challenged their thoughts. The group students of the organization made the event possible, without them it would not have happened, they brought a refreshing and energetic approach thanks to Adonis Quiawacana, Elder Cardoso, Gonçalo Casqueiro, Miguel Martinho, Nuno Barros and Rui Neto.

The final session where the final results were announced was attended by the Mayor, City Councilor for Urbanism, the Advisor to the Mayor and architect Paulo Tinoco Mendes, environmental engineer João Dinis.

Pedro Ressano Garcia

The workshop took place at ‘O Século’ Foundation, to whom we are most thankful.

Coordinator of European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design 2014

The administrator of Universidade Lusófona, Manuel José Damásio carefully handled the project and solved a number of difficulties that the event, being pioneer, necessarily demands. The participation of invited professors raised the level of scientific expertise thanks to the participation of Agnieszka Wojcik, Alkmini Paka, Cornelia Radeker, Dimitra Babalis, Francesco Calzolaio, Françoise Py, Fulya Ozmen, Justyna


Index

7

Introduction

9

Waterfront & Climate Change Pedro Ressano Garcia

Paper

Paper

Paper

11

43

Assoc. Prof. Lucyna Nyka

77

Prof. Dimitra Babalis

Team Project

83

Wine Mile

Team Project

95

Go With The [Flow]

The City Council of Cascais Arch. Paulo Tinoco

Experiencing the Ocean

PhD arch. Justyna Borucka

Paper

MA, PhD candidate Katarzyna Urbanowicz

15

Team Project

Jo達o Dinis

47

Sustainable Integrated Spine

Team Project

Team Project

19

Experiencing the Ocean

59 Rivertalization

Team Project

Paper

31

Nature Shapes

73

Prof. Nikos Kalogirou

Prof. Alkmini Paka

Climate Change and Coastal Challenges in Cascais

Developing Innovative Ways on Waterfront Design

A Sustainable Integrated Spine

Conclusion

107

Waterfront & Climate Change Six Strategies of Urban Resilience

111

Final Boards


Introduction

9

Text

Prof. Pedro Ressano Garcia From

Lus贸fona University of Lisbon

Waterfront & Climate Change

The forth edition of the European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design (EWWUD) is dedicated to region of Cascais. Eleven schools of Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning came to Portugal to work together in March 2014. The initiative brought fifthy participants from various countries in Europe, Africa and the United States: graduate students and teachers exchanged their own views regarding the present challenges of the waterfront facing climate change. During the workshop they had the opportunity to analyse, discuss and formulate hypothesis based on the preservation of environmental quality and development of survival strategies to face global warming.

Waterfront brings together a number of different topics since it relates two different worlds, land and water. From the side of the water there are maritime requirements, the necessary reduction in carbon emission and sensitive ecologic areas. From the side of the land, at the opening session representatives from the municipality of Cascais gave a wide scope of the extraordinary opportunity for the local economy and also pointed out the growing importance of tourism. Waterfront Urban Design merges several constrains, there are opportunities and threats discussed at the beginning of the workshop with the e nvironment engineer Jo茫o Dinis. In his introductory talk, Dinis explained the implications of climate change in the natural enviroment.

At the workshop, professors and students had the opportunity to share their local expertise to the discussion. Imaginative solutions inspired by the creativity natural to the academic environment are useful in opening the process of transformation. They are valuable to raise new questions and address the situation from different perspectives. Since there are different topics related to waterfront urban design, each group holds multidisciplinary participants. The aim of sharing best practices requires an interdisciplinary approach from the fields of architecture, urban planning, geography and urban design and landscape architecture. The subject requires a wide understanding of various fields that affect and influence the process of transformation. It is necessary to combine research from each subject and to make use of interdisciplinary information. The methodology


10

Waterfront & Climate Change

brings together municipality representatives and high profile professionals, authors of master plans and projects of architecture of significant relevance for the region. They were involved in the workshop to share their perception of the theme.

carbon emission.

The ideas and proposals published in this book aim to produce a holistic vision of the present problem. The quality stands on the ability that students and faculty had to bring the knowledge of local situation to find imaginative solutions. Improvement of the waterfront areas depend on creative and innovative solutions to contribute for most desirable sustainable development. The proposals to be presented along this publication merge historic, geographic, economic competitiveness, the environment and local people’s necessities. They are culturally rooted and are guided by a humanistic tone, where human life and its various expressions aim to live in a better way. According to the methodology adopted, the definition of three locations is sorted out after discussing with technical representatives from Cascais Municipality. The research is made prior to the workshop, it intendes to create a body of knowledge that is free from political pressures. The strategy to invite external experts has been of great interest. They shared their knowledge and challenged locals with a new vision. One that inevitably sets a new perspective on the subject by establishing cross references with waterfront design produced elsewhere. Each group organized, selected and edited the information required to identify problems and design solutions. Such information covers a wide range of disciplines to understand the particularities of local culture and the complexity of natural systems. Resilience strategies intend to find the right balance between nature and human presence and create a better built environment within an ecosystem that aims to achieve a zero

Nature – Community – Tourism were the main three topics that interacted and continuosly challenged the equation, where each three played an important role. If each topic is set on one side of the triangle they are influenced by a fragile equilibrium. To reach good results, designers were required to take in consideration the needs from each topic thus keeping the triangle trimmed. How to reach the right balance? The good balance between wild life and human presence was in the center of discussion for all the proposals presented. If the excessive protection of the natural environment leads to its abandon and consequently towards an unsustainable use of the territory it is necessary to find the right strategy. The use of an interdisciplinary methodology was useful to adress the urgent question on how the urban environment can be improved to adapt to climate change. For instance, the beaches along the coast, dream for surfers, hold surf schools that operate around the year. It is an asset for the community while the natural environment is being supported to protect wild life. The wine fields and wineries located between the neighborhoods bring an economic activity that can be used as an opportunity to value urban life and promote tourism. The water stream and collection of graywater give character to the public space and bring nature to the built environment. These were some of the resilience strategies that supported designers.The interdisciplinary approach presents solutions that integrate economic activity, protection of nature and the needs of the community. Each group working at the workshop was multinational, highly educated and well informed. Today data flows freely, it is not possible to limit decisions when dealing with design studios formulating solutions of urban design and architecture for the region of Cascais. Few guidelines can be established

Introduction

"The subject requires a wide understanding of different fields that affect and influence the process of transformation." when aiming for waterfront resiliance facing climate change. Participants agreed on three major orientations: social, environment and economic. In short the main objectives of the workshop were: — to generate a methodology to contribute for the sustainable development of waterfront; — to invite local authorities to come and exchange management visions that succeed to re-establish its relation with the water, improving environmental conditions while supporting the economic activity; — to discuss and produce projects that improve the quality of life at the city and enhances the capacity to face climate change; — to discuss the influence of geographic and historical factors on the present situation and produce cartographic records of the needed transformation of the waterfront; — to understand that waterfronts are potential sites of continuity for urban morphology. The work published here has been coordinated by Agnieszka Wojcik, Alkmini Paka, Cornelia Radeker, Dimitra Babalis, Francesco Calzolaio, Françoise Py, Fulya Ozmen, Justyna Borucka, Kasia Urbanowicz, Lucyna Nyka, Mediha Gultek, Nikos Kalogirou and Renèe Tribble. Together with local faculty who supervised the studios, Maria João Matos, Margarida Valla, Bernardo Vaz Pinto, Nuno Griff and myself. They made the workshop possible and their ideas are expressed through design and text in this book.


Paper

11

Text

Department of Planning and Co-payments From

Municipality of Cascais

Municipality of Cascais Strategy

All the editions of the European Workshop Waterfront Urban Design (EWWUD) have brought together professors and students of architecture and urban planning, from several countries, with the objective of analyzing, reflecting and preparing responses for urban waterfronts. The edition of 2014 was not different. The City Council of Cascais (Câmara Municipal de Cascais – CMC), represented by the Department of Planning and Co-payments (Departamento de Planeamento e Comparticipações – DPC), had the honour of hosting the event, held between 23 and 29 March 2014. The technicians of DPC, in conjunction with the other participants coming from ten different countries, were the actors of an intense debate on the issue of territorial management, in its several aspects, embodied in six questions.

During the event, the transmission of knowledge for betterinformed proposals for intervention focused on diversified subjects, such as the history of human settlement in the municipality, the constitution of the municipal ecologic structure, the approach on climate change, and the pragmatic rules to apply to professional acts under urban planning, coupled with governance and local government ethics The Valley of Caparide and its watercourse were selected as the area for intervention, and the eastern and western urban grids that are adjacent to the valley were taken as the field of study. Retaining a certain “”flavour” of rural life, this valley has resisted the urbanizing surge that was registered in the last decades in the rest of the municipal territory.

Being for the most part divided in historical farms of private ownership, ancestrally connected to agricultural activities, namely to the production of Carcavelos Wine, the valley has its conducting line in the watercourse of Caparide, the main organizer and feeder of the territory. .The fact that Cascais Municipality benefitted from urban planning in the scope of the first supra municipal plan – Costa do Sol Urbanization Plan (PUCS), which was initiated by the urban planner Donat-Alfred Agache and published in by Decree-Law num. 37.251, of 28 December 1948, already under the coordination of Etienne de Groër, was in the origin of a urban model with significant territorial expressivity along the coastline. Due to its excessive longevity, this plan was infringed in the course of several socio-political phenomena,


12

and its philosophy and, consequently, its application, were adulterated. After decades of urban planning based on acts of private initiative, supported by building permits, the urban fabric adjacent to the Valley of Caparide appears as a sum of old building sets that does not make for a cohesive, dynamic and dully sustainable territory. To this, we must also add the existence of some illegally built urban areas. Nowadays, the areas with better urban quality are still located along the coastline, when we consider the diversity of land uses and the offer for leisure spaces and for employment. However, in the remaining areas there is a predominance of residential use, which entails, among other phenomena, a heavy daily commuter traffic, based mainly in individual transportation (IT), in a territory where the public space assigned for soft modes of transport is scarce, when it exists at all, a fact that is an indicator of urban quality value Analyzing the “public account” of the mobility in Cascais Municipality, we see that the total annual cost is around 1.163€ per inhabitant, divided between 67% for Individual Transport (IT), 17% for Public Transport (PT) and 15% for other forms of transport. These data clearly shown the enormous rate of motorization in the municipality (495,2 vehicles per 1 000 inhabitants). However, .when the population was consulted through direct enquiry, the following results were obtained: 28% [15-24 years], 29% [25-44 years], 31% [45-64 years] e 12% [65 or older] “considered the possibility of using a bicycle for daily travels”. These results must be compared with the actual 22% of the population that use a bicycle for their daily travels. Having reached this point, apparently divided between the acts of territorial management and planning (of public initiative) and direct urban planning (of private initiative), we must ask ourselves: are territorial management and urban planning the same thing, or are they two different things? Is

Municipality of Cascais Strategy

Paper

“ [...] the areas with better urban quality are still located along the coastline, when we consider the diversity of land uses and the offer for leisure spaces and for employment.” urban planning complementary to territorial management, or is it a sub-group of territorial management? Is urban planning capable of regeneration, while territorial management is not, the latter being capable only of chronological evolution (both positively and negatively)? These pertinent dualities (clarified in the juridical instruments that rule them) make it necessary to consider the environment within a development matrix, and for it to acquire an identity of its own, intrinsically connected to the anthropocentric territory, of which it is a part, never to assume an eccentric position or to live accordingly to its own rules. At the confluence of the philosophical currents on the best method for perceiving and conceiving present and future cities, faced with the duality between public/collective rights and private/individual rights, around which revolve the visions of the "Critical Urban Theory" and of the "Human Rights", the debates imbued with the concepts of "Cooperative Planning" (Jürgen Habermas) and “Just City” (Martha Nussbaum and Susan Fainstein) should move towards what was defined as “Spatial Justice” (Edward Soja), as a socio-political action that agglutinates several conceptual trends for solving the city, Given the actual urban reality of the municipality and all the technical and ethical debates on the best way to build the cities, Cascais Municipality (CMC) has been developing in recent years a territorial development strategy based upon a new vision of territorial management and strategic planning: a “Neo-modern Vision (strategic-collaborative)”. Characteristic

of the more recent strategic planning generations, it harbours the purpose of promoting integrated operations from a shared agenda. It is a larger vision of strategic planning; it does not assume as its central configuration only the state or only the private sphere, it has a bilateral, shared agenda. It benefits from an inclusive flexibility with pre-defined rules, such as diversity and unpredictability. Private players position themselves in a collaborative planning, in trust and in territorially based governance This culture sheds light on the mission of territorial management as a public policy. It rules the use, occupation and transformation of land, through the said process of territorialbased governance. That is to say, it enables us to coordinate the policies that act in a same territory, grouping several problems and aims, it carries out a territorially integrated intervention (such as urban regeneration) and it enables us to territorialize sectorial policies. Thus, CMC has developed, in a first stage, several thematic studies that characterize and plan the needs of the city. Among these, special mention must be made of Statistical and Social Studies, Social Equipment, Sport and Educational Charters, Environment Management Plans (e.g. Noise and Watercourses) and an Urban Journey Plan. Subsequently, and after having found the public/private agents/partners for the construction of an urban territory, we implemented a strategy to generate the transformation from expectant resource to finished product, based on systematic actions of


Paper

Municipality of Cascais Strategy

concertation and contractualisation, aiming for a maximum of civic participation in the search for a competitive and flexible territory.

In addition, the proposal for the revision of Cascais Local Development Framework (PDM) aims to promote soft mode mobility as a preferential use in the whole of the Valley of Caparide, integrated in the soft mode network that structures the municipality, and to offer to the public the fruition of these areas as leisure and recreation areas.

For the configuration of all the proposals, the present context in territorial planning and management, which assumes several orders of knowledge that are critical for the conception of territorial intervention proposals, was determinant. Among these are provisions resulting from sectorial community directives, transposed into the national law context; territorial management instruments of national hierarchy (PNPOT), of special nature (PEOT, of regional scope (PROT) and of municipal scope (PMOT), as well as the remaining national and municipal regulation mechanisms with expression on the territory. In what regards specifically the area for intervention, the proposal for the revision of Cascais Local Development Framework (PDM) has defined it as an Operative Unit for Planning and Management – UOPG 3 (Unidade Operativa de Planeamento e Gestão – UOPG 3). The programmatic contents of UOPG 3 consider agriculture as the major asset in this territory, defending its enhancement in a perspective of productivity and competitiveness in the market of goods of excellence. The “brand” Carcavelos Wine, and the production and promotion of this product, are assumed as determinant factors in the articulation with other economic activities, namely cultural and environmental tourism, and research and development At the same time, and bearing in mind that the historical farms are the most obvious factor for strategic valorization, not neglecting the architectural and environmental heritage in this area, the proposal for the revision of Cascais Local Development Framework (PDM) foresees several incentives for operations of regeneration, rehabilitation and extension for existing buildings and environmental elements. These operations are meant both for the tertiary sector and ancillary farm buildings, and for conversion to touristic use.

Beyond the programmatic contents of UOPGs, CMC also selected six opportunity-potentiating vectors: Collective Memory, Environment, Mobility, Social Cohesion, employment and Urban Compactness. In general, we wish to enhance for each vector the most significant aspects in its area of intervention: COLLECTIVE MEMORY – although human settlement in this territory goes back to prehistoric times, it is in more recent times that we find the strongest evidences of collective memory. We are referring in particular to leisure farms and to the centenary production of Carcavelos Wine;

13

“[...] we implemented a strategy to generate the transformation from expectant resource to finished product [...]” and accessibility, are the aspects exalted in the constitution of a homogenous and equalitarian territory. EMPLOYMENT – given the present urban characteristics of the surrounding area, which tends to be residential, the actions to take will aim mainly at the generation of lasting employment.

ENVIRONMENT – in complement to natural resources (e.g., the beach of S. Pedro and the watercourse of Caparide), there are several land management tools of national and regional hierarchy that act in this territory, as well as administrative figures for environmental protection, namely: National Ecological Reserve, Metropolitan Ecological Reserve, Municipal Ecological Reserve, amongst others;

URBAN COMPACTNESS – given the characteristics of the buildings in the surrounding urban area (densities, uses, mono-functionality, public space, mobility…) our strategy aims to help changing this situation, contributing to sustainability, financial investment, economic dynamism, rehabilitation and regeneration, and to the polycentrism of activities and of employment, so as to preserve rural areas and to free them areas form urban pressure.

MOBILITY – there are several level 1 infrastructures that serve this zone (railway traffic – Linha de Cascais; road traffic - Av. Marginal and A5), and studies have been made for complementing the mobility network, as well as for introducing public transports in dedicated road space and a network of cycle lanes;

The vision of professors and students, based in the afore stated strategy and in their lives and personal experiences, gave rise to proposals for intervention that are conceptually rich and bold, in harmony with general and specific objectives, and that tend to materialize the six vectors for development. Thus:

SOCIAL COHESION – mainly in the adjacent surrounding urban area, the age and social structures of the population, the public offer for equipment, the opportunities for employment, the quality of residential areas and the capacity for mobility

- By establishing in the surrounding urban area commerce, service and hotel hubs, and by promoting and reinforcing medium-sized farms in the area under intervention, the mission of creating and sustaining EMPLOYMENT is accomplished,


14

Municipality of Cascais Strategy

“[...] This response draws on the matrix for communication and governance of the municipality, and demonstrates how fruitful can be the communion between public services and academies.” contributing to SOCIAL COHESION, while, simultaneously, human activities focusing in the daily life of the territory are diversified; - By defining new lanes and road and pedestrian nodes that enable to surmount urban barriers, to aggregate the structures already in place and to connect residential areas, we promote MOBILITY - By correctly interpreting the topography for the creation and location of Urban Parks and Educational Farms, and with the safeguard, enhancement and recuperation, in environmental and landscape terms, of the watercourse, we promote the protection of the ENVIRONMENT, and we prevent natural catastrophes, in accordance with Civilian Protection; - By addressing the rehabilitation and requalification of architectural heritage, reactivating the production of Carcavelos wine, we preserve COLECTIVE MEMORY; - By designing strong and clear urban alignments, namely in the transition between urban/rural areas, and by defining collective facilities, we promote the territorial continuity of the public space, and in consequence, the sustainable growth of the city, based on the idea of URBAN COMPACTNESS, enabling citizens to attain URBANITY.

The quality of the proposals made in EWWUD’14 displays a capacity for interpreting the territory in all its aspects, and testifies that the scientific community, in a diversified set of academies, has swiftly met the challenge of intervening in the space that links the rural world and the urban world. This response draws on the matrix for communication and governance of the municipality, and demonstrates how fruitful can be the communion between public services and academies.

Paper


Paper

15

Text

JoĂŁo Dinis From

Municipality of Cascais

Climate Change and Coastal Challenges in Cascais

Global climate changes challenges are becoming more visible across the globe. By assuming the need to develop strategic planning and action driven investment towards a resilient and adapted society, multi level governments have settled with the need to transition to a more sustainable society. In Portugal, the National Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation (2010) pushed for a broader range of actions. Emission reduction, territorial resilience and overall adaptative capacity are now seen as a crucial integrated approach. On that very same year, Cascais Municipality (CMC) took the national lead by becoming part of a niche of municipalities with a local climate change strategy. The Cascais Strategic Climate Change Plan (PECAC) is considered, up to this day, as the

most complete and progressive local scale climate change assessment in the country. It provides with a general and sector analysis of future scenarios according to the United Nations’ International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies. They are driven on a time scale that ends in 2100, hence, providing detailed evolution of challenges and impacts at given intervals (2030, 2050, 2100). A local plan is fundamental for adaptation to climate change as each territory has different vulnerabilities and resources. This means that despite having a global scale impact, climate change can vary dramatically within different territories. Here, geography is a key indicator as it provides with a both human

and physical characterization. As municipalities vary in terms of soil occupation, urban growth, economic development, demographics and even environmental resources that can translate to renewable ones, so do their vulnerabilities and strengths. Each country, region, municipality or local community can substantially derive their resilience and adaptive capacity due to financial, cultural or territorial context. Cascais has currently a growing population of approximately 206 000 inhabitants. It is mostly urban with a denser occupation near the south shore. Despite having an urban and metropolitan identity (it is located only 15km from the country’s capital Lisbon),


16

approximately one third of the 97km2 area of the municipality is classified protected landscape. The main economic activities are provided by services, in particular the tourism sector that benefits from the unique set of geographic features.

Climate Change and Coastal Challenges in Cascais

Paper

“[...] it is important to understand that the sector impact of climate change is transversal to the territorial system”

This brief introduction can clearly demonstrate our relation with the ocean and coastline. Climate change dynamics can be a striving force against current relation between economic and social development. To better understand why this happens, it is imperative to refer the impacts of climate change in Cascais, even if briefly. According to PECAC, Cascais will face an increase of temperature on all scenarios as high as 3,2ºC by mid century and can even rise up to 6,5ºC by the end of the century. We will also face a reduction in precipitation levels that will happen in fewer occasions but with more intensity. Overall solar radiation and wind regimes are not expected to vary significantly. However, solar radiation may rise due to the increment of sunny days. The PEAC also provides a comprehensive holistic understanding of how climate change will impact the territory. It uses 6 sectors supported by the IPCC. These were selected by the particular relevance for Cascais. The sectors’ impacts can be resumed as: - Health: the increase of mean temperatures will lead to more days where heat stress strikes that can raise mortality. It can also foment vulnerability to respiratory diseases due to ozone and pollution concentration variations. - Water resources: water scarcity on local wells and water explorations. Reduction of water storage in the aquifer system reducing consumable water availability. - Biodiversity: increase of fire vulnerability due to temperature

rise and overall precipitation reduction. Loss of humid system area will lead the loss of its specific biodiversity. Habitat impacts will affect certain species of mammals and reptiles. - Fishing: increase of available species with economic exploration. However, intertidal areas can suffer more pressure due to sea level rise. - Agriculture: with the reduction of water availability, there is clearly more stress on cultivated areas. Vines can enhance their productivity but only in some scenarios where the temperature rise is less accentuated. - Tourism: a decrease of optimal days for golfing in peak demand periods. Increase of optimal days for beach activity until mid century. After this milestone, it is foreseen a decrease of climate quality for beach usage due to the raise of temperature above comfort levels. - Coastal areas: it is foreseen sea level rise. It is seen that between 1882 and 1885, sea level ascends, on average, 1,3+/- 0,1 mm/year. From here on, it is expected an increment of 2,5mm/year during the next decades. Scenarios also point out a possibility of increasing intensity of weather storms and a reorientation of the waves and currents clockwise between 5º to 10º by the end of the century. The “shelter” effect of the southern coast does provide resistance to the overall coast erosion but will maintain beach systems of Guincho and

Carcavelos more vulnerable. Most impacts of these will be sand loss in beach systems. This communication is focused on the coast management, despite, it is important to understand that the sector impact of climate change is transversal to the territorial system. Climate and meteorological events are obviously common to all these. Therefore, action to reduce vulnerability is also transversal. For instance, fighting fire vulnerability will provide a great contribute for the maintenance of local biodiversity and even the natural resources with potential for tourism activities. The resilience of a municipality is its ability to provide with solution to reduce the associated risks of climate change. With transversal approach it is also necessary a greater engagement of stakeholders and citizens. It’s a holistic problem, it requires a holistic engagement. The action for climate change can be revised in two separated groups: mitigation and adaptation. The first one is related to the actions that promote the suppression of CO2 emissions. It is required a deep introspection about our development model based on fossil fuel. The worldwide raging demand on these resources will eventually lead to the aggravation of the problem where simple solutions are no longer viable. Global commitment is required as a transition to a more efficient development model is fundamental for reversing the situation.


Climate Change and Coastal Challenges in Cascais

Paper

“Since the problem is global but the adaptation is local, it is recommended that all involved share their experiences and successes. ”

As for adaptation it is meant to provide solutions for adaptive capacity to climate change impacts. Like mention previously, the impacts diverge regarding the vulnerabilities, geographical characteristics and investment capacity. So, there is a key difference between mitigation and adaptation as mitigation should be designed on a global scale and adaptation should be considered regional or local. To further this idea, it is imperative to consider once again, that climatic impacts will profoundly diverge on the resilience capacity. Adaptation for climate change in Cascais’ coast has to me well planned and accessed as it can lead to the loss of a valuable biological, geological, tourist and economic resource. It is imperative to start with the notion that the situation can be reversed and it can even lead to a development opportunity. The PECAC and further studies provide stakeholders and decision makers with a set of actions that can be implemented to respond to the wideness of impacts. These are: piers, breakwaters, palisades and walk paths, adjacent

infrastructures, construction constraint near the shore and permanent occupation near the beaches, monitor sanding patterns and artificial deposition of sand. These actions should not be considered individually. Their implementation has to be included in an integrated, multilevel and, once again, holistic approach towards the problem as only then, climate change impacts are truly well accessed and systemically understood. With ongoing projects, we are now gathering more knowledge, opinions and expertise to further the debate and information for a permanent but adjustable solution as the situation progresses over the years. Since the problem is global but the adaptation is local, it is recommended that all involved share their experiences and successes. Providing information and knowledge to managers and decision makers will enhance the impact of adaptation actions as they will sure complement each other towards resilience.

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Team Project

Teachers

Justyna Borucka Kasia Urbanowicz

Students

Sofia Tzereme Rowaa Ibrahim Sara Riggi Luca Mirandola Stephen Stewart Gonรงalo Casqueiro

Experiencing the Ocean


20

The site

Experiencing the ocean

Analysis


Analysis

Experiencing the Ocean

21

Idea Sketches


22

Connections

Experiencing the ocean

Concept


Concept

Model

Experiencing the Ocean

23

Masterplan


24

Detail Plan

Network of cycle paths and green areas

Experiencing the Ocean

Proposal


Proposal

Experiencing the Ocean

25

Transversal section

View of new path and platforms


26

Experiencing the Ocean

Conceptual sketch

Detail

Longitudinal section

Proposal


Proposal

Experiencing the Ocean

27

Detail Plan

Transversal section

View from Pedra do Sal


28

Experiencing the Ocean

Site model with proposed intervention

Detail plan

Sketch

Proposal


Model

Experiencing the Ocean

29

Rendering of path and platforms over the water


Team Project

Teachers

Cornelia Redeker RenĂŠe Tribble Students

Ioanna Leotsakou Miguel Martinho Piotr Pasierbinski Stefania Piperidou Samantha Rosorti Caterina Scalzo Anika SchĂźtt

Nature Shapes


32

1. Main idea

Nature Shapes

Analysis


Nature Shapes

Analysis

33

The sea

The rocks

The wind

The stream


34

Winter frequency wind

Intensity temperature month

Nature Shapes

Summer frequency wind

Analysis

Water level increase 2 meters

Water level increase 17 meters


Nature Shapes

Analysis

Winter

Summer

35


36

Natural pools

Activities performed

Nature Shapes

Proposal


Proposal

Network of movement

Nature Shapes

37

Network of movement

Green buffer zone


38

Green wall

The pools + buffer zone (section)

Nature Shapes

Proposal


Proposal

Nature Shapes

39

Rendering

Observation and sightseeing


40

Water cleansing system (Summer)

Nature Shapes

Proposal

Water cleansing system (Winter)


Proposal

Water cleansing system

Nature Shapes

41

Photomontage

Water stream (section)


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Text

Assoc. Prof. Lucyna Nyka PhD arch. Justyna Borucka MA, PhD candidate Katarzyna Urbanowicz From

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture [Poland]

Experiencing the Ocean the Paths for Urban Development of São Pedro do Estoril in Lisbon Metropolitan Area

The beautiful coast of Portugal with outstanding beaches, wonderful vegetation is very popular tourist destination. With its unique landscape it became the most attractive venue for spending vacations, for sport activities and leisure. This is particularly true about the areas of Cascais Municipality, one of the richest Municipalities in Portugal, located west to Lisbon, at the estuary of Tagus and the Atlantic Ocean coast. It arose around the coastal town of Cascais, the former fishing village famous as a refuge for notables and claiming to be the most attractive part of Portuguese coast. With time this scenic resort became increasingly popular among inhabitants of the metropolitan Lisbon and well known as a fashionable nightspot and bar destination. In addition to bourgeoning nightlife, surfing competitions of national and international pedigree are held here.

São Pedro do Estoril used to be a small village in Municipality of Cascais located on the Estoril Coast on the way between Cascais and Lisbon. Today, filled with summer houses and suburban villas it forms a part of a cosmopolitan suburb. It must be said though, that despite its scenic beauty and a well known reputation as a surfers' paradise the village stays in the shadow of well known Cascais and is often perceived as transit area to this main tourist destination. In this situation several new questions appear, as what to re-define in the space organization of this settlement so it can be perceived as an attractive place to live and visit. The students focused in their project on the waterfront area with special emphasis on the beach of São Pedro do Estoril which is located in the cove Bafureira. The area has a unique

geography which makes its beauty stand out. In particular it is surrounded by a pontoon on the east side and ravines as well as promontory called Pedra do Sal to the east. It is a tourist destination dotted with many restaurants, bistros, scenic areas, as well as the location of international water sports competitions. The area of Pedra do Sal has also been reported as a national biosphere protection zone. This was one of the reasons the European long-distance hiking trail was designated here. To promote values such as biophysical diversity and scenic wealth that generates from the encounter of the land with the ocean the Centro de Interpretação Ambiental da Pedra do Sal (CIAPS) was located on the site in 2005. This exceptional beach area was relatively easy accessible but at the same time bordered from the village by Marginal Road.


44

The first impressions of the group about the site was its beautiful landscape, rugged terrain, unlike the more traditionally domesticated beaches of Cascais area. On the beach there were wild cliffs, rocky shores and what was the most relevant for the project – strong waves and undeniable presence of the water were observed. Despite the scenic beauty of the place after analyzing the potentials and problems of the site several issues were defined. The students recognized the lack on connectivity of public spaces as the most important problem. The two major transportation lines including a railway track running parallel to the waterfront, are creating barriers between city and water. Additionally, these two lines connecting Lisbon with Cascais pull visitors away from the village area taking them almost directly to the final destinations. The project’s objective was to break the lineal organization of the space and re-connect the village with the ocean. Natural riverbed that runs perpendicularly through the settlement and meets the ocean shore on the area of the Estoril beach was perceived as one of the important elements that could be used for re-constructing this lost connectivity. By blurring the border between the water and land the proposal calls for creating a way to experience the ocean while being in the village.

Experiencing the Ocean – the Paths for Urban Development of São Pedro do Estoril in Lisbon Metropolitan Area

“The location on the ocean shore is the most important factor that attracts people, defines the identity of the village and constitutes its importance.” the group defined a series of points where soft interventions combined with natural landscape were introduced. While exploring the beach area students noticed a common feeling of an abundance of sensory impulses stimulated by the presence of water, like the refreshing smell of the ocean, its enormous roar, movement of the masses of water, humidity of the air and its salty taste on the platforms of Pedra do Sal. This perception brought the group to the idea of designing framing elements that could be introduced into the landscape to heighten the experience of the ocean. To make this unique presence of the ocean perceivable in the settlement itself the group decided to create a set of connections between the existing path along the seashore and the urban tissue. The

solution was developed in a form of a one-level green area directly contiguous to the buildings and to the seaside park. Furthermore new links and urban entrances to the ocean were proposed, with a main connection designed as a suspended path in the existing riverbed [Fig.1]. The developed project is focused on several main issues and gives solutions to the identified problems: − it proposes a series of lines (walkways, trails, pathways) in the city fabric which will cut through the communication barriers and transform a set of divided sub-urban territories into a well connected environment with a rich network of public spaces linking the village with the waterfront. − it identifies the stream as one of powerful connecting lines. The stream that seems to be forgotten today has the potential to become the primary pedestrian and bicycle path – a connecting thread that extends throughout the city. A light deck has been suspended in the riverbed linking the path running along the ocean with the urban center and the interior vineyards.

Instead of proposing massive constructions and larger scale project that could devastate the unique beauty of the place,

“The project’s objective was to break the lineal organization of the space and re-connect the village with the ocean.”

Paper

Fig. 1

− it suggests that a part of the existing Marginal Road should be disassembled and traffic re-directed below the ground. The space occupied today by the road can be re-appropriated for a green park enriching the system of urban public spaces with the direct access to the water. The city streets which either end at the line of the road or merge with it, will now become the elements linking the inner part of the settlement with public


Experiencing the Ocean – the Paths for Urban Development of São Pedro do Estoril in Lisbon Metropolitan Area

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Fig. 2

spaces located by the ocean [Fig.2]. The reversal / inversion of the roles at the point of the stream will bring back cars to the surface. According to this proposal the pedestrians will have an opportunity to see and hear the ocean being in the village at the same time. It will lead to a substantial change comparing to the present situation when one is either on the waterfront isolated from the village or in the village seeing the wall of passing cars instead of water and hearing the noise of working engines.

important questions were posted as how to expose the natural beauty of the village originating from the presence of the ocean and how to enhance its unique characteristics making it visible to the inhabitants and newcomers. The location on the ocean shore is the most important factor that attracts people, defines the identity of the village and constitutes its importance. The proposed network of public paths and spaces will reconstruct this lost characteristics of São Pedro do Estoril. It will improve connectivity of public spaces enabling people to appreciate a unique ocean experience and enhance the visitors’ appreciation for this beautiful place. The process of reintroduction of the ocean into the village will not only contribute to the quality of living in São Pedro do Estoril but also create a proper and sustainable reference for further evolution of this settlement in a future to come.

− it identifies and develops a network of important focal points along the waterfront where visitors can experience the powerful presence of the ocean and perceive it by all senses. In the delineated focal points the group proposed a series of small architectural interventions which would be used to frame particularly strong aspects of ocean experience [Fig.3]. Finally, a light constructed path was created that links together these focal points a makes them visible at night from the village. It was the encounter of the water and earth that led to the origins of São Pedro do Estoril and was a forming factor throughout the long history of this settlement. Today as well, it gives opportunity for its future development as a metropolitan settlement. In the process of forming the project proposal the

Fig. 3

45


Team Project

Teachers

Alkimini Paka Nikos Kalogirou Students

Seif Abdel-Aziz Magdalena Bajolek Fabrizio Costanzo Yoana Nacheva Dalila Scalabrelli Joseph Provenza Nuno Barros

Sustainable Integrated Spine


48

Existent Connections

Sustainable Integrated Spine

Analysis

Function urban barriers


Sustainable Integrated Spine

Concept

Main idea

49

Green Areas


Sustainable Integrated Spine

50

Proposal Green Park

5,00m

Car Park

Commercial Wood Bridge

Section


Proposal Green Park

Sustainable Integrated Spine

51

6,00m 4,00m

2,00m

Section

Bridge and Green Park


52

Sustainable Integrated Spine

Proposal Stream

Wall inside the Stream

Model

Relation with the Green Park


Proposal Stream

Sustainable Integrated Spine

53

Inside the Stream


54

Plan of the paths

Photomontage of the paths

Sustainable Integrated Spine

Proposal Paths on Ocean cliffs


Proposal Paths on Ocean cliffs

Sustainable Integrated Spine

55

Photomontage of the intervention


56

Sections

Sustainable Integrated Spine

Drawings


Proposal Master Plan

Sustainable Integrated Spine

57

Proposed Master Plan


Team Project

Teachers

Dimitra Babalis Francesco Calzolaio Students

Adonis Quiawacana Artemis Psaltoglou Ewa Sroczynkka Nikolas Bandis Cem Ozbasaran Hana Sadik Antonia Dienst

Rivertalization The Revival of "Ribeira de Caparide" Stream


60

Existing context

Rivertalization

Analysis

Playground


Analysis

Rivertalization

61

The site


62

Rivertalization

Analysis

Sport facilities


Analysis

Education equipement

Rivertalization

63

Existing bridges


64

Identification of strategy points

Rivertalization

New greenspaces

Concept

Restructured Building

Cross the "highway"


Masterplan Proposal

Rivertalization

65

Proposed Masterplan


66

Photomontages

Rivertalization

Proposal


Proposal

Rivertalization

67

Proposal


68

Proposal

Rivertalization

Proposal


Proposal

Rivertalization

-Divert the language of the path -Split bicycle and pedestrian circulation -Lightweight structure still having the transparency -Bicycle station near the school -Connecting the school to the path -Create resting spots using levels of land -Series of trees in order to maintain privacy

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Text

Prof. Nikos Kalogirou Prof. Alkmini Paka From

West Pomeranian University of Technology [Poland]

A Sustainable Integrated Spine Group two

Cascais, located on the Estoril Coast in the Greater Lisbon area, is a coastal cosmopolitan town, known for its upper class tourism and wonderful beaches for surfing and swimming. The former fishing village gained fame as a resort for Portugal's royal family in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Being the most expensive residential area in Portugal, it comprises also in its urban fabric, the poorest residential quarters of the country. The surrounding boroughs, of the historic rich and highly developed towns of Cascais and Estoril, are now areas of permanent residence for middle and low class people working in the area or commuting to Lisbon daily. The wider municipality of Cascais is well served by mass transportation infrastructure, namely the extension of the Lisbon metro lines that run along the coast and freeways linking the capital to the area. In fact the urban fabric all along

the coast, to the west of Lisbon, is uninterrupted making the area a suburb at the outskirts of the capital. The site we have been working on for this year’s workshop is situated in the area of São Pedro do Estoril. It is one of the several smaller boroughs and localities along the coastline between Lisbon and Cascais. The Municipality of Cascais is putting forward an environmental agenda including the ecological management of parks and natural reserves and trying to reconcile the urban environment with the value of its geographic characteristics. In the proposed study area, the last remaining stream -of the many existing before-, runs all along across vineyards, residential quarters, train rails and the waterfront cornice, arriving at the ocean front and forming there a spectacular cascade. The municipal agenda

shows also the intention of restoring farming and revaluate agricultural land that has been marginalized considerably by rapid urbanization. The area was known for its vineyards with special wines of origin produced there until recently. As it is often the case, construction has wiped out natural topography with a consequent loss of natural and cultural values. 1. Developing a concept 1.1 Defining the intervention area The delimited proposed site by Group 2, is a fragment of the fabric, around the rail station of SĂŁo Pedro do Estoril, reaching to the north the area of the vineyards and to the south the


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A Sustainable Integrated Spine Group 2

Paper

rocky ocean waterfront. The stream, mentioned above, is running through the study area, as a central axis. The site is a miniature of the area’s inequalities and contrasts. From north to south, agricultural land is juxtaposed to low class, old and new housing, the small shopping center next to the railroad station (with shops mostly abandoned and closed), parking areas, vacant sites with wild vegetation and high class prominent residential developments right on the waterfront. The high speed Av. Marginal is cutting off the urban fabric from the sea side and the railway tracks, the north from the south housing quarters. The quality of public space presents similar contrasts, from the newly redesigned waterfront promenade to the totally abandoned, inaccessible and unplanned banks of the stream. The presence of the stream in the urban fabric is quite fragmented. Walking through the area one has unexpected views of this natural element in hidden corners of the urban landscape with sudden rich vegetation, the water flow or even ducks and birds absurdly present being the evidence of a marginalized natural circle and ecosystem.

of the workshop, the analysis, after short visits to the site, was based on the study of the aerial views and plans of the area and so, students acquired limited knowledge of the structure and character of the wider area. Presentations by municipality representatives and local experts accentuated the key impact of climate change, set the framework for the presently applied strategy for the region and underlined the sustainable adopted approach for managing urban issues.

the fragmented townscape.

“The presence of the stream in the urban fabric is quite fragmented.” Revaluating and restoring the stream’s unobstructed flow should be an environmentally sensitive, high priority for the community. 1.2 Analysis A strategy reconciling integrated landscape management with settlement strategies was considered as the fundamental concept for the future vision of the area. Due to the limited time

The S.W.O.T. analysis carried out by students, designated distinct areas of intervention, evaluated the urban potential of the fabric, the existing green areas -comprising the remaining vineyards-, depicted urban voids that could be redesigned and interconnected, underlined the dynamic of the natural ecosystem of the stream and recognized abandoned heritage structures that could evolve into future landmarks for the area. The major negative conditions for the waterfront residential quarters are noise, high speed traffic and lack of connectivity, a result of multiple community barriers obstructing access to the hinterland and the ocean front. The main weaknesses of the derelict urban fabric, of the northern part of the site are lack of public space and basic infrastructure. The spine and the ribs - an integrated landscape strategy The key element of the adopted strategy was that the stream could function as an integral green corridor, a controlling armature that could play the role of the actual spine of the site, a catalyst for local rejuvenation. Small projects proposed on both sides of its course could function as ribs forming a network of new centralities. Regenerating this unexploited and neglected natural element could promote alternative everyday life qualities of the public realm, transforming adjacent urban voids to multifunctional enclaves, increasing accessibility and pedestrian flows through a presently indifferent and underdeveloped urban fabric. Facilitating contact among the socially diverse local population was also a priority. Finally, managing water could help create this continuous green corridor as an ecological, integrating and unifying element of

2. Contextual urban landscape proposals The area was divided by the analysis in three successive zones from north to south. A series of small scale conceptual projects was designated for each particular zone. The students provided a sketchy master plan for the entire site indicating points of intervention. The zones were delimited according to their existing urban character, potential and morphology. A continuous six meters wide corridor of land, running along the two banks of the stream, will provide room for pedestrians, cyclists and vegetation, linking the different areas of intervention that will promote mainly recreational and communal civic activities. Regenerating a natural landscape could promote a new vision that is environmentally in tune with the area, enhancing territorial particularity, optimizing usage of natural land and empowering interaction of urban actors. 2.1 Zone 1 The area of the vineyards to the north, together with neighboring unexploited agricultural land, will be transformed into a public green area. In this zone the stream runs all along the western edge of the fields forming their natural boundary. The six meters path along the stream could allow access to the vineyards that will be open to the public, while the ruined ancient farm at the north entrance to the area, could be restored and used as a visitors’ center and a wine tasting restaurant. Being a listed heritage structure the farm building can function as a new landmark. A proposed rearrangement of the circulation and the street network in that part of the fabric could facilitate access to the new green spaces, creating possibilities for promoting more recreational functions inside the park. 2.2 Zone 2 Zone 2 is located in the proximity of the railroad station. It comprises a series of unexploited empty plots on both sides of


Paper

A Sustainable Integrated Spine Group 2

“Ecological awareness can provide local actors with a new set of environmentally sensitive design criteria and a toolbox using natural processes as regenerating elements of the urban realm� the railway tracks. The only element providing access on both sides of the rails is the elevated bridge for pedestrians rising at a two stories height level and served by staircases. The flow of the stream runs under the rails and forms an enclave of rich vegetation next to the station. All empty plots will form a system of small parks linked together by a new bridge crossing over the rails and the stream and replacing the old one that will be removed. The new bridge is located closer to the station and is an elevated even promenade wide enough to host multiple urban activities such as commerce, cultural events or simple views of the ocean and the surrounding urban landscape. Two alternative design proposals for the bridge, based on the same concept, were designed by the students. A new parking lot is proposed next to the station serving as well the new green communal areas. 2.3. Zone 3 For the course of the stream running under the waterfront boulevard, two more design proposals opted for enhancing its presence as the spine of the area. The flow of water is limited in its width by a small pedestrian lane running parallel to the stream, under the Av Marginal and leading from the new park straight to the ocean waterfront. The view of the stream with its rocky bank could be experienced along this lane that intersects with the recently rearranged waterfront promenade and the existing wooden bridge over the cascade. Finally, a series of new paths and a central pier offering new vista points is proposed on the rocky ocean cliffs.

Ecological awareness can provide local actors with a new set of environmentally sensitive design criteria and a toolbox using natural processes as regenerating elements of the urban realm. Developing a sustainable strategy for a specific urban context can be the basis for promoting an environmentally coherent scenario, a global vision, forming the canvas on which detailed design projects could be developed.

â–Ş

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Paper

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Text

Prof. Dimitra Babalis From

Department of Architecture, DIDA University of Florence [Italy]

Developing Innovative Ways on Waterfront Design

Background Waterfront communities present a variety of challenges on common themes to be faced with a range of design approaches and lessons to share. However, looking to the future is essential to address a new view for urban change. In such way, waterfront places must keep on planning and designing to receive urban quality as a long-term investment. The current experience within the European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design, EWWUD 2014 (1) is of great inspiration and aims to develop practical student design experiments; To exchange visions and proposals on common issues regarding waterfront management and quality of life and place.

At the same time, the investment on higher education seems a very important theme for understanding urban transformation and local cultural heritage as well. Further, stimulating regeneration in watersides is to create vibrant and attractive places from urban, environmental, social and economic point of view. Consequently, training programme could be a gained knowledge for both students and local participants in order to share their experience. Additionally, where waterfront sites they are chosen by both academics and local administration, briefs by students must be developed with better ideas and solutions. Finally, within the EWWUD Workshop experience, the participant students under the supervision of professors and local councilors took the opportunity to express the proper

vision and to develop proposals for sustainable watersides that made this kind of partnership so vital and enjoyable. Working in interdisciplinary teams can be an invaluable opportunity for anyone to working in waterfront study sites of great inspiration, challenges, approaches and new thinking on planning and design. The chosen context São Pedro, the chosen place to be regenerated within EWWUD’14, is located in the outskirts of Lisbon and may be classified as a dense mixed use urban coastal residential district. Initially, the area, a strip of urban and inner suburban development that runs along the Rebeira de Caparide Stream and towards the sea. is developed as a working class housing


76

for local people. Therefore, the topography of São Pedro has provided an inward looking settlement. The current freeway traffic has a negative impact on this neighbourhood that effectively cut the land from the seaside, both physically and visually. On the other hand, the railway from Lisbon to Cascais brings a lack of connectivity and it is considered a great local barrier, especially in some focal existing nodes non very much connected. Consequently, a fragmented urban fabric is currently presented along watersides. Next to the Station Road there are some commercial and other activities useful for the whole area. The district has schools, and other community facilities while some former industrial areas are located alongside the “Rebeira de Caparide” Stream. There are also some large areas of open space around the waterside. Therefore, natural resources of the existing environment are very much presented as: agricultural land, river strips while the ocean waterfront seems to characterise mostly the whole area. At the moment access to natural open space is very limited. The neighbourhood benefits from the proximity of the sea, although access points are limited, is in evidence. Some main areas of public green spaces lie within the seaside. Therefore, there is a no high level of pedestrian permeability in seaside neighbourhood. Existing pedestrian routes through the area should be improved for a better safety and connectivity. There are no parks or children’s play space within the neighbourhood. Due to a lack of provision for car parking the urban environment suffers from conflict between vehicles and pedestrians. The townscape and public realm around São Pedro are definitely fragmented. The following existing urban characteristics have to be considered for the first site’s studio analysis, such as: - Fragmented existing urban fabric - Existing environment of rich natural resources

Developing Innovative Ways on Waterfront Design

“Existing pedestrian routes through the area should be improved for a better safety and connectivity.” - Lack of connectivity among the existing Railway and the Freeway - Presence of existing nodes not very much well-connected - Lack of connectivity of the West and East parts of the existing green area (cone). The design concept The following design concepts have to be considered as a guide for the developing of the Urban Design Framework as: - Giving the railway station of São Pedro a greater importance and character designing alongsides - Re-structuring sustainably accessibility, the movement network and urban nodes: Cycling and walking-paths, urban transport, parking spaces

Paper

- Identifying the loss of the stream essence and soul throughout time - Identifying the hidden/abandoned historical heritage as the old bridge that will can be used as the recreational site along the riverbanks. In detail, the main aim is to create a Sustainable Urban Corridor transforming both riversides in active urban areas and creating pedestrian links along the main axis. This is aimed at breathing a new sense of vibrancy, taking advantage of its strategic location as the Gateway to São Pedro Station. The Sustainable Urban Corridor to the seafront is expected to bring local improvements and can give more attractiveness to the area for the future. Consequently, each new regenerated urban space can create a unique outdoor experience. The Railway Station within 10 minutes of almost all of the neighbourhood can be the focal point to bring more tourism within the area. The beaches to the south of São Pedro could provide an amenity to the local people despite they are difficult to access. The methodology It seems essential to generate a methodology for a sustainable re-development of the waterfronts. Therefore, to exchange visions and common ideas that help to re-establish context relation with water, improving environmental conditions while supporting local identity and activities.

- Re-creating the vertical connection in breaking the barriers

The topography can influence the site as well as its historical factors at the present situation suggest a range of issues for future transformation On the other hand, understanding the former industrial and agriculture potentiality can create the new conditions for urban re-organisation of the site.

- Adding horizontal connections to the knot points adding value in the urban/rural context

A S.W.O.T. Analysis (Strength:/Weakness/Opportunities/ Threads) was undertaken for a better understanding of the

- Re-structuring open spaces and green/blue network, opening up riverbank for public spaces and facilities


Paper

existing context that can suggest easily the future design proposals. Finally, comparison of cultural, environmental and historical heritage can suggest new solutions for urban change, such as: - The matter of sustainability - The form of the strategy - The urban planning - The urban framework. The proposed Urban Framework: Level-Ability of the Green/ Blue Cone The São Pedro proposed Urban Design Framework can be identifying in the five “character areas”, based on topography, period of growth, scale of development. These are based upon historical influences, relationship between topography and development, architectural style and date of developments: The proposed designed areas are as following: 1.The Cliff / The Intervention point 1 can be considered as the Gateway to the seafront with related amenity activities as : - Bike and pedestrian paths up to the green cone along the stream - Bike-rental booth

Developing Innovative Ways on Waterfront Design

“The São Pedro proposed Urban Design Framework can be identifying in the five “character areas”, based on topography, period of growth, scale of development. ” the hierarchical path system which expose the values of the site, the diversity of geological formations of the cliffs, the harshness and nakedness of the rock outcrops, the wind and the sea magnificence, the character of native vegetation. A network of paths and viewpoints are designed to discover the visual contact and physical contact with nature.

- Widening the river bed

In detail, the structure of the site’s discovery is as follows:

- Little link bridges connecting the two riverbank sides

- The main Path with correction of the topography to hold/ create continues accessibility, parallel to the vehicle road, which goes along the waterfront

- Connecting the dead end on the parking to the green space.

- The secondary paths, leading to the main viewpoints created on the different levels on the cliff, will become sort of the meeting ramps between the two levels of the path - The tertiary paths, out of intervention, (created only by the use of existing topography of the rocks), which leads to the secondary network of viewpoint and sensitive areas - A Network of viewpoints to enhance best panoramas, and create intimacy.

- Touchable connection to the waterfall.

2. The Boulevard: The intervention point 2 has to be considered central for the neighbourhood, as a primary movement corridor for a wide range of services10 mins walk/5 mins walk:

The waterfront part of the project could be considered as

- Constructing underground tunn els to overcome the railway

- Use of the natural typography of the rocks going down to the ocean

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- Add Cafeteria on the side, supporting the cinema - Walkway and bike lane directly taking the pedestrians down from the main street to the stream

3. The Railway: The Intervention point 3 can be considered as a mixed use area along the railway line with district shopping centre. Mixed scale with much redevelopment and eroded urban realm but distinctive character such as: - Widening the space in front of the Station - Replace big parking plot with a glass-structure café, for people to sit in at the river after arriving - Parking underground on the West side - Open-air cinema - Change of circulation, in shifting the main street parallel to the Railway. 4. The Network: The Intervention point 4 has to consider a network of paths and routes that constitute the main movement


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Developing Innovative Ways on Waterfront Design

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corridor with links to green space, significant views such as:

which influence the socio-economical profile of the area, residents activity requirements, as well as the study area to its wider surroundings. A strategy to utilise an environment which provides incentives for entrepre¬neurship by offering subsidised spaces. The existing vacant buildings along the main axis are suitable to accommodate some of these new spatial interventions.

(Adonis Quiawacana, Artemis Psaltoglou, Ewa Sroczynska, Nikolas Bandis, Cem Ozbasaran, Hana Sadik, Antonia Dienst), has been involved for the São Pedro Urban Regeneration, along the Rebeira de Caparide” Stream and towards the Ocean Seaside. The Team 5 was under the coordination and tutorship of Dimitra Babalis, (University of Florence) and Francesco Calzolaio (University of Venice). Therefore, some important issues around waterside placemaking and urban regeneration were developed.

- Decking the path in the more private area /Diverting the language of the path and splitting bicycle and pedestrian circulation - Forming a route to the schools side to the playground area/ connecting the school to the path - Creating resting spots using level of land as lagoons into the land - Subtracting area from the private garden/ series of trees in order to maintain the privacy. 5. The Landscape: The Intervention point 5 has to be considered as a focal point for introduction and summary for more landscape character type and public people attraction such as: - Playground area at the river near the school - Re-unit bike lanes and walk path at the river in the green cone - Use of the underneath.

playground cliff in having a club, bar

The results The River Corridor is a key gateway into the São Pedro centre. This green-blue proposed axis can now character¬ised by a vibrant point and restoring its past condition. Rapidly changing environments as an integral step in identifying the best suitable means for the revitalisation of the Rebeira de Caparide stream community involvement has to be undertaken. This provided a better understanding of the different dynamics

A network of the platforms created by the natural topography of the rocks are forming an area connected with the pedestrian

“The River Corridor is a key gateway into the São Pedro centre.” path, which could be considered as a waiting/reflection place for local people and visitors. The geometry of its current limits is corrected to reinforce its presence as a platform which creates from one side the opportunity of a place to stay and enjoy the nature. Adjusted in its geometrical definition, attached to the wall platform will become a shelter from the noise and freeway traffic. Finally, great placemaking and designed successful places will allow people to revitalised the waterfronts. A lot of positive proposals have been developing within the International Workshop both as “real” projects and as skills opportunities to be considered for the future. In this regard there is a lot of learning on waterfront design skills for more sustainable places to deliver. Additionally, training provision has to be more relevant and widely available for education. Note (1)

Within the EWWUD 2014 the Students’ Team 5


Team Project

Teachers

Fran莽oise Py Agnieszka W贸jcik Students

Stephanie Brucart Joe Calabrese Anna Franczyk Ahmed Morsi Rui Neto Stamatia Prigkou Eirini Sapka

Wine Mile


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SWOT analysis

Wine Mile

Analysis

Land use

Missing connections


Wine Mile

Analysis

Main axis

Site plan

81

Roads

Wind analysis


82

Ideas

Wine Mile

Concept


Concept

Wine Mile

83

To connect


84

Wine Mile

Proposal

Proposed Masterplan


Proposal

Wine Mile

85

Observation point on the hill

New bridges


86

Photomontage Multifunctional Eco Center

Wine Mile

Proposal


Proposal

Wine Mile

87

Multifunctional Eco Center (section)


88

Urban farm

Wine Mile

Proposal


Proposal

Wine Mile

89

Urban farm (section)


Team Project

Teachers

Fulya Ozmen Mediha Gultek Pedro R. Garcia Students

Elder Cardoso Eleni Georgiadou Karolina Czekaj Tarek Megahed Katerina Bakaliou Luca Sereni

Go with the [Flow]


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Go With The Flow

Analysis

Land use

Green area

Topography


Go With The Flow

Analysis

Infrastructure

93

Public/Private


Go With The Flow

94

SWOT Analysis

Concept


Go With The Flow

Concept

+

Grey water (filtration)

95


96

River (sections)

Grey water filtration

Go With The Flow

Concept


Proposal

Go With The Flow

97

Masterplan


Go With The Flow

98

Proposed atmosphere

Concept


Proposal

Go With The Flow

99

Photomontage of the water cycle


100

View towards the ocean

Go With The Flow

Concept


Proposal

Go With The Flow

101

Proposed atmosphere along the water stream


Conclusion

103

Text

Prof. Pedro Ressano Garcia From

Lus贸fona University of Lisbon

Waterfront & Climate Change Six Strategies of Urban Resilience

How urban design may respond to climate change? This question emerges from the beginning of the opening session. While urban design touches a wide range of disciplines, it becomes increasingly relevant to discuss how it will face climate change. The question might seem misplaced at first, however global warming has an increasingly growing influence on the contemporary debate on waterfront regeneration. Either the built environment will need to develop strategies to respond to the challenges. Only urban areas best adapted will survive and expand. Before diving into the discussion regarding the constrains and the risks faced along the urban waterfront, it is necessary to collect rigorous data from various fields of expertise.

At the end of Cascais workshop, the design proposal presented by each group, is guided by the exposure to this data. Based on environmental information, the discussion is enhanced beyond usual standards. The search to respond starts from one common question: What is the vision for the site? The first impression is that there are little problems to be solved at Cascais waterfront. The improvements implemented during the last twenty years give the perception that there has been great investment in infrastructures and public space. However, this is only true when taken at a superficial level. A deeper analysis of the local situation reveals several problems waiting to be fixed when dealing with climate change.

Cascais waterfront near Caparide water stream is main subject, where each design proposal introduces a number of new parameters that bring the discussion to a different realm and they influence the complexity of the urban design to adapt. The six proposals address the present situation to imagine solutions that are brought by the new circumstances and explore the extraordinary opportunities that exist. Climate change manifests itself in various ways; flooding, high temperatures and sea level rise are among some of the most prominent constrains for the built environment. Change in flora and fauna, the necessity to expand permeable soils, thus concentrating the built areas are less evident for most people. Such constrains can end up leading to opportunities


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when beautifully designed by the best professionals.

responses and strategies that are able to articulate an interdisciplinary approach.

The conditions faced by the local population contribute for the new vision at Ribeira de Caparide in Cascais. Environment is a highly sensitive topic for most social groups on the site and future solutions that integrate adaptation to climate change in their design are controversial. The Cascais community holds a high percentage of college graduates. Highly educated people tend to be supportive of an environmental friendly consciousness. In general, this kind of social groups are more permeable to introduce change in their habits at both levels: private and public. However, one of the first challenges identified is the variety of opinions expressed among the locals. While most agree on the necessity to reduce, reuse and recycle, many disagree on the budget required to improve and adapt to the risks involved. The discussion brought by experts is capable to influence designers but at another level there are the municipality, the local government or other political representatives, facing the question that regards how security measures can be imposed to the local community. The information concerning global warming spread out by the media has been contradictory in the last decade. Probably because scientists and environmental science are far from reaching an agreement on the subject. While some disregard any needs to adjust, others believe it is mandatory. Between one and the other, most agree that governmental institutions and municipalities should have the responsibility to inform about the risks involved and their consequences. Each group at the workshop that had these issues in mind, searched for a vision and developed their own analyses covering diverse topics. They envisioned a sustainable development within climate change, a topic that holds the extraordinary power to congregate various fields of knowledge such as land use, road network, public transport, population, residents, emigrants, etc. The main challenge is to imagine

The identification of problems included the relation between commercial and residential areas and in some cases the discussion with local people and conflicts between local circulation and regional circulation. However, it is unclear how much investment governmental institutions and stakeholders are willing to support if it compromises other initiatives orientated towards the community or/and the mobility. Planning is in its essence an act of abstraction where a number of parameters are considered. The inclusion of a large scope of topics intend to reduce the risk of failure. Previous generations have succeeded to cover a wide range of parameters when designing solutions for the area but infrastructures that improve the triangle mobility/community/environment did not contemplate the recent study (requested by the municipality) to integrate climate change in planning decisions.

The central objectives were: - to improve spatial quality and to enhance pedestrian connectivity. - to highlight the existing practices and to identity the space - to identify strategies that enhance economic growth - to develop a sustainable strategy to deal with climate change - to mix social groups (national & foreigners, residents & seasonal occupants, low income groups & privilege classes) -To blend the population concentrated near the waterfront established for many decades in the area with the new residents settled inland.

Conclusion

"Global warming has an increasingly growing influence on the contemporary debate on waterfront regeneration." Mobility, community and environment improvements The analyses provide the evidence that the relation between urban flows, public spaces and commercial exchange is yet to be improved. Spaces used for mobility have taken over many public areas. The balance between local and regional traffic is regulated by the street crossing under the railway line built in the 2000s. In the last twenty years the areas devoted to the mobility have been responsible for losses on the local community and the natural environment. The major problems are: - The railway compromises a desirable continuity of urban spaces and creates a cut off effect between each side of it; - The waterfront road still imposes a barrier between the waterfront promenade along the beach and the urban settlement; - The vineyards located towards the interior are inaccessible by foot since pedestrian paths and walkways do not link the countryside areas with the nearby residential district. - The bycicle way runs along the traffic road but does not have


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any transversal connections with the neighborhoods and to the whole territory.

Another response regards the necessity to create open air reservoirs that collect gray waters and are linked with the stream. This infrastructure is to be implemented along the Ribeira de Caparide to host rain water and reduce the impact of floods. The presence of wet surfaces in days of extreme heat produces natural evaporation. It works like a regulator of temperature because the process of evaporation lowers the temperature. The surface of water when carefully designed brings great quality to public spaces, both for the warm and cold reason.

One of the central questions one can address relates to the reason why the community should increase the investment in improving the environment instead of their quality of life and mobility.

The main opportunity for the area is to blur the effect created by the regional traffic and to link the urban fabric of the residential areas. The barrier created by the transportation infrastructures is reduced when integrating the road along the waterfront and the railway in the urban fabric. The main question is: how to do it? Several design proposals enhance pedestrian walkability to promote more users to move between the waterfront pathways and the urban environment. Comercial streets are protected from heavy traffic and new public spaces activate the city services and social infrastructures that support a pedrestrian friendly environment. This can be done, for example, with a green spine connecting a network of open spaces including a plaza, a lake and pocket parks along the water stream. It is uncertain whether the parameters brought for discussion are enough to cover the threats that climate change hold, although they are a break through to be carried forward to the waterfront of Cascais . The circuit of water is one of the prominent parameters, it influences the urban design at a visible level but depends on invisible infrastructure. The water supply, the separation of gray and dark waters from sewage, and the creation of water reservoirs along the water stream become even harder to integrate in planning discussions. Water is crucial and yet raises an odd discussion. The combination of topics introduced by climate change demands a major challenge for designers. Some are invisible although changing the organization of infrastructures, other are visible thus offering new possibilities for the urban spaces. To engage the community one of the design proposal presents “a knowledge center" placed along the beach to provide the visitor with information on what concerns local effects and consequences of global warming.

At Cascais, transformation requires explanation because, as described before, the level of education and information of the community is quite high. This circumstance has a double side: on one hand, transformation may occur faster because the community is educated and quickly understands, on the other hand, information that is not complete or that is incompetent, should create resistances, become controversial and eventually put aside. The system to recycled trash was implemented in the 1990s and is widely disseminated. In the future the need to separate gray water, clean it with appropriate plants and recycle it, might be well received if only presented to a broad audience. The communication must indicate the aims and the timeframe if it is willing to succeed. For these reasons Cascais is probably the best waterfront population in the country to test a new sustainable development that integrates strategies to face climate change.

This question leads to the central argument that the investment in the environment enhances the quality of life of the community. The investment in green modes of transportation, new flooding reservoirs, natural cooling systems, renewable sources of energy raises the quality of life. The most difficult is to explain in a simple manner the complexity of the system and how each paramenter affects the whole. Community & Tourism Tourism has been identified as the fastest growing industry on site. Present investments highlight the importance of cultural offer to the tourist and take in consideration the growth of the “slow movement� in Europe. At present, tourism is mainly seasonable, a tendancy that is evolving to become anual. Due to climate change towards global warming more sunny days are registered year round expanding the offer. The growth of the sectors expected to play a key role in the process of social cohesion as more jobs are created for the industry. The main question is how to achieve social cohesion. The creation of friendly attractive public spaces where people can gather, the offer of shaded areas, connectivity between waterfront and inland neighborhoods are design solutions that

"In the future the need to separate gray water, clean it with appropriate plants and recycle it, might be well received if it is presented to a broad audience."


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Conclusion

"The design proposals published in this book present proposals, dreamy visions to be proceed by decision makers. It is the dream that guide the followers that together reshape the waterfront to face a better future."

where the built environment responds to climate change by integrating the following objectives:

land areas around the houses are to be kept.

bring together several social and age groups. The cultural diversity among the local community is one of the central challenges. Foreigners residents, seasonal occupants, occasional tourists represent a significant percentage of the population. Social cohesion and safety ought to beneficiate from the new public spaces that improve an environmental friendly community. Conclusion The proposed interventions are based on limited given information and groups assumptions. The main objectives are oriented to enhance economic, social, environment and cultural factors. The solutions presented propose primary district enhancements

- To create of a sense of culture that brings economic activities. - To reach environmental friendly that improves the connectivity for pedestrian of different age groups promoting public integration. - To achieve a continuity of levels in the public space, visual contact, safety and consequently mixture of social groups. - To allow sports and outdoors activities culturally rooted providing continuity from previous facilities and explore new urban spaces with an eye on the future. - To create children playground, shaded areas, arts and crafts center, fountains and small lakes, to offer a focal point for the public space. - To improve public space providing district centrality and development of green areas - To give the opportunity to use empty plots for new open spaces to be used by the community giving an alternative to the present limited social interaction The proposed green spine brings a clear vision to articulate new spaces. They become a network of transversal connected open spaces located along the water stream of Caparide. It is an opportunity to design a plaza and a lake stringed in a sequence of new public spaces. Some proposals suggest to go through detailed design, implementation and monitoring. The process does not need to be radical, at the waterfront the proposals do not involve demolishing or topographic transformations. New public spaces do not compromise the access of vehicles to all the areas. The existing green areas, empty plots or permeable

When designing new urban spaces to face climate change one could argue that political representatives, i.e. the municipality and local government have the responsability to inform about the risks involved. It is questionable whether they can impose security measures to the local community. The design proposals published in this book present proposals, dreamy visions to be proceed by decision makers. It is the dream that guide the followers that together reshape the waterfront to face a better future.

â–Ş


Final Boards


Wine Mile

0

250

500

Final Boards

1000

109


Final Boards

Sustainable Integrated Spine

111


Experiencing the Ocean

Final Boards

113

experiencing the ocean group

3

justyna borucka kasia urbanowicz

frame our surroundings focus our senses

sofia tzereme rowaa ibrahim sara riggi luca mirandola stephen stewart goncalo casqueiro

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vertical connector tal coas

er theat

& n o n ia cti str ne de on pe m c ea str

l ersa trav k c ro coastal view

view of cascais

re -

d te ia pr ace o r sp pp -a ic re ubl p

ti ec

ve conc hicle ealm ent

wate r view fall po in t

vehicle concealment

oce

an

vie

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r co lo t ien grad view

n

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ec ti

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vertical connector

projected view

of so und es av the w

smells of the sea

sights and sounds of the beach

exposure to the wind

pedra do sal observation

surfer’s entrance to the ocean


Final Boards

go with the [flow]

In anticipation of the already intact process of global warming radical initiatives have to be taken to maintain our current quality of life. Cascais a city where the first symptoms of climate change are already emerging has a very high potential in preserving its resilience .Since the city relies partially on its creeks for counteracting the rising temperatures it would be crucial to preserve them. The goal of this project is to maintain the vegetation of the river all year long using the grey/rain water from the houses collected through the existing infrastructure in a controlled manner. Through phytoremediation the water is filtered out to be distributed via branches providing the existing biodiversity with water and in the meantime help maintain the micro-climate. Another aim of this project is to re-establish the relation between the people and their surrounding nature, hence pedestrian – and cycling routes have been planned throughout the banks of the creek, showcasing the reservoirs and channels where the rehabilitation of the collected water takes place. Ideally the concept should combine sustainability with the social awareness of the citizens of Cascais

Go With The Flow

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Rivertalization

Group

5

Final Boards

[ River t alization ] The Revival of “Rebeira de Manique� Stream

Dimitra Babalis Francesco Calzolaio Adonis Quiawacana Artemis Psaltoglou Ewa Sroczynska Nikolas Bandis Cem Ozbasaran Hana Sadik Antonia Dienst

untapped

fragmented

fragmented

117


Final Boards

Nature Shapes

119

EWWUD 2014  

Publication of results - European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design at CASCAIS, Lisboa

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