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research programmes 2011-2016


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RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

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RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY The research at the IBR Research Institute for Social Sciences and Technology is conducted in the field of human behaviour, focusing on safety, health, learning, design, cognition and communication, and the role of technology in these areas. As a modern entrepreneurial university of technology, the University of Twente is a unique habitat for encouraging and promoting high-quality social scientific research in relation to sophisticated technological development. The social sciences and technology orientation of the Institute is centred on societal issues, the goal being to create interventions that contribute to preventing, alleviating or solving these societal issues. At the moment, the social scientific research of the IBR is in a u nique position. Cooperation with the technical research groups of the University of Twente, in particular, makes it possible for the social sciences to distinguish themselves internationally at the intercept of technology and social sciences. Through this unique position, IBR social researchers are capable of assuming a pioneering role in the world and developing new fundamental theories. These theories can be developed from a

the institute’s research is divided into six research programmes

technological and behavioural scientific orientation through empirical and applied research

Research programme Safety & Security 4

developed at the University of Twente.

Research programme Health Assessment & Promotion

on people in their social environments that is supported by the most advanced technologies

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Research programme Learning 8

In this brochure, you will find descriptions of the six IBR research programmes. Feel free to contact the programme coordinators or visit our website www.utwente.nl/ibr.

Research programme Technical Cognition 10 Research programme Product Design 12 Research programme Organization & Communication

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Prof.dr. Erwin Seydel

Dr. Oscar Peters

Scientific Director

Managing Director


research programme SAFETY & SECURITY

research programme SAFETY & SECURITY

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research programme

SAFETY & SECURITY Over the past decades, issues of social safety, criminality and crisis and disaster management, as well as safety-related behaviour in organizational and consumer settings, have become prominent aspects of our daily lives. This research programme focuses especially on the subjective, psychological and behavioural reactions to, and experience of, issues surrounding societal safety and security. The programme aims at integrating excellent research from a social scientific approach with an emphasis on themes such as risk perception, risk and crisis communication, and conflict and change. The programme endorses a multidisciplinary approach, integrating research from the domains of psychology and communication science with knowledge from domains such as sociology, criminology, and business and governance studies. Furthermore, there is a strong focus on linking society-related safety issues with technological developments. From this integrated spectrum of disciplines, the programme seeks to enrich our society with innovative research on safety and security, translating it into practice and policy. The research programme consists of three themes:

social resilience without creating overreaction or conflict.

Conflict and crisis management Departing from theories and concepts of social conflict and group dynamics, the second research theme focuses on the management of safety-related conflict and crisis incidents. This particularly concerns the actual interactions between the authorities and civilians, and includes hostage incidents, interrogation situations, and managing escalating situations in problematic neighbourhoods. We also look at the higher level and the often complex high-stake decision-making processes surrounding conflict and crisis incidents. These situations may include an array of different stakeholders and perspectives, creating in themselves a large conflict potential that may endanger effective decision-making. Thirdly, this theme encompasses research on the effectiveness of different types of third-party intervention in escalating conflict situations. This refers to projects such as court-connected mediation and community mediation. Sound scientific research surrounding these increasingly popular societal interventions is still scarce. Yet another challenge for future research is to examine the need for, and the effectiveness of, specific leadership and facilitative interventions in conflict and crisis situations.

THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN INVESTIGATIVE INTERVIEWS

Risk perception and communication Context of crime, disorder and risky behaviour Within this theme, the focus lies on factors that may set in motion antisocial and risky behaviour of individuals and groups. Such criminal and antisocial behaviour usually comes at high cost: victims may suffer personally, it affects the functioning of groups and organizations, and it may generally disrupt our society. In line with recent research indicating the importance of situational factors and contextual dynamics, we conduct research projects based on crime science. Crime science focuses on studying criminal incidents instead of the offender, and looks at proximal causes of criminal behaviour, such as the physical environment and the impact of security measures. Secondly, we focus on research in organizational settings where acts of abusive leadership and employee deviance are being increasingly identified. So far, however, research has predominantly looked at the consequences of abusive acts rather than the context and social dynamics leading to such behaviour.

SAMPLE PROJECT

Within this theme, we focus on public risk perception and its antecedents, as well as public acceptance, attitude and behaviour regarding relevant societal issues. The emphasis is on implementing and applying both new and existing technologies. This is important because governments and private and public organizations all face issues of better instructing the public in protecting themselves in cases of disaster or taking precautionary measures, as well as issues of communicating with the public about risks. Building on theories and concepts from social psychology and communication science, this theme aims to generate fundamental insights into human behaviour in social processes and responses to risk and safety settings, ranging from societal to group to individual level. Although risk perception is seen as a motivational factor, research on its actual impact on individuals’ cognitive processes and behaviour is still in its infancy. This raises the question of how future risk communication efforts can be effectively developed, based on knowledge gained about public risk perceptions and their consequences. Furthermore, it increases the need for new theories on public responses to risks and risk information. Another challenge for future research is to examine how to foster citizen risk awareness and

In her youth, psychologist Karlijn Beune devoured crime stories; now the world of crime is her field of expertise. She studied how the behaviour of detectives during investigative interviews influences suspects from different cultural backgrounds. For a detective, the art of investigative interviewing is to get the tone right. His or her behaviour often directly determines the suspect’s willingness to give information. In her research, Karlijn Beune distinguishes ten behaviours, for example “intimidation”, “being nice” and “rational persuasion”, which were specially defined for situations in which police interact with citizens. “Being nice” and “rational persuasion” turn out to be the most important behaviours used by detectives during investigative interviews. Beune’s research shows that “rational persuasion” is effective when interviewing non-ethnic suspects, while “being nice” works mainly in interviews with ethnic suspects. These results emerge from three studies carried out by Beune. In the first study, school pupils were asked to steal money from a biologist for whom they were completing a questionnaire. Afterwards, they were interviewed by an experienced detective. The behaviour of both the suspect and the detective was analysed. This study showed that “being nice” and “rational persuasion” are much-used strategies and that their effectiveness depends on the suspect’s cultural background. The second study consisted of two experiments in which school pupils were asked to chat live with a detective from the Police Academy. What the pupils did not know was that the chat session was being simulated and that they were actually chatting with a computer. After several questions, the chat programme got stuck. This was predetermined so that Beune was able to look at the effects of different strategic combinations. In line with the first study, Beune was able to conclude that a combination of

“being nice” or “rational persuasion” with robust behaviour is most effective when robust behaviour is followed by behaviour that resonates with the suspect’s cultural background. When “being nice” and “rational persuasion” are combined, detectives can best start with being nice to the suspects and then get to the heart of the matter by means of rational persuasion. The final study consisted of an analysis of video footage of real-life investigative interviews. In this study, Beune looked at the direct relationships between “being nice” and “rational persuasion” and the suspect’s willingness or unwillingness to give information in the interview. In addition, she studied two different types of “intimidation”: intimidating behaviour directed at the individual and intimidating behaviour directed at the suspect’s environment, such as friends or family. In line with the earlier studies, Beune thinks that suspects respond more quickly with information-related behaviour when the strategy resonates with their cultural origin. Insofar as known, this is the first research to demonstrate that cultural differences most definitely play a role in investigative interviews. By adapting their behaviour to the suspect’s cultural background, detectives can achieve better results: more confessions, more detailed information, a greater willingness to answer questions, and a better relationship between the suspect and the detective. Beune, K., Giebels, E., & Taylor, P.J. (2010). Patterns of interaction in police interviews: The role of cultural dependency. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 904-925. Contact Information Programme coordinator: Dr. Ellen Giebels E-mail: e.giebels@utwente.nl Website: www.utwente.nl/ibr/icrisp Research on Safety & Security is conducted at the IBR Centre for Conflict, Risk and Safety Perception (iCRiSP).


research programme HEALTH ASSESSMENT & PROMOTION

research programme HEALTH ASSESSMENT & PROMOTION

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research programme

HEALTH ASSESSMENT & PROMOTION

The research programme consists of four themes:

Health Assessment Measuring health with an emphasis on patient-reported outcomes is the central part of this research line. New instruments are being developed using innovative technologies such as the item response theory,

Health Technology Assessment and Economics

Design and Implementation of eHealth Technologies

This theme includes studying the implementation and economic evaluation of effective new procedures and technologies for the purpose of improving healthcare and its efficiency, and covers evidence-based medicine, health economics and social-constructive assessment. The impact and implementation of new technologies, including financial arrangements, are of particular methodological interest. Examples include the evaluation of hospital performance, and the cost-effectiveness of smoking prevention programmes and behavioural health and rheumatological interventions.

Here the focus is on the design and implementation of eHealth technologies for promoting health and improving healthcare. To increase the acceptance and use of eHealth technologies by patients and professionals, user-centred design principles and usability theories are applied. Social networking theories are used to endorse patient and professional participation in the co-creation of innovative technological interventions. To improve the chances of successful implementation of eHealth technologies, useful and effective processes of business modelling are studied and created. Examples include projects aimed at developing persuasive feedback systems and decision support systems (diabetes, infection control, dementia) to motivate patients to do the right things at the right time.

the PATIeNT is empowered by online peer support

diagnostic groups. The empowering outcomes could only be predicted to a modest extent by the processes that took place in the online support groups. This study indicates that participation in online support groups can make a valuable contribution to patient empowerment. In practice, healthcare providers should acquaint their patients with the existence of online support groups and with the benefits that participation in such groups can provide.

computer adaptive testing and data mining. Examples include the development of new instruments for measuring fatigue, pain, societal participation and mental health. This research theme includes epidemiological studies on the prevalence and incidence of health problems in nationally representative surveys, as well as the analysis of disease progress and improvements regarding quality of life in large hospitalbased cohorts. Innovative technologies are used here in the collection and analysis of data, for example a longitudinal internet study on mental health, and a cohort study on early rheumatoid arthritis using touch screens in waiting rooms.

Health Promotion and Care This research theme focuses on the use of technology in the design and evaluation of interventions that aim to promote individual health and improve healthcare. Prevention and patient empowerment play an important role in these interventions. Interventions cover a broad range of topics, including issues related to public health, such as addiction and lifestyle, and issues related to healthcare, such as shared decision-making, selfmanagement of chronic diseases, and the treatment of medical and mental health problems. Besides the acceptance and implementation of new biomedical technologies, such as ultrasound screening in hip dysplasia or helmet therapy, there is a strong focus on the use of eHealth technologies. Examples include online support groups for patients, decision aids, remote monitoring in dementia care, a rheumatology portal, a virtual coach for supporting self-care, and the electronic patient record. Furthermore, emphasis is given to the use of new treatment methods in the mental health domain, for example life review, acceptance and commitment therapy, and ICT-delivered mindfulness.

SAMPLE PROJECT

Health is one of the most important assets for individuals and for society. Problems in the health domain result in significant reductions in the functioning and quality of life of individuals. Moreover, they entail high societal costs in terms of care provision and the loss of productivity and societal participation. Owing to mounting costs and the ageing population, health will be an increasingly important topic in the near future. Improving care and promoting individual health by enabling people to control and improve their health are therefore of paramount importance. Technology, ranging from biomedical innovations to the use of ICT, is becoming ever more important in the health domain. That is why the present IBR programme studies innovative technologies in the assessment and promotion of health. Health includes not only the absence of biomedical problems but also the presence of mental health and physical, psychological and social well-being. The present programme is therefore an interdisciplinary endeavour, combining expertise from the fields of psychology, communication sciences, health services research, epidemiology, economics and medical sciences. Methodology and psychometrics connecting these disciplines are specifically emphasized. The programme has a strong design-oriented approach, with the goal of developing innovative interventions and solutions to improve health promotion and healthcare.

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According to the results of an IBR study, patients speak increasingly through their participation in online support groups. Nelly van Uden-Kraan, Stans Drossaert, Erik Taal, Erwin Seydel and Mart van de Laar (IBR) have studied the influence of online support groups on patient empowerment. Although much was expected of the empowering effect of taking part in online patient support groups, there is no direct evidence to date as to the effects of participation on patient empowerment − hence our exploration into the extent to which patients feel empowered by their participation in online support groups, and into the processes occurring in these groups that are related to the empowering outcomes. The study included an online questionnaire. This was completed by 528 individuals who were active in online groups for patients with breast cancer, fibromyalgia and arthritis. The study results showed that the respondents felt empowered in several ways by their participation. The empowering outcomes that were experienced to the strongest degree were “being better informed” and “enhanced social well-being”. No significant differences in empowering outcomes were found between

Uden-Kraan, C.F., van, Drossaert, C.H.C., Taal, E., Seydel, E.R., van de Laar, M.A., van de (2009). Participation in Online Patient Support Groups Endorses Patients’ Empowerment. Patient Education & Counseling, 74, 61-69.

Contact Information Programme coordinator: Dr. Erik Taal E-mail: e.taal@utwente.nl Website: www.utwente.nl/ibr www.utwente.nl/ibr/ehealth Research on Design and Implementation of eHealth Technologies is conducted at the IBR Centre for eHealth Research and Disease Management.


research programme Learning

research programme Learning

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research programme

Learning

Within the theme of learning, three core areas are covered: a) support of learning through designed instructional environments, particularly technologysupported (inquiry) learning environments; b) adaptive testing of learning outcomes; and c) broader contextual support of learning through teaching competencies of teachers and school organizational conditions.

THE INFLUENCE OF DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE ON STRATEGY USE DURING SIMULATION-BASED INQUIRY LEARNING

These three core areas are covered by three partial research themes:

Inquiry learning in powerful learning environments

IBR researchers Ard Lazonder, Pascal Wilhelm and Mieke Hagemans investigated how students’ knowledge of a particular domain influences the type of investigative strategy they use in an inquiry learning task within that domain. Results showed that students with high domain knowledge employed a theory-driven strategy, whereas less knowledgeable students started off in a data-driven mode of inquiry and gradually shifted to a theory-driven strategy.

The mission of this research theme is to develop theories of human learning and principles of instructional design for powerful (inquiry-based) learning environments.

Computerized testing of knowledge and skills The goal of the research within this theme is to solve a variety of problems in current educational measurements and educational research methodology from the perspective of modern test theory.

Inquiry learning

Effectiveness of school and training organizations The research on the effectiveness of school and training organizations is organized around questions such as what school factors promote high educational productivity and effectiveness, and how to model the mechanisms through which these factors have their impact.

SAMPLE PROJECT

In education and training settings, the core process promoted is student learning. In contemporary theories, learning is seen as a learner-centred process, characterized by a couple of aspects such as awareness of the demand characteristics of the situation (recognizing a situation as a learning task) and sufficient motivation and volitional energy to become active. Cognitive aspects also play a role, for example the execution of cognitive operations, varying from simple memorization to so-called higherorder cognitive processes; the application of metacognitive strategies; and the delivery of a relevant end-product of learning, in the sense of a completed task or a problem solved. A key concept that integrates the more constructivist view of learning with the more instructionalist teaching and learning theories is the structuring or scaffolding of the learning process. Individual learner differences are likely to play a role in all these facets of learning. This underlines the need for adaptivity and flexibility in applying all conditions that are directly or indirectly mobilized to support learning.

Current educational beliefs, such as the idea that learners should be active agents of their own learning processes, coincide with the tenets of inquiry learning. Inquiry learning is a pedagogy in which learners infer knowledge about a domain by generating hypotheses and designing and executing experiments to validate these hypotheses. Although research shows that inquiry learning can lead to a deeper and more meaningful understanding, the effectiveness of this mode of learning is challenged by intrinsic problems that many learners experience with the complex integrated set of skills that inquiry learning entails. The question of how inquiry learning can be tailored to the learning needs of students with little prior knowledge has received relatively little attention until now. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of domain knowledge on strategy use during simulation-based inquiry learning.

Concrete and abstract tasks The 36 participants were college freshmen. To polarize differences in prior domain knowledge, participants performed a concrete simulation-based inquiry task in a familiar domain, and an isomorphic abstract task of which they possessed no prior knowledge. The assumption was that participants would follow a theory-driven approach in the concrete task, and shift

from a data-driven to a theory-driven approach in performing the abstract task. Within-subject comparisons of the hypotheses participants generated in both tasks generally confirmed this predicted pattern. As these initial data-driven explorations can be time-consuming and ineffective, the second hypothesis predicted that participants would perform the concrete task more successfully and efficiently than the abstract task. This hypothesis was also supported by the study results.

Practical implications The main practical implications pertain to offering domain information during simulation-based inquiry learning. This support should facilitate learners in utilizing a theory-driven approach, since this mode of inquiry is prevalent as well as consistent with the scientific method: a prescriptive model of research activities that is integral to scientific inquiry learning in many schools. Learners with little prior domain knowledge in general, and those that do not follow a theorist’s approach in particular, might benefit from domain information before they start working with a simulation. This would fill their otherwise empty learner domain space and thus enable them to engage in a theory-driven mode of experimentation. Lazonder, A.W., Wilhelm, P., & Hagemans, M.G. (2008). The influence of domain knowledge on strategy use during simulation-based inquiry learning. Learning and Instruction, 18, 580-592. Contact Information Programme coordinator: Prof.dr. Jaap Scheerens E-mail: j.scheerens@utwente.nl Website: www.utwente.nl/ibr www.utwente.nl/ibr/rcec Research on Learning is conducted at three research centres: IBR Centre for Effective School Improvement IBR Research Centre for Examination and Certification IBR Twente Centre for Career Research


research programme TECHNICAL COGNITION

research programme TECHNICAL COGNITION

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research programme

TECHNICAL COGNITION

These technical cognitive systems have to satisfy a combination of cognitive and physical requirements. Obviously, the energy consumption and the weight of the hardware (the processors) have to be reduced to a minimum to enable such a system to move freely around or be easily carried. Yet, to interact with the environment or with humans these systems also have to process information in real time, that is, at least as fast as humans do. It is argued that systems satisfying these demands require specific cognitive architectures that are implemented in dedicated hardware. An important development in this respect are “neuromorphic” processors. These consist of an implementation in hardware of dense and fast neuronal networks. The density of neurons and synapses in such an implementation reduces the energy consumption and weight of these processors, bringing them to the level of biological systems. Interestingly, the speed of neuromorphic processors could eventually surpass that of biological systems.

Fundamentals of attention and movement To develop functional neuromorphic processors we need a thorough insight in the cognitive processes underlying human mental functions like perception, attention, motor behaviour, language and reasoning. Within the Technical Cognition research programme researchers focus also on the cognitive processes underlying two important human functions, attention and movement.

The cognitive attention system Independent technical cognitive system like robots assisting in households should be equipped with an efficient information selection system that is modeled after the human attention system. Such a system selects information from various sensors (or ‘senses’) on basis of the current goal while also taking into account unexpected, potentially harmful information. For example, in order to bring a cup of tea to an elderly person a robot will have to select the location where the person is situated and plan how to get there. The planned route, however, may need to be adjusted when a dog suddenly enters the room or in the unlikely situation that a lamp drops from the ceiling on top of the robot. In the Technical Cognition programme the properties of the human attention system are being studied for the eventual design of an artificial information selection mechanism. The cognitive movement system With respect to moving systems we can also learn much from human cognition. Researchers in the Technical Cognition programme study the human capacity to perform relatively complex movement patterns, like changing gears and playing musical instruments. The focus of this research is on how humans represent and store relatively complex movement patterns in the brain and how this is influenced by training. The results of this research lead to cognitive and neurocognitive models of the human movement system that, in turn, allow the development of computational models of movement to control movement of technical systems.

SAMPLE PROJECT

The aim of the Technical Cognition research programme is to develop cognitive abilities for technical systems in a way that allows these systems to move freely around in a given environment and interact with their environment and humans in real time. Such systems might be robots operating in households, health institutions, factories or risky environments, but also portable vision systems supporting visually handicapped people.

SEQUENTIAL PROCESSING IN A NEURAL ARCHITECTURE The article presented here shows how knowledge of sequential processing (e.g., as found in movement) and attention could also be used to implement high-level cognitive processes such as language production. This article by Frank van der Velde and Marc Kamps shows how a neural system can learn to process sentences. The architecture consists of neural “binding” mechanisms that produce (novel) sentence structures on the fly. A binding process in the architecture depends on an attentional mechanism that activates specific neuronal representations. Processing a sentence depends on selecting a specific sequence of these binding processes. The study shows how a specific sequence of binding processes results in the analysis and neural representation of a sentence. The study also shows how selecting the required binding sequence can be learned.

This study is important because it shows how attention, sequential processing and learning needed in a high-level cognitive process can be implemented in a neural system. The neural architecture developed in the article is closely related to the neural systems that form the basis for neuromorphic processors. This opens the possibility of developing neuromorphic processors that can implement and learn forms of high-level human cognition and execute them in real time, using limited energy and weight. Velde, F., van der & Kamps, M. (2010). Learning of control in a neural architecture of grounded language processing. Cognitive Systems Research (2010) ,11, 93-107.

Contact Information Programme coordinator: Prof.dr.ing. Willem Verwey E-mail: w.b.verwey@utwente.nl Website: www.utwente.nl/ibr/tc


research programme PRODUCT DESIGN

research programme PRODUCT DESIGN

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research programme

PRODUCT DESIGN

Product development processes seemed to be much less predictable and unambiguous than the linear progress model suggested. In various fields of interest where innovation processes are studied, such as economics and technology studies, research was initiated to find new explanatory models concerned with the complicated way in which innovation progresses. It is striking that this research, with different points of view because of the many research backgrounds, ended with the same type of explanation: evolutionary models. Despite the fact that the linear model has been generally accepted, the practical implications are far-reaching. A number of economic phenomena, such as partial path dependency, embeddedness and technological lock-in, cannot be explained by the linear model and are therefore traditionally considered anomalies. However, they can be explained when an evolutionary product development model is used as a framework. This constitutes an important reason to investigate further the possibilities of an evolutionary vision on product development and innovation.

Within the research programme, a first step has been made. Prof.dr.ir. Eger started from the six well-known phases of the economic product life cycle (development, pioneering, penetration, growth, maturity, saturation) and combined these phases with a qualitative model of six product phases (performance, optimization, itemization, segmentation, individualization and awareness). The most important conclusion is that the type of dominant product development is also influenced by the place the product occupies in its life cycle. The main practical implication is that one needs to consider this relationship when deciding on specific product development activities, while the chance of success during the product development process can be enhanced when the life cycle is considered. The research group Product Design aims to develop qualitative and – if possible – quantitative methods for analysing the history of products and for developing new products. The product phase model that Eger has designed plays a key role and serves as a guideline in the research programme. The programme focuses on the following research themes:

A CHAIR TO LOOK AT THE MOON: WHAT CONTEMPORARY DESIGN PRACTICE CAN LEARN FROM IRRATIONAL DESIGN HISTORY

Evolutionary product development - Further improvement of the model of evolutionary product development - An innovation tool for small and medium enterprises (based on the EPD theory)

Gender - Are there any differences between genders in the way products are designed and styled? - How can you incorporate greater attractiveness to female consumers in your product design?

Co-creation It seems that people would rather design their own products, but what are the implications of do-it-yourself developments?

History / design history Design is an important aspect embedded in material culture. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the role of culture in design, which is best understood from a historical perspective. It is interesting that nowadays explanation in cultural history is strongly influenced by evolutionary models. So design history, as one of the pillars of the Product Design research programme, acts as a “servant of two masters”.

SAMPLE PROJECT

This research programme has a national reputation for being at the forefront of scientific developments in the field of evolutionary product development and design history. The group has substantial and growing exposure in the fields of gender & design and co-creation. The aim of the programme is to improve the connection between technology development and industrial design engineering. It seeks a specific approach to research where the dynamics of the role that products play in society or in the market are the starting point. These dynamics are regarded as an evolutionary process − hence the name of the first research theme: Evolutionary Product Development. Within the programme, not only is research regarding the evolution of product development in general carried out, but also other research with a historical dimension and related to the dynamics of society. In the beginning, product development was generally considered a linear process. Successful new products were considered to be the next logical step in continuous product improvement in terms of price and performance. The basic thought behind this idea was based on the (in practice non-existent) principle of perfect competition, a term derived from neoclassical economic theory. According to this theory, a product can survive in a market only if it has an improved performance/ price ratio in relation to its predecessors.

The focus of product design is shifting from primarily offering functionality towards experience- and emotion-driven product characteristics. The mantra of the universal design language, in which, according to the good old modernist movement, the shape of a product is directly derived from the (technical) functionality, is no longer very useful. Consequently, contemporary designers have to look for other ways to fill their repertoires. That this experience- and emotion-driven approach to products is not new is shown by the example of a reclining chair from the Chinese Ming period. This is referred to not as a reclining chair but as “a chair to look at the moon”. Furthermore, throughout the history of industrial product design there have been numerous examples of designers and designs contradicting the dominant modernist/functionalist approach. So it is interesting to analyse how designers have used this non-rational approach through time. In this way, principles, methods or workarounds are derived for contemporary design problems.

The paper reflects a part of the study of IBR researcher Wouter Eggink; it focuses on the period from circa 1990 to 2000 because at that time the emotional orientation of the “irrational” post-modernist designs was increasingly connected with the function of products, leading to interesting combinations of recognizable meanings and, for instance, to new materials. Many products in this period stand out not for their functional usability but for the intelligibility of the underlying idea. The Netherlands is playing an important role in this development with the Droog label. In his study, Wouter Eggink tries to visualize how interesting approaches and principles of this merely author-driven design practice can enrich the demand-driven design projects of industrial design engineers in our highly emotionally oriented environment nowadays. Eggink, W. (2009). A Chair to Look to the Moon: What We Can Learn from Irrational Design History for Contemporary Design Practice. Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal, 3(4), 103-114. Contact Information Programme coordinator: Prof.dr.ir. Arthur Eger E-mail: a.o.eger@utwente.nl Website: www.utwente.nl/ibr


research programme Organization & communication

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research programme

Organization & communication At the IBR Research Institute for Social Sciences and Technology, research on organization and communication is currently conducted in three departments: - Marketing Communication & Consumer Psychology (MCP) - Media, Communication & Organization (MCO) - Technical & Professional Communication (TPC). The IBR is planning to launch a new research programme entitled Organization & Communication in 2011.

Contact Information Programme coordinator: Prof.dr. Menno de Jong E-mail: m.d.t.dejong@utwente.nl Website: www.utwente.nl/ibr


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IBR Research Institute for Social Sciences and Technology P.O. box 217 7500 AE Enschede The Netherlands For more information contact: Myrthe Swaak, MSc. P +31 (0)53 489 6034 E ibr@utwente.nl I www.utwente.nl/ibr Images in this edition: Ludo Klink

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IBR Research programmes