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Global Markets for Gasifiers Published on April 2013

Report Summary INTRODUCTION Gasification is a centuries'old thermochemical energy conversion technology that has slowly achieved modernity over the decades. The technology is undergoing its third evolutionary surge. Fuel shortages in WWII spurred widespread adoption for vehicle fuels. The oil crisis 1973 spurred a re'evaluation and renewed development. Rising oil prices, globally increasing fuel demand, and overwhelming scientific evidence of climate change have spurred this last leg to full industrialization. The central concept of gasification is that by raising carbon'rich materials to high temperatures in an oxygen'deficient containment, the material will break down thermochemically instead of burning. If the same material is combusted (burned), it emits carbon monoxide and a host of pollutants, besides being incompletely consumed. If gasified, the products are hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This is synthetic gas, simply called 'syngas.' It can be burned, captured, stored, or its molecules rearranged to form fuels and chemical feedstocks. The process is moderately more efficient than incineration, has significantly fewer emissions and waste, and the syngas can be shaped into a myriad of products for power production, chemical industries, liquid fuels, and heat. Feedstock for gasification can be coal, the organic components of municipal waste, industrial waste streams, chemical feedstocks, forestry residues, forest products and crop residues, medical waste, unrecycled plastic or, in the case of plasma gasifiers, almost any nonradioactive material. A gasifier is the central component of a gasification plant. Surrounding it are the feedstock conditioning and delivery systems, oxygen, steam and air input systems, waste removal components, syngas cooling and cleaning systems, power plants, heat recovery units, Fischer'Tropsch molecule rearrangers, and so on. This report focuses on the markets for gasifier units that are in place and will be installed by application segment and geographic location through the year 2017. WHY JUST THE GASIFIER' Gasifier technology is actually a group of technologies that has emerged commercially in a number of applications and is being evolved for others. For several decades, gas and oil refiners, chemicals companies, remote'from'grid communities, and techno'hobbyists have been advancing the design and functional performance of gasifiers. As oil prices have risen and the specter of carbon emissions regulations draws nearer, the intensity of interest in gasifiers has grown apace. From a 5,000 ft. altitude view, an industrial scale gasifier plant appears remarkably similar to an integrated circuit. There are connecting pipelines (circuits) everywhere, and various specialized devices (subprocessors) to provide input and take the output of the central processor, the gasifier, and do something with the syngas. As in the semiconductor industry, there are only a few major, very large unit, central processor (gasifier) integrated chip 'fabs,' but a host of suppliers for the smaller on'chip support components. It is becoming more difficult for new technologies to emerge now that gasifiers have reached truly large proportions, capable of processing thousands of tons of feedstock daily, mass'producing a product (syngas) that is at the foundation of many essential industries (energy, plastics, medicines, liquid fuels, and more).

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>> Get this Report Now by email! Gasifiers can also be standalone fuel conversion devices that range from a rural home cook stove to a megawatt'scale, micro'industry gas supplier. The number of companies producing gasifiers increases in inverse proportion to the output capacity of the gasifier product. Output, usually expressed in megawatt' or kilowatt'thermal, can range from hundreds of watts to hundreds of megawatts. Only a few companies are capable of supplying and servicing gasifiers with utility'scale output capabilities of hundreds of megawatts'thermal. Well over a hundred companies manufacture gasifiers with outputs in the tens of megawatts'thermal. The smallest gasifiers, for individual or small commercial use, are produced by a large array of manufacturers spread throughout the world. THE MOST SIGNIFICANT GASIFIER MARKETS This study of the markets for gasifiers recognizes that the various market segments involve different operational characteristics, economics and feedstocks. The financing arrangements for gasification systems are different among municipal, utility, industrial, gas and oil, and low'level economies. Gasification provides a venue to power generation using carbon fuels without exposing project developers to risk from environmental and health concerns. Gasification also empowers users to utilize high carbon, low value fuels (e.g., lignite, sub'bituminous coals, peat) and derive electricity, industrial chemicals, clean fuels, synthetic transportation fuels, and inert re'usable waste. It also provides a way to deal with trash. All societies with operating economies must deal with garbage, and the bigger the economy, the more garbage generated. It all must go somewhere, for reasons of public health and fiscal responsibility, real estate values, and as a source of raw materials. Besides the energy carrier (syngas) that is produced from organic material in refuse by gasifiers, a major side benefit is a significant reduction in the volume of feedstock waste material, and possible economic value in the solid waste remaining after gasification. Another global situation is a dependence on fossil fuels, particularly coal, which is abundant, relatively low tech and low cost, but accompanied by significant environmental risk at all stages of use. IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plants have been and are currently being built that demonstrate that gasification technologies meet the conceptual goal of 'clean coal,' at least at the consumption stage, as well as on the emissions side. Gasifiers are pre'combustion devices, providing operators an opportunity to capture carbon before combustion, when it is easier than after combustion, when the thermochemistry is much more complex. A confluence of forces in developed nations (economic upheaval, recession, rising energy costs, inexorable generation of waste, environmental regulations, municipal money shortfalls) is a perfect storm to spur gasification markets to expand. Utilities, municipalities, heavy industries (petrochemicals, chemicals, metal refining, others) need large energy supplies, have large amounts of waste, must economize, and must reduce their carbon footprints. The largest gasifiers for power plants have yet to be the default choice for power plants because of price (unless the price of carbon penalties increases). A number of other applications, such as coal to liquids (CTL ' fuel, industrial feedstock), wastes (solid, sludge, industrial waste) waste to energy (WTE), petcoke/refinery residuals, and biomass to energy and liquid (BTE, BTL) are now proven in the field and on the short lists of options when dealing with garbage volume, on'site power from industrial waste, refinery energy and supplies of industrial feedstocks. The central concept of the gasifier scales down quite well to simple personal use stoves for residential cooking and recreational camping.

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>> Get this Report Now by email! This report characterizes the state of gasification technologies, the way they serve their most significant applications, and quantifies the number and regional trends in gasifier utilization throughout the globe. The economics and influencing financials, laws and regulations, and feedstocks are investigated, along with technical and operational maturity. What is revealed is that in some market segments gasification is not ready for prime time, in others the financials don't work for a number of reasons that are explored, and in others, the use of gasification is compelling, profitable, and inevitable. The discussion also seeks to provide clarity in the confounding situation that some gasifier markets are now viable in some geographic regions, while the same technologies are unlikely to make headway in others. The bottom line is that gasifiers have become a mainstream product in a broad range of applications that include central power stations, waste treatment, industrial chemicals production, on'site small industrial operations, district cogeneration, residences in rural economically poor areas, and more. They are becoming an essential part of the energy conversion landscape and are already a multi'billion dollar a year diversified industry on a strong growth path globally. STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES This report was written to characterize and quantify the world markets for gasifiers in terms of gasifier technologies, unit counts, regions, feedstocks and end product application. Gasifier technologies have been evolving for well over a century, but only recently emerged as either at or near being economically and technologically viable as a short'list choice for the production of syngas and chemical feedstocks on an industrial scale and energy sources for a variety of smaller regional, municipal, village and commercial or residential sectors. A very limited number of opportunities also exist where gasifiers are a de facto choice for syngas production. In sum, this report is designed to adequately identify and describe the markets in which gasifiers are playing, will expand their roles, or will gain entry to markets that encompass both thermal and chemical energy generation, and fuel and industrial chemicals production. This report summarizes the market drivers that are raising demand for gasifiers. These forces include a relentlessly increasing consumption of electricity and liquid fuels, rising fuel costs, environmental laws and regulations, a lack of natural gas resources in key locations, abundant coal resources, rising volumes of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, surging economies in Asia, and the improving sophistication and performance of gasifiers. REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY Gasifiers can be regarded as a new/old technology. Their functioning principles have been known ' and applied commercially since the 19th century. Before the electric light, gasification supplied town gas for lighting city streets. Low'cost fossil fuels have regularly distracted industries and research organizations from continuing to develop the technology. With the arrival on the world economic stage of surging economies in Asia, Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, the era of low'cost liquid fossil fuels has passed for good. There is too much competition for every barrel of oil, thus keeping prices elevated. Advanced materials, thermodynamics modeling, attractive economics and tightening emissions regulations have formed a perfect storm that is driving the appearance and quick expansion of markets for gasifiers. As long as there are feedstocks available in sustainable quantities, gasifiers can deliver syngas for a variety of applications. This report was written because conditions are finally right for long'running markets for gasifiers. A critical mass of technologies, engineering competence and tools, diverse markets, environmental regulations and international agreements to minimize greenhouse gas emissions, industrial production capacity and demonstrated pilot and commercial applications now exist. There are established markets for gasifiers that range in capacity by a factor of a million (thermal output). This established base, the worldwide spread of the technology, decades of experience with the equipment, vendors with large balance sheets, a developing world that now has

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>> Get this Report Now by email! substantial economic inertia, and the flexibility of applications of gasifiers have opened the gates to extremely widespread adoption. This market study was undertaken to identify, characterize, and quantify the status of the markets for gasifiers and the extent to which the gasifier universe will expand, where activity will take place, at what pace, and what the trends in gasifier markets will be through 2017. SCOPE OF REPORT This report identifies, characterizes, describes, and forecasts world markets for gasifiers on global and regional bases. Attention is given to national/state incentives, international agreements, regulatory regimes, and political policies that foster, hinder or neglect (whether benignly or otherwise) the implementation of gasifiers. Forecasts are provided to estimate the robustness of gasifier markets in their different size ranges, feedstocks, and applications over time, covering the period 2012 through 2017. Regional forecasts are made as granular as feasible or appropriate, covering the global market in terms of 10 geographic areas with what is perceived to be a commonality of usage patterns, market demand, and geographic proximity. This last factor is taken to indicate an organic proximity that will enable development of a regional market awareness of the availability of gasifiers and a need for their particular attributes as key components in energy, fuel or chemicals production systems. A high level approach is taken to describe the theory of gasification and its various common forms, (i.e., downdraft, updraft, fixed bed, fluidized bed and plasma). Greater detail is developed for the characteristics of the markets for gasifiers, and the types of gasifiers that serve those markets, namely coal to energy (CTE), coal to liquids (CTL), direct reduction of iron (DRI melt) in steel mills, petcoke/refinery residuals, biomass to energy (BTE), biomass to liquids (BTE), waste to energy (WTE) and plasma. These market segments encompass nearly all applications and configurations of gasifiers, from utility'scale to jungle hut. Attention is also given to market segmentation and proliferation of small gasifiers, with particular focus on factors that enhance or hinder both their usage and market size. The factors considered include reliability, the necessity of support services, the differences between developed world and developing world markets, and success factors for each type of application. METHODOLOGY The development of this report involved foundation research into existing technology assessments, as well as market data for worldwide gasifier implementation. Materials that were examined include conference proceedings, research reports from work carried out and sponsored by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), publicly available presentations and marketing materials by various gasification equipment and project development companies and gasification and biomass energy organizations, companies' 10'K and 10'Q reports where available, telephone interviews and discussions with gasifier vendors and buyers, municipal waste management officials and town managers, and chemical industry executives. An attempt was made to balance discussions among technology experts, market developers, corporate management, and regulatory agencies, as well as prospective buyers of gasifiers. Consultations were held with various political advisors to gain an understanding of the machinations that influence state and local level decisions on whether or not to adopt gasification installations into the public weal, and under what circumstances they will or will not. The study considers the various market segments that are served by gasifiers, and how those niches are conditioned by regulatory drivers, economics, incumbent technologies, national policies, environmental mandates, government subsidy programs, and the economics of each type of application, and where. Due to the expense associated with large gasifiers, and the concomitant total bill

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>> Get this Report Now by email! for an entire functioning plant, care was taken to understand the payback, and whether or not there were sufficient factors in play to reliably sustain a gasifier market in the various world regions, and separately within the various market segments being examined. Project specifications for as'built and planned undertakings were examined to derive rational estimates of gasifiers in the field and the number of units to be deployed through 2017 (and beyond). Reports and case histories were studied to understand the economics of capital expenditures and ROIs for gasifier'based power plants, chemical feedstock and fuel production, refinery use with petcoke and residuals, direct reduction of iron (DRI melt), biomass energy and chemical liquid conversion, and waste to energy (WTE), as well as remote rural use for thermal energy and biofuels production. The research and analysis led to the development of a quantitative picture of the status of the gasifier industry, its major segments, and the geographic market activity and indicators of the directions of evolution of those markets. The accumulated data, (i.e., installed, contracted for, financed, and scheduled for deployment) was analyzed in terms of a world segmented into 10 regions, each with multiple countries having sufficient key similarities and geographic proximity to be included within that region. Some considered choices were required to identify various cut'off points for market segmentation. The diversity of applications now under way with gasifiers (a few hundred watts'thermal up to hundreds of megawatts'thermal) indicate that future studies may consider a more limited scope, for example, output capacity ranges, specific market segments such as coal'to'energy (CTE) gasifiers, fuel production using coal (CTL) or best'fit gasifiers to obtain particular chemicals from a given regionally ubiquitous biomass feedstock (biomass to energy ' BTE or biomass to liquid ' BTL). The chief metrics in this report are new and cumulative units (gasifiers) broken down by world markets, by application and region. The discussions explore the market dynamics driven by particular feedstock availability, and the annual regional market for gasifiers in a given application segment. As was discovered in the course of research for this report, the necessity of reducing carbon emissions is imparting a significant upward push to the market for the largest gasifiers. It is not the only driving force, but has a powerful compatibility with the performance characteristics of gasifiers (efficient fuel conversion, emissions control facilitation, minimal solid waste, mitigation of water contamination). This report covers the locations, quantities and trends of the world gasifiers markets. If a reasoned analysis showed that a particular market segment would not appear or progress in a given area, attention was immediately withdrawn from that area of research, for that application segment, and no further discussion was included. In some cases, the causes and conditions of a failure to grow the market are discussed, as is the reasoning behind the identification and quantification of regional markets that will succeed and why. INTENDED AUDIENCE The report is of interest to manufacturers, marketing, sales, production planning, strategic planning, and service planners for gasifier manufacturers, balance of plant component manufacturers, plant designers, and service organizations. It is also of use to buyers, and investors in gasifiers of any size and geographic region. The information is of interest to project planners, refinery operators, coal and biomass energy and liquid product extraction equipment and engineering firms, coal company owners, coal shipment companies, liquid fuel project developers, legislative bodies, regulatory authorities, municipal waste disposal management authorities and project developers, renewable and fossil fuel energy proponents and opponents, regional grid operators, coal mine company managers, and developers of competitive and complementary combustion, anaerobic digestion, and bio'gasification technology development companies. Matters covered in this report may be helpful to university and governmental energy, fossil fuel, biomass, forestry and forestry products, and agricultural research staff. Manufacturers, investors and developers of various biofuel production technologies may benefit from the market intelligence contained herein.

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>> Get this Report Now by email! The information presented covers both the technology and the applications of gasifiers, as well as their associated markets and the factors that shape the markets for gasifiers. Details are provided that affect buyers' choice of product, the requirements of gasifiers for different applications, and thus are pertinent to the needs of gasifier equipment vendors, product investors, and product evaluators. Discussions of the market conditioning factors is likely to be of use to government regulators and legislators, regulators, corporate executives, project developers, equipment manufacturers and marketers, particularly because of the suitability of gasifiers to satisfy various power production, chemical supply, clean energy and industrialization feedstock requirements, as well as use fuels extracted from beneath the earth, within mountains in political regions of influence, and grown in similar areas. International funding agencies seeking to aid the development of power production infrastructure in evolving economies can gain insight into the gainful and positive economic benefits of gasifiers, their limitations, and the capabilities of devices that enable bulk molecular manipulation of carbonaceous materials that are often either common to many regions of the world, or, as with biomass, vary widely among climate zones, continents, and economic development stage. INFORMATION SOURCES The information sources accessed for this report included telephone interviews with a number of private and federal researchers investigating various gasifier technologies and operations. Discussions were also held with project developers and officials in utilities, municipal waste treatment, wastewater treatment, coal mining, and biomass power plant development and operation, as well as cogeneration and trigeneration operations and planning. As much as possible, attention was given to obtaining primary information about all sizes of gasifiers and the diverse gasifier platforms, including plasma reactors. Extensive efforts were made to understand the global distribution of fossil fuels (the various coals, natural gas deposits, and shale plays), and prominent biomass species indigenous to areas where gasifiers might be considered. International agreements and programs were examined in the light of follow'through by various governments to provide funding for gasifier technology development, pilot plants and demonstration projects. The economics of each type of application were examined through case histories, academic and central government'funded analyses and projections, and many International Gasification Council conference proceedings. Reports from various U.S. national laboratories in particular proved very helpful in framing an informed knowledge base on the functions of gasifiers, their configurations, components and balance of plant, and the status and rate of evolution of the technologies and their costs. Trade publications covering fossil fuels, power plants, biomass, waste management, energy projects, biofuels, and the renewable energy world ecosystem were thoroughly studied. ANALYST CREDENTIALS Michael Kujawa has authored market research analysis reports covering a wide gamut of conventional and renewable energy technologies, including topics such as bulk power installations of photovoltaics, large wind turbines, small hydro, biogas, geothermal and ocean energy conversion systems. He has also covered world markets for stationary and transportation fuel cells, building integrated photovoltaics, cogeneration equipment, building management systems, distributed generation, and U.S. markets for power production machinery in a deregulated power industry. Mr. Kujawa has co'founded several companies engaged in the development of clean energy technologies, onshore and offshore wind projects, marine high definition aerial wildlife monitoring, and multi'megawatt solar parks. He is also involved in the commercial development of a marine aquaculture operation. REPORT HIGHLIGHTS This report provides:

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>> Get this Report Now by email! ' An exploration of the global markets for gasifiers. ' Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017. ' A breakdown of the types of gasifier technologies, including fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, entrained-flow, and plasma. ' Examinations of feedstocks, such as fossil fuel (coal, petcoke, and residuals), wood, forestry products, waste and waste wood, seed hulls, nut shells, organic refuse, and others (oil palm plantation waste, corn cobs and stover, coconut husks). ' Examination of government support mechanisms, climate change policy impacts, and market expansion constraints, such as emissions, component costs, natural gas and shale gas prices, and land requirements for feedstocks.

Table of Content TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2 WHY JUST THE GASIFIER' 2 THE MOST SIGNIFICANT GASIFIER MARKETS 3 STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 4 REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 5 SCOPE OF REPORT 6 METHODOLOGY 6 INTENDED AUDIENCE 8 INFORMATION SOURCES 8 ANALYST CREDENTIALS 9 RELATED BCC REPORTS 9 BCC ON-LINE SERVICES 10 DISCLAIMER 10 CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 12 SUMMARY FORECAST FOR ANNUAL GASIFIER UNITS 13 SUMMARY TABLE WORLD MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 15 SUMMARY FIGURE CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION PLUS PLASMA ARC, 2011-2017 (LOGARITHMIC SCALE - CUMMULATIVE UNITS INSTALLED) 17 CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 20 A RELATIVELY QUICK EVOLUTION TO USEFULNESS 21 CHAPTER 4 GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES 24

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>> Get this Report Now by email! TYPES OF GASIFIERS 24 OTHER GASIFIER FUNCTIONAL DISTINGUISHING DESIGN FEATURES 25 GASIFIER SYSTEM COMPONENTS 26 THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GASIFIERS 26 CHAPTER 5 GASIFIER APPLICATIONS 29 THE NEWEST KID ON THE BLOCK: PLASMA 29 GASIFICATION COMES IN MANY SIZES 29 COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) -UTILITY-SCALE GASIFICATION 30 THE SHALE GAS NEW NORMAL 30 FIGURE 1 MAP OF WORLD SHALE GAS DEPOSITS 31 COAL AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR NATURAL GAS 32 FIGURE 2 MAJOR WORLD COAL DEPOSITS (IN GRAY) 32 UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION 33 COAL TO LIQUID (CTL) GASIFIERS: SEVERAL MW TO >100 MW 33 BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE): HUNDREDS OF WATTS TO TENS OF MEGAWATTS 34 THE SMALL HOME GASIFIER MASSIVE OPPORTUNITY 35 BIOMASS TO LIQUIDS (BTL) 35 COSTS OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 36 FIGURE 3 COST OF BIOFUEL LIPIDS PER LITER (BY COUNTRY) 36 TABLE 1 TOP 10 COUNTRIES RANKED FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION POTENTIAL 37 PETCOKE (AND REFINERY RESIDUALS) 38 DIRECT REDUCTION IRON MELT GASIFIERS (DRI) 38 WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE - INCLUDES MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE, WASTEWATER TREATMENT SLUDGE AND ANIMAL EXCREMENT SOLIDS) 40 THE ASH QUESTION FOR WTE 41 Small/Village/Microindustry Gasifiers 41 CHAPTER 6 WORLD GASIFIER MARKET DRIVERS 44 GASIFIER MARKET STRUCTURE 45 TABLE 2 CAPACITY RANGES FOR GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION SEGMENT 45 LARGE SCALE GASIFIERS 45 MEDIUM SCALE GASIFIERS 46 SMALL SCALE GASIFIERS 47 The Large Small-scale BTL Opportunity 48 CHAPTER 7 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENTS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS 50 LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS INFLUENCING MARKETS FOR GASIFIERS 50 LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIERS 51 LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR COAL TO LIQUIDS (CTL) GASIFIERS 52 LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS GASIFIERS 52

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>> Get this Report Now by email! CTE Gasifiers - New Units 80 CTL Gasifiers - New Units 80 BTE Gasifiers - New Units 81 BTL Gasifiers - New Units 82 Petcoke/Refinery Residuals Gasifiers - New Units 82 DRI Melt Gasifiers - New Units 83 Waste to Energy (WTE) Gasifiers - New Units 83 Plasma Gasifiers - New Units 84 The Value of the Gasifiers Markets 85 TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 86 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR GASIFIERS - CUMULATIVE UNITS AND TRENDS 86 CTE Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 87 CTL Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 88 Petcoke/residuals Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 89 DRI Melt Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 89 BTE Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 90 BTL Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 91 WTE Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 92 Plasma Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 93 TABLE 5 CUMULATIVE WORLD INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS DELIVERED) 94 CHAPTER 10 REGIONAL GASIFIER MARKETS 96 CHAPTER 11 NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS 99 FORECAST FOR NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS - NEW UNITS 100 COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 100 COAL TO LIQUIDS (CTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 100 PETCOKE (AND RESIDUALS) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 101 DRI MELT GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 102 BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 102 BIOMASS TO LIQUIDS (BTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 102 WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 103 PLASMA GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 104 TABLE 6 ANNUAL NEW INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS IN NORTH AMERICA BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL NEW UNITS) 105 FORECAST FOR NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS - CUMULATIVE UNITS 105 COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA CUMULATIVE UNITS 105 COAL TO LIQUIDS (CTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA -

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>> Get this Report Now by email! CUMULATIVE UNITS 106 PETCOKE (AND RESIDUALS) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA CUMULATIVE UNITS 106 DRI MELT GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - CUMULATIVE UNITS 107 BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA CUMULATIVE UNITS 107 BIOMASS TO LIQUIDS (BTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA CUMULATIVE UNITS 107 WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA CUMULATIVE UNITS 108 PLASMA GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - CUMULATIVE UNITS 108 TABLE 7 CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION IN NORTH AMERICA, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 109 U.S. GASIFIER MARKETS 110 LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN THE U.S. 110 FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN THE U.S. 110 Gasifier-Related Government Policies in the U.S. 110 Self-financing a Key 111 TABLE 8 INDIVIDUAL STATES BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) INCENTIVES 113 OPPORTUNITIES IN U.S. GASIFIER MARKETS SEGMENTS 115 CTE Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 115 FIGURE 4 MAP OF U.S. COAL DEPOSITS BY TYPE OF COAL 115 CTL Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 116 Petcoke Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 116 DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 117 TABLE 9 U.S. STEEL MILLS AND LOCATIONS 118 BTE Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 118 TABLE 10 COSTS OF THERMAL ENERGY FROM COMMON U.S. BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS ($/MMBTU) 119 FIGURE 5 MAP OF LOCATIONS OF FORESTS PRODUCTS FACILITIES IN THE U.S. 120 BTL Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 121 WTE Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 122 Plasma Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 123 U.S. NEW GASIFIERS MARKETS FORECAST 123 CTE Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 123 CTL Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 123 Petcoke/Residuals Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 124 DRI Melt Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 125 BTE Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 125 BTL Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 125 WTE Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 126 Plasma Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 126 TABLE 11 ANNUAL NEW U.S. GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 127 U.S. CUMULATIVE GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST BY APPLICATION 127 TABLE 12 CUMULATIVE U.S. INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 129

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INTRODUCTIONGasification is a centuries'old thermochemical energy conversion technology that has slowly achieved modernity over the decades....

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