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Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets Published on November 2013

Report Summary STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES BCC Research has just completed a study on the market for biorefinery technologies. In industry, biorefineries employ the technologies in which biomass is converted into useful intermediates for fuels, energy, chemicals and non-food herbals/botanicals by direct combustion, as well as by thermal, chemical and biological processes. Direct combustion technology involves burning untreated biomass material in boilers or furnaces. Thermal processes involve heating the biomass material. Chemical processes involve breaking down or converting the feedstocks through chemical reactions, membranes, metal catalysts and other physical separation technologies. Biological conversion technologies use microbiological action to convert the biomass material into usable fuel and other bioproducts. The objectives of this BCC Research report are: ' To identify and communicate critical needs for building scientific and engineering capabilities for the conversion of biorenewables to fuels, chemicals and other value-added products such as polymers. ' To assess the current state of chemical (i.e., heterogeneous, homogeneous) catalyst and biocatalyst science and technology that is applicable to biorenewables. ' To identify curricular and workforce needs to prepare engineers and scientists for a biorenewable-based chemical, fuel and material industry. ' To develop and prioritize goals and directions for the development of effective conversion technologies, including the integration of physicochemical, thermochemical and biochemical catalysis in future biorefinery. ' To quantify the conversion technology market and identify global diversification of biorefinery feedstocks. ' To provide a critical evaluation of the current status of commercial biorefinery markets and the ways in which recent environmental legislation and breakthroughs in technology will make use of biobased products competitive with established petro-based platforms. ' To assess the technological competences of original equipment manufacturers (OEM), engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) companies, and plant owners who are global entities whose experience and technological improvements will not be restricted by national borders. REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY For the first time since 1949, the U.S. has become a net petroleum product exporting country, having edged out Russia as the world's largest refined petroleum exporter. A simple explanation would point to lower demand and a struggling economy that requires less imported energy, but that is only half the answer. U.S. oil demand has fallen by some two million barrels per day since its peak in 2005 in part due to the recession, but also due to a structural change due to demographic changes, policies on fuel efficiencies and the mass-commercialization of technologies. The more exciting part of the answer is on the supply side, as the U.S. has become the fastest-growing oil and natural gas-producing area of the world. It is now the most important marginal source for oil and gas globally. Combined with a steadily growing Canadian production and a comeback in Mexican production, this has resulted in a higher growth rate than all members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) can sustain over the next five years to 2018. Biofuels account for just 1% of global fuel consumption for transportation, and the substitution of oil-based fuels is only 1.8% in the U.S., but in Brazil, it reaches 20%. Latin America is one of the regions with the most potential to offer biofuels given its climatic advantages combined with low population density. INTENDED AUDIENCE

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>> Get this Report Now by email! This BCC Research biorefinery technologies report is designed to satisfy the information required by anyone concerned with the development of agriculture, energy and fuels, including: ' Technology management and personnel. ' New business/development management and personnel. ' Merchant project investors and developers. ' Utility procurement personnel. ' Green power marketers. ' Generation asset owners looking to diversify their portfolios. ' Energy market advisors. ' New energy professionals. ' Veteran energy professionals. ' Attorneys and counsel to the energy industry. ' Managers and directors of renewable energy. ' Process engineers. ' Chemical and biochemical engineers. ' Agrochemicals producers. ' Plant operations engineers. ' Graduate engineers. ' Supervisors. ' Operators. ' Chemists and technicians. ' Soft commodity traders. ' Venture capital investors. ' Commodity brokers and analysts. ' Biofuel producers. ' Trade-commodity financiers. ' Investors. ' Fund managers. ' Biofuels technology and equipment suppliers. ' Chemical manufactures. ' Commodity inspection and surveyors. ' Commodity exchanges. ' Electricity generating companies. ' Government officials and regulators. ' Industry analysts. ' Agricultural and feedstock suppliers. ' Energy and environmental researchers. ' Vegetable oil crushers and refiners. ' Fuel marketers and distributors. ' Automobile manufacturers. ' Project developers. ' Government experts from developed and developing countries. ' Technology providers. ' Verifiers, certifiers and validators. ' Financial intermediaries (e.g., banks, insurance companies). ' Brokers and traders interested in metering. ' Persons in the sensor and monitoring markets. ' Law firms.

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>> Get this Report Now by email! ' Accounting and auditing firms. ' Marketing managers. ' Senior petrochemical executives. ' Oil and gas majors. ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS Edward Gobina is a Full U.K. Professor of Chemical and Processing Engineering with 32 years of research and teaching experience in environmental engineering, petrochemical reaction engineering, and catalysis and membrane technology. His scientific achievements are archived in more than 150 articles and spread in more than 20 granted patents, more than 30 patent applications, and more than 100 invited and guest speaker presentations, as well as contributed presentations and prestigious refereed scientific journals, newsletters, proceedings and reviews. He has been a project analyst for BCC Research since 1998 and has authored more than 22 BCC Research reports. His reports have provided the critical links in the entire chemical and energy infrastructure chain occasioned from hydrogen to advanced oil and gas exploitation, sensors and monitoring, and LNG infrastructure. Professor Gobina is a member of the European Membrane Society (EMS), the North American Membrane Society (NAMS) and the New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS). He is the current director of the Centre for Process Integration and Membrane Technology (CPIMT) within the School of Engineering at the Robert Gordon University in the U.K. METHODOLOGY Both historic and current data have been used in the demand analysis for this report. The results of the calculations presented here are therefore based on three components: a historic analysis of the demand in the period 2010 to 2012, estimated data for 2013 and forecasted demand for the period through 2018. BCC Research has done a straightforward calculation of likely biorefinery demand generally based on the public policy requirements that countries will be putting into place during the study time period. In its analyses, BCC Research has highlighted those countries it expects could be major biorefinery products exporters, as well as those countries that will likely need to import to meet expected mandates. The analyses also include BCC Research's view based on its projections of whether biorefinery mandates enacted will likely take effect as expected (for most of the countries included in this study, BCC Research finds that they will, although at varying time frames). SCOPE OF THE REPORT The report starts with an overview that provides a background to the industry and quantifies the biorefinery conversion technologies and reports on market trends. It also indicates the importance of the industry and the ways in which biorefinery technologies fit into the global economy. It also quantifies staffing and salary, professions, carriers, occupations, new product development and market penetration. The next section assesses biorefinery technology economics and their impact on investments and the development of rural economies. The next section quantifies the demand for physico-chemical technology platforms, including processes (e.g., pressing, pre-treatment, milling, separation, distillation) that do not change the chemical structure of the biomass components, but perform a size reduction or a separation of feedstock components and chemical processes (e.g., hydrolysis, transesterification, hydrogenation, oxidation, pulping) in which a chemical change in the substrate occurs. The next section quantifies the industrial biotechnology platform, including industrial microbiological processes such as anaerobic digestion, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic conversion that occur under mild operating conditions (e.g., lower temperature and pressure) using microorganisms or enzymes. The next section quantifies the thermochemical technology platform, including pyrolysis; gasification, hydrothermal upgrading and combustion, including processes in which feedstock undergoes extreme conditions (e.g., high temperature and/or pressure, with or

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>> Get this Report Now by email! without a catalytic means). The next section presents the technology development of advanced biorefinery technologies. The next section presents the process developments and includes an evaluation of major patents. The next section describes the biorefinery technology industry structure. It considers a number of influencing factors, including macro factors that affect the global economy and the agricultural economy in particular, and industry-specific factors such as the public acceptance of biorefinery products. Consideration has also been given to the development of the industry over the period since 2010 and the forces that have led to its ongoing restructuring. It also assesses the rise of biobased companies; outsourcing; adding value through improved formulations, drop-ins' and additives; and the streamlining of product portfolios. The next section discusses the international perspective and geographical diversification. The next section analyzes the future of the regulation and legislation as it affects the biorefinery industry. The next section presents company shares. Major companies involved in the biorefinery industry are then profiled, along with details of their activities and their contact information. REPORT HIGHLIGHTS The global market for biorefinery technologies reached $342.8 billion in 2012. This market is expected to grow to $387.8 billion in 2013 and $700.7 billion in 2018 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.6% for the five-year period, 2013 to 2018. This report provides: ' A complete techno-economic and environmental analysis of industrial biorefineries, which have been identified as the most promising route to the creation of a domestic bio-based industry ' Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) for the five year period, 2013 to 2018 ' Coverage of all biomass fractionation and conversion technologies ' Forecasts for biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass ' Identification of feedstocks, chemical products, and transportation fuels ' Evaluations of the prospects for biorefineries built on different "platforms," such as the "sugar platform," based on fermentation of sugars extracted from biomass feedstocks, versus the "syngas platform," based on thermochemical conversion processes ' Detailed patent analysis and a research-and-development update ' Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry.

Table of Content TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2 STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2 REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2 INTENDED AUDIENCE 3 ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4 RELATED BCC RESEARCH STUDIES 4

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>> Get this Report Now by email! METHODOLOGY 5 SCOPE OF THE REPORT 5 BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 6 DISCLAIMER 6 CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 8 SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIOREFINERY DEMAND BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 8 SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL BIOREFINERY DEMAND BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM TYPE, 2010-2018 ($ BILLIONS) 8 CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11 INTRODUCTION 11 TABLE 1 BIOREFINERY CONFIGURATIONS 11 INDUSTRY DEFINITION 11 TABLE 2 BIOREFINERY SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION USING CURRENT METHODS 12 BIOREFINERY PLATFORMS, ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCT SEGMENTS 12 TABLE 3 MAJOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCTS 12 OVERVIEW OF BIOPRODUCT SUPPLY CHAIN 13 TABLE 4 ENERGETIC AND NON-ENERGETIC BIOPRODUCT SUPPLY CHAIN 13 BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS OVERVIEW 14 TABLE 5 BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS OVERVIEW 15 OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND MATERIAL USES 16 TABLE 6 INDUSTRY AND MATERIAL USE OF BIOBASED RAW MATERIALS OVERVIEW 17 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET PENETRATION 18 TABLE 7 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET PENETRATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 19 BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY ROUTES OVERVIEW 19 TABLE 8 BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY ROUTES OF PLANT BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS OVERVIEW 19 MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE SUBGROUPS IN THE PROPOSED APPROACH 20 TABLE 9 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY APPROACH MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE SUBGROUPS 21 IMPORTANCE OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 22 TABLE 10 PRIMARY BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY TO CRUDE PRODUCTS 23 SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT 23 TABLE 11 SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT 24 TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 25 TABLE 12 ADVANCED BIOPRODUCTS COMPANY EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS 26 STAFFING AND SALARY 26 TABLE 13 STAFFING AND SALARY PROJECTIONS FOR A 10-MILLION-GALLON-PER-YEAR RURAL BIOREFINERY 27

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>> Get this Report Now by email! SCIENCE PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 27 TABLE 14 SELECTED SCIENCE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 28 ENGINEERING AND MAPPING PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 28 TABLE 15 SELECTED ENGINEERING AND MAPPING OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 29 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 29 TABLE 16 SELECTED CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 30 INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 30 TABLE 17 SELECTED INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 31 AGRICULTURE PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 31 TABLE 18 SELECTED AGRICULTURE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 32 PRODUCTION PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 32 TABLE 19 SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 32 SALES PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 33 TABLE 20 SELECTED SALES OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 33 MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 33 TABLE 21 SELECTED MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 34 MECHANICS AND MAINTENANCE PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 34 TABLE 22 SELECTED MECHANIC AND MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 34 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS 34 TABLE 23 ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY KEY FEEDSTOCK PLATFORM 35 TABLE 24 BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS 36 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 36 TABLE 25 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 37 U.S. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY 39 TABLE 26 U.S. FEDERAL AND PUBLIC FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY, 2008-2012 39 CHAPTER 4 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICS 41 INTRODUCTION 41 REGULAR GASOLINE 41 DIESEL 41 ETHANOL 41 BIODIESEL 42 TABLE 27 BIOREFINERY AND PETRO-REFINERY FEEDSTOCK PRICE SHIFTS, MARCH 2008-MARCH 2013 ($) 42 COMPETITIVENESS OF BIORENEWABLE PRODUCTS: COST OF BIOPRODUCTS

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>> Get this Report Now by email! COMPARED TO PETRO-PRODUCTS BASED ON CARBON CONTENT 42 TABLE 28 FEEDSTOCK COMPARISON AND COST OF BIO-REFINERIES TO PETRO-REFINERIES BASED ON CARBON CONTENT 43 TABLE 29 VARIOUS FOSSIL FUEL FEEDSTOCKS 44 REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR DEDICATED SPECIES 44 STARCH AND OIL CROPS 44 SUGARCANE PLANTS 44 LIGNOCELLULOSIC PLANTS 44 TABLE 30 REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MANAGEMENT AND COSTS FOR DEDICATED SPECIES AND THEIR PRIMARY RESIDUES 45 INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE DROP-IN BIOPRODUCTS 46 TABLE 31 BIOLOGICAL RAW MATERIALS REPLACING PETROLEUM-BASED RAW MATERIALS 47 DROP-IN VERSUS NEW FUNCTIONALITY 47 TABLE 32 DROP-IN VERSUS NEW FUNCTIONALITY 47 REFINERS'ACQUISITION COST OF CRUDE OIL 48 TABLE 33 U.S. REFINERS' ACQUISITION COST OF CRUDE OIL, THROUGH 2018 ($ PER BARREL) 48 INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE DROP-IN ADVANCED BIOPRODUCTS 48 TABLE 34 DROP-IN BIOPRODUCTS 49 COMPANIES DEVELOPING INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE DROP-IN FUELS 51 Microalgae 51 Non-Food Crops 53 System Configuration 53 TABLE 35 COMPANIES DEVELOPING INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE, DROP-IN ADVANCED BIOFUELS THAT COST LESS THAN $100 PER BARREL, 2012'2013 53 BIOREFINERY OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC IMPACT 57 TABLE 36 FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS FOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TO BIOPRODUCTS ($) 58 IMPACT 59 TABLE 37 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIOMASS CONVERSION TO BIOPRODUCTS ($) 59 ECONOMIC OUTPUT 60 TABLE 38 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF A TYPICAL 50 MMGY BIOFUELS PLANT 60 TECHNOLOGY JOBS IN BIOREFINING 61 TABLE 39 TECHNOLOGY JOBS IN BIOREFINING 61 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM SEGMENTATION 62 TABLE 40 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTATION DEMAND BY PLATFORM, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 63 CHAPTER 5 DEMAND FOR PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM 65 INTRODUCTION 65 TABLE 41 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR BUILDING-BLOCK CHEMICALS, THEIR DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATION 65 TABLE 42 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 67 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FINE/SPECIALTY CHEMICALS PRODUCTION

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>> Get this Report Now by email! TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 68 TABLE 43 GLOBAL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIO-DERIVED FINE CHEMICAL DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 68 RAW MATERIALS FOR BASIC OLEOCHEMICALS AND BIOPOLYMERS 68 PRODUCTION 68 CONSUMPTION 69 TABLE 44 GLOBAL VEGETABLE OIL CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2018 (TONS MILLIONS) 69 U.S. 69 E.U.-27 70 Brazil 70 Argentina 70 Indonesia 70 Malaysia 70 China 71 Rest of World 71 TABLE 45 GLOBAL STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OIL CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2018 (TONS MILLIONS) 71 FIGURE 1 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL, DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL AND DERIVATIVE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 73 FIGURE 2 TRANSESTERIFICATION AND EPOXIDATION, HYDROFORMYLATION AND METATHESIS REACTIONS 73 FIGURE 3 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL AND DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 74 TECHNOLOGY ORIGINS OF BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS 74 TABLE 46 TECHNOLOGY ORIGINS OF BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS 75 Polysaccharides 75 Starch 75 Cellulose 76 Cellulose Acetate 76 Gums 76 Chitin and Chitosan 76 Proteins 76 Lipids 76 Furfural Alcohol and Furan Resins 77 RESINS SYNTHESIZED FROM BIO-DERIVED MONOMERS 77 Polyurethanes 77 Acrylics 77 PRODUCTION OF POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE FROM PROPANE DIOL AND PURIFIED TEREPHTHALIC ACID OR DIMETHYL ESTER DIMETHYL TEREPHTHALATE 77 FIGURE 4 POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 78 STARCH 78 TABLE 47 PRIMARY STARCH-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR POLYMER PRODUCTION 79 TABLE 48 SECONDARY STARCH-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR POLYMER PRODUCTION 79

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>> Get this Report Now by email! TABLE 49 BUILDING BLOCKS FOR POLYMERS BASED ON NATURAL OILS 80 TABLE 50 LIPID CONVERSION BIOPOLYMER BUILDING-BLOCK TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 80 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 80 TABLE 51 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY VALUE ADDITION 81 FIGURE 5 NATURAL FIBER PROCESS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS 81 NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE DEMAND BY PROCESSING TECHNIQUES 82 Resin Transfer Molding and Vacuum Injection 82 Sheet Molding Compound 83 Vacuum Pressing 83 Sandwich Technology 83 TABLE 52 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 83 TABLE 53 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCT STRUCTURE ($) 84 TABLE 54 BIOCOMPOSITE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 84 THERMOSET 85 THERMOPLASTIC 85 TABLE 55 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 86 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 86 FIGURE 6 CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR METHYL ESTER BIODIESEL 86 TABLE 56 BIODIESEL BY ESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION 87 TABLE 57 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY FLOWTABLE 88 TABLE 58 BIODIESEL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 89 BIODIESEL DEMAND BY CATALYST TECHNOLOGY TYPE 89 TABLE 59 BIODIESEL BY CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGY DEMAND TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 90 Mixing of Alcohol and Catalyst 90 Reaction 90 Separation 90 Alcohol Removal 90 Glycerin Neutralization 91 Methyl Ester Wash 91 Product Quality 91 Base Catalyzed Transesterification Technology 91 Acid Catalyzed Transesterification Technology 92 Other Alternative Catalysts 92 Solid Heterogeneous Catalysts 92 Enzyme Catalysts 92 Supercritical Methanol 92 HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 93 TABLE 60 HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL DEMAND BY PLANT PART TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLION) 93 DRUGS FROM PLANT ROOTS 93 Aconite 93 Colchicum 94 Gentian 94

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>> Get this Report Now by email! TABLE 65 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 121 FERMENTATIVE TECHNOLOGY 121 TABLE 66 FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 121 FIGURE 11 SCHEMATIC OF A TYPICAL FERMENTATIVE PROCESS REACTOR 122 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT BY MALTING AND FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 122 TABLE 67 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT USING MALTING AND FERMENTATION 123 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING CORN FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 123 CORN WET MILLING TECHNOLOGY 123 CORN DRY MILLING TECHNOLOGY 124 TABLE 68 CORN ETHANOL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 124 SUGARCANE OR SUGAR BEET USING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 125 TABLE 69 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SUGARCANE OR SUGAR BEET 125 CELLULOSIC ETHANOL TECHNOLOGY 125 FIGURE 12 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE LOCATION AND STRUCTURE OF LIGNIN IN LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIAL 126 OTHER 126 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE 127 TABLE 70 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE ($ BILLIONS) 127 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY DEHYDRATION TECHNOLOGY TYPE 127 Azeotropic Distillation 128 Molecular Sieve 128 Membrane Technology 128 FIGURE 13 ETHANOL DEHYDRATION USING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 129 TABLE 71 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY DEHYDRATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 129 BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 129 TABLE 72 BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE ($ BILLIONS) 130 TABLE 73 MICROBIAL GROUPS INVOLVED IN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION 131 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY 134 TABLE 74 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY 135 Manure Digesters 135 Wastewater 136 TABLE 75 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 136 LANDFILL 136 Anaerobic Process 136 Aerobic Process 137 TABLE 76 LANDFILL BIOGAS DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 137 BIOGAS DEMAND BY RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY TYPE 137 TABLE 77 SULFUR REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY 138 TABLE 78 BIOGAS DEMAND BY RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 139 Amine Process 139 Adsorption Process 139

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>> Get this Report Now by email! Enclosed Ponds 154 TABLE 89 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 154 Continuous Versus Batch Operation Mode 155 TABLE 90 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY MODE-OF-OPERATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 155 Oily Biomass Biodiesel Production 156 TABLE 91 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 156 CHAPTER 7 THERMO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND 158 INTRODUCTION 158 TABLE 92 THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR POWER, HEAT, CHEMICALS FEEDSTOCKS AND FUEL 158 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND BY TYPE 159 TABLE 93 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 160 DIRECT BIOMASS COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY 160 FIGURE 16 DIRECT COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY 160 Fixed-Bed Combustion Technology 161 Fluidized-Bed Combustion Technology 161 Pulverized Bed Combustion Technology 161 Incineration Technology 161 TABLE 94 BIOMASS INDUSTRIAL DIRECT COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 162 BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 162 Fixed-Bed Gasification Technology 162 Fluidized-Bed Gasification Technology 163 TABLE 95 BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 163 PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 163 FIGURE 17 PYROLYTIC REACTOR TECHNOLOGY 163 Conventional Pyrolysis Technology 164 Fast Pyrolysis Technology 164 TABLE 96 BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 164 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM TYPE 164 HEAT RECOVERY 165 POWER GENERATION 165 TABLE 97 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 166 CHAPTER 8 ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 168 INTRODUCTION 168 CUMULATIVE CAPACITIES 168

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>> Get this Report Now by email! TABLE 98 ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANTS BY PLANT SIZE RANGE SORTED BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM 168 BIOCHEMICAL PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS 169 TABLE 99 BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 169 CELLULOSIC TECHNOLOGY 173 TABLE 100 INTEGRATED CELLULOSIC ETHANOL BIOREFINERY 173 TABLE 101 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD OR STRAW BY ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 174 Cellulose Structure and Hydrolysis Challenges 174 FIGURE 18 CELLULOSE STRUCTURE 174 FIGURE 19 BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF CELLULOSE TO ETHANOL 176 MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 176 Pretreatment 176 Hydrolysis 177 TABLE 102 MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, BY METHOD OF PRE-TREATMENT 177 TABLE 103 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD STRAW BY ACID HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 178 THERMO-CHEMICAL PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS 178 TABLE 104 THERMO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 179 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS 181 TABLE 105 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 182 CHAPTER 9 PROCESS DEVELOPMENT 184 INTRODUCTION 184 TABLE 106 ADVANCED BIOPROCESS DEVELOPMENT 184 PATENTS EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS 185 TABLE 107 U.S. PATENT FILINGS FOR BIOMASS INVENTIONS, THROUGH 2013* 185 PATENTS ANALYSIS 186 Process Efficiency 186 Algae-Related Applications 186 New and/or Improved Fermentors 186 TABLE 108 BIOMASS TECHNOLOGY INVENTIONS, BY TOPIC, 2012 187 CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE RATES 189 INTRODUCTION 189 TABLE 109 MAJOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW, BY TECHNOLOGY 189 BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 190 TABLE 110 METHODS FOR CONVERTING DIFFERENT BIOMASS SOURCES INTO BIOPRODUCTS 191 TABLE 111 CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO BIOBASED PRODUCTS 192 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY WITHIN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY 192 TABLE 112 BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS WITHIN THE ECONOMY 193 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS INDUSTRY 193 TABLE 113 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR THE BIO-DERIVED PRODUCT INDUSTRY 193

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>> Get this Report Now by email! COMPARISON OF BIOREFINERIES TO PETRO-REFINERIES 200 TABLE 114 PETRO-REFINERY SUPPLY VALUE CHAIN OVERVIEW 200 TECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN 200 TABLE 115 NECESSARY VALUE CHAINS AND CAPITAL INVESTMENTS, BY TYPE OF BIOREFINERY 201 VALUE ADDITION OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS 201 TABLE 116 ADDED VALUE OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS THROUGH PROCESSING AND STANDARDIZATION 202 TABLE 117 VALUE-ADDITION IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS 203 COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 203 TABLE 118 GEOGRAPHICAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 204 BIOREFINERY PLANT SCALE OF OPERATION 204 TABLE 119 TYPICAL SCALE OF OPERATION FOR VARIOUS SECOND-GENERATION BIOFUEL PLANTS USING ENERGY CROP-BASED LIGNO-CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS 204 TABLE 120 CAPITAL COSTS AND EFFICIENCIES OF PRINCIPAL BIOELECTRICITY AND COMPETITIVE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 205 INTEGRATED BIOREFINERY DEMONSTRATION CO-FUNDED BY THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 206 TABLE 121 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CO-FUNDED INTEGRATED BIOREFINERIES 206 COMMERCIALIZATION STAGES OF VARIOUS BIO-PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 207 TABLE 122 COMMERCIALIZATION STAGE OF BIOPRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 207 PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF BIOREFINERIES 209 TABLE 123 PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES, BY COMPANY 210 CHAPTER 11 INTERNATIONAL TRENDS 218 INTRODUCTION 218 TABLE 124 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BIOREFINERY JOBS 218 GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS 219 TABLE 125 GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS, BY COUNTRY 220 CHAPTER 12 REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATION 224 INTRODUCTION 224 TABLE 126 IMPORTANT UPCOMING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY REGULATIONS, BY AREA 224 COMPANY SHARES 225 TABLE 127 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET BY COMPANY, 2012 (%) 225 CHAPTER 13 COMPANY PROFILES 235 BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM COMPANIES 235 ABENGOA BIOENERGIA 235 AMGEN 235 AMYLIN PHARMACEUTICALS 236

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>> Get this Report Now by email! BAXTER INTERNATIONAL 237 BETA RENEWABLES 237 BIOGASOL 238 BIOGEN IDEC 238 BLUE SUGARS CORPORATION 239 BORREGAARD 239 BP BIOFUELS 240 CELGENE 240 CEPHALON 241 CLARIENT 241 DUPONT 241 FIBERIGHT 242 GENENTECH 242 GILEAD SCIENCES 243 GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS 243 IMCLONE SYSTEMS 244 IOGEN 245 LANZATECH 245 MEDIMMUNE 245 PETROBRAS 245 POET-DSM ADVANCED BIOFUELS 246 SALIX PHARMACEUTICALS 246 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES 246 ALIPHAJET 246 DYNAMIC FUELS LLC 247 FIGURE 20 BIO-SYNFINING CONVERSION OF TRIGLYCERIDES 247 VIRENT 247 WILMAR INTERNATIONAL LTD. 248 THERMO-CHEMICAL PLATFORM COMPANIES 248 CHEMREC 248 ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER OF THE NETHERLANDS 249 ENERKEM 249 GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 250 GOTEBORG ENERGI 250 GREASOLINE 250 INEOS BIO 251 LICELLA 251

LIST OF TABLES SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIOREFINERY DEMAND BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 8 TABLE 1 BIOREFINERY CONFIGURATIONS 11 TABLE 2 BIOREFINERY SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION USING CURRENT METHODS 12 TABLE 3 MAJOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCTS 12 TABLE 4 ENERGETIC AND NON-ENERGETIC BIOPRODUCT SUPPLY CHAIN 13

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>> Get this Report Now by email! TABLE 5 BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS OVERVIEW 15 TABLE 6 INDUSTRY AND MATERIAL USE OF BIOBASED RAW MATERIALS OVERVIEW 17 TABLE 7 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET PENETRATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 19 TABLE 8 BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY ROUTES OF PLANT BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS OVERVIEW 19 TABLE 9 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY APPROACH MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE SUBGROUPS 21 TABLE 10 PRIMARY BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY TO CRUDE PRODUCTS 23 TABLE 11 SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT 24 TABLE 12 ADVANCED BIOPRODUCTS COMPANY EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS 26 TABLE 13 STAFFING AND SALARY PROJECTIONS FOR A 10-MILLION-GALLON-PER-YEAR RURAL BIOREFINERY 27 TABLE 14 SELECTED SCIENCE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 28 TABLE 15 SELECTED ENGINEERING AND MAPPING OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 29 TABLE 16 SELECTED CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 30 TABLE 17 SELECTED INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 31 TABLE 18 SELECTED AGRICULTURE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 32 TABLE 19 SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 32 TABLE 20 SELECTED SALES OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 33 TABLE 21 SELECTED MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 34 TABLE 22 SELECTED MECHANIC AND MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 34 TABLE 23 ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY KEY FEEDSTOCK PLATFORM 35 TABLE 24 BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS 36 TABLE 25 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 37 TABLE 26 U.S. FEDERAL AND PUBLIC FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY, 2008-2012 39 TABLE 27 BIOREFINERY AND PETRO-REFINERY FEEDSTOCK PRICE SHIFTS, MARCH 2008-MARCH 2013 ($) 42 TABLE 28 FEEDSTOCK COMPARISON AND COST OF BIO-REFINERIES TO PETRO-REFINERIES BASED ON CARBON CONTENT 43 TABLE 29 VARIOUS FOSSIL FUEL FEEDSTOCKS 44 TABLE 30 REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MANAGEMENT AND COSTS FOR DEDICATED SPECIES AND THEIR PRIMARY RESIDUES 45 TABLE 31 BIOLOGICAL RAW MATERIALS REPLACING PETROLEUM-BASED RAW MATERIALS 47 TABLE 32 DROP-IN VERSUS NEW FUNCTIONALITY 47 TABLE 33 U.S. REFINERS' ACQUISITION COST OF CRUDE OIL, THROUGH 2018 ($ PER BARREL) 48 TABLE 34 DROP-IN BIOPRODUCTS 49 TABLE 35 COMPANIES DEVELOPING INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE, DROP-IN

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>> Get this Report Now by email! ADVANCED BIOFUELS THAT COST LESS THAN $100 PER BARREL, 2012'2013 53 TABLE 36 FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS FOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TO BIOPRODUCTS ($) 58 TABLE 37 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIOMASS CONVERSION TO BIOPRODUCTS ($) 59 TABLE 38 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF A TYPICAL 50 MMGY BIOFUELS PLANT 60 TABLE 39 TECHNOLOGY JOBS IN BIOREFINING 61 TABLE 40 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTATION DEMAND BY PLATFORM, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 63 TABLE 41 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR BUILDING-BLOCK CHEMICALS, THEIR DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATION 65 TABLE 42 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 67 TABLE 43 GLOBAL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIO-DERIVED FINE CHEMICAL DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 68 TABLE 44 GLOBAL VEGETABLE OIL CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2018 (TONS MILLIONS) 69 TABLE 45 GLOBAL STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OIL CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2018 (TONS MILLIONS) 71 TABLE 46 TECHNOLOGY ORIGINS OF BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS 75 TABLE 47 PRIMARY STARCH-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR POLYMER PRODUCTION 79 TABLE 48 SECONDARY STARCH-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR POLYMER PRODUCTION 79 TABLE 49 BUILDING BLOCKS FOR POLYMERS BASED ON NATURAL OILS 80 TABLE 50 LIPID CONVERSION BIOPOLYMER BUILDING-BLOCK TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 80 TABLE 51 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY VALUE ADDITION 81 TABLE 52 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 83 TABLE 53 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCT STRUCTURE ($) 84 TABLE 54 BIOCOMPOSITE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 84 TABLE 55 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 86 TABLE 56 BIODIESEL BY ESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION 87 TABLE 57 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY FLOWTABLE 88 TABLE 58 BIODIESEL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 89 TABLE 59 BIODIESEL BY CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGY DEMAND TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 90 TABLE 60 HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL DEMAND BY PLANT PART TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLION) 93 TABLE 61 PROCESSES USED AND PRODUCTS EXTRACTED FROM AROMATIC PLANTS 109 TABLE 62 HERBAL/BOTANICAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 115 TABLE 63 PILLERS OF INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 117 TABLE 64 BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION FOR CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS, THEIR DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS 118 TABLE 65 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 121

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>> Get this Report Now by email! TABLE 66 FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 121 TABLE 67 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT USING MALTING AND FERMENTATION 123 TABLE 68 CORN ETHANOL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 124 TABLE 69 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SUGARCANE OR SUGAR BEET 125 TABLE 70 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE ($ BILLIONS) 127 TABLE 71 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY DEHYDRATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 129 TABLE 72 BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE ($ BILLIONS) 130 TABLE 73 MICROBIAL GROUPS INVOLVED IN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION 131 TABLE 74 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY 135 TABLE 75 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 136 TABLE 76 LANDFILL BIOGAS DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 137 TABLE 77 SULFUR REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY 138 TABLE 78 BIOGAS DEMAND BY RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 139 TABLE 79 GLOBAL FERMENTATION-DERIVED FINE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY MARKET, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 140 TABLE 80 BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS)* 143 TABLE 81 VALUE-ADDED BIOCHEMICALS POTENTIALLY DERIVED FROM CELLULOSE, HEMICELLULOSE AND LIGNIN (LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS) 144 TABLE 82 BIOTRANSFORMATION FOR PLATFORM CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 145 TABLE 83 GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 146 TABLE 84 GLOBAL ANTIBODY BIODRUG DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 146 TABLE 85 BIOTRANSFORMATION FINE/SPECIALTY CHEMICAL DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 148 TABLE 86 BIOTRANSFORMATION POLYMER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 148 TABLE 87 BIOTRANSFORMATION POLYMER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 152 TABLE 88 OIL YIELD BY CROP TYPE (GALLONS PER ACRE) 153 TABLE 89 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 154 TABLE 90 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY MODE-OF-OPERATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 155 TABLE 91 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 156 TABLE 92 THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR POWER, HEAT, CHEMICALS FEEDSTOCKS AND FUEL 158 TABLE 93 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 160 TABLE 94 BIOMASS INDUSTRIAL DIRECT COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 162

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>> Get this Report Now by email! TABLE 95 BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 163 TABLE 96 BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 164 TABLE 97 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 166 TABLE 98 ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANTS BY PLANT SIZE RANGE SORTED BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM 168 TABLE 99 BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 169 TABLE 100 INTEGRATED CELLULOSIC ETHANOL BIOREFINERY 173 TABLE 101 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD OR STRAW BY ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 174 TABLE 102 MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, BY METHOD OF PRE-TREATMENT 177 TABLE 103 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD STRAW BY ACID HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 178 TABLE 104 THERMO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 179 TABLE 105 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 182 TABLE 106 ADVANCED BIOPROCESS DEVELOPMENT 184 TABLE 107 U.S. PATENT FILINGS FOR BIOMASS INVENTIONS, THROUGH 2013* 185 TABLE 108 BIOMASS TECHNOLOGY INVENTIONS, BY TOPIC, 2012 187 TABLE 109 MAJOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW, BY TECHNOLOGY 189 TABLE 110 METHODS FOR CONVERTING DIFFERENT BIOMASS SOURCES INTO BIOPRODUCTS 191 TABLE 111 CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO BIOBASED PRODUCTS 192 TABLE 112 BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS WITHIN THE ECONOMY 193 TABLE 113 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR THE BIO-DERIVED PRODUCT INDUSTRY 193 TABLE 114 PETRO-REFINERY SUPPLY VALUE CHAIN OVERVIEW 200 TABLE 115 NECESSARY VALUE CHAINS AND CAPITAL INVESTMENTS, BY TYPE OF BIOREFINERY 201 TABLE 116 ADDED VALUE OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS THROUGH PROCESSING AND STANDARDIZATION 202 TABLE 117 VALUE-ADDITION IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS 203 TABLE 118 GEOGRAPHICAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 204 TABLE 119 TYPICAL SCALE OF OPERATION FOR VARIOUS SECOND-GENERATION BIOFUEL PLANTS USING ENERGY CROP-BASED LIGNO-CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS 204 TABLE 120 CAPITAL COSTS AND EFFICIENCIES OF PRINCIPAL BIOELECTRICITY AND COMPETITIVE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 205 TABLE 121 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CO-FUNDED INTEGRATED BIOREFINERIES 206 TABLE 122 COMMERCIALIZATION STAGE OF BIOPRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 207 TABLE 123 PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES, BY COMPANY 210 TABLE 124 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BIOREFINERY JOBS 218 TABLE 125 GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS, BY COUNTRY 220 TABLE 126 IMPORTANT UPCOMING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY REGULATIONS, BY AREA 224 TABLE 127 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET BY COMPANY, 2012 (%) 225

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>> Get this Report Now by email! LIST OF FIGURES SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL BIOREFINERY DEMAND BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM TYPE, 2010-2018 ($ BILLIONS) 8 FIGURE 1 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL, DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL AND DERIVATIVE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 73 FIGURE 2 TRANSESTERIFICATION AND EPOXIDATION, HYDROFORMYLATION AND METATHESIS REACTIONS 73 FIGURE 3 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL AND DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 74 FIGURE 4 POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 78 FIGURE 5 NATURAL FIBER PROCESS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS 81 FIGURE 6 CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR METHYL ESTER BIODIESEL 86 FIGURE 7 VALUE CHAIN IN THE NATURAL INGREDIENT INDUSTRY 110 FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A STEAM DISTILLATION UNIT 111 FIGURE 9 SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES 1-PRIMARY BOILING VESSEL; 2-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER; 3-SECONDARY BOILING VESSEL; 4-CONDENSER/COOLER VESSEL. 113 FIGURE 10 BIOTECHNICAL SYNTHESIS OF

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Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets  

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVESBCC Research has just completed a study on the market for biorefinery technologies. In industry, biorefineries empl...

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