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FISH I.D. PROJECT Renwick Orlando Jones 4th Period 12/14/13


Title: Saltwater Fish

Species #1

Common Name: Asian Bass Scientific Name: Lates calcarifer Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Latidae

Geography / Habitat: Barramundi are catadromous, spending most of their life in fresh water and migrating to salt water in order to breed. Smaller fish are found in rivers and streams and larger fish are found in the ocean and estuaries (Pender, 1996; FAO, 1999). Life Strategy: Little is known about longevity of barramundi. Food / Feed Strategy: Barramundi are opportunistic predators. They eat micro crustaceans such as copepods and amphipods as juvenile fish under 40 mm. As larger juveniles they eat macrocrustaceans like Penaeidae and Palaemonidae.

Body Form or Style: N/A ● Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A ● Mouth Position: Terminal ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lates_calcarifer/


Title: Saltwater Fish

Species #2

Common Name: Queen Angelfish Scientific Name: Holacanthus ciliaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae

Geography / Habitat: Queen Angelfish are primarily found in coral reefs, which provide shelter and abundant food sources. They can be found at depths up to 70 m. Although they are naturally marine fish, queen angelfish can tolerate changes in salinity. Life Strategy: Queen Angelfish often travel alone or in pairs. Harems have been observed prior to mating, consisting of 1 male and 4 to 5 females. Food / Feed Strategy: Queen Angelfish primarily feed on sponges and corals.

● Body Form or Style: They have a strong spine at the angle of the preopercle (cheek bone) and lack a well-developed pelvic axillary process (fleshy bump at the base of the pelvic fin). ● Swim / Locomotion Style: Queen Angelfish often travel alone or in pairs ● Mouth Position: Front of body Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Holacanthus_ciliaris/


Title: Saltwater

Species #3

Common Name: Ocean Sunfish Scientific Name: Mola mola Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Molidae

Geography / Habitat: Adult ocean sunfish are found in temperate and tropical oceans across the globe. They prefer the open ocean but occasionally venture into kelp beds and deep coral reefs in order to be cleaned of parasites by fishes such as wrasses Life Strategy: Ocean sunfish are generally solitary, although they are found in groups when being cleaned by other fish Food / Feed Strategy: Ocean sunfish primarily feed on jellyfish and gelatinous zooplankton, such as ctenophores, salps, and medusae.

Body Form or Style: Ocean sunfish are generally solitary, Swim / Locomotion Style: side to side Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Mola_mola/


Title: Saltwater

Species #4

Common Name: Leather Bass Scientific Name: Dermatoplepis dermatolepis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Geography / Habitat: Leather bass live in reef areas with a depth between 4 to 40 m in the subtropics (35° N to 7°S). Leather bass inhabit rocky reefs and areas near the base of rocky faces. Life Strategy: Leather bass are expected to live in the wild for approximately 24 years, maximum. Food / Feed Strategy: Leather bass can be found hovering above rocky reefs during the day searching for food. They feed on small benthic fishes that are disturbed when foraging grazers come to feed in an area

Body Form or Style: Leather bass can change sex; some females change into males and become larger than individuals born as males ● Swim / Locomotion Style: specialized for swimming ● Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Dermatolepis_dermatolepis/


Title: Saltwater

Species #5

Common Name: Bull Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus leucas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Although Bull Sharks have been caught in considerably deeper water, they most often reside in water between 30 meters and waist deep Life Strategy: A life span of 13.7 years. The largest threat to the shark is the large number of humans who fish for it commercially Food / Feed Strategy: The Bull Shark is an omnivorous animal. It routinely preys upon fish, sharks (especially young sandbar sharks), rays, turtles, echinoderms, birds, mollusks, dolphins, and almost anything else it can find.

Body Form or Style: These features give the Bull Shark an almost stout appearance. The shark is gray on the top half of its body and off white underneath â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The Bull Shark also has two dorsal fins, the second of which is much smaller than the first. â—? Mouth Position: Bottom Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carcharhinus_leucas/


Title: Saltwater

Species #6

Common Name: Black mullet Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mugiliformes

Order: Mugiliformes

Family: Mugilidae

Geography / Habitat: Mugil cephalus are found in highly salty to fresh waters that are warm or temperate from 8 to 24 C. They spend a great deal of time close to shore around the mouths of streams and rivers or in brackish bays, inlets, and lagoons with sand or mud bottoms Life Strategy: They are absent in the Bahamas and the Caribbean Sea (Robins and Ray 1986). In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, striped mullet occur from the Bay of Biscay (France) to South Africa, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea (Thomson 1951). Food / Feed Strategy: Mullet are diurnal feeders, consuming mainly zooplankton, dead plant matter, and detritus.

Body Form or Style: The maximum length of striped mullet is 120 cm, with a maximum weight of 8 kg. The body of striped mullet is sub cylindrical and anteriorly compressed. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Striped mullet leap out of the water frequently. Biologists aren't sure why these fish leap so often, â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Mugil_cephalus/


Title:

Saltwater

Species #7

Common Name: Harlequin tuskfish Scientific Name: Choerodon fasciatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae

Geography / Habitat: Choerodon fasciatus lives in lagoons that are located on the outer edges of reef areas (Melbourne Aquarium). The water temperature is about 25-28 degrees Celsius (Randall, et al, 1990). Life Strategy: Each group consists of one male and multiple females. When the males dies or leaves the second most dominant female becomes the male. Food / Feed Strategy: Choerodon faciatus has some anti-predator adaptations. It is very brightly colored which is a warning to potential predators that its flesh could taste bad, be poisonous, or inedible (Melbourne Aquarium).

Body Form or Style: The caudal fins are yellow (Marshall). As it ages the back half of the body darkens to a dark blue/purple color â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The body of a juvenile C. fasciatus also has brown banding (Australian Museum Online, 2003). A mouth full of big blue teeth is a very distinctive feature of this species (Melbourne Aquarium). â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Choerodon_fasciatus/


Title: Saltwater

Species #8

Common Name: Pacific pollock Scientific Name: Theragra chalcogramma Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gadiformes

Family: Gadidae Geography / Habitat: Theragra chalcogramma is a saltwater fish that thrives in seas, oceans, and gulfs. It is broadly distributed with greater populations existing in the outer shelf and slope regions of oceanic waters. Life Strategy: Theragra chalcogramma has an olive-green belly. Its dorsal side displays a gradually darkening color scheme from the bottom to the top, eventually fading to a dark brown. Food / Feed Strategy: Theragra chalcogramma larvae are preyed on by northern rockfish, polka-dot snailfish, and atka mackeral. One-year-olds are preyed on by greenland turbot, plain sculpin, and arrowtooth flounder.

Body Form or Style: Theragra chalcogramma is a mobile species that is social and travels in schools. Dense schools of Theragra chalcogramma form during the spawning season. Depth, temperature ● Swim / Locomotion Style: They can only withstand a range of ten to twelve degrees Celsius (Bailey 1999). ● Mouth Position:Front ● Citation:http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Theragra_chalcog ramma/#lifespan_longevity


Title: Saltwater

Species #9

Common Name: redthroated rainbowfish Scientific Name: Coris aygula Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae

Geography / Habitat: C. aygula is a marine reef-associated fish, inhabiting rocky reef and coral areas. It lives in depth from 2 to 30 meters. It is tropical fish requiring a temperature between 24 and 28 degrees Celsius. Life Strategy: C. aygula uses body coloration to signal either members of their own species or other species. This would not be possible without the extreme clarity of reef water. Food / Feed Strategy: C. aygula eat shelled mollusks, hermit crabs, other crabs, and sea urchins.

Body Form or Style: Large C. aygula males change color and form as they develop. Juveniles start out with white coloration. There are orange or red colored spots on the back. Each dorsal fin has a large black spot. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The first dorsal spine becomes elongated and a hump on the forehead becomes apparent â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Coris_aygula/#communication


Title: Saltwater

Species #10

Common Name: white seabass Scientific Name: Atractoscion nobilis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae Geography / Habitat: Atractoscion nobilis inhabits brackish waters and usually prefers demersal areas. Rocky reefs and soft bottomed habitats are ideal. Life Strategy: White seabass are promiscuous. Males and females spawn multiple times with different partners. Food / Feed Strategy: Atractoscion nobilis feeds on northern anchovy, market squid, Pacific sardines, blacksmith, silversides, and pelagic red crab.

Body Form or Style: White seabass have the largest eggs of the six of Sciaenidae species found throughout the coastal waters of southern California. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: when water temperatures are 18 degrees Celsius. Generally, white seabass reach sexual maturity between 3.5 and 4.5 years of age. â—? Mouth Position: front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Atractoscion_nobilis/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #11

Common Name: Blue Chromis Scientific Name: Chromis cyanea Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae

Geography / Habitat: Blue chromis are found in lagoons and reef communities at depths of 3 to 60 meters; they are found most commonly at depths of 10-20 meters, where food and shelter are most abundant. They prefer water temperatures of 21 to 27°C, the same parameters required for coral survival; healthy coral is of vital importance to this species, as reefs provide a location for feeding, breeding, and protection from predators. Life Strategy: Blue chromis begin life as soft, translucent, demersal eggs, adhered to the substrate. The eggs are tended to by the male for 2 to 3 days before hatching into fastswimming larvae. The larval stage lasts 17-47 days. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue chromis feed mainly on plankton suspended in the water column. When feeding, they remain stationary in the water column and rely on the current to bring food particles to them. Feeding is accomplished by rapid extension of the jaw, which causes prey to be sucked into the buccal cavity, due to the negative pressure generated.

Body Form or Style: Blue chromis begin life as soft, translucent, demersal eggs, adhered to the substrate. ● Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A ● Mouth Position: front ,under eyes Citation:http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chromis_cyanea/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #12

Common Name: Rockfish Scientific Name: Sebastes caurinus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Sebastidae

Geography / Habitat: Copper rockfish are demersal, preferring the ocean bottom near lowprofile rocks and reefs. The range of water depths they inhabit is relatively broad, from 10 to 183 meters, and the fish are found in shallower water during upwelling. Life Strategy: Growth rates are fastest in fish less than 3 years old and are highest in the summer months, coinciding with high feeding rates and upwelling. Food / Feed Strategy: Copper rockfish are opportunistic carnivores that feed mainly on organisms present near the ocean floor.

Body Form or Style: Their overall color is variable but a copper-brown color with darker fins is generally observed. Patches of yellow or copper are also present, ● Swim / Locomotion Style: Adult copper rockfish are highly residential and remain near their home site. Although they are a solitary species and usually seen alone ● Mouth Position: Under eyes ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sebastes_caurinus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #13

Common Name: Leopard shark Scientific Name: Stegostoma fasciatum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Stegostomatidae

Geography / Habitat: Stegostoma fasciatum is commonly found around warm water reefs and sandy areas. It is common along the Australian coast. It usually resides at a depth of 62 m. Life Strategy: These sharks do not usually swim in open water, so their territories are limited mainly to the reef at which they were hatched or reefs that are closely connected to their natal area Food / Feed Strategy: Natural foods include gastropod and bivalve mollusks with smaller amounts of crabs, shrimp, and small fish.

Body Form or Style: The young sharks are darker in base color and have light stripes and spots than do adult sharks. As they age, the young lose their stripes and gain spots as their base color lightens. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: These sharks do not usually swim in open water, so their territories are limited mainly to the reef at which they were hatched or reefs that are closely connected to their natal area â—? Mouth Position: FRONT Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Stegostoma_fasciatum/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #14

Common Name: Greenland shark Scientific Name: Somniosus microcephalus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Squaliformes

Family: Somniosidae

Geography / Habitat: Somniosus microcephalus live mainly on continental and insular shelves. They occupy intertidal regions in addition to some river mouths and shallow bay areas during the winter months and often move to depths from 180 to 550 meters during warmer months. Life Strategy: No specific information about the longevity of Somniosus microcephalus exists. Some scientists speculate that these sharks may live in excess of 100 years. Food / Feed Strategy: Fish, marine mammals, and carrion are three staples in the diet of Somniosus microcephalus. Fish include herring (Clupeinae), salmon (Salmonidae), smelt (Osmeridae), cod (Gadidae), pollock (Theragra), haddock (Melanogrammus),

Body Form or Style: Somniosus microcephalus is a large, sluggish shark that averages between 2 and 4 meters in length. Most of the body is a medium grey or brown in color and sometimes exhibits dark transverse bands or small spots or blotches that are lighter or darker than the base color â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position:front Citation:http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Somniosus_microcephalus/#foo d_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #15

Common Name: Chain cat shark Scientific Name: Scyliorhinus retifer Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Scyliorhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Chain catsharks live in subtropical waters, with temperatures between 8.5 and 11.3ºC. They inhabit depths generally between 75 and 550 m, though in the northern part of their range they are found between 36 and 230 m. In southern areas they inhabit waters deeper than 460 m. Life Strategy: When Scyliorhinus retifer young reach 10 mm in length, they have welldefined gill arches and there is a clear roof over the medula. Food / Feed StrategyScyliorhinus retifer preys mostly on animals such as squid, fish, annelids, and crustaceans. In a gut content analysis of 81 specimens (both juveniles and adults), 96% had food in their stomachs.:

Body Form or Style: Scyliorhinus retifer has a slender body that is somewhat wedgeshaped, with a blunt snout narrowing to a slender tail. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: There is a space between the second dorsal fin and the caudal fins; the first dorsal fin sits slightly behind the level of the base of the pectoral fins. Body length normally reaches about 47 cm in females and 48 cm in males. ● Mouth Position :Under eyes ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Scyliorhinus_retifer/#physical_des cription


Title: Saltwater

Species #16

Common Name: Mandarin-fish Scientific Name: Synchiropus splendidus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Callionymidae

Geography / Habitat: Mandarin fish are tropical, marine fish found in waters with a temperature range of 24 to 26ºC. They are bottom dwelling, found at depths up to 18 m (Randall et al. 1990). During spawning they are pelagic and are seen in the open ocean Life Strategy: They are bottom dwelling, found at depths up to 18 m (Randall et al. 1990). During spawning they are pelagic and are seen in the open ocean Food / Feed Strategy: Mandarin fish feed on the bottom. They eat small crustaceans such as amphipods and isopods, small worms and protozoans.

Body Form or Style: The vibrant display colors of mandarin fish make them valuable fish for the aquarium trade (Sadovy, 2001). ● Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A ● Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Synchiropus_splendidus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #17

Common Name: Elfin shark Scientific Name: Mitsukurina owstoni Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Mitsukurinidae

Geography / Habitat: Goblin sharks seem to live in the mid and deep-water zones of outer continental shelves and slopes. Life Strategy: Mitsukurina owstoni is rather sluggish and accomplishes most of its hunting by swimming lazily or waiting for vertically migrating animals to come within striking distance. Food / Feed Strategy: Mitsukurina owstoni appears to feed mid-water or close to the bottom where it uses a combination of electrical sensors, smell and (minimal) eyesight to catch any vertically migrating animals that it comes across.

Body Form or Style: Mitsukurina owstoni develop directly from birth, and are probably ecologically similiar to free-swimming adults when they emerge from the mother. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position:front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Mitsukurina_owstoni/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #18

Common Name: giant sea bass Scientific Name: Stereolepis gigas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Polyprionidae Geography / Habitat: Juvenile giant sea bass are found at depths of 6 to 10 m, over mud flats and in coastal lagoons of southern California and the Baja California peninsula. Older juveniles and adults are found in 10 to 40 m of water over sandy bottoms Life Strategy: Giant sea bass inhabit coastal waters of California Food / Feed Strategy: Giant sea bass mainly consume benthic invertebrates including rock crab (Cancer antennarius) and California spiny lobster

Body Form or Style: Due to their large size, only large sharks and humans have the ability to prey on adults. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: In addition to the use of visual cues, giant sea bass are able to perceive their environment through the use of their lateral line system, which detects pressure changed and movement in surrounding waters â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Stereolepis_gigas/#communication


Title: Saltwater

Species #19

Common Name: Frill shark Scientific Name: Chlamydoselachus anguineus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Chlamydoselachidae

Geography / Habitat: Chlamydoselachus anguineus, is found on continental shelves and the nearshore areas of large islands, although they are occasionally reported in open waters. Life Strategy: Frilled sharks are wide ranging. They have been found almost worldwide, including the eastern Atlantic coast of northern Norway Food / Feed Strategy: Because of their sharp, cuspidate teeth, it is thought that their primary foods are small deep-water fishes, and squid

Body Form or Style: sharks, or eel sharks (Taylor et al., 2002), have a long slender body with an elongate tail fin, giving them an eel-like appearance (Compagno, 1984). The body tends to be a chocolate brown color. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chlamydoselachus_anguineus/#food_hab its


Title: Saltwater Common Name: Scribblefaced parrotfish Scientific Name: Scarus rivulatus

Species #20

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scaridae Geography / Habitat: Scarus rivulatus inhabit coral reefs and are most abundant in the mid-shelf region. They may also inhabit inshore reefs. Life Strategy: Both initial phase males and females may transition to a terminal phase male, which are larger and more colorful, from 190 to 400 mm SL. Food / Feed Strategy: S. rivulatus, as are all other scarids, are herbivores. They feed on many types microscopic algae that grow on calcareous material, such as coral skeletons.

Body Form or Style: Like many other parrotfish, the coloration of S. rivulatus changes dramatically at different stages of life. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The caudal fin and caudal peduncle usually have a

pale yellow hue. A striped pattern may also occur in solitary fish or in those who are schooling with other young scarid species. â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Scarus_rivulatus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #21

Common Name: Surgeonfishes Scientific Name: Acanthuridae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes Geography / Habitat: Acanthurids inhabit offshore coral reefs as adults but larvae are carried by the currents inshore where they quickly sink to the bottom and begin transformation to the juvenile form. Life Strategy: The dorsal fin usually has four to nine spines and the anal fin commonly has 19 to 36 soft rays and two or three spines Food / Feed Strategy: Acanthurids have small mouths and incisor-like, lobate teeth used to probe the reef for small animals (zooplankton) and plants.

Body Form or Style: One important form of communication in acanthurids is color changes that occur when males are aroused through intraspecific competition or spawning â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: One important form of communication in acanthurids is color changes that occur when males are aroused through intraspecific competition or spawning â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Acanthuridae/#food_habits


Title: Ssltwater

Species #22

Common Name: Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin Scientific Name: Sousa chinensis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetacea

Family: Delphinidae Geography / Habitat Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins have a highly tropical and subtropical distribution. They live in warm waters, generally warmer than 15 degrees Celsius, and at an average depth of 20 m, rarely traveling to waters deeper than 25 m.: Life Strategy: Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins breed once yearly, though births typically occur in the spring and summer. Food / Feed Strategy:Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins primarily feed on abundant estuarine fish and fish associated with reef environments

Body Form or Style: They are often found in or near bays, estuaries, mangrove forests, sandbanks, rocky and coral reefs and large river mouths. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The dorsal fin and hump of Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins varies with geographical region. In eastern waters, the dorsal fin is short and sits on a wide base that gradually slopes into the body. The tip of the fin is lightly recurved, â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sousa_chinensis/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #23

Common Name: Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: This species can be found near the surface of tropical oceans and as deep as 280 m. It is common on coral reefs and areas near drop-offs into deeper water. Life Strategy: They have a white underside and are distinguished by a broad black band on the edge of the tail and black markings on the tips of the pectoral fins. The dorsal fin is either grey or tipped white Food / Feed Strategy: The primary diet of C. amblyrhynchos is bony reef fishes less than 30 cm long. It also eats squid, octopi, crabs, lobsters, and shrimp

Body Form or Style: The species is viviparous, meaning that its embryos are connected to a placenta-like yolk sac, and the young are born alive and free-swimming, not in an egg. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position:Under eyes ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carcharhinus_amblyrhynchos/#d evelopment


Title: Saltwater

Species #24

Common Name: Bluntnose sevengill shark Scientific Name: Notorynchus cepedianus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Hexanchidae Geography / Habitat: Sevengill sharks are a marine benthic animals associated with continental shelves. Sevengill sharks inhabit different depth ranges depending on size. Life Strategy: There are numerous small, black spots on the body. The back and sides of these sharks are either redish-brown to silvery grey or olive-brown and the underside is cream colored. Food / Feed Strategy: An opportunistic predator, N. cepedianus feeds on many prey including sharks, rays, chimeras, dolphins, porpoises, seals, bony fish such as salmon, sturgeon, herring, anchovies and mammalian carrion, including rats and humans.

Body Form or Style: Broadnosed sevengill sharks have seven gill slits (most sharks have only five) in front of the pectoral fins, have a broadly rounded head with a short blunt nose, a wide mouth beneath the snout, a single dorsal fin â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position: front Citation:http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Notorynchus_cepedianus/#food_ habits


Title: saltwater

Species #25

Common Name: Giant porcupinefish Scientific Name: Diodon hystrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Diodontidae Geography / Habitat: Adults are generally found in holes and crevices in inshore areas including lagoons, caves, shipwrecks, reefs, and ledges, and are also found in seamount areas. They are found at depths up to 50 meters, most commonly between 3 and 20 meters. Life Strategy: Their fins do not have spots. These fish have large eyes and wide, flattened mouths. Their teeth are fused together and they have very strong jaws. Spot-fin porcupinefish can grow up to 91 cm, Food / Feed Strategy: Spot-fin porcupinefish are durophagous and carnivorous, having strong jaws and teeth that are fused together, specializations for eating hard-shelled creatures. Their beaked mouths can catch and crush sea urchins, crabs, snails, and clams while their large,

Body Form or Style: Spot-fin porcupinefish are well-known for their defensive ability to inflate their bodies by swallowing water â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: They also secrete dermal toxins that are poisonous to many species. â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Diodon_hystrix/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #26

Common Name: Guitarfish Scientific Name: Rhinobatos productus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Rhinobatidae Geography / Habitat: This species is usually found in the surf zone and in shallow coastal waters (average depth 13 m), though individuals have been observed at depths of up to 91 m. Life Strategy: This species prefers sandy or muddy bottoms and is occasionally found in sea grass beds, estuaries Food / Feed Strategy: Shovelnose guitarfish feed nocturnally on infaunal organisms such as worms, crabs, clams, and smaller fish. In Elkhorn Slough, California, their preferred prey is yellow shore crabs

Body Form or Style: The lateral line system that extends the length of the body detects pressure waves from movements of prey and other animals in the water, and electroreceptors on the underside of the snout â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Much like rays, they may also bury themselves in sand to effectively conceal themselves from predators â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Rhinobatos_productus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species # 27

Common Name: whitelip reef shark Scientific Name: Triaenodon obesus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: Triaenodon obesus is a reef shark as its name would indicate and lives in or around coral reefs. These reef settings are in tropical, coastal waters. Life Strategy: However each species takes on a particular location within the reef system. Food / Feed Strategy: Despite the docile nature of this shark during the day, during feeding at night they become very aggressive. It will thrash through coral reefs looking for food.

Body Form or Style: Like other sharks, this species also has electroreceptive abilities to help them detect prey. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The most dangerous predator of the whitetip reef shark is humans. However, in the ocean they can be prey for large carcharhinid sharks, such as the tiger shark â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Triaenodon_obesus/#communication


Title:

Saltwater

Species #28

Common Name: silvertip shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus albimarginatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: These pelagic sharks are found both inshore and offshore in tropical waters, often at continental and insular shelves, at depths from the surface to 800 meters. They are also very common around coral banks and reefs, as well as around offshore islands. Life Strategy: They are also very common around coral banks and reefs, as well as around offshore islands. Food / Feed Strategy: Silvertip sharks are apex predators and consume benthic and midwater organisms including wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri), spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari), wrasses (Labridae sp.), tuna and bonito (Scombridae sp.),

Body Form or Style: Silvertip sharks have a slender, streamlined shape with a long, broadly rounded snout and large, round eyes. Swim / Locomotion Style: Silvertip sharks are mainly found in tropical regions of the western Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and eastern African waters. â—? Mouth Position:Front bottom Citation:http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carcharhinus_albimarginatus/#ph ysical_description


Title: Saltwater

Species #29

Common Name: Clown anemonefish Scientific Name: Amphiprion ocellaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae Geography / Habitat: Amphiprion ocellaris inhabits coral reefs (Allen 1997) and sheltered lagoons up to a depth of 15 meters (Myers 1999). More specifically, it is mainly found in or near the anemones Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla gigantean, and Stichodactyla mertensii Life Strategy: There are 11 dorsal spines and 17 pectoral rays that help to distinguish it from the closely related Amphiprion percula. Females are larger than males in this species. Food / Feed Strategy: Planktonic food such as zooplankton, copepods, and algae are the primary source of food for A. ocellaris (Myers 1999). They are classified as generalized omnivores as they feed on equal amounts of algae and animals

Body Form or Style: False clownfish are orange to reddish-brown with three white bands on the head and body. The white bands are outlined in black. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Spawing occurs year-round in the tropics, but only in warmer months in warm-temperate areas. â—? Mouth Position:Front under head Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Amphiprion_ocellaris/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #30

Common Name: Handsaw fish Scientific Name: Alepisaurus ferox Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Aulopiformes

Family: Alepisauridae Geography / Habitat: Longnose lancetfish can be found from the epipelagic through the bathypelagic zones (most commonly in the mesopelagic zone), at depths of 0-1850 meters Life Strategy: Longnose lancetfish have large mouths and a long palatine bone, with highly developed teeth (1-2 anterior fangs and 3 smaller posterior fangs, as well as 7-10 triangluar posterior teeth). In addition to these, there are small teeth set into the upper jaw, Food / Feed Strategy: Longnose lancetfish are reportedly opportunistic, daytime feeders (although some researchers have stated that these fish are nocturnal). They are voracious hunters of epipelagic and mesopelagic prey and have been described as ambush-type hunters.

Body Form or Style: Little is currently known about the development of longnose lancetfish. specifically. Existing evidence suggests that these fish follow a standard developmental progression, advancing from an egg to a planktonic stage, to a pelagic larval stage, before finally achieving their adult form. ("Alepisaurus ferox", 2012; Bailly, 2013; Bray, 2013; Froese and Luna, 2012) â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: specialized for swimming â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Alepisaurus_ferox/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #31

Common Name: Maroon clownfish Scientific Name: Premnas biaculeatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae Geography / Habitat: The most important aspect of spinecheek anemonefish habitat is the host anemone. Entacmaea quadricolor, bulb-tentacle sea anemones, are the only host species for spinecheek anemonefish Life Strategy: The typical water depth is less than 50 m, because anemones require sunlight to grow. The mutualistic zooxanthellae Food / Feed Strategy: Spinecheek anemonefish have a diet rich in copepods and planktonic, larval tunicates. They also eat other kinds of plankton and algae.

Body Form or Style: The developmental stages of spinecheek anemonefish are egg, larvae, young and adult. The transparent, elliptical eggs are 3-4 mm in size. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Metamorphosis occurs when anemonefish leave surface waters and swim to the sea bottom. It then takes on the color pattern of a juvenile â—? Mouth Position: UNDER EYES Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Premnas_biaculeatus/#development


Title: Saltwater

Species #32

Common Name: Silverfish Scientific Name: Megalops atlanticus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Elopiformes

Family: Megalopidae Geography / Habitat: Tarpon are found in estuaries, bays, lagoons and have even been known to travel up into freshwater rivers. Life Strategy: They occupy warmer waters in subtropical areas and sudden temperature changes have been known to kill tarpon in large numbers. M. atlanticus is a pelagic fish. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of Megalops atlanticus changes throughout development. In the first stage of their development, tarpon get nutrients directly from the water.

Body Form or Style: The ventral surface of most fish is lighter in color, silver in the case of the tarpon. This countershading helps it blend in with the lighter color of the surface water when a predator is looking at it from below â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Tarpon exhibit a color pattern called countershading, which most fish use as a method to prevent predation â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Megalops_atlanticus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #33

Common Name: Brown anemonefish Scientific Name: Amphiprion akindynos Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae Geography / Habitat: Amphiprion akindynos inhabits reef waters and lagoons between 1 and 25 meters deep with temperatures ranging from 10 to 32 degrees Celsius. They are found in nature swimming in and closely around the tentacles of their host anemone Life Strategy: According to Allen (1980), A. akindynos are protected from possible stings by a special substance which is present in their external mucous covering. This substance does not actually protect them from the stinging cells. “Instead, it lowers the threshold of nematocyst discharge. Food / Feed Strategy: Barrier Reef anemonefish primarily eat algae and zooplankton. Copepods and larval tunicates are among the most common items found when their stomach contents are analyzed.

Body Form or Style: The body and head of adult A. akindynos are both a brownish orange color. Two black-edged white bars encircle the body. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: Juveniles are usually brown with three thick white bars. Sub-adults are usually yellow with two thin white bars. ● Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Amphiprion_akindynos/#physical_descri ption


Title: Saltwater

Species #34

Common Name: Butterflyfishes Scientific Name: Chaetodontidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Chaetodontidae Geography / Habitat: Butterflyfishes are a marine family occupying tropical to warm temperate waters. Some occur in the brackish water of estuaries and protected bays, commonly along steep parts of rocky reefs. Life Strategy: The jaws of some butterflyfishes can measure more than 25% of their body length. Butterflyfishes are, in general, sexually monomorphic (males and females look alike), although occasionally males have been found to be larger than females. Food / Feed Strategy: Generally benthic feeders, many butterflyfishes eat small invertebrates, sponges or polychaete worms. Some feed on zooplankton, and others exist exclusively on coral polyps. Another feeding method is scraping the surface of live coral to obtain algae, attached invertebrates, and mucus from the coral.

Body Form or Style: Most butterflyfishes have a dark band obscuring the eye, and often have a false eye spot in contrasting colors near the tail. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The ocelli, or eye spots, may reduce damage from fin-biting predators by mimicking the head. Another possibility is that the ocelli are a signal to help maintain cohesion in shoaling groups â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation:http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chaetodontidae/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater Fish

Species #35

Common Name: Dogfish shark Scientific Name: Carcharias taurus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes rays, sharks, and Order: Lamniformes relatives Family: Odontaspididae Geography / Habitat: Grey nurse sharks are found in temperate and tropical waters. They are typically found in shallow waters, such as shallow bays, surf zones, and near coral or rocky reefs. Life Strategy: These different lobes allow for great movement. The mouth bears razor like teeth and is long and slender, with pointed snout Food / Feed Strategy: Grey nurse sharks have a range of prey, including bony fish, rays, lobsters, crabs, squid, and other small sharks. Grey nurse sharks sometimes hunt cooperatively, chasing fish into small groups and then attacking them

Body Form or Style: Young nurse sharks develop a jaw and teeth very early their development and some eat their siblings while still developing within their mother, â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: A dominance hierarchy has only been observed in captivity, with the oldest males copulating first. â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carcharias_taurus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #36

Common Name: Aurora trout Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Brook trout are found in three types of aquatic environments: rivers, lakes, and marine areas. Their living requirements in these environments are very specific. Life Strategy: Brook trout that reside in marine environments migrate there from freshwater tributaries and tend to stay close to river mouths. Food / Feed Strategy: The food habits of brook trout vary according to their age and life history stage. As fry, or very young fish, brook trout feed primarily on immature stages of aquatic insects (Everhart, 1961). In general a brook trout's diet can be likened to a smorgasbord of organisms with prey ranging from mayflies to salamanders

Body Form or Style: The brook trout's body is elongate with an average length of 38.1-50.8 cm, is only slightly laterally compressed; the body has its greatest depth at or in front of the origin of the dorsal fin (Scott and Crossman, 1985). â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Salvelinus_fontinalis/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater

Species #37

Common Name: Parrotfish Scientific Name: Sparisoma viride Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scaridae Geography / Habitat: Stoplight parrotfish live on reefs, depending on the shelter, protection, and nutrition that densely packed coral provides. Life Strategy: Coloration varies with age and sex. Juveniles have reddish brown and black scales, with three rows of white spots along their sides and a vertical white bar on the caudal fin. Their bellies are pale red. Food / Feed Strategy: These fish forage on live and dead coral, and occasionally on detritus. Rather than feeding by scraping corals, stoplight parrotfish excavate coral skeletons, creating deep holes using their strong jaws and regenerative teeth.

Body Form or Style: These fish range in length from 300-600 mm (10-24 in) and may continue to grow as they age; initial phase females range in size from 100-367 mm and terminal phase males are much larger, reaching lengths of over 600 mm â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sparisoma_viride/#physical_description


Title: Saltwater

Species #38

Common Name: Blue Shark Scientific Name: Prionace glauca Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: Blue sharks inhabit the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones (from the surface to about 350 m in depth), in water temperatures ranging between 12 and 20°C. Life Strategy: Blue sharks congregate together on continental shelves during the summer. Mating begins when a male bites a female between her first and second dorsal fins. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue sharks prey on up to 24 species of cephalopods and 16 species of fish. They primarily feed upon non-active, gelatinous, mesopelagic/bathypelagic cephalopods such as blanket octopus (genus Tremoctopus), bathyscaphoid squids

Body Form or Style: After fertilization, embryos develop inside the female's uterus, nourished by a placenta-like yolk sac. Females give birth to fully-developed, live young. Blue sharks have one of the fastest growth rates of all sharks, growing up to 30 cm annually until maturity. ● Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A ● Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Prionace_glauca/


Title: Saltwater

Species #39

Common Name: Bluntnose Sixgill Shark Scientific Name: Hexanchus griseus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Hexanchidae Geography / Habitat: Hexanchus griseus is mainly a deep water shark, rarely found at depths of less than 100 m. The species seems to usually stay close to the bottom, near rocky reefs or soft sediments. The deepest one has been found was about 2500 m Life Strategy: These sharks are diel vertical migrators; they are nocturnal and remain in the deep oceans during the day but rise towards the surface at night. Food / Feed Strategy: Hexanchus griseus is a skilled predator and is solely carnivorous, feeding on such animals as fishes, rays, and other sharks.

Body Form or Style: The retinas are comprised of mostly rods and, therefore, do not function well in even moderately lit areas but are well suited for the dark conditions of the deep oceans. Being such a large-bodied shark, â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hexanchus_griseus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater/Marine

Species #40

Common Name: Fiveband surgeonfish Scientific Name: Acanthurus triostegus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae Geography / Habitat: Convict tangs are surgeonfish that prefer to occupy coral reefs, but are also found in tidepools and other nearshore habitats such as shallow, low current beach communities. They are tropical reef fish whose latitudinal range is 26ºN to 36ºS with a longitudinal range from 25ºE to 85ºW. Convict tangs are mainly found in temperatures ranging from 24-26ºC and at depths of 0-90 m. Life Strategy: Convict tang populations near the equator can spawn at any time during the year, while populations elsewhere may only spawn seasonally (in Hawaii spawning occurs around full moons in February and March). Food / Feed Strategy: Convict tangs are herbivores, grazing on algae found on rocks and corals. Adaptations to their algivorous diet include mouths that are slightly downwardlydirected and flexible, comb-like teeth.

Body Form or Style: Initially, juveniles lack the vertical bars present in adults. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Acanthurus_triostegus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #41

Common Name: Black catfish Scientific Name: Ameiurus melas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii ray-finned fishes

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: Black bullheads occupy most freshwater habitats, from small farm ponds to large lakes. They can inhabit many waters that are otherwise unsuitable for other fishes. They can tolerate poorly oxygenated, polluted, turbid, and high temperature waters. Life Strategy: After spawning, eggs hatch in 4 to 10 days. Free swimming fry remain close to the adult male for around two weeks. Food / Feed Strategy: Young black bullheads usually thrive on ostracods, amphipods, copepods, and insects and their larva. Young feed primarly in schooling patterns during midday. Adults tend to be nocturnal, and feed on a wide variety of invertebrates.

● Body Form or Style: They can tolerate poorly oxygenated, polluted, turbid, and high temperature waters. Because they are relatively small, black bullheads also occupy many small creeks and rivers. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: They prefer soft bottoms (in creeks and rivers) and avoid free flowing waters where water moves rapidly. ● Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ameiurus_melas/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #42

Common Name: Catfish Scientific Name: Pylodictis olivaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Flathead catfish are native to rivers and lakes in the lower Great Lakes and Mississippi River basin. Flathead catfish inhabit rivers, lakes, and reservoirs with slow currents. Younger individuals prefer shallower water. Life Strategy: They prefer to remain near or under cover, including fallen trees, logs, brush piles, and river banks. Food / Feed Strategy: Flathead catfish are carnivores that prey on many different types of animals, depending on size. They are known to eat crayfish, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), insects and larvae, channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), other flatheads (Pylodictis olivaris), green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and carp.

Body Form or Style: This is a large-bodied species that can attain sizes of over one meter in length and 56 kg in weight. Flathead catfish are also called mud catfish, because of their yellow to purple-brown dorsal coloration. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pylodictis_olivaris/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #43

Common Name: Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: Channel catfish can live in both fresh and salt water and brackish water yet they are generally found in freshwater environments. Ictalurus punctatus are found in many bodies of water such as lakes, reservoirs and ponds and also in areas of moving water such as streams, creeks and rivers. Life Strategy: After fertilization the eggs are protected and also aerated by the male. The eggs are adhesive and their size ranges from 2.4 to 3.0 mm in diameter (Chapman 2000). The temperature of the water determines how long before the eggs are hatched. Food / Feed Strategy: Ictalurus punctatus can be thought of as one large mouth because there are taste buds located all over their body. The olfactory system is used mostly in consumption of food. Adult channel catfish, over 45 cm, consume fishes such as yellow perch and sunfish.

Body Form or Style: The channel catfish is speckled, with a darker back to a light whitish belly, but the color can vary from blue, black or olive. Generally in muddy water they are olive to yellowish white and in clear water they are blacker in color. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The dorsal and pectoral fins have hard spines whereas the other rays are soft like the anal and caudal fins. â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ictalurus_punctatus/#food_habits


Title:

Freshwater

Species #44

Common Name: Longtail knifefish Scientific Name: Sternopygus macrurus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gymnotiformes

Family: Sternopygidae Geography / Habitat: Sternopygus macrurus occurs in many freshwater bodies in South America. It is known to inhabit the area from the Magdalena River to the Sao Francisco River and western Ecuador. It is also found in the Catatumbo River and the Amazon in Peru. (Ortega and Vari 1986) .Sternopygus macrurus is most common in benthopelagic and freshwater bodies such as swamps, creeks, and rivers with lentic waters. The pH range for S. macrurus is 6.0 to 6.5 and the dH range is 4.0 to 15.0. (Ortega and Vari 1986) Life Strategy: The male Sternopygus macrurus defends a territory. Just before or during the rainy season, the male will attract a female passing though his territory as a spawning partner. Food / Feed Strategy: Sternopygus macrurus is a predator of small invertebrates. Its diet is mainly composed of aquatic insect larvae. (Planquette, Keith, and LeBail 1996)

Body Form or Style: Sternopygus macrurus is a knife-shaped fish. It has a slender body with a tapering tail. The maximum length of the Longtail Knifefish is 100.0 cm in total length. S. macrurus is an electric fish. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: After four days, the Sternopygus macrurus embryos hatch from the eggs. Seven days later, the larvae make their first feeding. The fish reaches sexual maturity at the age of one year. Mature males are territorial. â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sternopygus_macrurus/#physical_descri ption


Title: Freshwater

Species #45

Common Name: Gemfish Scientific Name: Atractosteus spatula Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Lepisosteidae Geography / Habitat: Alligator gar are found in large lakes, rivers, and bayous. Typically they are found in backwaters and bottomland swamps. They are found in both freshwater and brackish waters, they rarely enter marine waters (Etnier, 1993; Knopf, 2002). Life Strategy: They have a heterocercal tail. Their swim bladder can function as a lung. The snout is short and broad with two rows of teeth on the upper jaw (Etnier 1993, Knopf, 2002). They are protected by a thick set of ganoid scales (Knopf 2002). Food / Feed Strategy: Alligator gars are opportunistic carnivores and sit-and-wait predators. They appear to be sluggish, but can ambush prey with short bursts of speed (Goddard, 2005).

Body Form or Style: Alligator gar are grayish green to brown color on their dorsal surface and yellowish or white colored ventrally (Page and Burr, 1991). â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: They are alligator-like in appearance, with their long, slender body, jaws armed with many teeth, and their habit of floating at the water surface (Goddard 2005). Their eyes are small. â—? Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Atractosteus_spatula/#habitat


Title: Freshwater

Species #46

Common Name: Blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis marmoratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae Geography / Habitat: Although river blackfish can be found in both slower and faster flowing waters, they prefer to stay in low-velocity (0 to 20 cm/s), highly sheltered pools of lowland rivers. Shelter in the pools includes rocks and woody debris, along with other inputs from the terrestrial landscape, which help to slow the flow of the river. Life Strategy: River blackfish are elongated and round, and the body is covered in small scales. The dorsal and anal fins are long and found low on the body. Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. They prefer to ambush prey areas of cover in order to most efficiently use their short, quick bursts of speed.

Body Form or Style: River blackfish have hemoglobin in their blood with low oxygen affinity relative to that of other aquatic fish. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: The fish is covered in a thick layer of slime, a characteristic which has earned river blackfish alternative nicknames such as slippery or slimy blackfish. River blackfish have muscle composed almost entirely of white muscle ● Mouth Position: Terminal ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gadopsis_marmoratus/#physical_ description


Title: Freshwater

Species #47

Common Name: American black bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Largemouth bass prefer quiet, clear waters with abundant vegetation (Iguchi and Matsuura, 2004). More specifically, they prefer shallow water that is usually no deeper than 2.5 meters, but they sometimes occupy deeper regions. Micropterus salmoides is native to eastern North America and historically ranged from southern Canada to northern Mexico, and from the Atlantic coast to the central region of the United States. Life Strategy: At this point, the juveniles are approximately one month in age. From this point on their growth rate occurs at different speeds throughout their lives. During the first year, largemouth bass grow from 10 to 20 centimeters in length. Growth rate decreases every year, and after about five to six years there is very little change in length. Food / Feed Strategy: Immature Micropterus salmoides feed on zooplankton and aquatic insects. As they grow their diet shifts to crayfish and other fish species.

Body Form or Style: At this point, the juveniles are approximately one month in age. From this point on their growth rate occurs at different speeds throughout their lives. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: During the breeding season, each male prepares and builds a nest in shallow water. Nests are generally very crude in design ● Mouth Position: Terminal ● Citation:http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Micropterus_salmoides/# physical_description


Title: Freshwater

Species #48

Common Name: Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: The native range of Micropterus dolomieu encompasses the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence seaway drainages from southern Quebec and New Hampshire to North Dakota. Although its native distribution overlaps much of the northern range of Micropterus salmoides, M. dolomieu typically is found in cooler rivers and lakes. Life Strategy: Like all other species of the genus Micropterus, the smallmouth bass has a moderately compressed, elongate body. Food / Feed Strategy: Fry and juvenile diets consist primarily of zooplankton and insect larvae. Adults have a more diverse palate, subsisting on such varied foods as crayfish, amphibians, insects, and other fish

Body Form or Style: As visual predators, smallmouth bass actively seek out clear waters (Sweka and Hartman, 2002). â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: In lakes, smallmouth seek out structures, such as logs, rocky outcroppings, or pier posts (Etnier and Starnes, 1993). â—? Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Micropterus_dolomieu/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #49

Common Name: Aurora trout Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Brook trout are found in three types of aquatic environments: rivers, lakes, and marine areas. Their living requirements in these environments are very specific. The freshwater populations occur in clear, cool, well-oxygenated streams and lakes. Brook trout are found as far south as Georgia in the Appalachian mountain range and extend north all the way to Hudson Bay. Life Strategy: Stream dwelling brook trout require three habitat components, which include resting areas in pools, feeding sites near riffles or swiftly flowing water, and escape cover which normally is found along undercut banks, under woody debris, trees or large rock ledges Food / Feed Strategy: The food habits of brook trout vary according to their age and life history stage. As fry, or very young fish, brook trout feed primarily on immature stages of aquatic insects

Body Form or Style: The fish has been introduced, very successfully in some areas, into many parts of the world including western North America, South America, New Zealand, Asia, and many parts of Europe â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Brook trout that reside in marine environments migrate there from freshwater tributaries and tend to stay close to river mouths. â—? Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Salvelinus_fontinalis/#geographic_range


Title: Freshwater

Species #50

Common Name: Cub shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus leucas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: Although Bull Sharks have been caught in considerably deeper water, they most often reside in water between 30 meters and waist deep. Life Strategy: Bull Sharks are viviparous, meaning they give birth to live young that are nourished inside the mother shark. Sexual maturity is reached between the ages of 8 - 10. Food / Feed Strategy: The Bull Shark is an omnivorous animal. It routinely preys upon fish, sharks (especially young sandbar sharks), rays, turtles, echinoderms, birds, mollusks, dolphins, and almost anything else it can find.

Body Form or Style: The shark is gray on the top half of its body and off white underneath. Several individuals have been found with pale stripes on the sides of their bodies. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The Bull Shark also has two dorsal fins, the second of which is much smaller than the first. â—? Mouth Position: TERMINAL Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carcharhinus_leucas/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #51

Common Name: Blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis marmoratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae Geography / Habitat: Although river blackfish can be found in both slower and faster flowing waters, they prefer to stay in low-velocity (0 to 20 cm/s), River blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) have a relatively limited range, inhabiting freshwater rivers in southeastern Australia. Life Strategy: They also show great diversity in terms of dorsal and ventral body color. Lateral and dorsal coloration is variable and can be mottled yellow, brownish-green, grey, dark brown, or light blue. Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. They prefer to ambush prey areas of cover in order to most efficiently use their short, quick bursts of speed. They have a diverse diet. Prey items include insects, mollusks, crustaceans, small fish, and terrestrial invertebrates that fall into the water

Body Form or Style: River blackfish are elongated and round, and the body is covered in small scales. The dorsal and anal fins are long and found low on the body. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: River blackfish reproduce sexually, but their mating system is unknown. Fertilization of eggs occurs outside of the mother’s body, and eggs are normally laid inside hollow logs. ● Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gadopsis_marmoratus/


Title: Freshwater

Species #52

Common Name: Blackfish Scientific Name: Blackfish Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae Geography / Habitat: Although river blackfish can be found in both slower and faster flowing waters, they prefer to stay in low-velocity (0 to 20 cm/s), highly sheltered pools of lowland rivers. River blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) have a relatively limited range, inhabiting freshwater rivers in southeastern Australia. Life Strategy: River blackfish are elongated and round, and the body is covered in small scales. The dorsal and anal fins are long and found low on the body. Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. They prefer to ambush prey areas of cover in order to most efficiently use their short, quick bursts of speed.

Body Form or Style: Average length and weight are 30 cm and 450 g, respectively. Body size varies geographically in river blackfish. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: River blackfish have hemoglobin in their blood with low oxygen affinity relative to that of other aquatic fish. â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gadopsis_marmoratus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #53

Common Name: Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Although its native distribution overlaps much of the northern range of Micropterus salmoides, M. dolomieu typically is found in cooler rivers and lakes, with rocky or sandy substrates (Berra, 2001). Life Strategy: Larvae are typically 2.2-2.5 mm long at hatching. The notochord flexion occurs at a length of 6-9 mm. Food / Feed Strategy: Fry and juvenile diets consist primarily of zooplankton and insect larvae. Adults have a more diverse palate, subsisting on such varied foods as crayfish, amphibians, insects, and other fish (Scott and Crossman, 1973; Etnier and Starnes, 1993).

Body Form or Style: As visual predators, smallmouth bass actively seek out clear waters (Sweka and Hartman, 2002). Increases in turbidity can cause displacement of many fish species, M. dolomieu included (Larimore, 1975). â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Like all other species of the genus Micropterus, the smallmouth bass has a moderately compressed, elongate body. â—? Mouth Position: Larvae are typically 2.2-2.5 mm long at hatching. The notochord flexion occurs at a length of 6-9 mm. Dorsal and anal fins are typically completely formed by the time the fish has reached 7-13 mm. Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Micropterus_dolomieu/#habitat


Title: Freshwater

Species #54

Common Name: North American freshwater catfishes Scientific Name: Ictaluridae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: The North American freshwater catfishes is a fish family found only in freshwater rivers and lakes of North America from southern Canada to Guatemala. There are about 45 species. Members of this family have no scales on their bodies and have 8 barbels near their mouths. They can grow up to 1.6 meters and over 50 kilograms but many species are small, weighing up to half a kilogram. These catfish are generally bottomfeeders and scavengers. Life Strategy: The North American freshwater catfishes is a fish family found only in freshwater rivers and lakes of North America from southern Canada to Guatemala. There are about 45 species. Members of this family have no scales on their bodies and have 8 barbels near their mouths. They can grow up to 1.6 meters and over 50 kilograms but many species are small, weighing up to half a kilogram. These catfish are generally bottomfeeders and scavengers. Food / Feed Strategy: The North American freshwater catfishes is a fish family found only in freshwater rivers and lakes of North America from southern Canada to Guatemala. There are about 45 species. Members of this family have no scales on their bodies and have 8 barbels near their mouths. They can grow up to 1.6 meters and over 50 kilograms but many species are small, weighing up to half a kilogram. These catfish are generally bottomfeeders and scavengers.

Body Form or Style: They can grow up to 1.6 meters and over 50 kilograms but many species are small, weighing up to half a kilogram. These catfish are generally bottom-feeders and scavengers. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: They can grow up to 1.6 meters and over 50 kilograms but many species are small, weighing up to half a kilogram. These catfish are generally bottom-feeders and scavengers. â—? Mouth Position:

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ictaluridae/


Title: Freshwater

Species #55

Common Name: Cub shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus leucas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: Although Bull Sharks have been caught in considerably deeper water, they most often reside in water between 30 meters and waist deep. The Bull Shark inhabits coastal waters in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide. (Enchanted Learning 2000) Life Strategy: The shark is gray on the top half of its body and off white underneath. Several individuals have been found with pale stripes on the sides of their bodies. Food / Feed Strategy: The Bull Shark is an omnivorous animal. It routinely preys upon fish, sharks (especially young sandbar sharks), rays, turtles, echinoderms, birds, mollusks, dolphins, and almost anything else it can find.

Body Form or Style: It also is preyed upon by other large sharks especially in its juvenile stage. One interesting behavior is the Bull Shark's willingness to enter freshwater areas. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The Bull Shark is one of the most commonly caught sharks in the world. It is frequently used as food in coastal areas and its skin is used to make leather. â—? Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carcharhinus_leucas/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #56

Common Name: Three-lined pencilfish Scientific Name: Nannostomus trifasciatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Lebiasinidae Geography / Habitat: N. trifasciatus prefers slow-moving, peaty, slightly acidic water. It is also usually found in shaded, weedy areas. Nannostomus trifasciatus is a freshwater fish native to Guyana, the Rio Negro, and the middle portion of the Amazon River (Wheeler, 1975; Sterba, 1963). Life Strategy: The gill cover and dorsal, pelvic, anal, and caudal fins possess large red blotches. Males of the species may have an additional row of red spots in the gold area between the middle and uppermost stripes Food / Feed Strategy: N. trifasciatus spends much of its time near the water surface, where it feeds primarily on insects. It has also been reported to eat detritus and algae. In captivity, it will eat just about any type of standard fish food

Body Form or Style: N. trifasciatus often falls prey to other fish species, such as the striped pike-characin, Boulengerella lateristriga. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: N. trifasciatus is fairly common throughout its home range, and because it is bred easily in captivity for the aquarium trade, it is unlikely that this species will face extinction in the near future â—? Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Nannostomus_trifasciatus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #57

Common Name: Bass Scientific Name: Morone chrysops Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae Geography / Habitat: White bass are principally found in large bodies of water (i.e., deep lakes and unmuddied rivers). Reservoir systems have been shown to house higher populations compared to natural lakes and rivers. Morone chrysops (white bass) can be seen in many parts of North America. Its range extends from southern Canada to northeastern Mexico following a path roughly between the Mississippi River system and the Appalachian Mountains. Life Strategy: Characteristics that enable more precise identification of the species include a lateral line count of 51 to 60 scales. Dorsal fin rays number 12 to 14 anal fin rays 11 to 13. This species has 20 to 25 gill rakers and its pectoral fins have 15 to 17 fin rays. Food / Feed Strategy: Larval white bass feed mostly on zooplankton, especially Daphnia species. As development proceeds, juveniles begin feeding on macro-invertebrates, such as chironomid larvae

Body Form or Style: White bass are silvery gray fish with the belly and breast region being lighter (silver to white) and the dorsal region silver to black in color. They exhibit numerous narrow, uninterrupted, dark colored lines along their sides which are sometimes incomplete below the lateral line. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Characteristics that enable more precise identification of the species include a lateral line count of 51 to 60 scales. Dorsal fin rays number 12 to 14 anal fin rays 11 to 13. â—? Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Morone_chrysops/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #58

Common Name: Calico bass Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: The native range of Pomoxis nigromaculatus is the freshwaters of central and eastern North America. It has further been introduced to freshwater lakes of the Pacific coast and Canada due to its popularity as a sport-fish and its durability. Life Strategy: There are color variances among populations of black crappie. Age, habitat, and breeding are all determinants of the intensity and patterns of mottling: juveniles tend to have less pigment and pattern than adults; those black crappie living in clear. Food / Feed Strategy: As a juvenile, Pomoxis nigromaculatus feeds mainly on microscopic prey such as Cyclops, Cladocera, and Daphnia.

Body Form or Style: Pomoxis nigromaculatus favors clear, warm, highly vegetated, moderately acidic, and non-turbid waters of lakes and rivers in its natural range. (Sigler et al. 1987) â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: There are color variances among populations of black crappie. Age, habitat, and breeding are all determinants of the intensity and patterns of mottling: juveniles tend to have less pigment and pattern than adults; those black crappie living in clear, â—? Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pomoxis_nigromaculatus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #59

Common Name: Bluegill Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Bluegill prefer to live in lakes and slow-moving, rocky streams. They can often be found in deep beds of weeds. In Hawaii they primarily inhabit reservoirs. Though they are freshwater fish, they can tolerate salinities up to 18% and are present in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Life Strategy: This species is native to lakes and streams in the St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River systems. Food / Feed Strategy: The very small mouth of this fish is an adaptation to eating small animals. Bluegills are carnivores, primarily eating invertebrates such as snails, worms, shrimp, aquatic insects, small crayfish, and zooplankton.

Body Form or Style: Like other sunfish, bluegill have very deep and highly compressed bodies. In other words, they are "tall" and "flat." They have a small mouth on a short head. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Young bluegill are a paler version of the adults, usually silver with a slight purple sheen. â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lepomis_macrochirus/#physical_descrip tion


Title: Freshwater

Species #60

Common Name: Alabama Cavefish Scientific Name: Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percopsiformes

Family: Amblyopsidae Geography / Habitat: Key cave, the single locale of S. poulsoni, is a large underground multi-level structure that has thousands of meters of mapped area. Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni is a cavefish whose range is limited solely to Key Cave, Lauderdale County, Alabama, north of the Tennessee River. Life Strategy: Embedded cycloid scales cover the body and bifurcate fin rays are absent in all fins. Food / Feed Strategy: No invasive studies have been done due to the species extremely endangered status and the fragility of their cave habitat.

Body Form or Style: Embedded cycloid scales cover the body and bifurcate fin rays are absent in all fins. Alabama cavefish have an elaborate system of sensory papillae on the sides and head and a hypertrophied lateral-line. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The major distinguishing feature between it, and the only other cavefish in Alabama, Typhlichthys subterraneus, are the three nonpapilliferous fin rays between the medial-most rows of caudal sensory papillae â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Speoplatyrhinus_poulsoni/#physical_desc ription


Title: Freshwater

Species #61

Common Name: Redbelly piranha Scientific Name: Pygocentrus nattereri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae Geography / Habitat: Pygocentrus nattereri is typically found in whitewater streams in South America (Saint-Paul 2000). However, the species is not found typically in blackwater streams (Fink 1993) (Fink, 1993; Saint-Paul, et al., March 2000) Life Strategy: Pygocentrus nattereri seems to have a type of courtship display that involves swimming in circles. This results in ventral-to-ventral interactions among the male and female. Eggs are placed in the sediment, in bowl shaped nests. These nests are around 4-5 cm in depth and 15 cm in diameter. Food / Feed Strategy: Foraging methods vary in different life stages of P. nattereri. During the day, smaller fish (80-110 mm) search for food.

Body Form or Style: Pygocentrus nattereri physical characteristics vary with location, population, and age. In juvenile P. nattereri there are differences in physical characteristics depending on the size of the fish. A change in color pattern does seem to develop as size increases. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Pygocentrus nattereri seems to have a type of courtship display that involves swimming in circles. â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pygocentrus_nattereri/#habitat


Title:

Freshwater

Species #62

Common Name: Green sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis cyanellus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Lepomis cyanellus is a species with a wide tolerance to many different aquatic conditions, one reason why they have been successfully introduced elsewhere. Life Strategy: They have a dark spot on the soft spinous portion of the dorsal fin, and sometimes a spot on the posterior portion of their anal fin. Food / Feed Strategy: Green sunfish are dietary generalists. Green sunfish larvae consume various types of zooplankton and, as they grow, they expand their diets to include insect larvae and small snails. As juveniles and adults their diets expand to add small crayfish, fish eggs, insects, and small fish. It should be noted that, as competition decreases, their average prey size increases.

Body Form or Style: Lepomis cyanellus occurs in central North America, from the plains east of the Rocky Mountain range and west of the Appalachian mountain range, ● Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A ● Mouth Position:Front ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/search/?q=freshwater&feature=INFORMA TION&start=150


Title: Freshwater

Species #63

Common Name: Three-lined pencilfish Scientific Name: Nannostomus trifasciatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Lebiasinidae Geography / Habitat: N. trifasciatus prefers slow-moving, peaty, slightly acidic water. It is also usually found in shaded, weedy areas. Nannostomus trifasciatus is a freshwater fish native to Guyana, the Rio Negro, and the middle portion of the Amazon River Life Strategy: It has been suggested that the daytime color pattern may serve an aposematic or recognition function for individuals of the same species, and that the nighttime pattern may help hide the fish from nocturnal predators. Food / Feed Strategy: N. trifasciatus spends much of its time near the water surface, where it feeds primarily on insects. It has also been reported to eat detritus and algae. In captivity, it will eat just about any type of standard fish food

Body Form or Style: Immediately after hatching, the young hang on to plants or rest on the bottom. They do not swim freely until their 5th day. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Fertilization takes place externally, and anywhere from 30-70 eggs are produced at a time. The eggs hatch in 18-72 hours, depending on the water temperature â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Nannostomus_trifasciatus/#development


Title: Freshwater

Species #64

Common Name: Calico bass Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: The native range of Pomoxis nigromaculatus is the freshwaters of central and eastern North America. Pomoxis nigromaculatus favors clear, warm, highly vegetated, moderately acidic, and non-turbid waters of lakes and rivers in its natural range. Life Strategy: There are color variances among populations of black crappie. Age, habitat, and breeding are all determinants of the intensity and patterns of mottling. Food / Feed Strategy: As a juvenile, Pomoxis nigromaculatus feeds mainly on microscopic prey such as Cyclops, Cladocera, and Daphnia.

Body Form or Style: Black crappie adults vary from 130-381 mm in length. The average weight varies from 0.25-0.90 kg. Black crappie are a monomorphic species characterized by 7-8 dorsal spines which are stepped in length, an upturned (S-shaped) snout â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Before the spawning period, black crappie form schools that migrate to shallower water to feed. â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pomoxis_nigromaculatus/#geographic_ra nge


Title: Freshwater

Species #65

Common Name: Allegheny River pike Scientific Name: Esox masquinongy Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Esocidae Geography / Habitat: Muskellunge inhabit freshwater rivers and lakes and can survive in a wide range of water temperatures. Muskellunge prefer water in the 67-to 72-degree range and are hardly ever found in waters with a maximun temperature below 68 F. Life Strategy: They also have a well-defined home range. Several studies have shown that muskellunge seldom leave their home range, except to spawn, although they roam about within it. Food / Feed Strategy: Muskellunge are the top predator in any body of water where they occur, and they will eat larger prey than most other freshwater fish.

Body Form or Style: The duckbill-shaped jaws have long, sharp teeth: the roof of the mouth has pads of shorter, recurved teeth â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The underside of the jaw has sensory pores, numbers varying from 12 to 20, but the count is usually 15-18 â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Esox_masquinongy/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #66

Common Name: Carp Scientific Name: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Silver carp live in freshwater in temperate (6 to 28 °C) to subtropical climates. They are commonly found in impoundments or backwaters of large slow flowing rivers or large lakes. Silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, are native to eastern Asia and are commonly found in northeastern China and Siberia. Life Strategy: They have numerous thin gill rakers (100 or more). Silver carp are also characterized by a smooth ventral keel on the abdomen that runs from the anus to the gill membrane. Food / Feed Strategy: Silver carp are filter feeders, feeding primarily on phytoplankton. Using specialized gill rakers covered with a thick matrix of calcified substances, silver carp are able to filter out the very smallest organisms (ranging in size from 8 to 100 micrometers).

Body Form or Style: With substantial food sources and few natural predators, silver carp can grow quite large and can live many years. Silver carp may live as long as 20 years in the wild, and may be capable of living longer. ( ● Swim / Locomotion Style: Reproduction is primarily cued by increased water temperature. Like other species of carp, silver carp participate in broadcast spawning. ● Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hypophthalmichthys_molitrix/#food_hab its


Title: Freshwater

Species #67

Common Name: Bluegill Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Bluegill prefer to live in lakes and slow-moving, rocky streams. They can often be found in deep beds of weeds. This species is native to lakes and streams in the St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River systems. Life Strategy: Bluegill are most active at dawn. During the day they stay hidden under cover, and they move to shallow water to spend the night. Schools may contain 10 to 20 fish. Food / Feed Strategy: The very small mouth of this fish is an adaptation to eating small animals. Bluegills are carnivores, primarily eating invertebrates such as snails, worms, shrimp, aquatic insects, small crayfish, and zooplankton.

Body Form or Style: The body is mainly olive green with yellowish underneath. Their name "bluegill" comes from the iridescent blue and purple region on the cheek and gill cover (opercle). â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: A close look reveals six to eight olive-colored vertical bars on the sides. â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lepomis_macrochirus/#habitat


Title: Freshwater

Species #68

Common Name: Redear sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis microlophus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Redear sunfish prefer warm and calm or stagnant waters. As a result, preferred habitat is restricted to ponds, lakes, river backwaters, and reservoirs. Redear sunfish are native to the central and southern United States and can be found in the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes and Mississippi River drainages, Life Strategy: The riverine habitats in which they are found, tend to be large and slow flowing with moderate amounts of aquatic vegetation. Food / Feed Strategy: Redear sunfish are mainly bottom feeders. Fry stay in benthic waters and feed on algae and microcrustaceans. Juveniles eat insects, insect larvae, and small snails.

Body Form or Style: Redear sunfish are mainly bottom feeders. Fry stay in benthic waters and feed on algae and microcrustaceans. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Male redear sunfish construct nests made from sand, gravel, and mud. Nests are typically found near aquatic plants, which provide cover for juveniles prior to maturation. â—? Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lepomis_microlophus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #69

Common Name: Danube catfish Scientific Name: Silurus glanis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Siluridae Geography / Habitat: Silurus glanis is found primarily in large rivers and lakes and in deep water near dams. These catfish sometimes enter brackish water in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea. Life Strategy: Silurus glanis individuals have 1 dorsal spine and 4 to 5 dorsal soft rays, 1 anal spine and 90 to 94 anal soft rays, and a caudal fin with 17 rays. They have paired pectoral fins with 1 spine and 14 to 17 soft rays each. Food / Feed Strategy: Silurus glanis fry feed on plankton during their first year of life. When they reach larger sizes they begin to eat worms,

\Body Form or Style: The larvae hatch in approximately 3 days, measuring around 7 mm, and begin feeding on plankton. These fish grow quickly and can reach between 1.5 and 4.5 kg in their first year. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The male creates a shallow depression that will hold thousands of eggs laid by the female. The eggs are protected by the male until they hatch. Females can lay about 30,000 eggs per kilogram of body weight. â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Silurus_glanis/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #70

Common Name: Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus limbatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: Blacktip sharks are common tropical, warm-temperate, inshore and offshore sharks (Stafford-Deitsch, 1987). They are often found on or near the continental and insular shelves. Life Strategy: The teeth are narrow, erect and narrow-cusped serrated upper anterolatheral teeth (Compagno, 1984). Food / Feed Strategy: Blacktip sharks are primarily fish eaters (Taylor, 1993). The prey species include a number of bony fishes including sardines, menhaden, herring, anchovies, ten-pounders, sea catfish, coronetfish, tongue-soles, threadfins, mullet, spanish mackeral, jacks, groupers, snook, porgies, mojarras, emperors, grunts, slipjaws, butterfish, croakers, soles, tilapia, triggerfish, boxfish and porcupine fish

Body Form or Style: They are also found in shallow muddy bays, mangrove swamps of high salinity, lagoons, coral reef drop-offs and in areas found far offshore â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The first dorsal fin is large with a black tip on the rear. The second dorsal fin is much smaller yet contains a black tip as well. â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carcharhinus_limbatus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #71

Common Name: Electric catfish Scientific Name: Malapterurus electricus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Malapteruridae Geography / Habitat: The genus Malapterurus is found throughout western and central tropical Africa and the Nile River. Species in the genus Malapterurus are generally found among rocks or roots in turbid and/or black waters with low visibility; they favor sluggish or standing water. Life Strategy: Species in Malapterurus are generally grayish-brown on the back and sides, fading to an off white or cream color on the ventral surfaces of the head and body. There are irregular black spots or blotches randomly distributed on the sides of the body. Food / Feed Strategy: Malapterurus electricus is a voracious piscivore (Sagua, 1979; Olatunde, 1984), hunting and stunning its prey using its paralyzing electrical organ discharge (EOD).

Body Form or Style: The pectoral, pelvic and caudal fins are rounded. The pectoral fins lack spines and have 8 to 9 fin rays. The pelvic fins have 6 fin rays and are inserted approximately halfway between the tip of he snout and the base of the caudal peduncle. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The posterior half of the caudal peduncle usually has a dark brown or black vertical bar and a cream vertical bar immediately anterior to it. â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Malapterurus_electricus/#physical_descr iption


Title: Freshwater

Species #72

Common Name: Florida gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus platyrhincus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Lepisosteidae Geography / Habitat: Lepisosteus platyrhincus inhabits medium to large lowland streams, canals, and lakes with muddy or sandy bottoms, and must be near abundant underwater vegetation.One of the most widespread and numerous of the gar species in Florida, Lepisosteus platyrhincus is found in the United States from the Savannah River drainage in Georgia to the Ocklockonee River drainage in Florida and Georgia. Life Strategy: The canal itself is extremely shallow, with high water temperatures, low dissolved oxygen levels, and low flow rates. Food / Feed Strategy: Florida gars use ram feeding, which is the use of a high velocity lunge or chase to kill prey. This feeding behavior in consists of a slow stalk, resulting in the close, lateral positioning of the head relative to prey

Body Form or Style: The Tamiami Canal is a good example of the versatility and adaptability of L. platyrhincus. It is less developed than most, thus having fewer pollutants from urbanization. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Florida gars can be found at any depth in the habitats they occupy, from the surface to the bottom of the water body. â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lepisosteus_platyrhincus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #73

Common Name: Leopard shark Scientific Name: Stegostoma fasciatum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Stegostomatidae Geography / Habitat: Stegostoma fasciatum is commonly found around warm water reefs and sandy areas. It is common along the Australian coast. It usually resides at a depth of 62 m. Life Strategy: It lives mainly over continental and insular shelves and is very common around coral reefs and sandy bottoms. It generally resides around 62 m below the surface of the ocean Food / Feed Strategy: Natural foods include gastropod and bivalve mollusks with smaller amounts of crabs, shrimp, and small fish.

Body Form or Style: The head is broad with large eyes and a transverse mouth just below them. Five gill slits are present on the side of the head. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The anterior dorsal fin is larger than the posterior and the gray body is covered in dark brown spots. â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Stegostoma_fasciatum/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #74

Common Name: Australian lungfish Scientific Name: Neoceratodus forsteri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Sarcopterygii

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Stegostomatidae Geography / Habitat: Typical habitats of Australian lungfish consist of “still or slowflowing, shallow, vegetated pools” in areas of constant, lasting water (Department of the Environment et al. 2009). Life Strategy: Their exact native distribution, however, cannot be verified due to the transplantation of several lungfish in 1898 to the Enoggera Reservoir, the North Pine River, the Brisbane River, and various other locations where they were previously believed not to exist (Kemp 1987). Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of Australian lungfish changes with their progressive development, especially as their dentition develops. When young lungfish first begin to feed, they possess several “sharp, cone-shaped teeth” that act to seize and hold their quarry (Department of the Environment et al. 2009).

Body Form or Style: Length of each stage of development varies considerably among individual Australian lungfish. Egg persistence is highest in shallow water that is condensed with macrophytes. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: Many of these translocated populations may now be low in abundance if not completely absent from some areas. Australian lungfish are partially restricted to their current environment, because they cannot survive in saline water. ● Mouth Position: Front ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Neoceratodus_forsteri/#developm ent


Title: Freshwater

Species #75

Common Name: Lake trout Scientific Name: Salvelinus namaycush Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii ray-finned fishes

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Lake trout are a cold-water species requiring relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen for survival (Ryan, 1994). Life Strategy: Lake trout are known to hybridize with brook trout where the range of the two species overlap. The resulting hybrid, known as a splake, supports intermediate features. Food / Feed Strategy: As adults, lake trout are generally pisciverous, feeding on a wide variety of pelagic prey species. In the Great Lakes region, alewives, smelt, sculpin and chubs make up a large portion of the lake trout diet (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 1999).

Body Form or Style: Though long-lived, both males and females, on average, do not reach sexual maturity until six to eight years of age (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 1999). Research has indicated that environmental factors, such as lake size and dissolved solid concentrations, may play a role in the age of first maturity and overall repoductive success of the lake trout â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Salvelinus_namaycush/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #76

Common Name: Lake trout Scientific Name: Salvelinus namaycush Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Lake trout are a cold-water species requiring relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen for survival (Ryan, 1994). Life Strategy: The lower fins tend to be orange-red with a narrow white edge. Younger fish will have seven to twelve interrupted parr marks along their sides (Page, 1991). Food / Feed Strategy: As juveniles, lake trout feed on zooplankton and small invertebrates. As they mature, their foraging patterns shift and the fish become opportunistic piscivores.

Body Form or Style: Lake trout seek substrates of cobble, rubble or gravel in which to spawn. Males will fan the bottom clean of finer silt so that the fertilized eggs of the female can be deposited in the substrate. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Eggs overwinter for four to six months before hatching. The developing trout remain in the crevices of the spawing substrate until their yolk-sac is completely absorbed. â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Salvelinus_namaycush/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #77

Common Name: Frill shark Scientific Name: Chlamydoselachus anguineus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Chlamydoselachidae Geography / Habitat: Chlamydoselachus anguineus, is found on continental shelves and the nearshore areas of large islands, although they are occasionally reported in open waters. Frilled sharks are wide ranging. They have been found almost worldwide, including the eastern Atlantic coast of northern Norway, Life Strategy: the western Indian Ocean near South Africa, the western Pacific near New Zealand, and the eastern Pacific near the coast of Chile. Food / Feed Strategy: Because of their sharp, cuspidate teeth, it is thought that their primary foods are small deep-water fishes, and squid (Taylor et al., 2002).

Body Form or Style: The pectoral fins are short and rounded (Taylor et al., 2002). Chlamydoselachus anguineus has six gill openings (most sharks have five). The first gill is continuous across the throat, while all the gills are surrounded by frilly margins of skinhence the name "frilled shark." â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Male sharks must grab females, maneuver their bodies so that he can introduce his claspers to pass sperm into the vent. â—? Mouth Position:Front

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chlamydoselachus_anguineus/#physical_ description


Title: Freshwater

Species #78

Common Name: Southern cavefish Scientific Name: Typhlichthys subterraneus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percopsiformes

Family: Amblyopsidae Geography / Habitat: Southern cavefish inhabit subterranean waters and are troglobitic. They prefer caves that are near the watertable and have low energy flows. Typhlichthys subterraneus is restricted in its geographic range to the North American continent. Some scientists believe their range was continuous in the past and may still be. Life Strategy: Southern cavefish do not have pelvic fins. There are 7-10 dorsal rays, 7-10 anal rays, and 10-15 caudal rays. Food / Feed Strategy: Food is scarce. Typhlichthys subterraneus forages using its sensory papillae in midwater and on the substrate.

Body Form or Style: Southern cavefish inhabit subterranean waters and are troglobitic. They prefer caves that are near the watertable and have low energy flows. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Normally there is no pigment on the body, although tests have shown that coloration does appear if a specimen is removed from its habitat and exposed to light. â—? Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Typhlichthys_subterraneus/#habitat


Title: Freshwater

Species #79

Common Name: Australian lungfish Scientific Name: Neoceratodus forsteri Kingdom: Aniimalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Sarcopterygii

Order: Neoceratodus

Family: Ceratodontidae Geography / Habitat: Typical habitats of Australian lungfish consist of “still or slowflowing, shallow, vegetated pools” in areas of constant, lasting water (Department of the Environment et al. 2009). Life Strategy: They are olive-green or grey-brown in color on the dorsal side, yelloworange below, and also have some white on their ventral side. In contrast to adults, juvenile lungfish have a more circular head, shorter fins, a scrawny trunk, and their underside is a faint pink color. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of Australian lungfish changes with their progressive development, especially as their dentition develops. When young lungfish first begin to feed, they possess several “sharp, cone-shaped teeth” that act to seize and hold their quarry (Department of the Environment et al. 2009). At this stage, they typically cull worms and small crustaceans such as brine shrimp.

Body Form or Style: Certain endemic fishes, such as Tilapia, are speculated to feed on juveniles and the eggs of Australian lungfish. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: Australian lungfish prey on a variety of organisms, but little else is known about their role in their ecosystem. They may compete with certain endemic fish, like Tilapia, for breeding sites. ● Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Neoceratodus_forsteri/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater

Species #80

Common Name: Guitarfish Scientific Name: Rhinobatos productus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Rhinobatidae Geography / Habitat: This species is usually found in the surf zone and in shallow coastal waters (average depth 13 m), though individuals have been observed at depths of up to 91 m Shovelnose guitarfish are found along the Southwestern coast of North America, ranging from San Francisco to Guerrero, Mexico Life Strategy: This species prefers sandy or muddy bottoms and is occasionally found in sea grass beds, estuaries, and near rocky reefs. ("Shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus)", 2012; Farrugia, et al., 2011; Froese and Luna, 2012) Food / Feed Strategy: Shovelnose guitarfish feed nocturnally on infaunal organisms such as worms, crabs, clams, and smaller fish. In Elkhorn Slough, California, their preferred prey is yellow shore crabs (Hemigrapsus oregonensis). (Talent, 1982)

Body Form or Style: This species has a countershaded body. By staying primarily on the sea floor, most often on muddy areas, the gray coloration on the dorsal surface helps to camouflage them from predatory birds and mammals. Much like rays, they may also bury themselves in sand to effectively conceal themselves from predators. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The lateral line system that extends the length of the body detects pressure waves from movements of prey and other animals in the water, and electroreceptors on the underside of the snout â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Rhinobatos_productus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #81

Common Name: Garibaldi Scientific Name: Hypsypops rubicundus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae Geography / Habitat: Unlike most other members of the damselfish family (Pomacentridae), H. rubicundus lives in cooler temperate waters as opposed to tropical reefs. Their habitats range from the shallow subtidal regions down to depths of approximately 100 feet. Life Strategy: Juvenile H. rubicundus are distinctivly colored with iridescent blue colored spots along their pectoral and tail fins as well as their lateral lines. Food / Feed Strategy: H. rubicundus feeds primarily on small sessile sponges, bryozoans, and plankton that are found in and around the kelp forests that serve as its home

Body Form or Style: One of the most interesting behaviors of H. rubicundus is its premating behavior. Once the male has created an inviting nest it must next attract a female with which to breed. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: This dipping behavior is often accompanied by a loud “thumping” noise. This noise is a function of the H. rubicundus grinding its pharyngeal teeth. ● Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hypsypops_rubicundus/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #82

Common Name: Blue ring angelfish Scientific Name: Pomacanthus annularis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae Geography / Habitat: P. annularis is a tropical, marine (salt water) fish that lives around coastal rocky coral reefs and other hard bottom coastal areas. Pomacanthus annularis live in the Indo-Pacific region ranging from Sri Lanka to the Solomon Islands and from the Philippines to the northern tip of Australia Life Strategy: The juveniles are usually at the upper range of the adults and sometimes are in even shallower water. Food / Feed Strategy: P. annularis are omnivorous, eating benthic invertebrates such as zooplankton, sponges, tunicates and coral polyps.

Body Form or Style: Also during development a drastic change occurs in the coloration patterns of juvenile P. annularis to the adult. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Then as they mature into adults, the vertical blue and white stripes disappear, the caudal fin whitens, and the background becomes a dark orange to brown. Mouth Position: Front â—? Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pomacanthus_annularis/#develop ment


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #83

Common Name: Doctorfish Scientific Name: Anarrhichthys ocellatus Kingdom: Animalia animals

Phylum: Chordata

Class: N/A

Order: N/A

Family: Myxinidae Geography / Habitat: Pacific hagfish are found typically on muddy bottoms to depths of 633 meters, but can also be found occasionally on rocky bottoms. Eptatretus stoutii (Pacific hagfish) are found in cold marine waters of the antitropical north and south Pacific Ocean on muddy sea floors. Life Strategy: They are more common at shallower depths, from 40 to 100 meters. Pacific hagfish may make small migrations from shallow waters in the fall into deeper water. Food / Feed Strategy: Pacific hagfish have two pair of primitive, yet effective, rasps on the tongue used primarily for grasping. After establishing a firm hold on a food source, the hagfish ties and unties a knot within its own body to generate a ripping force.

Body Form or Style: Pacific hagfish produce large amounts of mucilaginous slime, and can tie and untie knots in their body to evade predators. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Pacific hagfish feed on a variety of dead or dying organisms, including fish and mammals, but also probably include marine invertebrates in their diet. Male hagfish may eat hagfish eggs â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Eptatretus_stoutii/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #84

Common Name: Bullhead Scientific Name: Heterodontus portusjacksoni Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes rays, sharks, and Order: Heterodontiformes relatives Family: Heterodontidae Geography / Habitat: Heterodontus portusjacksoni is one of the better known species of horn sharks (Heterodontus). It was named after Port Jackson in Sydney Harbour. Port Jackson sharks live in tropical marine waters usually near the bottom of rocky environments. Life Strategy: Port Jackson sharks have two types of teeth: incisors for cutting and molars for crushing. They are ideal for holding, crushing, and breaking the shells of their crustacean and mollusk prey. Food / Feed Strategy: Port Jackson sharks feed primarily on invertebrates, mainly echinoderms. They eat sea urchins, starfish, polychaetes, large gastropods, prawns, crabs, barnacles, and small fishes.

Body Form or Style: Port Jackson sharks have two dorsal fins with a spine at the tip. These are not venomous and can be very sharp when young, but usually dull with age â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: They are ideal for holding, crushing, and breaking the shells of their crustacean and mollusk prey. (Budker, 1971; McGrouther, 2005; Whitley, 1940) â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Heterodontus_portusjacksoni/#physical_ description


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #:85

Common Name: Handsaw fish Scientific Name: Alepisaurus ferox Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: N/A

Family: N/A Geography / Habitat: Longnose lancetfish can be found from the epipelagic through the bathypelagic zones (most commonly in the mesopelagic zone), at depths of 0-1850 meters. Life Strategy: Their coloration is darker dorsally and towards the keel and all of the fins are dark brown or black. Food / Feed Strategy: They are also known cannibals, particularly when other prey is unavailable. Longnose lancetfish have large mouths and sharp teeth to aid in catching prey.

Body Form or Style: Known predators of longnose lancetfish include opah, sharks, yellowfin tuna, albacore, pacific cod, bigeye tuna, swordfish, fellow longnose lancetfish, and fur seals. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Alepisaurus_ferox/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #86

Common Name: Thimble jellyfish Scientific Name: Linuche unguiculata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Coronatae

Family: Linuchidae Geography / Habitat: Linuche unguiculata occupies the shallow, warm, marine waters of the subtropics and tropics. While it prefers shallow water, it can occupy the epipelagic (surface to 200 m), mesopelagic (200 to 1000 m), bathypelagic (1000 to 4000 m), or abyssopelagic (4000 to 6000 m) regions Life Strategy: Between the folds of the lappets are an alternating eight tentacles and eight rhopaliums (sense organs). Food / Feed Strategy: The primary prey of L. unguiculata consists of crustacean plankton, including copepods and barnacle larvae. (Jamison, 2007

Body Form or Style: Each saucerlike bud develops into a tiny jellyfish, breaks off from the stack, and becomes free swimming young ephyra jellyfish. After a few weeks, the young ephyrae will grow into adult medusae jellyfish, completing the life cycle â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Linuche_unguiculata/#development


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #87

Common Name: Rockfish Scientific Name: Morone saxatilis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae Geography / Habitat: Striped bass thrive in large bodies of deep, clear water. Ideal temperatures range from 18.3 to 21.1 °C, and evidence suggests a lower temperature limit of 9.0 °C. Mature fish can be found living inshore, in estuaries, and in freshwater habitats, depending on season and location, and most individuals are found more within five miles from the coast. Juvenile fish are normally found in rivers, which provide critical habitat for spawning. Life Strategy: This species has been introduced to many inland lakes and reservoirs in the Midwest, as well as, the Pacific coast of the United States. Food / Feed Strategy: The dietary habits of striped bass change throughout their life. As larvae, striped bass feed on zooplankton, and as juveniles they mostly feed on insect larvae, small crustaceans, mayflies, and larval fish.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Morone_saxatilis/#habitat


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #88

Common Name: Damselfishes Scientific Name: Pomacentridae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae Geography / Habitat: Pomacentridae primarily inhabit tropical reef habitats. Some live along steep edges of the reef, and others in sandy sheltered lagoons. Life Strategy: Their bodies tend to be high, oval and laterally compressed, with the lateral line interrupted. The single, continuous dorsal fin has eight to 17 spines and 10 to 18 soft rays, the anal fin usually has two spines Food / Feed Strategy: Bottom-dwelling damselfishes feed, for the most part, on algae and small invertebrates. They may tend “gardens” of filamentous algae, or in the case of anemonefishes, feed on the anemone itself or other organisms that are commensal with the anemone.

Body Form or Style: In the subtropics spawning is usually limited to the warmer months of the year, but a few spawn in fall or winter. ● Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A ● Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pomacentridae/#food_habits


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #89

Common Name: false killer whale Scientific Name: Pseudorca crassidens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetacea

Family: Delphinidae dolphins Geography / Habitat: False killer whales are common in tropical or temperate seas. They visit coastal waters but prefer to remain in deeper waters. They are known to dive as deep as 2000 meters. (Watson, 1981; Shirihai and Jarrett, 2006; Watson, 1981; Shirihai and Jarrett, 2006; Watson, 1981; Shirihai and Jarrett, 2006; Watson, 1981) Life Strategy: False killer whales are common in tropical or temperate seas. They visit coastal waters but prefer to remain in deeper waters. They are known to dive as deep as 2000 meters. (Watson, 1981; Shirihai and Jarrett, 2006; Watson, 1981; Shirihai and Jarrett, 2006; Watson, 1981; Shirihai and Jarrett, 2006; Watson, 1981) Food / Feed Strategy: False killer whales are carnivores, eating primarily fish and squid. They mainly eat squid (Loligo) but also opportunistically take fish and occasional marine mammals, such as seals (Phocidae) or sea lions (Otariidae).

Body Form or Style: They then peel the fish using their teeth and discard all the skin before eating the remains. Some mothers will hold a fish in the mouth and allow their calf to feed on the fish. This food manipulation is rare in cetaceans. ("Review on Small Cetaceans: Distribution, Behaviour, Migration and Threats", 2005; Perrin, et al., 2002; Watson, 1981) â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: They have been observed catching a fish in their mouth while completely breaching the waters' surface. â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pseudorca_crassidens/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #90

Common Name: Longtail knifefish Scientific Name: Sternopygus macrurus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gymnotiformes

Family: Sternopygidae Geography / Habitat: Sternopygus macrurus is most common in benthopelagic and freshwater bodies such as swamps, creeks, and rivers with lentic waters. Sternopygus macrurus occurs in many freshwater bodies in South America. It is known to inhabit the area from the Magdalena River to the Sao Francisco River and western Ecuador. It is also found in the Catatumbo River and the Amazon in Peru. Life Strategy: The male Sternopygus macrurus defends a territory. Just before or during the rainy season, the male will attract a female passing though his territory as a spawning partner Food / Feed Strategy: Sternopygus macrurus is a predator of small invertebrates. Its diet is mainly composed of aquatic insect larvae. (Planquette, Keith, and LeBail 1996)

Body Form or Style: He attracts a female using electric signals from his electric organ. A single mating results in over 6000 eggs. (Hopkins 1972; Provenzano 1984; Kirschbaum 1995) â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: The fish reaches sexual maturity at the age of one year. Mature males are territorial. â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sternopygus_macrurus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #91

Common Name: Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: Channel catfish can live in both fresh and salt water and brackish water yet they are generally found in freshwater environments. Ictalurus punctatus are found in many bodies of water such as lakes, reservoirs and ponds and also in areas of moving water such as streams, creeks and rivers. Life Strategy: The depth at which they are found varies but during most of the day they are found in deep holes, overhangs, other various locations that provide shelter or are at the bottom of a body of water. Food / Feed Strategy: Ictalurus punctatus can be thought of as one large mouth because there are taste buds located all over their body

Body Form or Style: The spines on the dorsal and pectoral fins are great antipredator devices. A predator trying to eat a channel catfish could get impaled by a spine. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ictalurus_punctatus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #92

Common Name: Black catfish Scientific Name: Ameiurus melas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: The native range of Ameiurus melas extends west from the Appalachian mountain range to Arizona, north to southern Canada, Life Strategy: Black bullheads have an average lifespan of five years in the wild and a slightly higher lifespan in captivity. The oldest found are around ten years. Food / Feed Strategy: Young black bullheads usually thrive on ostracods, amphipods, copepods, and insects and their larva. Young feed primarly in schooling patterns during midday.

Body Form or Style: Midge larvae and other young insects are the primary diet for adult bullheads. Black bullheads have been known to eat small fish and fish eggs as well. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Left to right motion â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ameiurus_melas/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #93

Common Name: River blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis marmoratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae Geography / Habitat: Although river blackfish can be found in both slower and faster flowing waters, they prefer to stay in low-velocity (0 to 20 cm/s), highly sheltered pools of lowland rivers. Shelter in the pools includes rocks and woody debris, along with other inputs from the terrestrial landscape, which help to slow the flow of the river. Life Strategy: These immature fish tend to remain in shallow waters, burrowing themselves under leaf litter. (Dobson and Baldwin, 1982a; Dobson and Baldwin, 1982b; Jackson, 1978a; Jackson, 1978b; Khan, et al., 2004) Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. They prefer to ambush prey areas of cover in order to most efficiently use their short, quick bursts of speed. They have a diverse diet. Prey items include insects, mollusks, crustaceans, small fish, and terrestrial invertebrates that fall into the water.

Body Form or Style: Therefore, large blackfish tend to remain in deeper waters in order to minimize the risk of terrestrial predation. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: Young river blackfish spend much time under leaf litter and little time out in the open in order to avoid predation by dragonfly nymphs (Odonata) and freshwater crayfish (Parastacidae). â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gadopsis_marmoratus/#food_habit


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species#94

Common Name: Lingcod Scientific Name: Ophiodon elongatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Hexagrammidae Geography / Habitat: Lingcod are coastal fish that occupy submerged banks with dense communities of algae, and channels with strong currents flowing over and around rocky reefs. They avoid muddy and sandy bottoms, and stagnant areas. Life Strategy: The only color consistent among individuals is white, which appears on the ventral side of the gills. Food / Feed Strategy: Lingcod are ambush predators that eat anything that can fit in their mouths, especially fish and large invertebrates.

Body Form or Style: Body coloration of lingcod is cryptic and variable, but generally consists of dark shades of brownish-green with blotches of copper along the length of the body. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: Eggs hatch during late winter or early spring. Newly hatched larvae are approximately 7 to 10 mm in length and are transported by ocean currents until they grow large enough to swim about freely. ● Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ophiodon_elongatus/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #95

Common Name: Handsaw fish Scientific Name: Alepisaurus ferox Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Aulopiformes

Family: Alepisauridae Geography / Habitat: Longnose lancetfish can be found from the epipelagic through the bathypelagic zones (most commonly in the mesopelagic zone), at depths of 0-1850 meters. Longnose lancetfish inhabit all of the planet's oceans. Life Strategy: The caudal fin is deeply forked, with a prolonged upper lobe. The anal fin has a deep, concave profile, and has 13-18 rays. The pelvic fins are located mid-body, and the pectoral fins are relatively long. Food / Feed Strategy: Longnose lancetfish are reportedly opportunistic, daytime feeders (although some researchers have stated that these fish are nocturnal). They are voracious hunters of epipelagic and mesopelagic prey and have been described as ambush-type hunters. Crustaceans are a main prey item, and feeding studies show that the swimming crab, Charybdis smithii, is preferred by some populations, followed by cephalopods, tunicates, and bony fishes.

Body Form or Style: Little is currently known about the development of longnose lancetfish. specifically. Existing evidence suggests that these fish follow a standard developmental progression, advancing from an egg to a planktonic stage, to a pelagic larval stage, before finally achieving their adult form. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Alepisaurus_ferox/#development


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #96

Common Name: Ozark Cavefish Scientific Name: Amblyopsis rosae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percopsiformes

Family: Amblyopsidae Geography / Habitat: Ozark cavefish are extremely specialized to their cave ecosystem, requiring a pristine water source that remains at a temperature between 12.8 and 15.6°C. Life Strategy: Beneath this layer of limestone lies a bed of Chattanooga shale, which the groundwater settles on, allowing the groundwater to swell into the caves. Food / Feed Strategy: Ozark cavefish are carnivorous. The diet is relatively specialized, as prey choice is limited to the few organisms that are found in their cave environments.

Body Form or Style: Most deaths are due to dying from old age or from cannibalism in younger stages. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A ● Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Amblyopsis_rosae/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate Species #97 Common Name: Devils Hole Pupfish Scientific Name: Cyprinodon diabolis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cyprinodontiformes

Family: Cyprinodontidae Geography / Habitat: Cyprinodon diabolis inhabits the Devil's Hole Pool, which is found in the very arid Death Valley in California. Devil's Hole is 2.5 by 3.5 meters in area and is composed of two separate areas. One is a limestone rock shelf that is 3.5 by 5.0 by 0.3 meters deep. Life Strategy: The male is larger than the female, is irridescent blue, and has vertical bars on its tail. Food / Feed Strategy: Devils Hole pupfish feed primarily on algae that grows on the limestone shelf in Devils Hole. Diatoms are the major food source in the winter and spring, while Spirogyra serve as the food source in the summer and fall.

● Body Form or Style: Larval density is low in deeper water, further indicating that the hatching of eggs is dependent on the temperature and oxygen saturation of the surrounding habitat. ● Swim / Locomotion Style :N/A ● Mouth Position: Front

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Cyprinodon_diabolis/#food_habits


Title: Freshwater invertebrate

Species #98

Common Name: Stingrays Scientific Name: Dasyatidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Dasyatidae Geography / Habitat: Dasyatinae is primarily a marine subfamily, although some members live in brackish or fresh water. They are most common in shallow tropical waters but can be found in temperate regions as well. Life Strategy: Stingrays of the family Dasyatidae have expanded pectoral fins that form a circular, oval, or rhomboidal disc. These fins extend forward to the snout, such that the head appears enclosed by the disc Food / Feed Strategy: Stingrays feed on mollusks, worms, crustaceans, fishes, clams, crabs, and shrimps. They uncover buried organisms by scooping the sand or mud with their pectoral fins. For some, turbulent coastal surf provides a constant flow of invertebrates

Body Form or Style: They may occupy turbulent intertidal waters, their flat bodies enabling them to hug the bottom, or live demersally â—? Swim / Locomotion Style:N/A â—? Mouth Position: Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Dasyatidae/#geographic_range


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #99

Common Name: Stonecat Scientific Name: Noturus flavus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: Stonecats live in freshwater environments. They are found in large creeks and small rivers. They occasionally occur in tiny creeks or rivers as large as the lower Mississippi (Etnier and Starnes, 1993). Stonecats occupy gently- to fast-moving riffle areas that have a rocky substrate. Stonecats spend the majority of their time in moderate moving, shallow riffles. Life Strategy: Stonecats also occur in natural lakes such as Lake Erie. There they prefer rock and gravel bars that are subject to a lot of wave action. (Branson and Batch, 1974; Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Hammerson, 2005; Kline and Morgan, 2000) Food / Feed Strategy: Stonecats are primarily invertivores. The young will feed upon the larvae of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera) caddisflies (Trichoptera), and midges (Chironomidae). Adult stonecats will feed on mainly mayfly larvae and crayfish (Astacoidea), but they will also take small darters and minnows. (Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Hammerson, 2005)

Body Form or Style: Both adult and juvenile stonecats exhibit nocturnal behavior. They spend their days under rocks and woody structure where it is dark. They come out at night to feed in the shallows. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A â—? Mouth Position:Front Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Noturus_flavus/#behavior


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #100

Common Name: Black-head minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: In addition to small rivers and ponds,fFathead minnows are commonly found in muddy pools of headwaters and creeks. They also appear to tolerate habitat conditions that exclude many freshwater fishes such as high turbidity and temperature, variable pH and salinity, Life Strategy: Fathead minnows are most abundant in the Prairie Pothole Region of the northern Great Plains. Bait-bucket introductions have also occurred in the Mobile Bay drainage, Colorado River drainage, Alabama, Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico Food / Feed Strategy: Fathead minnows are opportunistic omnivores that can be characterized as benthic filter feeders, sifting through mud and silt in order to find food. Freshwater sediments often contain a large abundance of algae and protozoans, which represent a significant proportion of the fathead minnow diet. Secondary prey items include diatoms, filamentous algae, small crustaceans, and insect larvae.

Body Form or Style: Fathead minnows are commonly preyed upon by piscivorous fish such as northern pike, yellow perch, largemouth bass and walleye. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: If others can disrupt the predation event and facilitate escape, warning signals may benefit other species as well as wounded prey. Interestingly, mature males lose this capability during the breeding months. â—? Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pimephales_promelas/#food_habits


The Ending

Fish I.D. Project (autosaved)  

This fish identification project is for the Aqua Culture Science class at Auburn High School(AL).

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