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downtown tallahassee r e d e v e l o p m e n t

The City of Tallahassee Michael Parker Economic Development Director Rick McCraw Redevelopment Coordinator Marilyn Larson Executive Director

Custom Publishing The Florida Real Estate Journal Jim Phillips, Publisher • 1800.274.2812 ext. 232

150 Third Street, S.W. Winter Haven, Florida 33880

Living Downtown LIVING DOWNTOWN The real “key to the city” is people. A strong downtown residential population is the catalyst for urban revitalization—and new condominium developments in the works for Tallahassee’s downtown area are sparking the city’s plans for growth as an urban center. In the past two years, 10 condominiums have either started construction or have announced plans for construction in the downtown area.The market response to these developments has been strong, with sales moving quickly. The pent-up demand for downtown housing has resulted in excellent sales momentum for the projects underway. The condominium boom reflects the 2003 Tallahassee Downtown Community Redevelopment Plan’s focus on attracting new full-time residents into the heart of the city. A healthy downtown residential population brings in retail businesses,

The Tennyson

restaurants, entertainment and cultural activities that accomplish two redevelopment plan goals— (1) Accommodate residential life and (2) Stimulate activity that will extend downtown hours of business into the evening for a full urban lifestyle. Currently, hundreds of new residential units are proposed for the downtown housing market. Many of the properties will be mixed use, featuring retail establishments on the ground floor of each development. These private investments are great assets to the city. They provide a healthy return on public investment and they help create quality and excitement in the downtown Tallahassee area. Leading the way are four residential projects that have been announced in the past two years.Three are already under construction,

with two more scheduled to break ground in 2005. Additional residential units have been proposed and are going through the approval process. When these developments are completed, the new projects will bring residents downtown to live, work, shop, dine, socialize and be entertained. The demand for downtown housing has resulted in excellent sales momentum for the projects underway and market response to these developments has been strong. The new condominiums will interlock the primary neighborhoods that make up the 93-block downtown with the redevelopment district. Each new development will incorporate a mixed-use level for stores and restaurants, with parking underground or above ground. Additionally, each development will have strong pedestrian connections from the high-rise residential towers to the public sidewalks. Continued on page 6

Monroe Street U.S. 27

Adams Street

Bronough Street

M L King Boulevard

Macomb Street

The Village

The Tennyson

The Symphony Condominium

Copeland Street

Tennessee Street U.S. 90 Call Street

417 Park Ave. Park Avenue College Avenue

Tallahassee Center Governors Inn

Jefferson Street Pensacola Street

Apalachee Parkway U.S. 27 St. Augustine Street

College Park Commons The plaza Tower

Gaines Street

All Saints Condominium



•General: Capital of the 4th largest state in nation; 7th largest city in Florida

•Population: 171,600 (2004 City of Tallahassee) 263,896 ( 2004 Leon County)

•Area: 95.7 square miles (Leon County) •Government: Leadership mayor and 4 elected commission members •Economic Environment: Government, retail, office, light industrial and general business. •Airports: Tallahassee Regional Airport; Flightline general aviation; private airports

•Schools: 32,000 students in over 40 Pre-K through 12 school centers; Lively Vo-Tech Center and Adult Education, Adult Education and Community Education Center and many school sites.

•Colleges/Universities: Florida State University; Florida A&M University;Tallahassee Community College. Degrees from Barry College and Flagler College through TCC.

•Housing: Average Cost $145,600 (2004) •Median Household Income: $55,680 (2004) •Median Age: 26.3 (2004)

Tallahassee Center

Revitalizing downtown into a livable, walk-able l8-hour destination is the focus of the Downtown Redevelopment Plan developed in 2003 by the City of Tallahassee and the Tallahassee Downtown Improvement Authority. To reach its goal of an l8-hour downtown, the emphasis is on reconfiguring for activity. Over the years, the trend toward commercial and residential suburbanization has resulted in downtown commercial facilities gradually being replaced by office space to support this capital city’s government-related activities. Combined with the encroachment of office use in surrounding historic neighborhoods, the result has been a 9 to 5 commuter town that basically shuts down after daytime business hours. The redevelopment plan for an expanded mix of retail, entertainment and residential uses in the downtown district is aimed toward holding people downtown longer. Fortunately, at the same time that the redevelopment plan was being formulated, private sector developers also saw the advantages of a favorable market for additional downtown housing. The resulting upsurge in condominium construction will be a major factor in initiating the 18-hour city.

urban living experience with the conveniences of a downtown setting. Located on Monroe Street between Call Street and Park Avenue only four blocks from the Capitol, The Tennyson includes 90 upscale residential units and street level retail space. Each unit has a private outdoor terrace overlooking the city. Construction began In addition to new condominiums, the plan supports multi-family housing downtown and, in August 2003 and is expected to be where appropriate, in adjoining neighborhoods. completed in late 2005. There are 3,730 such residents and 1,340 Tallahassee Center Condominium dwelling units already within the boundaries in downtown Kleman Plaza is an 11-story of the Downtown Redevelopment Area. building housing 104 units with beautiful Another major goal of the redevelopment program is to preserve and enhance the historic neighborhoods in the downtown vicinity. Many older homes have already been converted to commercial use.The redevelopment plan encourages both market-rate and affordable residential development, including owner-occupied and multi-family housing opportunities within the downtown core area and at appropriate locations in surrounding neighborhoods. The exciting new skyline rising for downtown Tallahassee includes—

The Tennyson, a $15 million condominium developed by the Pensacola-based Granger Development, Inc., combines a sophisticated

views of FSU and surrounding attractions. The $19 million condominium being developed by the Birmingham-based Gameday Group offers 8,000 square feet of retail space at the plaza level, including plans for an upscale restaurant. Featuring one, two and three bedroom floor plans and penthouses, Tallahassee Center condominiums will be fully furnished, including linens, towels and all major kitchen appliances and accessories such as silverware, dishes and cookware. All condominiums come complete with private verandas and 156 underground parking spaces. Construction began in early February, and should be completed by the summer of 2006.

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All Saints Condominiums is a $6 million project between St. Francis and All Saints streets, a block south of Gaines Street in the heart of the Gaines Street Revitalization Project. The Tallahassee-based All Saints Construction Co. venture will start with a $4 million project of 32 units in the first phase and a $2 million project of 10 more units in the second phase.The condominiums will be priced from $149,000 to $399,000. First phase construction is expected to be completed by 2006, and the second phase is scheduled to begin the same year. CONVERSION/RENOVATION

Governors Inn, 209 S. Adams St., is a 22-year-old upscale hotel located practically next door to the Capitol. Lawton “Bud” Chiles (son of the late Gov. Lawton Chiles) and his wife, Kitty, are converting 31 of the hotel’s 42 rooms into a “residential condo.” A management company will rent the condominiums when not in use by the owner. The remaining 10 rooms will be rented as usual. Renovation began in spring 2005, with completion date set for Fall 2005.

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Living Downtown PROPOSED

In addition to the projects identified above, others that have been proposed include:

Kleman Plaza Tower will be a 23-story mixed-use residential development with 202 residential units, approximately 36,000 square feet of retail space, and 319 underground parking spaces. The residential units will consist of one and two bedroom, and penthouse condominiums. There will be 20,000 square feet of retail space along Bronough Street and 16,000 square feet of retail space on Kleman Plaza. The developer, BCOM Inc. of Miami, is negotiating to locate a major health club in the retail space on Bronough Street, and an upscale restaurant in a portion of the plaza level retail space. Construction is expected to begin in 2005, and be completed by early 2007.

The Symphony Condominium

encompasses a 10-story project on Copeland Street across from the Florida State University School of Music. The $20-million project by the Miami-based ADAR Developer Group will house 83 two-bedroom units selling from $256,000 to $430,000, 6,000 square feet of space for stores and restaurants at ground level, and two levels of underground parking. Each unit will include a terrace view of campus or downtown. Opening is slated for 2006.

College Park Commons, is an 85-unit condominium proposed for location at the intersection of College and Macomb streets. A 9,000 square-feet retail/office complex is designed for the ground level.

417 Park Avenue, is a proposed 23-unit condominium for development by K2UrbanCore at the corner of Park Avenue

and Meridian Street, with an integrated 9,000-square-feet office/retail complex. Units will range in price from about $285,000 to $1.1 million.


Marriott Residence Inn, The City is negotiating the sale of a vacant parcel located on the northwest corner of the Gaines Street and Railroad Avenue intersection with a developer who proposes to build a Marriott Residence Inn on the site. The proposed development will consist of 135 rooms, 5,000 square feet of meeting space and 5,000 square feet of retail space. This will be the first major development constructed in the Gaines Street Corridor, and will help serve as a benchmark for future development in the area as envisioned by the Gaines Street Revitalization Plan.

Good Growth GOOD GROWTH The Downtown Community Redevelopment Plan

Emerging from their downtown condominium, pedestrians stroll along bustling plazas, admiring sidewalk sculptures, reading signs about local points of interest, and watching children play in interactive fountains, as they choose between shopping in one of the condominium retail stores or dining at a sidewalk bistro. They stop to read signs to local points of interest, as bicyclist glide past in their own bike lanes on tree-lined streets. Sound good? City planners think so, too, and the comprehensive Tallahassee Downtown Community Redevelopment Plan brings that scene to life and the excitement is contagious. Downtown Tallahassee has always had many appealing qualities: a rich history, a govern-

ment center, educational institutions, small businesses and professional offices, a beautiful environment, and fun parades and festivals. So when the City of Tallahassee and the Tallahassee Downtown Improvement Authority (TDIA) announced their vision for revitalizing the government-oriented downtown into an 18-hour destination with a wide variety of uses, the challenge was how to build on these positives and draw more people and new economies into Tallahassee’s urban center. The focus is to strengthen Tallahassee through a well-defined strategy by converting downtown and its adjacent environments into a vibrant city hub. By designating a 93-block radius as the downtown redevelopment area, the plan pulls into a cohesive

whole a significant bank of research and studies. In addition to the redevelopment plan, useful research from plans and studies conducted in the past 10 to 15 years was utilized to provide valuable information and continuity. Now—through a combination of timing and vision—it’s coming together on an exciting number of community fronts. Ways to make the city even better are emerging as solid projects. Plans that have been in the incubator or on the drawing board are moving into place and an overall vision is taking shape. What The Tallahassee Democrat newspaper has hailed as a “truly major transformation” is currently underway for downtown Tallahassee and its environs, and a close

The Plan look at the canvas of what is happening reveals a renaissance portrait created by a community pointed toward change. The Tallahassee Downtown Redevelopment plan progresses 20 years into the future. But there’s no need to wait 20 years for the excitement to start building. A number of projects and programs are already in the works. Construction on some begins this year, and others have definite time tables. The recommendations are designed to be implemented in five year increments over the next 20 years. The first five-year phase consist of actions that can be completed within a relatively short period of time. Each phase ties into the continuous building of infrastructure to support downtown venues and other improvement projects, all directed at transforming the economic vitality of the heart of the city while attracting private investment. The redevelopment plan calls for a significant investment in the next five years. It is economy driven, and emphasizes the importance of adding new business, housing and transportation while conserving opportunities for existing entities to grow.The plan will generate exciting new economic, cultural and educational opportunities. New jobs, new cultural experiences, new public spaces, and new residential developments will have a multiplying effect on the development of a proud new city. The Redevelopment plan and a supportive Downtown Pedestrian Connectivity plan aim at making it easier to walk and move around town. The Connectivity Plan’s major emphasis on “walkability” will be creatively met by new traffic strategies, streetscaping, better signage, information kiosks, pedestrian plazas and other specific actions. Another primary objective is downtown housing for full-time residents, which will encourage a lively 18-hour activity center in the core downtown.

Good Growth A coordinated transit system and parking strateg ies are key components. The redevelopment plan also addresses the scenic presentation of the surrounding commercial corridors and their treatment as gateways to downtown.

Because Tallahassee is the government center of Florida and the home of two state universities and a large community college, a larger than average amount of property is tax exempt. Recently, the state initiated a process to surplus a number of “functionally obsolete” buildings near the Capitol.

Three of the districts are described below. Because of the magnitude of the Gaines Street and Capital Cascades districts, they are detailed separately. (1) North Monroe Area. As the primary gateway to the downtown Tallahassee core commercial district, the area plays an important role in the economic health of downtown. This area contains Tennessee Street and North Monroe Street, both of which are main corridors that constitute the northern gateway to downtown Tallahassee. These streets are located in the

The heart of the redevelopment area is Tallahassee’s historic downtown...a primary economic base for the city. Subsequently, a coalition composed of government, educational institutions and private sector developers are working with the state to use these strategic properties as a catalyst for further development. City and county officials hail the action as a step toward redevelopment of the downtown area with shops, homes and businesses that will put valuable property back on the tax rolls. Based on an inventory of existing conditions, the Redevelopment Plan provides an analysis that divides the downtown into five distinct areas, each with common attributes: (1) North Monroe (2) Downtown Core (3) Franklin Boulevard (4) Gaines Street and (5) Capital Cascades. The strategy for each will be implemented in coordination with previously approved plans and programs.

immediate vicinity of the downtown, have similar characteristics—including high volumes of traffic and older strip commercial development patterns—and register a significant impact on the investment image of the redevelopment area. Redevelopment opportunities include enhancement of gateway treatments into the downtown, streetscape improvements, and property assembly of vacant and developed parcels by the Community Redevelopment Agency and private investors. (2) Downtown Core Area. The heart of the redevelopment area is Tallahassee’s historic downtown, which encompasses a variety of building types serving the needs of all levels of government, from local to state and federal. As a primary economic

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base for the city, various government agencies and departments, small businesses and professional organizations employ thousands of workers who commute into the downtown area daily. Redevelopment opportunities include city control of development sites on Kleman Plaza and at the southwest corner of Tennessee and Monroe Streets. Plans propose a Capital City Plaza and other downtown pedestrian plazas, a streetscape program that encourages pedestrian connectivity between focal points and activity centers, development along West Tennessee Street, a College Avenue streetscape, Park Avenue restoration, and parking to support increased demand. (3) Franklin Boulevard Area. This area contains the most intense residential development within the downtown revitalization area, including the Beverly and Call Street neighborhoods that present well-maintained residences and quality architectural features. In addition to providing needed downtown housing, the neighborhoods will also function as part of the market base for commercial and retail development being proposed in the downtown core. Redevelopment opportunities include enhancements to planned greenways and trailhead advancement for the Capital Cascades Greenway, as well as site assembly and redevelopment by the Redevelopment Agency and/or private investment along East Tennessee Street. Franklin Boulevard has been slated for major improvements through the Blueprint 2000 program, which will help set the stage for private investment in new multi-family housing and single-family residential renovations.

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Special Settings SPECIAL SETTINGS Gaines Street Corridor & Capital Cascades Park

A classic combination of location and potential makes two downtown corridors the dynamic focal points of Tallahassee’s Downtown Redevelopment Plan. Strategically located, the Gaines Street Corridor and the Capital Cascades Greenway are interwoven with the downtown core and create special settings for future development. Plans for the sweeping corridors include a network of retail and residential

development, tourist attractions, greenways, pedestrian amenities, bike trails and open space.With a mix of commercial and residential uses, and pedestrian-friendly streets and trails, the corridors will provide additional cultural, economic and recreational uses. GAINES STREET CORRIDOR The Gaines Street Area is a corridor of premier downtown real estate primed for an extreme makeover that will transform it into a source of community pride. Because its location and availability of property are especially close to the downtown core, the corridor is strategically situated to support many uses that promote future prosperity. The aim is to re-design the urban setting in a way that will not only attract retail and entertainment venues, but will also encourage people to live in the area. Of prime importance, Gaines Street serves as the major route from the airport into the

downtown district. It is also, the main corridor connecting three of the city’s most significant institutions: the State Capitol Complex, Florida State University (FSU), and Florida A & M University (FAMU). The passageway extends approximately two miles along Gaines Street from Cascades Park to the east, Lake Bradford Road to the west, Pensacola Street to the north and FAMU Way to the south.

The City of Tallahassee has purchased several key parcels in the corridor, including a site with high development potential at the intersection of Madison Street and Railroad Avenue. In all, the city has spent over $12 million on strategic land acquisitions on Gaines Street and now controls over 20 acres in the Gaines Street corridor which will be made available for redevelopment by the private sector.

The corridor is well positioned at the southern and northern entrances to FSU and FAMU, the eastern access to Doak Campbell Stadium, and the entrance to the Tallahassee/Leon County Civic Center.

The adopted Gaines Street Revitalization Plan sets forth an ambitious development program with extensive capital improvements, including greenways and landscaping, shopping, dining and other amenities. Principal among the pending capital projects targeted for this is a $30 million capital road improvement program for both Gaines and Madison streets.

Long neglected, current land use includes older industrial and warehouse properties, a clustered concentration of government operations, residential pockets of varying densities within distressed neighborhoods, and several vacant parcels under public or private ownership. Projects defined in the Gaines Street Revitalization Plan are coordinated with the Downtown Redevelopment Plan. Through the use of creative zoning strategies and selected public improvements, the plans are designed to produce a mixed-use environment that encourages multi-family residential uses combined with restaurants and other entertainment and retail venues.

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A Marriott Residence Inn is currently under design for a Gaines Street location. Other future opportunities currently under consideration are expansion of the public and privately-owned property in the vicinity of the Tallahassee/Leon County Civic Center. Potential uses around the civic center and in addition to the civic center site include a mixed-use hotel, a performing arts center, and redevelopment of vacant and underutilized land. In 2004 The Leon County Commission approved a onepercent bed tax increase to help fund the performing arts center.

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CAPITAL CASCADES GREENWAY The Capital Cascades Greenway is rich in history and contains many important landscapes, historic properties and landmarks. Today, it stands out as the most important environmental and recreational asset in the downtown redevelopment area. Usage will be extremely important, since it will serve as a catalyst for private investment

At the heart of the project lies the designated Cascades Park on South Monroe Street in close proximity to the state Capitol. Over the course of many years, the property at times boasted a park with baseball field, picnic areas and other amenities, but eventually deteriorated from flood and contamination damage, which has taken a cooperative effort by state and city governments and private sector supporters to bring these conditions under control.

responsible, and supportive of the revitalization of in-town and southside neighborhoods. This project is funded by an extension of the local one-cent sales tax approved by voters in November 2000. Over time the sales tax will provide significant public funds for land acquisition and capital improvements.

Lee Hall was constructed in 1928 as an Auditorium-Administration building. Lee Hall was named for John Robert Edward Lee (J.R.E.) Lee Sr., who served the institution from 1924 to 1944 as Florida A&M College's third president. The aerial shot of Doak Campbell Stadium taken this past fall during the Clemson game.You will note that Gaines Street is in the background. The Westcott Building is located where College Avenue dead ends into Copeland Street.This is the main administration building at Florida State University.

and become a cornerstone in the recreational value of the overall vision. As planned, the Capital Cascade Greenway project will extend about seven miles from Leon High School on Tennessee Street to near Lake Munson. Almost $70 million from the local one-percent sales-tax revenue has been budgeted for the projects along the greenway, including reconstruction of Franklin Boulevard to reduce flooding. Capital Cascades has been described as the pivotal reason for Tallahassee’s selection as Florida’s capital city, because the city was founded near the historic cascading waterfall of the St. Augustine Branch. The sweep of Southern Tallahassee now known as Capital Cascades Greenway was once an area of rolling hills and waterfalls so beautiful and majestic that Florida’s territorial government was convinced this was the perfect place to centralize its new state capital.

The City of Tallahassee, Blueprint 2000, the Redevelopment Agency and the Downtown Improvement Authority are working with a broad spectrum of involved agencies and interests to strengthen a plan that addresses environmental concerns and includes a restored park setting, playgrounds to offer walking and biking trails, playgrounds, businesses and shops. The greenway will promote development by encouraging the revitalization of older neighborhoods and business districts along its route, and the clean-up and reuse of other contaminated sites. The greenway will also keep houses and buildings out of flood-prone lands and define sustainable patterns for future growth. The origin of the Capital Cascade Greenway came from Blueprint 2000, a plan to provide storm water, trail and road projects that are efficient, attractive, environmentally

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In addition, the Tallahassee City Commission has approved the Neighborhood Infrastructure Enhancement Program which will place $7.6 million in improvements in the sector. Input has come in a variety of forms and from a variety of sources, including the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) deeding close to 12 acres of open land in Florida’s capital to this program.With the State’s conveyance of the land parcels, the historic site will be preserved and revitalized through Tallahassee’s Blueprint 2000 plan.The city and county's Blueprint 2000 Agency is drawing up a conceptual plan for environmental and recreational projects in the greenway and park. The Campbell Stadium photo—Ryals Lee—FSU Photo Lab. The Westcott photo—Bill Lax—FSU Photo Lab.

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As the building blocks of the Tallahassee Downtown Community Redevelopment Plan begin to frame the new face of the city, a coordinated strategy that makes it easier for pedestrians to move into and around downtown has been presented to the City Commission to support these priorities.

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bounded by Tennessee, Calhoun and Gaines streets and Martin Luther King Boulevard. Pedestrian-friendly “walk-ability” is the objective. “Move-ability” expands the concept. The connectivity plan emphasizes downtown activity centers that attract people, allowing them to gather and enjoy themselves while encouraging their movement through downtown. Point of interest signage will be interwoven into “wayfaring” strategies to provide information to residents and visitors and additionally further movement around downtown.

The city’s redevelopment plan identifies an interrelated system of pedestrian mobility, traffic circulation and parking as critical for the future success of downtown revitalization. Along with actions to attract activity into downtown and reignite private investment throughout the area, the need for connections between the activity centers located through- On a regional scale, the pedestrian plan calls for improving connection routes via car, out the city is underscored. transit, bicycle and foot to the urban center. On the metro level, recommendations The major activity centers detailed in the involve multi-model connections in and city’s redevelopment plan are spread around downtown. throughout the entire downtown district. An in-depth analysis, detailing how people Among the exciting proposals are street-bycome into the city and get around once street beautification and heritage programs, they are there, shows a mandate for a more convenient and efficient system of pedestrian- new pedestrian-oriented plazas, information kiosks and directional signs, a downtown oriented connections. trolley, shuttle trolleys for students from Martin Luther King Boulevard to Florida As a direct result, a companion Tallahassee Pedestrian Connectivity Strategy initiated by A&M University and from College Avenue to Florida State University. Among the the Downtown Improvement Authority in streetscape strategies recommended are 2004 is now being evaluated by the City improvements to roads, medians, on-street Commission.The innovative proposals focus parking, bikeways, sidewalks and plantings. on a 42-block area of the downtown area,

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And, along with the need for connections to and around downtown, a consistent, easy- toread directional and locational signage system for drivers as well as pedestrians is another crucial issue to ensure a well-navigated downtown experience. The way-finding system will have signs for both drivers and pedestrians. Pedestrian “concierge” kiosks downtown will provide information, and pedestrian-oriented signage hung on sidewalk mounts and along roadways will direct pedestrians to their destinations. Anchored by major pedestrian magnets such as the Capital Cascades Greenway and the Capitol complex, the redevelopment plan proposes outdoor pedestrian plazas as gathering places to enrich the downtown setting and provide enjoyable outdoor settings further enriching Tallahassee’s urban lifestyle. Aimed at complementing the existing Kleman Plaza, these festive courtyards will provide a setting for outdoor dining, art and sculpture, cart vendors and festival events. The chosen sites are situated at various locations in the city. A creative concept transforms the property fronting City Hall into a new Capital City Plaza that offers interactive fountains and sculpture gardens. Its location between the Capitol Complex, City Hall, the downtown central commercial

The connectivity plan emphasizes downtown activity centers that attract people to gather and enjoy themselves and encourage people to walk.

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area and Kleman Plaza is ideally situated to draw pedestrians, provide activities that promote an 18-hour downtown, and provide easy access to surrounding attractions. Another proposed plaza is Heritage Square, which will be an outdoor interpretive plaza designed around interpretation of the historic events of Tallahassee. A flexible Market Square outdoor plaza will accommodate downtown marketplace activities and double as a garden during off-market days. A Tennessee Place Plaza is proposed next to the existing transit center to serve as a major gateway courtyard that links suburban commuters to the downtown core.

Pedestrian connections in and between downtown and adjacent neighborhoods will be provided through an improved network of sidewalks, alleyways and access roads, which will advance pedestrian access to primary focal points in the city. Landscape buffering from vehicle areas with widened sidewalks, streetlights and other design elements will enhance the experience. Downtown offers a wealth of heritage resources. Promoting downtown’s heritage, maintaining a connection to the past and building historic continuity to the future are key elements for downtown revitalization.

A heritage trail complete with an interpretation center is recommended to tie all the sites together. Traffic improvements such as removal of physical barriers to pedestrian mobility— particularly for visually or mobility impaired pedestrians—will promote pedestrian safety. Unimpeded access to facilities via sidewalks is essential for people with mobility impairments to go to work, shop, play and generally to travel freely. In recent years, tremendous efforts have been made by the City to assure safe sidewalks, including installing curb ramps at pedestrian intersections.