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TIMUN09-Chair Report: “The Comprehensive Reformation Of The Security Council”


Table of Contents The History And Structure of The Security Council ........................................................................... 3 Un Involvement Works Cited


The History and Structure of The Security Council The United Nations Security Council is a primary organ of the UN, independent from the General Conference. Its objectives have been outlined in the United Nations Charter with primary focus on maintaining international peace and security. It is authorized to impose sanctions, enforce peacekeeping and also conduct military operations. It is the only body in the United Nations that has these aforementioned abilities. Its main responsibilities are • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations; • to investigate any dispute or situation which mightlead to international friction; • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement; • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments; • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken; • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression; • to take military action against an aggressor; • to recommend the admission of new Members; • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas"; • to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

The Security Council also consists of certain subsidiary bodies. These bodies are: •

The Peace building Commission

Sanction Committees

The Counter-Terrorism Committee

The 1540 Committee

The UN Compensation Committee

The International Criminal Tribunal For The Formal Yugoslavia

The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda

The Working Group On Children In Armed Conflict


The Working Group On Documentation

The Security Council was formed in 1946 with the purpose of quickly responding to international crises contrary to its predecessor, The League of Nations whose efforts proved fruitless. The Sec. Council has risen from 11 members to 15. Ten of these members are elected based on criteria listed in Article 23 of the United Nations Charter into the council and given voting rights for two year terms. The rotation is staggered so that 5 nations change every year. However, the other five members have permanent seats. The permanent five members or the “P5” also have the authority to veto any Security Council resolution. These five countries are: •

The People's Republic of China

The Russian Federation

The United States of America

France

Great Britain The veto power of these nations is the one procedural uniqueness of the Security Council

that attracts the most attention and criticism. According to the UN Charter, even if a resolution reaches its minimum vote count to actually pass (9 votes), a veto by any P5 member will lead to the resolution in question to fail and this turns the SC into the least democratic body of the UN. However P5 members may abstain from voting. In this case the decision is not regarded as a veto. The issue of the permanent five members of The Security Council continues to spark debate over the structure of the body. Countries such as Germany, Brazil, Japan and India are the strongest supporters of reformation in the council and are also the four nations wishing to become permanent members themselves. Another problem is the diversity of the Council. 5 nations have permanent seats in the Security Council out of 185 nations. 59 of the non-permanent members of the Council have served more than two two-year terms on the Council, 47 have served one two-year term, and an enormous number of 77 nations have never served on the Security Council, some even being founding members.


The first session of the United Nations Security Council, 17 January 1946

http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2007/webArticles/120307_security_council_reform.html

UN Involvement The question of the reformation of the Security Council and the increase in the membership was first introduced to the General Assembly’s agenda in 1979. After fourteen years in 1993, resolution 48/26 on the Question of Equitable Representation on and Increase in the Membership of the Security Council and Other Matters Related to the Security Council was adopted by the GA, in which the establishment of the Open-ended Working Group was decided. Most of the Member States are affirmative about the increasing the membership of the Council, but states oppose each other when it comes to the quantity of the expansion. The importance and intricacy of the reform process was repeated by Srgjan Kerim, the president of the General Assembly of 2006. During a press conference, he stated that he was fully supportive of the reformation of the Security Council, in which the Council should be “more representative, more efficient and transparent in order to strengthen the legitimacy of its decisions.” (un.org)


Works Cited Okouma, Ghislain Ondias . "Security Council reform: a transitional approach." UN Chronicle Online

Edition

XLIV.4

(2006):

n.

pag.

Web.

8

Nov

2009.

<http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2007/webArticles/120307_security_council_reform.html >.

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