CHAIR REPORT QUESTION OF: Empowering UN inspections to ensure full compliance with the NPT FORUM: GA1(Disarmament Committee) STUDENT OFFICER: Berk Güler
1.Background Information: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; known as NonProliferation Treaty(NPT), is a crucial international treaty aiming to frustrate the dangerous spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to enhance the cooperation in nuclear energy among the Parties, signatory states, for peaceful purposes and to achieve the goal of nuclear and complete disarmament in long-term. NPT is known as the only binding multilateral treaty on the aim of global disarmament by the involvement of Nuclear-weapon States. The treaty was opened to signature on July 1, 1968 and entered into force in 1970. Currently, 189 states are party to the treaty, including the 5 nuclear-weapon states United States of America, China, Russian Federation, France and United Kingdom, which are also the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. The idea of the treaty was declared by the Irish Foreign Affairs Minister and Ireland along with Finland, was one of the first two countries to sign. India, Israel, North Korea(acceeded NPT, withdrew in 2003) and Pakistan are the four sovereign countries that are not party to NPT. Among these non-signatory states, North Korea, Pakistan and India have tested their nuclear weapons. The treaty is reviewed each five years under the name of Review Conferences of the Parties to the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. During the Review Conference in New York 1995, the parties decided to extend the validity and operations of the treaty indefinitely and without conditions. Three main points, known as the “pillars” of the treaty, function as the base of the programme. Three stages of NPT are non-proliferation, disarmament and peaceful use of nuclear energy. All parties to the treaty, including the nuclear-weapon states, agree not to use, transfer or trade any means of nuclear weapons or explosives and not to encourage, assist or manufacture the development of nuclear weapon technology either in itself or another country. Through this measure, which is clearly stated in Article 1, non-proliferation by the help of cooperation is aimed. However, nuclear-weapon states have indicated that they would have the right to use their nuclear power in order to defend themselves against a nuclear attack. Therefore, the effectiveness of this clause is still in question. The non-proliferation process is closely linked to disarmament. The achievement of these two goals are followed by a peaceful, inspected flow of nuclear energy share and development among signatory members of NPT.
Additionally, the treaty requires regular inspections regarding the progress to nonproliferation and its sustainability in party states. By signing the NPT, 189 members have agreed upon the establishment of a safeguards system under the supervision of International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA). Safeguards are used to investigate accordance to the Treaty through inspections conducted by the IAEA. In other words “The Treaty promotes cooperation in the field of peaceful nuclear technology and equal access to this technology for all States parties, while safeguards prevent the diversion of fissile material for weapons use”. However, in order for these safeguards to work efficiently, all states must act in full compliance with requirements of both the Treaty and IAEA and guide the safeguards for transparency. Current situation regarding the statement above creates the core of the problem and empowering UN inspections is the most efficient solution. The entire document of NPT can be found in the link below: http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/Others/infcirc140.pdf
2.Related Countries: Libya Libya had signed and ratified the NPT and was subject to IAEA nuclear safeguards inspections. However, it has been detected that Libya undertook a secret nuclear weapons development program, violating the treaty obligations. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to eliminate all its WMD programs, and allowed U.S. and British officials and IAEA inspectors into the country to assist this process. The nuclear equipment were removed. Libya's noncompliance with its IAEA safeguards was reported to the U.N. Security Council. Since Libya's return to compliance with safeguards and Article II of the NPT was welcomed, no action was taken. South Africa South Africa is the only country that developed nuclear weapons by itself and later dismantled them. In 1991, following the increasing international pressure, South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In 1993, the president admitted that the country had developed a limited nuclear weapon capability. These weapons were dismantled before the accession to the NPT. South Africa then opened itself up to IAEA for inspection. In 1994 the IAEA completed its work and declared that the country had successfully dismantled its nuclear weapons program. Iran Iran is a party to the NPT, but was found in non-compliance with its NPT safeguards agreement and the status of its nuclear program remains ambiguous. In 2003, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei reported that Iran had repeatedly failed to meet its safeguards obligations, including by failing to declare its uranium enrichment program. After about two years of diplomatic efforts, the IAEA Board of Governors found that these failures constituted non-compliance with the IAEA safeguards agreement. This was reported to the UN Security Council in 2006, after which the Security Council passed a resolution demanding that Iran withdraw its enrichment. However, Iran didn’t respond to the demand and continued its enrichment program. Iran claims that it has a legal right to enrich uranium for peaceful
purposes under the NPT, and states that it has constantly complied with its obligations under the NPT and the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Iran also states that its enrichment program is part of its civilian nuclear energy program, which is allowed under Article IV of the NPT. North Korea North Korea ratified the treaty on December 12, 1985, but gave notice of withdrawal from the treaty on January 10, 2003 following U.S. allegations that it had started an illegal enriched uranium weapons program. The withdrawal became effective on April 10, 2003 making North Korea the first state ever to withdraw from the treaty. On February 10, 2005, North Korea publicly declared that it possessed nuclear weapons and pulled out of the sixparty talks hosted by China to find a diplomatic solution to the issue. On October 2, 2006, the North Korean foreign minister announced that his country was planning to conduct a nuclear test "in the future", although it did not state when. On Monday, October 9, the North Korean government announced that they had completed a successful underground test of a nuclear fission device. United States of America As of 2005, it is estimated that the United States still provides about 180 tactical B61 nuclear bombs for use by Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey under NATO agreements. Many states now argue this violates Articles I and II of the treaty, and are applying diplomatic pressure to terminate these agreements. NATO believes its nuclear forces continue to play an essential role in war prevention, but their role is now more fundamentally political. NATO officials also point out that no nuclear weapons have ever been given over to non-U.S. control by the United States, so therefore there cannot have been a violation of Article I or Article II.
3.Possible Solutions: •
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It is obvious that the safeguards assigned by IAEA build up the most crucial mechanism that regulates the production and delivery of nuclear material. Their entrance to the party states could be guaranteed by the involvement of Security Council and respectful resolutions. Otherwise, a nuclear-weapon developing state could act unwillingly towards the inspections of safeguards. In order to prevent the secret processing of nuclear material, as there are some examples in recent history, the authorization of IAEA on responsible states might be expanded. Along with NPT, a new agreement or an amendment could be operated, designating the appropriate amount and regulating the flow of peaceful nuclear energy trade on a concrete basis. Article III of NPT is the relevant article about the duties of safeguards and responsiblities of parties to them. If these requirements are not fulfilled, sanctions may be operated. Negotiations may be held during the Review Conferences of NPT, regarding the change in rules for withdrawing from the treaty. IAEA safeguards may be accompanied by some other international safeguards, under the supervision of a binding UN branch. Multilateral agreements regarding the trade of nuclear energy should be encouraged.
4.UN Involvement: Key Events and Resolutions 1945-U.S.A. tested its first nuclear bomb. Atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 1949-Soviet Union tested its first nuclear bomb. 1961-IAEA established its safeguard system. 1963-The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water(The Partial Test-Ban Treaty)was signed. 1968-The treaty establishing European Atomic Energy Community(EURATOM) came into force. General Assembly Resolution 2373(XXII) NPT was opened for signature. USSR, UK, and USA were designated as the Depositary Governments. 1974-The United States and the USSR signed the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests (the Threshold Test-Ban Treaty). 1975-The First Review Conference of the Parties to the NPT was held in Geneva. 1985-The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of Rarotonga) was opened for signature. 1987-The General Assembly, by its resolution 42/38 C in conjunction with resolution 41/59 N, established a system for an annual register of data on nuclear explosions to be submitted to it by the Secretary-General following notification of such tests by Member States. 1992-The Lisbon Protocol was signed by Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, as successor States of the former USSR in connection with the Treaty, and by the United States. 1994-The International Convention on Nuclear Safety was opened for signature in Vienna (INFCIRC/449 and INFCIRC/449/Add.1). 1995-The Security Council adopted resolution 984 (1995) on security assurances to non-nuclear-weapon States that are parties to the NPT. 1996-The General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) by a vote of 158 to 3, with 5 abstentions. 1997-The IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540), which is aimed at strengthening safeguards.
2003-The IAEA Board of Governors discussed the nuclear programme of Iran, disclosing that Iran had failed to report certain nuclear material and activities. Related Organizations -Arms Control Association -International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA)
5.Maps or Graphics:
6.Useful Links: http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/Others/infcirc140.pdf http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/world/03/nuclear_powers/html/default.stm http://www.un.org/events/npt2005/npttreaty.html http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Treaties/npt.html http://www.acronym.org.uk/npt/index.htm http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/nptfact http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Focus/Npt/index.shtml
“In Depth-Global Nuclear Powers.” BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2009. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/world/03/nuclear_powers/html/default.stm>. Johnson, Rebecca. “The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the International Atomic Energy Agency.” The Acronym Institute. N.p., 2009. Web. 6 Aug. 2009. <http://www.acronym.org.uk/npt/index.htm>. “News Center: In Focus- IAEA and NPT.” International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA, n.d. Web. 6 Aug. 2009. <http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Focus/Npt/index.shtml>. “THE TREATY on THE NON-PROLIFERATION of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.” NPT. United Nations, n.d. Web. 7 Aug. 2009. <http://www.un.org/events/npt2005/npttreaty.html>. Weiss, Jessica. “The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) at a Glance.” Arms Control Association. N.p., Apr. 2005. Web. 15 Aug. 2009. <http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/nptfact>.