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The Editors Sophie van Voorst, 21 years old (Dutch) “I’m a fourth year Media- and Entertainment Management student at Hogeschool Inholland in Haarlem, the Netherlands. I have a passion for the TV and film industry and hope to be working there in the near future. I like international affairs, music and a morning coffee.”

Alanna Pepin Danissen, 20 years old (French) “I am a fervent music enthusiast, technology cynic and French/ Dutch third year student of the degree in Music and Media Management at the University of Applied Sciences of Jyväskylä, Finland. Working towards my future in the music industry I spend my time traveling for gigs and festivals, friends and crazy adventures.”

Evie Habener, 20 years old (Dutch) “I am in my last year of Media & Entertainment management at INHOLLAND Rotterdam and Haarlem. I love my work, sports, food and the world of advertising. The world of media & entertainment is incredibly big and there is so much about it to explore! I am ready to dive into that silly world.”

Alejandra Diego, 20 years old (Spanish) “I am from Madrid, Spain. I am studying my third year of Media and I am in Haarlem for exchange. I love watching movies and know new places. One of my hobbies is photography and editing pictures. I would like to enter the TV world in a short time.”

Aleksi Kettunen, 23 years old (Finnish) “Hi! I’m a Music & Media Management student from Finland, spending my third year of study on exchange in the Netherlands. My hobbies are playing guitar, music in general and movies.”


Yasmine Mourabit, 22 years old (Dutch) “I’m a 4th year student studying Media & Entertainment Management. I live in Amsterdam and I am currently very busy graduating. I’m interested in media & marketing and enjoy my free time by hanging out with friends, watching movies and enjoying trying out all different kinds of restaurants.”

Jooyeon Lim, 21 years old (Korean) “I am an exchange student from South Korea. I’m from Gangnam, so yeah, Gangnam style! I originally study Film, TV and Multimedia. So, it was pretty interesting to do some research related to TV series. I spend most of my free time watching TV series and especially the nonpopular genres.”

Benjamin Heitmann, 21 years old

(American)

“I am an American student hailing from the Boston, Massachusetts area. While technically in my fourth-year of Broadcast & Streaming Media at my home university of Champlain College, I am temporarily studying Media & Entertainment Management at InHolland in Haarlem, the Netherlands.”

Atte Huopainen, 21 years old (Finnish) “I am a student from Finland (yes, the place where Santa lives) studying Media and Entertainment. Photography, music and technology are my main interests. In addition, I love old James Bond

Lara Nieman, 21 years old (Dutch) “ I am studying Media en Entertainment Management in the city Haarlem, the Netherlands. My interests are musicals, television, dancing, sailing and travelling. My motto: “Always look on the bright side of life!”


EDITORIAL “If television’s a babysitter, the Internet is a drunk librarian who won’t shut up” – Dorothy Gambrell

I

n a world of constant evolution of the technologies and where digitalization rules, our living rooms have become the battlefield of a technology war. For a couple of years now the Internet has been screaming over the television who struggles to keeps its place of ‘main entertainment device’. To face the rise of the Internet, TV had to use the Internet as an ally. Nowadays TV is no longer just a square box where all the furniture is pointing at. It emerges in a new digital world where we can access TV wherever we are; standing on the subway, sitting in class or behind our laptops. The Internet has become such a large part of the TV industry that the lines are fading. However, no matter how much television and Internet go hand in hand, television still strives to keep its own identity. Technology is changing and this also applies to TV and the way we watch television. Constantly new trends are arising and the industry provides viewers with innovative, interactive and tempting experiences. REMOTEvolution is a collection of visions on the future of television and related themes by 10 students from 6 different nationalities. These students; young innovators, TV addicts, future media professionals and even TV cynics developed different perspectives on the TV landscape. Brought to you in a single and unique online issue, this magazine was created for young (future) professionals interested in TV and its future. We hope to give our readers an idea of the turn that TV developments can take. Evolution is to fear as much as it is fascinating!


TABLE OF CONTENTS 6-7

Advertising in TV

8-9

The Diversifing TV Series & The SNS Marketing Strategy

10-11

TV and Education

12-13

The Future of Format Adaptation

14-15

The Future Platforms of TV

16-17

Aspects of Television Which Affect People

18-19

The Future of Interactive Television

20-21

Product Placement

22-23

Social Media - The Influence on Television Business

24-25

A Ride Through Piracy in TV Series


Advertising in Television Did we forget the world of television? As many of us may know, commercialized television exists because of commercials. But there is one thing many of us can relate to about commercials; we hate them. They are disturbing, annoying and if possible, we skip them by using interactive television or the internet. Because of this, we also have the habit of changing channels very quickly as soon as a commercial break starts. Can we change this? Can we make commercials actually entertaining?

THE RISE OF THE INTERNET The subject of internet has made it even harder for television advertisement, globally approximately 2.5 billion people are using internet. From 2000 until 2011; the internet use has grown with 556%, which is an immense growth. We want to watch whatever we want, whenever we want to and on whatever device we want to, and this is why we make so much use of the internet. Television can now also be watched on your Smartphone or on your tablet, and commercials can be avoided very easily.

A SHORT HISTORY The first ever television broadcast was on July 2nd of 1928, and a new form of entertainment was born. This form of entertainment would soon change when the introduction of commercialized television came. On July 1st, 1941, a short advertisement for Boluva Clocks and Watches was shown before a baseball game. That was about 70 years ago and now 25% the time we watch television consists out of us watching commercials. These, sometimes annoying, commercials are often disturbing so we change channels to avoid them. But these commercials are actually the most important part of commercial television. Without it television wouldn’t exist. But why do we change channels? Mainly because commercials are disturbing but also because we don’t feel any connection with the promoted brand. (Piech, 2011)

“The internet use has grown with 556%, which is an immense growth.”

You can skip commercials, or they will just be presented as a banner on the sides. They do not really interrupt the way they do when you are watching television and a commercial break starts. Nowadays it is possible to get access to the internet via some televisions, but it requires some effort. Television is running behind the internet, while it should be ahead of it. (Stanlib, 2012) (MarketingOnline, 2013)


SOLUTIONS Thanks to technological developments and developments in advertising there are actually many solutions to the fact that we do not want to watch advertisements anymore. Product placement has been introduced some time ago, as well as sponsorship and shorter commercial breaks. But the latest trend is to customize commercials by using Realtime targeted ad insertions. This may sound strange but it has already proven to work successfully on the internet. Every human being likes different things, this is a fact. The same goes for advertisements; we all find different advertisements funny, or interesting and we all react to different kinds of advertisements. With real-time targeted ad insertions your computer remembers every website you have watched over a certain period of time and it shows advertisements based on those website visits. So if you went to see a lot of lifestyle websites, your computer remembers that. And next time you are watching a YouTube video, changes are big that the commercial before the video will be about lifestyle. (S. Shavitt, 2004) (D. Altas, 2013) (Gimpel, 2013)

REAL-TIME TARGETED AD INSERTIONS I personally believe that Real-time targeted ad insertions will be very successful in the near future of television advertising. Thanks to technical developments it already is possible to target advertisements on television, this will definitely increase attention and ad exposure. People can watch whatever they want, and the interruption will not be as violent as before because the commercials are actually within the things the viewer likes. Viewers actually have all the power now, they get to choose which commercials they want to watch and which they do not want to watch and marketers have to adjust to this. If we look at trends in other media than television, it is obvious that the customers are getting more and more power. It is key that customers get to decide when and where they do things. Because if customers are not content with the way it is going, there will always be another way to get to the same destination. Every medium has to keep up with developments and fast changing preferences of their target group.

Real-time targeted ad insertions seems to be the perfect strategy to make television as interactive and entertaining as possible again. Viewers can now, in a way, even decide for themselves which commercials they watch during commercial break. What can become a problem is that a television can be shared with many viewers, all with different minds and different likings. What could happen is that too many different channels en shows are watched so the system cannot come up with a theme that the commercials should be in. But this can be solved by putting the commercials within channels with the same themes. Commercials about make-up and clothing will go better with a channel such a TLC, and a commercial about cars and fast food will probably be better at the Dutch channel RTL 7, who carry the slogan: More for men. (Gimpel, 2013) (S. Shavitt, 2004) (S. Bellman, 2013)

FUTURE There are many shifts in the world of television. Technological developments are going through the roof, and viewers are demanding more and more. If commercialized television wants to survive it needs to be innovative and steel some ideas from its biggest rival: The internet. Viewers did not use to have many other options next to television, but this is shifting. Television is going to have to battle for its place in the entertainment industry. We cannot forget that advertising should not be seen as an obstacle to watch television. It should also be fun, and interesting and maybe even handy. A reminder for people that there are a lot of products that could come in handy. I think Real-time targeted ad insertions can definitely make this happen. One thing we can say for sure. The era of television is not yet over and we will see some interesting changes in the future. EVIE HABENER


P

ast TV series had shown comedy, soap opera, western themes and a very small portion of some niche genres. Obviously, the stories were all very original since the history of TV series had not been much developed at that time. But, the content of dominant TV series focused on “situation comedy”. Even though there were world-famous TV series, such as the CSI series, that was not one of the most popular genres at that time. Most of the long-time series fall under the sit-com genre. Since 1997, the famed TV series “Buffy the Vampire Slayer” became popular. Although the show pretty

For example, “Revolution” is about the time when all sources of electricity had disappeared. Like “Revolution”, other shows can be either fantasy or science fiction, with “Grey’s Anatomy” being one of the first medical TV series to be known worldwide. Since the 1990’s, the diversity of TV shows has been growing. As soon as the fantasy and science fiction genres started to gain an importance in the realm of TV series, big hits such as “Lost”, “Heroes”, “The X-File”, and “Battlestar Galactica” began to appear. By the time of the 2010’s, broadcasting company NBC started to actively use its Syfy network to broadcast horror, supernatural, fantasy, and science fiction series.. In a sense, Syfy is proof that audiences started to notice and appreciate TV series that were different from the standard comedy or drama genres.

The Diversifying TV Series & much belongs to the fantasy genre, it was longloved. People are still uploading Youtube video clips of their favorite scenes. Another example is the famous science fiction program “Doctor Who”, produced in the United Kingdom. It is interesting that the sit-coms are still the most popular genres among many other TV series. Still, shows such as “Grey’s Anatomy” and “Revolution” are in the top section of the popular TV shows. They are not sit-coms, but fantasy and science fiction.

The content of the TV series are also becoming more diverse. New ways of approaching some themes are being introduced. Examples are “The New Normal” and “Modern Family”. Those two series mainly introduce the making of a contemporary family, introducing people to single moms, multi-racial family and same-sex family. The problem now, is that most of these TV series are only produced and aired in the United States or in European countries. However, some other countries in the broadcasting world are starting to have different contents. This is a good sign. It means that the audience around the world is actually asking for different and new contents.

THE SOCIAL MEDIA AND TV SERIES The social network service has been running for more than 10 years now. According to a social media study, “this new social network-based definition of the creative industries may be proposed as... The set of agents and agencies in a market characterized by adoption of novel ideas within


social networks for production and consumption.” (Potts, Cunningham, Hartley, & Ormerod, 2008) This means that the SNS is making active use of creative ideas to allow communication among people, even allowing some companies to achieve success in product promotion. Broadcasting companies are using SNS to advertise their TV series. Even the series that are no longer on air still have active Facebook pages that upload famous quotes from well-known episodes. For example, “Star Trek” is now using Facebook to quote from the episodes aired in the 1980’s, just to keep the audience interested. A show from ABC Family, “Pretty Little Liars”, has one of the most active promotion methods using the social networking service. Every night before the show starts, the “Pretty Little Liars” Facebook page uploads some teaser photos about what is going to happen in a few minutes. The teasers they post every time freshen up the attention of the audience who are mildly interested. The use of social media in “Pretty Little Liars” is nearly phenomenal

There is no doubt that it will be easier to find diversified TV series in the future. The genres and the content of the series will be even more diversified than ever before. The only grim potential in the TV series is that the content market will turn into a Red Ocean, full of contents that were already dealt with more than once or twice. Also, considering the emergence of reality TV shows, there is a worry that some new content might conflict with serious moral issues. Just as the violence in video games have brought teenagers to commit murder, it will be best to keep the producers of the TV series alert not to produce shows that promote violence. Especially, as the study shows that people of broad age variety will be subject to a violent behavior in the short span of time, it is only safe to wish for more exciting TV series content that are not violent. The SNS has been influencing audiences to watch the series that are more diverse in genre and content. In the future, the social networking service will become more interactive so that the

the SNS Marketing Strategy since it was the first time a TV series attracted so much social media reactions. The most important aspect of the use of SNS to advertise TV series is that it shows the back-and-forth communication between the viewers and the audience.

viewers could alter the storyline and the length of the plot. Even now, companies rely heavily on the reactions of the audience on the social networking service. In the future, many television series might become deeply attached to the audience, just like the reality shows and audition programs nowadays. Even now, some TV series are promoting their shows with more video clips that you can watch by clicking the ‘like’ button on Facebook. In the future, audiences may have to contribute a given number of postings on the SNS of the series, just to watch the next episode.

JOOYEON LIM


The Effects of

Television in Education

Ever since it was first commercialized and introduced to the public in the mid1900s, television has received a great deal of criticism from parents, teachers, and others of the like. TELEVISION AT A GLANCE

Many critics say that watching television has a negative affect on the brain, limiting imagination and stunting brain growth in children. In opposition of these claims, many academic articles and scientific studies argue that television is not such a bad thing after all. It has been proven that watching television in moderation can even have a positive impact on the viewer if the device is being utilized correctly. Educational broadcasts can be used as a valuable intellectual aid, providing academic information and mentally stimulating exercises. Additionally, watching TV with others, such as a group of students in a classroom, can encourage peer to peer interaction and improve social skills. Whether or not television is beneficial to the viewer primarily depends on how it is being used, how often it is being used, and the setting in which it is being used.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROGRAM GENRES Mass mediums such as television, radio, and the internet can be beneficial and even highly educational if used appropriately. For example, a child will be positively affected by spending one hour per day watching an educational reading program as opposed to spending three plus hours per day watching a noneducational entertainment program. Over the course of three years, Cees M. Koolstra and other professors of Leiden University in The Netherlands conducted an extensive panel study which addressed the influence of television on

children’s reading performance and how different programs have different affects on the viewer. Due to all television content not being the same, it is important to note that the effects of observing various programs are also not the same. On one hand, “negative relationships have been found for time spent watching light entertainment programs”, while on the other hand, “a positive relationship has been reported for informational programs” (Koolstra 1997). This being said, children should be watching informational programs so that they are more inclined to learn from their television experience, essentially helping them to better analyze and comprehend books and other forms of text. Some programs are even broadcasted with on-screen text, called subtitles, exposing the viewer to reading material even while they watch television.

THE VALUE OF ON-SCREEN TEXT Even though not all shows display subtitles by default, they can almost always be enabled by using the settings on any given television set. This gives the user a more academic option when watching television, even if it is on a program that is not necessarily educational. The Netherlands is a prime example of a country which takes advantage of the on-screen text option. Television networks deriving from native English-speaking countries, such as The United States and Great Britain, are common in The Netherlands because the majority of the Dutch people begin to learn English at such a young age. From my experience as a temporary resident of The Netherlands, Dutch television is primarily comprised of English programs. On top of that, nearly every single English program that is broadcasted displays Dutch subtitles. This on-screen text approach proves effective as a learning aid for both children and adults, as most Dutch people are able to speak


English fluently. Meanwhile, other countries such as Italy and France choose to replace the original voices, or overdub, English programs with recorded voices in their own language. As a result, they are missing an opportunity to improve their use of another language. Despite who uses it or not, on-screen text over any program is certainly a great aid to anyone learning a language.

BENEFITS OF TV IN HIGHER EDUCATION While television is often used purely for leisurely and entertainment purposes, there is no denying that it also possesses the capability of being used as a learning device. This being the case, televisions should not only be popular in living rooms, but in places of higher education as well. A professor of statistics at Purdue University finds in his studies that “both educational research and education reform are emphasizing that teaching should encourage student activity rather than simply aim knowledge in the general direction of a student audience� (Moore, 1993). While television has often been thought of as a counteractive approach to learning, Moore and other established professors explain that it can actually improve technical learning. Take a large class for example, with tens of students but only one teacher. Normally, this type of class would be holding some students back from reaching their potential due to other students needing more attention. Television can improve this situation by allowing instructional videos to be viewed by the entire class, and even students at home. While the video is being broadcasted for all to follow, the teacher can walk around the classroom and tend to students who need more individual assistance. By placing televisions in any place of education, but more specifically large classrooms and lecture halls, teachers are able to teach more efficiently and students are able to learn more effectively. In the United States, some of the big universities operate their own television channels which strictly broadcast educational material to the public. This allows people who are unable to attend school, for whatever reason, to still have the opportunity to consume academic knowledge. It also allows for academic entities, such as the universities broadcasting the information, to receive more

recognition for their positive acts. However, at its core, television in higher education environments should primarily be used for demonstrations in coordination with other forms of media. While students learn differently than one another, television alone is not the best option. Implementing a variety of mediabased lessons is important when dealing with a mixed group of students (Moore, 1993). This way they may progress toward a common goal together, each retaining more or less the same information from different mediums. All in all, education should not rely solely on the use of television, but should use television as more of an aid to compliment other methods of teaching.

THE FUTURE OF TV IN EDUCATION From young children who have yet to enter elementary school, to older adults who are enrolled in online courses, television is able to have a positive impact on everyone. While the beneficial effects of television can be proven by scientific research, the future is never certain, especially considering the rapid rate at which technology is developing. However, with the spread of multimedia and mobile electronics revolutionizing our everyday lives, it is probable that TV will continue to educate and inform people. Lessons and information will just be presented in different ways than we are used to. Personally, I see TV in education progressing toward interactive programs and more widespread availability on mobile devices. Television will continue to take advantage of rising technology, allowing for a more dynamic learning experience to be integrated with our lives. So, as it possesses such an undeniably strong presence in so many cultures while taking advantage of new technologies, television is bound to remain a prevalent in the future.

BEN HEITMANN


GLOBAL TV

FORMAT ADPATATION

T

he Voice, Dancing with the Stars, Who Wants to be a Millionaire, Pop Idol, Survivor, and Big Brother, are just a few examples of shows that have been broadcasted all over the world. Some of them have only seen certain (Western) countries and cultures, but there is an increasing amount of formats that can be viewed in all kind of different parts of the world.

These shows may have different purposes and a different impacts in various cultures, but they all contain elements which entertain their audience. Pop Idol for example, had a version in Afghanistan called Afghan Star. The purpose of the show was not only to entertain the audience, but also to unite all of the diverse ethnic groups who live in the country. They hoped it would take people’s hands from weapons to music and that it would bring an end to many of the conflicts. This show also had another impact in Afghanistan.The fact that the audience could vote by phone meant that the viewers had a first taste of Democracy. All of this is just a small part of what format adaptations around the world can offer. Cases like this could mean even more in the future as global circulation becomes more and more available. The increasing amount of TV channels and the Internet bring people great opportunities. But can these opportunities be beneficial for all? And if so, will they?

GLOBALLY-LOCAL It is interesting to notice that format adaptions seem to be a product of globalization, but are at the same time very localized. Take Afghan Star again for example; the contestants in their version of the show were very inflected by Afghan musical motifs and styles. They also declined to dance and dressed much more modestly than the viewers of the Western Pop Idol are used to. Therefore, this global product has been adapted with local characteristics. We should not forget that this world holds a lot of different cultures which all contain their own unique values and interests. This allows certain global products to be; “globally-local”.

POPULARITY In the last two decades, television had the opportunity to go from being an oligarchy of just traditional broadcasters to being a fragmented and differentiated multi-channel landscape. This landscape now consists of the traditional broadcasters as well as new and commercial players. Next to that, different kinds of cable and subscription television options have been expanding. This has led to the development of more specialized channels and smaller target audiences. And because of the Internet, they are no longer limited to just the television screen. Online there are many opportunities to view the local TV shows of other countries, whether it is legal or not. This means more choices and more possibilities; for example, someone can choose to watch the US or UK version of Skins. Even popular animated series and films all the way from Japan are now globally available. Now, followers of TV shows are not only local, but may consist of fans from all over the world.


(FUTURE) ADVANTAGES OF FORMAT ADAPTATION

(FUTURE) DISADVANTAGES

Global TV format adaptions can offer a lot of advantages to both the audience and the producer. Because of the growing accessibility of other countries’TV channels, the local versions are not only available for producers who attend certain specific TV industry events, but also for the consumers. This could mean that in the future, you as a viewer will notice some locally inspired TV formats and show your interests online. TV producers collect a new insight on what you as their audience demand and what you might find important in a possible local adaptation.

If we take into account the importance of lower production costs, more competition and the global distribution possibilities that the future holds, we can also predict that the local smaller TV companies will have less meaning of existence. The globally dominant companies who have access to an international target group have the potential to outplay them. This results in an oligopoly TV industry where there is less diversity. I think this could mean a great loss for the television industry. Diversity and the different opinions and views on the world that the media can offer are very important. Especially in a future media landscape where there are so many global opportunities.

We should also not forget the fact that with an original show, plus its local adaptions, there already exists a fan base in one or more other countries. Another advantage of format adaptation is the fact that these original shows can be localized. This means that the participants of a certain TV show come from places that you as a viewer will recognize. They might have the same background, problems and interests. Format adaptation holds a much larger level of identification than just broadcasting a foreign original show. There are also benefits for the distribution level in the global TV industry. Local production companies can be taken over by larger ones, and then they can gain ground in other countries too. In the future, this might lead to former local companies that can distribute on a global level more easily. This sounds very promising, but it actually holds a great disadvantage as well.

The diversity of TV programs is also influenced by the homogenization of worldwide media, and especially television, which appears to be inevitable. There is already a dominant component of Americanization visible on our TV screens and this may increase even more in the future. The research of social sciences focuses on certain key words: national identity, cultural identity, Americanization and media or cultural imperialism. This results in a sort of fear that the culture and identity of local audiences will somehow succumb to the American and Western cultural impacts. As a result, local cultures could see some serious consequences. This leaves us with one main question: In the future, will we still be looking at a majority of the American culture, or will there finally be room for all of the variety that this world has to offer?

SOPHIE VAN VOORST


THE FUTURE

PLATFORMS

OF TV

Television is one of the oldest electronic entertainment devices in human history. However, developments in technology have enabled new kinds of devices to be utilized, making defining “TV” more complicated. How do we define what a TV actually is when the content we are used to seeing on a TV is moving to mobile phones, tablets, gaming consoles and computers?

THE CHANGE IS HERE – NOW It is easy to say that TV has its traditions in peoples living rooms. For the past 80 years, the basic function of this wonderful device, invented in late 1920s, has stayed more or less the same. This can be seen as a sort of miracle, since technology is changing faster than ever before. For example, take a look at your mobile phone. While mobile phones have developed tremendously in the past five years, now being small computers with fancy touchscreens, TV is still usually just a screen in the living room. Of course, it has got slimmer, lighter and wider, but the TV industry has been almost as slow to adapt to the revolution of Internet as the music industry. The development of broadband connections, cellular networks and new devices has caused many

people’s free time to become more competitive. Just like the rest of the media and entertainment industry, TV is struggling to adapt to the overwhelming changes that the evolution of the Internet has caused. At the same time, big media companies are forced to rethink their whole business models from scratch. This is causing completely new and interesting TV devices to appear in the market at an accelerating pace.

WAR OVER THE LIVING ROOM For the last 12 months, the press in the field of technology has been covered with headlines such as “The war over the living room”. This ongoing battle is simply a result of the new ways that TV is consumed. On-demand streaming services such as Netflix and Hulu are growing their market share consistently, Netflix having almost 30 million subscribers in the United States alone. Therefore, it would make sense to be able to watch a series from Netflix straight from the TV, right? Well, if one desires to do so, the easiest solution is to buy a Smart TV, a TV that is connected to the Internet. These kinds of TVs are usually quite expensive, difficult to use and include features no one actually needs. Luckily, there are other options as well. The two big players of the tech industry, Google and Apple, have brought their own visions of how TV should work in the market. Apple TV and Google’s


Chromecast are devices that seamlessly connect the living room’s existing TV to the Internet. While both devices have their own characteristics, they both share a few features: they are cheap and they are small. However it is hard to see a future for these gadgets as the prices of Smart TVs are decreasing. At the same time, the user experience of Smart TVs continues to improve, making Apple’s and Google’s gadgets somewhat useless. The third warrior in the war over the living room is gaming consoles. The major companies the in the industry, Microsoft with Xbox and Sony with Playstation, have noticed the potential market and work on expanding their gaming consoles to be “the center of the living room”. Since the Xbox or Playstation is probably already connected to the Internet as well as to the living room’s TV, streaming a few episodes of Game of Thrones from HBO via a Playstation 4 would make sense. In the next five years, the war over the living room will only become more vicious. While it is hard to predict which device will grab the lead and become the center of the living room, consumers will have a hard time figuring out what they actually need.

ON THE GO – IS THE FUTURE OF TV MOBILE? According to estimations made by International Data Corp, the number of smartphones worldwide will reach approximately one billion in 2013. In addition, the growth is tremendous: estimations show that the number will be 1,7 billion in 2017. When the number of tablets sold is added to one billion smartphones, it is obvious that the potential market for mobile TV is rather huge. While mobile

“it

is obvious that the potential market for mobile TV is rather huge“

TV has been an interesting topic for years, it has not yet reached its full potential. However, according to RNCOS research company, the number of mobile TV subscribers will hit approximately 792 million by the end of 2014, which should drive the development of mobile TV forward.

FUTURE OF TV DEVICES While it is difficult to predict which devices will be used to consume TV and video content in the future, all of these devices will have one thing in common: they are all somehow connected to Internet. If development continues in the current direction, cross platform concepts will most probably become the backbone of TV. What this actually means is that an increasingly sized TV screen will remain as the center of the living room, but the content will not be delivered by a cable, and the TV screen will not been controlled by a remote. Instead, more stylish and elegant user interfaces will take over, as the system may be controlled with a smart phone, tablet, by voice or gestures of the user. The traditional cable will be replaced with a gaming console, Smart TV or other Apple TV-like product, which delivers content from Internet to the TV screen. These devices are already seen in many homes around the world and will continue to become more popular and common in the immediate near future. The future TV may look like the same device that it is today, but crucial components will change as content moves to the Internet and is easier to access than in the past. While many things about the future stay uncertain, one thing is for sure: the customer will be the king. The customer chooses the content and the device and most importantly, has the money to do so.

ATTE HUOPAINEN


Aspects of Television which

Affect People

Television has been the center of many families for almost a century, and many people even schedule their lives so that they can watch their favorite series alone or with their families/friends. There is no denying that TV has had a big influence on the whole world; how we shape up to be, our perception of the world and how we want our future to be. Television had a place in our lives for a very long time, since the 1930s. Soon after the first presentation of the TV, there was much debate and criticism on how it should be used. Today, the same problem is still on the table. Around the globe there are over 1,5 billion TV devices. Nowadays, an average European person spends three hours per day in front of the TV. Surprisingly, this means that when we reach age 60, we have already spent approximately 10 years in front of the TV, absorbing its information. Imagine if you would spend ten years straight with someone; you would learn a great amount of things about him or her, and you would also learn a great amount of things from him or her. As couples can become more alike from spending so much time together, it is possible that the viewers relationship with TV could be similar.

N

ews has been the main source of obtaining information since the 17th century. News stations let us know what is happening around us and tell us what we should expect to see happen. The trustworthiness of the news may

vary depending on the platform that the news has been distributed through. All over the world, we can see the same familiar faces on TV each night, reading the events of the current world. Still, these broadcasters can not always be trusted. The influence of the news is very big everywhere in the world because it affects everyone, whether you live in Russia or Mexico. The big news corporations choose which news topics they are going to air. By showing horrible clips from the war, news stations are able to influence people to either help their troops or start protesting the war. However, how the audience perceives the news all comes down to how the story is displayed or told. This is where the role of the journalists comes in. Even though journalists have to be unbiased, they can still make the story have a certain feel to it by using certain wording. That is why hearing the same news from a different platform can make you have different emotions and help construct your own opinions. In some countries, such as North Korea for example, the news may be completely corrupt, which is called propaganda. Propaganda, in its earliest stage, means influencing the information to someones benefit. People around the world did not fully understand the purpose of propaganda until World War 1 (1914), when the British and German governments used it to recruit soldiers. The German propaganda was arguably more effective because they had more power to get their “commercials� to air or to be published. The British propaganda on the other


hand was more subtle, but used very powerful images or phrases, such as two children asking their squirming father, “Daddy, what did you do in the Great War?”. The new age of propaganda involves events such as the terrorist attack of the World Trade Center; over 50% of Americans believe that there is a conspiracy behind it, but news corporations still do not spread that information about it. Governments can still affect us in a major way via television. That is considered the propaganda nowadays, but we do not always know what we are missing until we find it. Since the first-explosion of TV there have been people called celebrities, which are usually national figures such as musicians, actors or sportsmen. Celebrities used to be role models for everyone, from small children to adults, and had a meaningful purpose. Back in the day being a celebrity was not a job. Being a celebrity was a status, which you earned by being one the best at your craft. The national TV programs did not want to portray a negative image of their national hero if they did something wrong. Nowadays, being a celebrity seems to be almost the opposite of what it used to be: the ones who are behaving badly are the most famous, and still, people including little children look up to them. Obviously there are exceptions, but the articles you can read from the newspapers or hear from the news stations are usually concentrating on the bad side of things. Today, being a celebrity is considered a full-time job which does not necessarily have to have a specific function. You do not even have to be the good at what you are doing. That sounds fantastic, right? Not necessarily. From Lindsey Lohan’s rehabilitation to Britney Spears’ drunken madness, all over to e.g. John F. Kennedy’s assassination affects us in a very big way. Children have started to think that being inebriated in public is “cool”! Of course, celebrities are not behaving badly all the time, but that just seems to be the thing magazines and journalists love to write about and what people nowadays love to read about and even watch. The influence of TV is quite a bit bigger than we normally would expect it to be; even if one does

not take any influences from the TV, it certainly does not mean that everybody behaves the same way. But there are always good things in bad and bad things in good; ying and yang. In a person’s growing process, their surroundings and their family have the most to do with who they grow up to be. One could say that you get the combination of your mother’s and father’s personalities, and that the surroundings shape your consciousness and personality in a way that feels natural for your brain. Nowadays, TV affects almost as much. Children are put in front of the TV when their mom and dad have something else to do, and surprisingly often parents do not even know what is playing on the TV in front of their children. While it is a very easy way for the parents to get some time off for themselves, it is not necessarily good for the children. In many cases, children can choose what they want to watch because of the huge variety of different channels; horror movies can be found at any time of the day. But who are we to judge, right? Every individual has their own choices. Or at least they should. A poll made few years earlier states that 25% of Americans would not trade their TV, even for onemillion dollars. In another survey, men were asked that what would make them happy, and the main wish was plasma TV. This means that over 75 million people in the United States would not want to give away their television, not even if they would get a million dollars. A different poll states that 69% of the people think that TV’s effect is negative. The same percentile values goes to the TV-series and movies that the channels air; approximately 70% of the programs in TV are not supposed to be giving you influences (or at least one should not take them), but around 30% of the programs they show are full of facts and generally good for you. As time goes by, one can make an estimation that the percentage of informational television is going decrease more and more. In the end, we are the only ones who really can choose what to believe in, what to watch and from where to take influences, but we still have to choose the direction in which we want to shape our consciousness.

ALEKSI KETTUNEN


The Future of

INTERACTIVE

TELEVISION E

ver since the TV was invented and entered into our living room it’s impossible to imagine a household without it. When the TV first was invented it was just a small box that people could watch shows on in black and white. Through the years this has changed and now the TV’s have gotten bigger, have more possibilities and are more affordable to everyone. The technology behind the television has also changed, progressed and developed further. Nowadays the TV has become more than a platform where we can watch shows and movies on, it has become the new platform to interact with TV shows, broadcasting and can even be used for online purposes.

DIGITALIZATION Why is there the need to develop a new and more fun way of watching TV you may ask? The reason is simple, nowadays the consumer gathers a lot of information digitally or online by using their pc or smartphones and even your favourite shows and movies can be watched online. So why bother with watching TV, which runs on a schedule, when you can watch your favourite show at any time suitable for you.

Because of the growing digitalization many companies have adapted to this by offering digital TV plus packages, premium movie packages and even games. Digitization is not only a more efficient way of distributing, but you can also resell products that give the consumers much more possibilities which creates a different TV experience through all these developments. (Janssen, 2007)

INTERACTIVE TELEVISION: THE PRESENT Besides offering different digital TV plus packages, making TV’s bigger and better the new and upcoming way Is by making TV as interactive as possible. Interactive Television Technology is now innovating new ways to view information. Technologies that once existed by themselves are now coming together as one. Television, communication, and computer industries are merging their technologies, and the result is interactive television. The basic definition of interactive television that it is a form of media convergence that adds data services to traditional television. (Wikipedia, 2013) Since the introduction of the Interactive Television many companies have started developing their shows and programs based on the new technologies and making their program’s more interactive to keep up with the changing digitalizing world and the needs of the consumers. Nowadays the ITV is used by everyone because it’s convenient for watching movies, TV shows and other series at the moment you want, in other words on demand watching. This also makes it possible to re watch shows, pause, play within the show and forward back or fort. This way of watching TV adapts to the consumers’ needs and


makes watching TV more convenient because now the viewer doesn’t have to schedule around their favourite TV show anymore. When watching these show’s it’s also possible to vote, for let’s say your favourite singer on The Voice by just clicking one button on your remote control or to participate in a live quiz. ITV also makes it possible to watch Interactive Television on a second screen. This is an additional electronic device that allows the viewer to interact with the content they are consuming like TV shows and movies for example. (Janssen C. , 2013) For this an iPad, computer or even mobile phone can be used the same way as your TV. When the Interactive Television package is combined with an smart TV it’s possibilities can be extended to going online through your TV device. While using your remote control you can open an Internet tab just like on a computer and start searching websites, go online on Facebook and share social content with your friend on what movie you liked most for example. (TV, 2012)

“ITV is used by everyone because it’s convenient for watching movies, TV shows and other series at the moment you want” INTERACTIVE TELEVISION: THE FUTURE Although ITV is a convenient way of watching TV and a way of watching TV that has adapted to the needs of then consumers there are more possibilities to extend this service. Imagine coming home and turning on the TV to watch the game you missed last night. You sit down relax and start watching until your favourite team scores. But what if you missed the first goal? Of course there is the option of rewinding back and re watching it again but what if you could not only rewind back but also watch the goal from a different point of view as well or watch the opponents reaction? The idea here is that the viewer controls the whole broadcast and can decide on what to see, decide

on the point of view they want to see and this way create their own TV experience of the game. If this concept develops even further it’s also possible to develop new show where the viewer is in charge of the course of the story. When this show reaches a certain point it’s up to the viewer to decide whether he wants the lead character to go left or right and his choice would affect the course of the story. By changing the whole perspective on Interactive television and actually making it more interactive and giving more control to the viewer the concept of Interactive Television can develop even further. An example is the TV voting, It’s already possible to vote so by extending that service in combination with a Smart TV we could be directly linked to a certain product’s website. Imagine watching TV when suddenly the commercials come on. It’s possible to skip the commercials with the use of interactive television but what if the viewer sees a product that he wanted to buy for a long time. With the press of a button the viewer can open a menu and be redirected to the website where he can read more information on the product or place an order and then continue watching their show. By using the Interactive Television to actually interact with the people and using it in a commercial way as well it has the possibility to make people’s life’s easier and more comfortable. Also by expanding the TV platform it becomes easier for the viewer to watch TV, share online information with their friends and even use the TV as their base platform to game and Internet. The use of Interactive Television has a lot of possibilities and with the growth of the digitalization and laziness it will be a matter of time before this developments can be seen. After al Interactive Television is an extended way of watching television, which is pointed towards keeping the viewer interested. So ITV has a future and at the moment it’s only a matter of time before we might even control our TV’s with our mind.

YASMINE MOURABIT


Product P

Bringing Your Bran

N

owadays, consumers have a great power over the broadcast entertainment they watch. TiVo recorders and other TVon-demand services allow them to skip broadcast advertisements, leading to fewer exposure of brands on a daily basis. To counter this phenomenon, marketers and advertisers need to develop new strategies to bring their products to the screens of potential consumers. Product placement, a practice that can even be seen back in the early years of cinema, is the trend.

WHAT IS IT? Product placement, brand integration or embedded marketing is the visual or spoken insertion of a branded good in an audiovisual project in return of payment, goods or services. This practice benefits both parties as it increases brand awareness of the viewer and possibly reduces outof-the-pocket costs for movie producers; so for marketers and producers work closely together (Newell, Salmon, and Chang, 2006). As a potential source of income for movies and TV productions and a new marketing technique for brands, product placement; according to the media and entertainment research and consulting firm PQ Media, represented an amount of 4, 24 billion dollars in 2005 and grew up to 24, 63 billion dollars in 2009, a number that has not stop growing.

INSERT YOUR AD HERE! Product placement is in the spotlight and the future should witness an overwhelming flow of obvious product placement collaborations. In “The Internship” (2013) by Shawn Levy actors, Vince Vaughn and Owen Wilson enter Google premises in hope to get hired by the current

Internet powerhouse. Google did not provide any money for the movie, but did offer a full range of services and work closely with the production team so that the ideal image of the company could be displayed. “The Internship” upset the cinema critics for “selling its soul” to Google, but also represents a good example of what cinema might be heading to; Hollywood produced adverts for wealthy global companies. (David Cox for the Guardian, 2013) That is not all. New technologies and inventions in the world of TV and entertainment have led to new opportunities for product placement adepts. Virtual placement by the means of software tools offers the possibility to insert the product placement after the movie has been finished and edited (Cohen, 2006). Due to this, movie productions have more time before contracting any agreement with a company. They can also test which brand fits their story best on a finished product before sending out agreement proposals. Moreover, the making of several versions of the same movie will


Placement

nds to the Screen. display different brands, serving targeting and distribution. A character may drink Coca-Cola or Diet Coke depending whether the movie is targeted to males or females. The character may also walk in the street pass fast foods and sports shops in the male targeted version, while walking past shoe shops and spas in the female targeted version. This trick will also be useful when distributing the movie abroad. If Burger King is featured in a movie but there are no Burger Kings in a specific country yet, the virtual product placement can easily be changed to Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants. This way, the viewers from that country can relate to the movie in a more realistic way. In the long run, product placement might revolutionize people’s way of consumption. With the constant evolution of wireless, touchscreens, smartphones and smart TVs, viewers will soon be able to, by using their touchscreen or ameliorated QR code reader, touch or scan a product and be redirected to the webpage or pages related to the

brand or product. If a character holds a branded handbag, woman viewers will be able to order the

“In the long run, product placement might revolutionize people’s way of consumption” same product while watching their entertainment. If a character is having sushi in a restaurant, clicking on the sushi on the screen will put the viewer in relation to the closest sushi delivery service to their home, allowing them to enjoy the same meal as their favorite character even before the end of the featured entertainment. This phenomenon, so far called “product liking”, will allow immediate purchase of the displayed article. This technology brings product placement to a whole other level, and will boost online shopping as well as the consumption habits of the viewers, making it even more instinctive and creating new needs.

TO CONCLUDE…. It is important to remember that product placement is already everywhere, but will not stop developing as it represents an efficient strategy for marketers. It is a compromise to the classic TV advertisements which viewers tend to avoid, and a profitable agreement between brands and TV or film productions. Personally, I do find the future of product placement a great perspective for entertainers and marketers. There is a lot of money to make, and of course, viewers will start to enjoy advertisements again, especially if the technology evolution allows them to interact with the ads. On the other hand, as a TV and consumption society skeptic, I can only wonder; is our entertainment doomed to be branded? Will viewers still be able to enjoy entertainment without being tempted of consuming? Where is Hollywood heading?

ALANNA PEPIN DANISSEN


F

or a long time, social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have been growing and being widely used.

Social media has become a part of our society, and plays a large role in the lives of many individuals. Some people are even addicted to it. They check if something has happened in the world around them every 15 minutes. ‘Do your social contacts already have weekend plans, is somebody in love’ and so on. It is difficult to imagine that this powerful ‘new world’ of social media emerged only 7 years ago. Social media is a wide concept which can be quite distracting. The only thing that is certain, is that it is a social concept. Friends, family, acquaintances and unknown people are all a part of it. In the beginning of the social media, online platforms became the most popular way to seek contact with the outside world. Ideas, information about yourself, photos and daily interests are shared on these platforms. Friends as well as outsiders can react to your story, which brings people together from all over the world. This is the key to social media: connections. Television has been around us for a long time and there have been many researches done on how people watch television, their interests, channels, the future of television, etc. These studies are quickly irrelevant because the world of television changes very quickly. Especially now that social media is also going to be a part of how we watch television and how television ‘comes to us’. Many

television channels will focus on social media. From social websites, television networks get a lot of information from viewers and they can use it to align their mission and vision to the viewers.

TV CHANNELS CAN GET MORE VIEWERS IF THEY USE SOCIAL MEDIA It was found that the main motivation is functionality when it comes to TV-related social media use. Young people want to stay informed about their favorite TV shows and search online for more content of the program. New information above all. Viewers also make use of social media to let the world know what they themselves are watching on television. Within the group of fans of the program there arises a connection and more involvement. It also shows that when viewers ‘Like’ or ‘Follow’ a program on Facebook or Twitter, they are more involved with the program and the TV channel. Many respondents play television-related social media game on a weekly basis. These games are important for a television station to engage the viewers to stick with the program. This is a way for the fans to be a part of the program or station throughout the year. Still, 75% of viewers watch traditional live TV nearly 3,5 hours daily, and it is expected that social media will not change that. However, the way we watch has changed and will continue to change. Almost two thirds of people indicated to be busy with a ‘second screen’ while watching TV. They


browse the internet, check email, play games and of course use Twitter and Facebook. Viewers are often busy on social media while watching a program because they “talk” about the program on social sites. In the second season of the well known program “The Voice of Holland”, social media tactics were perfectly executed. It gave more depth to the program and created more audience involvement. There was an application that you could install on your Smartphone. It was a game where you had to assess the people who auditioned for the program and potentially win prizes (of course this was all linked to Facebook, Twitter, etc.)

TV STATIONS BENEFITS FROM SOCIAL MEDIA ‘Twitter along with this program’, ‘like’ us on Facebook’, ‘view more pictures on our website’! With phrases like these, it can be said that more is expected of the viewer than in the past. The days of being lazy on the couch and simply staring at the screen are coming to an end. The TV shows are calling for action.

“ I BELIEVE THAT SOCIAL MEDIA CAN CHANGE A LOT OF INDUSTRIES” As mentioned earlier, people often send messages on social media while viewing a TV show. Most of the time, they send messages about the program if they want to get something of their chests. It does not matter for the relevance of the program whether it is live or not. Broadcasts which are not live, will be live after all because of social media. Generally, viewers feel involved with the program during the broadcast. Sometimes this continues the next day and this commitment shows itself through the expressions of social media.

TRANSPARENCY Social media can be described as an ‘open source’. Everything on the internet often ends up public, making it visible to everyone. Even if your intention is to show your message only to your friends, this unwanted publicity can still take place. This transparency can also bring disadvantages with it.

If a group of people do not like a program or a TV show, and the group will ‘buzz’ about it (sending messages on social media) and everyone will know. This may have negative consequences for the TV station is their program is not perceived well.

CONCLUSION I believe that there are pros and cons for a TV station to use social media. A major advantage is that through social media, the channel can easily reach their target group. Commercials, campaigns, statements, news about the program, and everything else comes quickly to the interested viewer. Social media is a great invention for TV channels to get commitment from viewers and also to gain more viewers. A disadvantage of the large public social media platforms, is that when there are negative comments about a program, they can never be removed from the internet. Online is online. It can haunt you just as much as it can help you as a program creator. I am convinced that TV channels can not ignore the influence of social media anymore. A well known saying which I strongly agree with is: “We have moved from must-see TV to must-tweet TV”. There are many opportunities in the social media world. Instead of resisting it, people should accept the changes and just go with it!

LARA NIEMAN


A Ride Through

The Piracy of

TV Shows

New technologies help us most of the time, but there is some time that it damages. In this case, piracy harms producers. With new technologies, you can share files, and download any multimedia file that you want. In the past it was more complicated to falsify or steal copyrights of the copyright. It was not possible, because there were no possible ways to do it. One of the principal problems of the TV world is piracy. Some years ago cinema and music had that problem, but nowadays, is starting to affect the TV, mainly TV series producers. Piracy has changed a lot along the years. First of all people download films, music, TV shows with programmes like Kazza, eMule… and now use the Torrent, and since then, the TV downloads increased. People decided to download files because it is easier to take the computer and go on the Internet and start to download for free. The frustration of the audience who miss one or more episodes of a TV show’s season, the affection for the TV shows. Thanks to High resolution, it’s much easier to store films easily stored, and portable personal television archives. Viewers enjoy archiving their favourite shows so that they can review episodes during their free time. There are a lot of possibilities of accessing global content. It is well known that English-speaking

countries outside the U.S. are host to a significant number of TV pirates, who, annoyed by the delay of U.S. programs’ export download U.S. shows immediately after their broadcasts. Unlimited, consumption of illegal products, caused the bankruptcy of many companies in the industry and the mass dismissal of the people. Given that in recent years it is very important to keep jobs due to lack of employment. One should consider moving people on this topic are very important, so that from their homes they can become more aware and think twice before they buy or download a product.

CONSEQUENCES The phenomenon of piracy covers different types of artists, which makes it difficult to approach and attack. First, the unauthorized copying and marketing of products that are then sold at low prices to the public consumer, affects both the creators and businesses, the same workers, artists, performers, designers, technicians and professionals. This causes a drop in sales, revenues and profits of producers, therefore discourage investment in new production plants, creating jobs and creativity itself. Everyone involved in the formal productive sector is hurt. Most of the producers want to strike against piracy, but there is one exception: HBO thinks that piracy is not a problem; One would think, piracy affects them,


because their show, ‘Games of Thrones” is the mostpirated TV show on the Internet, with four million illegal downloads per episode. However according to Michael Lombardo, HBO president said: “piracy is a compliment to the show and has actually helped sales”(Dan Graciano, 2013). Economic loss is the most harmful for business. There was a study about the economic loss of Europe producers. Creative producers in the European Union can lose nearly 240.000 million of euros and more than one million people can lose their job in less two years. One of the solutions against antipiracy is Netflix and Hulu. Two websites for watching TV shows and movies online, but you have to pay 20$ per month. The difference of this website is that it’s legal and doesn’t harm copyrights. In the United States these websites are working very well, and downloads are lower now, instead of, in Europe, especially Spain, where they have tried to introduce such website, but people still downloaded illegally anyway (Josh Mason, 2010).

FUTURE I think that most people watch most of their favourite shows on the Internet. Each producer or channel should have to create a multimedia

website, and they should have to upload the show on it and with your Internet rate, one part would go to producers and the other to the channel. Another option is paying channels that you are going to watch, around 10 euros per month. By doing so, everybody can watch the shows that they want, and producers don’t lose money. That quantity of money won’t be unnecessary as it will enable to create more shows and new jobs. And now, since all the computers and laptops should have some anti-piracy programs, that they don’t allow you to visit any illegal download website or watching the shows for free.

CONCLUSION As a conclusion, seeing the future, I do not think that people are going to stop downloading on websites in a short while. First of all, because it is very easy getting these kind of files. Moreover if you have to pay, people will think that it is expensive. Another thing is that all producers have to take care of their products. They have to try to put other kind of protections, because with that, people are going to have more problems or restrictions to watch their products online or when they want to download.

ALEJANDRA DIEGO


Sources Used Product Placement Cohen, N. (23rd February 2006). Virtual Product Placement Infiltrates TV, Film, Games. Retrieved on the 16th of September 2013. http://www.technewsworld.com/ story/48956.html Cox, D. (1st July 2013). The Internship: how cinema sold its soul – but didn’t get paid. Retrieved on the 14th of September 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2013/jul/01/ internship-google-ci nema-sells-its-soul Newell, J.; Salmon, C.T. & Chang, S. (2006). The Hidden History of Product Placement. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50(4), 575-594. http://www.questia.com/library/1G1-162470371/the-hidden-history-of-product-placement What aspects of Television affects people Stefan Anitei (14.12.2007). How Does TV Influence Your Life. Retrieved from: http://news.softpedia.com/news/HowDoes-TV-Influence-Your-Life-73967.shtml Debate.org (On going). Does Television have a negative influence on society. Retrieved from: http://www.debate.org/opinions/doestelevision-have-a-negative-influenceonsociety Judith Vladdisa (17.11.2010). How Television and Movies Influence People More Than You Know. Retrieved from: http://www.mibba.com/Articles/People/3829/How-Television-and-Movies-Infl uence- People-More-Than-You-Know/ Tyler Benson (29.12.2005). Influence Of Television on a person. Retrieved from: http://www.articlesbase.com/ education-articles/influence-of-television-on-a-person-1 0009.html The Effects of Television in Education Anderson, D. R., Huston, A. C., Schmitt, K. L., Linebarger, D. L., Wright, J. C., & Larson, R. (2001). Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: The recontact study.Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,66 (1), 1-154. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3181552 Beentjes, J. W. (1988). Television’s impact on children’s reading skills: A review of research.Reading Research Quarterly,23(4), 389-413. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/747640 Fisch, S. M. (2005). Children’s learning from television. TelevIZIon, Retrieved from http://www.miescuelayelmundo. org/IMG/pdf/children.pdf Koolstra, C. M. (1997). Television’s impact on children’s reading comprehension and decoding skills: A 3-year panel study.Reading Research Quarterly, 32(2), 128-152. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/748102 Livingstone, S. (2009). Half a century of television in the lives of our children. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,625, 151-163. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40375912

Moore, D. S. (1993). The place of video in new styles of teaching and learning statistics. The American Statistician,47(3), 172-176. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/ stable/2684970 University of Chicago Committee on Educational Television. (1953). Television and the university.The University of Chicago Press,61(4), 202-225. Retrieved from http://www. jstor.org/stable/1082840 The Diversifying TV Shows and the SNS Marketing Strategy Potts, J. D., Cunningham, S. D., Hartley, J., & Ormerod, P. (2008). Social network markets : a new definition of the creative industries. (Vol. 32(3)). Journal of Cultural Economics. A Ride through the Piracy of TV Series Graciano, Dan. 1-april-2013. “HBO admits piracy is a ‘compliment’ that doesn’t hurt sales”. Accessed on: http://bgr. com/2013/04/01/hbo-onlinepiracy-analysis-408449 Mason, Josh. 12-may-2010. “Movie Piracy: Good for the Consumer, Bad for the Film Industry”. Accessed on: http:// voices.yahoo.com/movie-piracy-goodconsumer-badfilm-6011112.html? cat=40 Advertising in Television D. Altas, H. O. (2013). Eurasian journal if Business and Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.ejbe.org/EJBE2013Vol06No11p039ALTAS-OZTUNC.pdf Gimpel, G. (2013, May). The MIT center for Digital Business. Retrieved from http://digital.mit.edu/research/papers/20 13.05_Gimpel_Five %20Pressing %20Issues%20Shaping%20the %20Future%20of%20TV%20Video.pdf Future%20of%20TV%20Video.pdf MarketingOnline. (2013, 03 04). Marketingonline. Retrieved from: http://www.marketingonline.nl/nieuws/bericht/ onderzoek-forse-groei-mobiel-internetgebruik Piech, D. (2011). http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=1V7_87SNebg. Retrieved from ComScore: http://www. youtube.com/watch? v=1V7_87SNebg S. Bellman, J. M.-H. (2013, May). ScienceDirect. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art icle/pii/ S1094996812000667 S. Shavitt, P. V. (2004). http://public.wsu.edu/~mija_shin/ joseph. pdf. University of Illinois. Soni, M. J. (2013). http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/assets/ snippets/workingpaperpdf/5196150992013-03- 02.pdf. Retrieved from http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/assets/snippe ts/workingpaperpdf/5196150992013-03- 02.pdf Stanlib. (2012). http://www.stanlib.com/EconomicFocus/Documents/Interesting_Charts/Worldintern etusers2012.pdf. Retrieved from Stanlib: http://www.stanlib.com/EconomicFocus/Documents/Interesting_Charts/Worldinternetusers2012.pdf


The Future of Interactive Television Janssen, C. (2013). Second Screen. Opgeroepen op 09 17, 2013, van Techopedia: http://www.techopedia.com/definition/29212/second-screen Janssen, F. (2007, 08 30). Het gevecht rond interactieve TV. Opgeroepen op 09 16, 2013, van Frankwatching.com: http:// www.frankwatching.com/archive/2007/08/30/het-gevechtrond-interactieve-tv/ TV, I. o. (2012). Wat is een Smart TV?Opgeroepen op 09 17, 2013, van Internet op TV: http://internetoptv.com/ Global TV Format Adapatation Biltereyst, D. (2003), “Globalisation, Americanisation and Politisation of Media Research”, in (ed.) S. Hjarvard, Media in a Globalized Society, Museum Tuscalanum Press, Copenhagen. Jensen, P. M. (2007), Television format adaptation in a transnational perspective – An Australian and Danish case study. Aarhus University, Denmark. Moran, A. (2004a), “Television formats in the world/the world of television”, in (eds.) A. Moran & M. Keane (2004), Television Across Asia, London: RoutledgeCurzon. Moran, A. & Malbon, J. (2006), Understanding the Global TV Format, Intellect Books, Bristol. Reiss, S. & Wiltz, J. (2004), “Why people watch Reality TV” in Media Psychology, 6, 363-378. The Ohio State University. Schmitt, Daniel et al. (2005), The Global Trade in Television Formats, Screen Digest Limited, London. Social Media; the influences on the TV business Editie NL. (2013). Nederland = social media-land. Opgeroepen op september 10, 2013, van rtlnieuws.nl: http://www.rtlnieuws.nl/editienl/ nederland-social-media-land Ericsson. (2011, september 16). Studio Sport kijken met de iPad op schoot. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van telecompaper.com: http://www.telecompaper.com/nieuws/studio-sport-kijkenmet-de-ipad-op-schoot-827417#.Ui9bY9K-2gw Gerretsen, M. (2013, Januari 31). TV verandert dankzij social media en second screen. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van dmmediaplein.nl: http://www.dmmediaplein.nl/massa_media/tv-verandertdankzij-social-media-en-second-screen/ Hsia, L. (2010, december 10). How Social Media is Changing the Business of Television. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van mashable.com: http://mashable.com/2010/12/10/social-media-business-tv/ Lier, H. v. (2012, april 17). Tv-kijkers reageren massaal op sociale-mediaoproepen. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van volkskrant.nl: http://www.volkskrant.nl/vk/nl/2694/ Tech-Media/article/detail/3242143/2012/04/17/Tv-kijkersreageren-massaal-op-sociale-mediaoproepen.dhtml Marciano, D.-P. (2010). Een terugblik op 2010: televisie en sociale media. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van frankwatching.com: http://www.frankwatching.com/archive/2010/12/21/eenterugblik-op-2010-televisie-en-sociale-media/ NPOX. (2010, December 13). Hoe social media de TV business veranderen.

Accessed on September 10, 2013, van npox.nl: http://www. npox.nl/?fId=417&uId=469019 Pelosa. (2012). Social media: de voordelen en de gevaren. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van pelosa.nl: http://www.pelosa.nl/content/content/social-media-de-voordelen-en-de-gevaren Rice, W. (2012, juni 9). Kijkers kijken nog steeds liever live TV. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van mediapsychologie.nl: http://mediapsychologie.nl/2012/06/09/kijkers-kijken-nogsteeds-liever-live-tv/ Rob Beemster. (2013, mei 24). Inzet sociale media versterkt band met tv-kijker. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van http://www.adformatie. nl/: http://www.adformatie.nl/nieuws/bericht/inzet-sociale-mediaversterkt-band-met-t v-kijker/ Viacom. (2013, may 21). TV-Related Social Media Use Is Primarily Driven by Functional, Communal and Playful Factors, According to New Multi-Country Research from Viacom. Accessed on September 10, 2013, van http://ir.viacom.com/: http://ir.viacom.com/releasedetail. cfm?ReleaseID=766267 The Future Platforms Of TV Bellis, M. (n.d.). The Invention of Television Timeline. Retrieved from http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/a/Television_Time.htm eMarketer Inc. (2013, April 2). Digital TV, Movie Streaming Reaches a Tipping Point. Retrieved from http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Digital-TV-Movie-Streaming-Reaches-TippingPoint/1009775 Patel, N. (2012, November 13). War for TV: Inside the Fight for the Living Room. The Verge. Retrieved from http://www. theverge.com/2012/11/13/3640178/war-for-tv-inside-thefight-for-the-living-room Phys.org. (2013). Global Smarphone Sales to hit 1 Billion. Retrieved from http://phys.org/news/2013-09-global-smartphone-sales-billion.html Zhang, J. J. (2013, May 30). Xbox One is out to Control Your Living Room. Retrieved from http://www.marketwatch.com/story/xbox-one-is-out-to-control-your-livingroom-2013-05-30


REMOTEVOLUTION E-MAGAZINE WAS CREATED AS A PART OF THE GLOBAL MEDIA PERSPECTIVES COURSE CONDUCTED BY HENK SCHILSTRA, AUTUMN 2013 AT INHOLLAND UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES, HAARLEM, THE NETHERLANDS.


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Remotevolution - Student Visions on the Future of TV  

REMOTEvolution is a collection of visions on the future of television and related themes by 10 students from 6 different nationalities. Thes...

Remotevolution - Student Visions on the Future of TV  

REMOTEvolution is a collection of visions on the future of television and related themes by 10 students from 6 different nationalities. Thes...

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