“America is not anything if it consists of each of us. It is something only if it consists of all of us.”– Woodrow Wilson
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (De-
cember 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. Running against Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt and Republican candidate William Howard Taft, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912. In his fi rst term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass major progressive reforms. Historian John M. Cooper argues that, in his fi rst term, Wilson successfully pushed a legislative agenda that few presidents have equaled, and re-
mained unmatched up until the New Deal. This agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax. Child labor was curtailed by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. He also had Congress pass the Adamson Act, which imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads. Wilson, after fi rst sidestepping the issue, became a major advocate for the women’s suffrage. Narrowly re-elected in 1916, he had full control of American entry into World War I, and his second term centered on World War I and the subsequent peace treaty negotiations in Paris. He based his re-election campaign around the slogan, “He kept us
14 February 1, 2012 THE MILITARY PRESS
out of war,” but U.S. neutrality was challenged in early 1917 when the German government began unrestricted submarine warfare despite repeated strong warnings, and tried to enlist Mexico as an ally. In April 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and fi nancial considerations, leaving the waging of the war itself primarily in the hands of the Army. On the home front in 1917, he began the United States’ fi rst draft since the American Civil War, raised billions of dollars in war funding through Liberty Bonds, set up the War Industries Board, promoted labor union cooperation, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever Act, took over control of the railroads, and suppressed anti-war movements. During his term in office, Wilson gave a well-known
Flag Day speech that fueled the wave of anti-German sentiment sweeping the country in 1917-18. In the late stages of the war, Wilson took personal control of negotiations with Germany, including the armistice. In 1918, he issued his Fourteen Points, his view of a post-war world that could avoid another terrible confl ict. In 1919, he went to Paris to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles, with special attention on creating new nations out of
Events • Russian revolutionaries execute the former czar and his family • Russian Civil War between Reds (Bolsheviks) and Whites (anti-Bolsheviks); Reds win in 1920 • Allied troops (U.S., British, French) intervene in Russia (March). Background: World War I • Second Battle of the Marne (July-Aug.) • German Kaiser abdicates (Nov.); hostilities cease on the Western Front • Japanese hold Vladivostok until 1922 • Worldwide Spanish influenza epidemic strikes; by 1920, nearly 20 million are dead. In U.S. alone, 500,000 perish. • President: Woodrow Wilson • Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall • Population: 103,208,000 • Daylight Saving Time goes into effect (March).
remember when . . . Charlie Chaplin in “A Dog’s Life”
From the book ‘Willing Patriots’ Painting Courtesy West Point Museum Art Gallery, U.S. Military Academy
World War 1 Ends! defunct empires. In 1919, during the bitter fight with Henry Cabot Lodge and the Republican-controlled Senate over the U.S. joining the League of Nations, Wilson collapsed with a debilitating stroke. An intellectual—the only president with a PhD— he bitterly fought other intellectuals such as Roosevelt and Lodge. A Presbyterian of deep religious faith, Wilson appealed to a gospel of service and infused a profound sense of moralism into his idealistic internationalism, now referred to as “Wilsonian.” Wilsonianism calls for the United States to enter the world arena to fight for democracy, and has been a contentious position in American foreign policy. For his peace-making efforts, particularly his advocacy of the League of Nations, Wilson was awarded the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize.
COST OF LIVING
Minimum Wage: no federal law existed for the minimum wage Average National Salary $1,144 Average Cost of a Home $4,821 Population of the U.S. 106,021,537 Automobile $500 Henri Matisse painted “Odalisques.” Postage Stamp 3 cents “A young woman has young claws, well sharpened. If Gallon of Milk 55 cents she has character, that is. And if she hasn’t so much the Loaf of Bread $.10 Gallon of Gasoline $.08 worse for you.”
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February 1, 2012 THE MILITARY PRESS 15