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GREEN SPACE

REVISITED

RETHINKING AND RECONFIGURING THE SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP OF THE CITY AND ITS ADJACENT COUNTRYSIDE IN NORTH WEST EUROPEAN METROPOLITAN REGIONS

THE CASE OF THE GREEN HEART


INTRODUCTION WHAT IS GREEN SPACE? WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT IS THE CASE?

WHAT HAS CHANGED ?

HOW TO GET THERE? WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?

ROAD ROADMAP MAP


WHAT IS GREEN SPACE? WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT IS THE CASE?

WHAT HAS CHANGED ?

HOW TO GET THERE? WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?


THE ROMANTIC IDEAL OF TOWN AND SURROUNDINGCOUNTRYSIDE……


WAS THOUGHT TO DISAPPEAR DUE TO THE DESTRUCTIVE FORCES OF THE INDUSTRIAL CITY


POLICY RESPONSE WAS REGARDED TO AS A RESULT A

BE A NECESSITY

GREEN SPACE EMERGED

THIS WAS HOW


INTRODUCTION

WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT IS THE CASE?

WHAT HAS CHANGED ?

HOW TO GET THERE? WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?


greenbelt london

greenheart randstad

A MEANS TO CONTROL URBAN GROWTH

1.


2.

WHAT IT CONTAINS: NATURE, RECREATION, AGRICULTURE


SOMEHISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CONCEPT

IN 1898 EBENEZER HOWARD PUBLISHED HIS INFLUENCIAL TOMORROW: A PEACEFUL PATH TO REAL REFORM, BETER KNOW AS GARDEN CITIES OF TOMORROW


GARDEN CITIES, WHITH STRICTLY LIMITED GROWTH, SHOULD BE SURROUNDED BY AN AGRICULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL ZONE, CALLED GREENBELT.


IN TODAY’S METROPOLITAN REGIONS IT BECOMES QUESTIONABLE WHETHER OR NOT THIS CONCEPT OF GREEN SPACE CAN STILL HOLD


INTRODUCTION

WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT IS THE CASE? HOW TO GET THERE?

WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?

WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?


1.

THE RISE OF NEO-LIBERALISM


After: Altshuler/Luberoff 2003

PLANNING´S ERA´S OF THE USA


PLANNER´S ARE NO LONGER THE ALL-POWERFULL EXPERTS THAT THEY ONCE WERE


2.

EMERGING METROPOLITAN REGIONS


WRITINGON MEGA (METROPOLITAN) REGIONS


NORTH AMERICA MEGA-REGIONS Source: Florida, 2007


ASIA MEGA-REGIONS Source: Florida, 2007


EUROPE MEGA-REGIONS Source: Florida, 2007


IT HAS WITHIN THE SAME SPATIAL UNIT URBANISED AREAS AND AGRICULTURAL LAND, OPEN SPACE (GREEN ) AND HIGHLY DENSE RESIDENTIAL AREAS (CASTELLS, 2010)


these metropolitan regions however have few linkages in terms of governance(Innes et al., 2011), which also has been called ´the regional gap’, the mismatch between the region, the scale at which human activities are increasingly taking place and the scale at which these activities are organized .


GOVERNMENT NEXT TO GOVERNANCE. Source: Boelens (2007)

the growing use of the term “governance” rather than government, is in itself showing government restructuring and rescaling (Soja, 2011).


INTRODUCTION WHAT IS GREEN SPACE? WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT IS THE CASE?

WHAT HAS CHANGED ?

HOW TO GET THERE?

WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?


1.

THE RISE OF NEO-LIBERALISM HAS FADED THE SYSTEMS THAT ONCE ENABLED PLANNERS TO MAKE ‘GREEN SPACE’ A SUCCESFUL PLANNING TOOL


2.

THE WORLD IS EXPERIENCING A POLYCENTRIC REGIONAL URBANIZATION PROCESS, IN WHICH ‘GREEN SPACE’ HAS BECOME PART OF THE METROPOLITAN REGION AND THEREFORE HAS BECOME PROBLEMATIC AS A CONCEPT.


3. AMONG THE MANY EFFECTS OF REGIONAL URBANIZATION HAS BEEN A CRISIS OF URBAN AND REGIONAL GOVERNANCE (BRENNER, 2005) WHICH ESPECIALLY ACCOUNTS FOR ‘GREEN SPACE’AS IT IS OFTEN LOCATED IN AREAS WITH OVERLAPPING GOVERNMENTAL STRUCTURES


INTRODUCTION WHAT IS GREEN SPACE? WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT IS THE CASE?

WHAT HAS CHANGED ?

HOW TO GET THERE? WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?


SOCIETAL : PUBLIC CONCERN WITH THE PRESERVATION OF GREEN SPACE


SOCIETAL : HOW TO GOVERN SPATIAL PLANNING ON THE METROPOLITAN REGION SCALE?


SCIENTIFIC: RESEARCH ON IDEAL PATTERNS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF CITY AND LANDSCAPE


INTRODUCTION WHAT IS GREEN SPACE? WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT IS THE CASE?

WHAT HAS CHANGED ?

WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?


WHERE TO GO:

AIMS


1. To define a new the role for ‘green space’ in today’s north west European metropolitan regions, considering the impact of the shift from metropolitan to regional urbanization.


2. To develop a spatial strategy that is able to implement this new role for “green space”. A spatial strategy that also does “strategic work” (Healey, 2009) in the sense of shaping future development trajectories. The “strategic work” should mobilize attention to the “green space” as a whole, and influence and direct the way that multiple actors involved in spatial development shape their interventions.


3. collaborative network processes fill the gaps where government fails to operate, cross jurisdictional and functional boundaries engage public and private sector actors on common tasks, and focus on the collective welfare of a region (Innes et al., 2011). Accordingly this project will take into account the potential of strategies that aim to have directive influence on such processes.


RESEARCH QUESTIONS


RESEARCH QUESTION 1:

What is meant with the shift from metropolitan to regional urbanization?

RESEARCH QUESTION 2:

What role can the originally as ‘green space’ defined areas play in today’s north west European metropolitan regions considering the impact of the shift from metropolitan to regional urbanization?

RESEARCH QUESTION 3:

Can self-organizing collaborative networks deal with the identified problems in the governance systems of planning that enables spatial planning to be effective ?


PHASING / TIME SCHEDULE


SUBRESEARCH QUESTION 2.1:

How can the original concept of “green space� be defined and how was it developed? 2.1.1 What is the planning historic background of this approach? 2.1.2 Which functions are defined for these landscapes in relation to its adjacent cities?

SUBRESEARCH QUESTION 3.1:

What are self-organizing collaborative networks and how do they work ?


1. LITERATURE SURVEY GREEN SPACE AND SELFORGANIZINGCOLLABORATIVE NETWORK GOVERNANCE


RESEARCH QUESTION 1:

What is meant with the shift from metropolitan to regional urbanization?


2. PARALLEL PROCESS: UNDERSTANDING METROPOLITAN REGIONS BY CONFRONTING LITERATURE SURVEY WITH THE CASE


SUBRESEARCH QUESTION 2.2:

How are the as “green space” developed areas affected by the shift from metropolitan to regional urbanization? 2.2.1 What are the effects of this shift on the local and regional scale understood in terms of spaces of flow and spaces of place ? 2.2.2 What are the effects of this shift on “green space” in terms of functions?

SUBRESEARCH QUESTION 3.2:

How is the governance of planning of the as “green space” developed areas affected by the shift from metropolitan to regional urbanization & neo-liberal strategies? 3.2.1 Which problems can be identified in the governance systems that enables spatial planning to be effective caused by the so-called “regional gap”? 3.2.2 Which problems can be identified caused by the neo-liberal strategies to deregulate government in the effectiveness of the planning and conservation of “green space”?


3. CASE STUDY THE GREEN HEART


P2

RESULTINGIN

A HYPOTHESIS AND PROPOSITIONS ON

THE FUTURE ROLE OF

GREEN SPACE AND

HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT


SUBRESEARCH QUESTION 2.3:

What are the unique core values of today’s “green spaces” in north west European metropolitan regions? 2..3.1 Can “green space” deliver sustainable development to a dynamic urban region? Sustainable in this case refers equally to sustainable economic (i.e. profitgenerating) solutions, sustainable social (i.e. broadly supported) solutions, sustainable spatial (i.e. well embedded from an evolutionary viewpoint) solutions and sustainableenvironmental (i.e. climateneutral) solutions (Boelens, 2010). 2.3.2 How should these unique core values be interpreted and defined in order to contribute to the sustainable development of a dynamic urban region?

SUBRESEARCH QUESTION 3.3:

What is the potential of governance by means of self-organizing collaborative networks to develop an effective spatial strategy that also does “strategic work”(Healey, 2009) to give shape to this new envisioned role for “green space” in the emerging north west European metropolitan regions?


4. DESIGNEXPERIMENT: TESTINGTHE HYPOTHESIS AND PROPOSITIONS


5. ANALYTIC GENERALIZATION TESTED THROUGH REPLICATIONS OF FINDINGIN OTHER CASES


DETAILED PHASING/ TIME SCHEDULE


INTRODUCTION WHAT IS GREEN SPACE? WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT HAS CHANGED ? HOW TO GET THERE? WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?


Source: Lambregts et al. (2008)

RANDSTAD: 45% OF THE DUTCH POPULATION (7 Mio) 50% OF THE DUTCH ECONOMY 20%OF THE COUNTRIES SURFACE GREEN HEART: 1800 KM2 70 MUNICIPALITIES


1966 GREEN HEART METROPOLIS : THE POLYCENTRIC CONURBATION OF THE RANDSTAD AROUND A CENTRAL ‘OPEN’ SPACE: THE GREEN HEART


Source: Lambregts et al. (2008)

ADMINISTRATIVE ACTORS IN THE RANDSTAD, PARTIAL AND SCHEMATIC, NOT SHOWN FOR EXAMPLE , ARE THE CA. 150 MUNICIPALITIESTHAT HAVE A SAY IN PLANNINGMATERS AS WELL


THE GREEN HEART AROUND THE VILLAGE OF MEIJE REPRESENTINGITS IDEAL IMAGE


THE GREEN HEART AROUND THE TOWN OF LANSINGERLANDREPRESENTING ITS MESSY REALITY


The ‘Ruimtelijk Planbureau’ (the National Spatial Planning Office of the Netherlands) concluded in 2003 that the policy of conservation had failed: the open landscape is disappearing slowly, much more housing and offices were built then originally intended. They also concluded that the Green Heart is not a coherent region; it consists out of several sub regions with each of them their own specific qualities. Only their position in regard to the ‘Randstad’ link these regions together. Moreover the Green Heart

is being built over.


INTRODUCTION WHAT IS GREEN SPACE?

WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS? WHAT IS THE CASE?

WHAT HAS CHANGED ?

HOW TO GET THERE? WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?


FINAL PRODUCTS 1. A NEW SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL PLANNING REGIME* FOR THE RANDSTAD’S GREEN HEART Including

STRATEGIC PROJECTS

2. THEORY ON GREEN SPACE Including

A REVIEW PAPER ON SELF-ORGANIZING COLLABORATIVE NETWORKS GOVERNANCE *

INFORMAL ARRANGEMENTS BY WHICH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INTERESTS FUNCTION TOGETHER IN ORDER TO MAKE AND CARRY OUT GOVERNING DECISIONS


INTRODUCTION THE IDEAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CITY AND COUNTRYSIDE

WHAT IS GREEN SPACE? A MEANS TO CONTROL URBAN GROWTH

WHAT ARE THE FINAL PRODUCTS?

THEORY ON GREEN SPACE A NEW SPATIAL REGIME FOR THE GREEN HEART

WHAT IS THE CASE?

WHAT IT CONTAINS: NATURE, RECREATION, AGRICULTURE

WHAT HAS CHANGED ? THE RISE OF NEO-LIBERALISM

THE CASE OF THE GREEN HEART

EMERGING METROPOLITAN REGIONS HOW TO GET THERE? LITERATURE STUDY WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?

CASE STUDY DESIGN EXPERIMENT

THE FADING OF THE SYSTEMS THAT ENABLED ‘GREEN SPACE’ TO BE A SUCCESFUL PLANNING TOOL

WHAT ISTHE RELEVANCE?

‘GREEN SPACE’ HAS BECOME APART PROBLEMS OF GOVERNANCE ON OF THE METROPOLITAN REGION PUBLIC THEMETROPOLITAN REGION SCALE CONCERN WITH THE PRESERVATION OF GREEN SPACE RESEARCH ON IDEAL PATTERNS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF CITY AND LANDSCAPE

RECAP

GREEN SPACE REVISITED  

Presentation of a reserach and design proposal that will rethink and reconfigure the spatial relationship of the city and its adjacent count...

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