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PROGRAMME

T H E R E D A LT E R N AT I V E em e c p m i o o pw c r e r o r a cm c i e y t n y t


T H E R E D A LT E R N AT I V E URBAN STRATEGY

MARCH STAGE TWO

Isla Melville and Ian McNeill


OPPORTUNITY

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TERMINOLOGY PRODUCTIVE SPACE

Human to Human, Mutual Exchange

HUMAN NEEDS Unemployment Breaking down of social boundaries HUMAN ACTION Historic Struggle Fight for social cause ENVIRONMENTAL NEED Synergies Responsibility Environmental Awareness Catalyst for Change INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY Industrial ecology is a broad, systemic and cross-industrial approach, it studies industrial systems as ecosystems which encompass a network of processes and flows, includes industry’s wider links to society INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS

One of the most important concepts of industrial ecology is that, like the biological system, it rejects the concept of waste. Dictionaries define waste as useless or worthless material. In nature, however, nothing is eternally discarded; in various ways all materials are reused, generally with great efficiency. Hence materials and products that are obsolete should be termed ‘residues’ rather than ‘wastes’, and it should be recognized that wastes are merely residues that our economy has not yet learned to use efficiently.

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CONTENTS TERMINOLOGY VALUES RECIPROCITY EMPOWERMENT DEMOCRACY URSUS TO GLOBAL URSUS ON SITE URSUS DISTRICT URSUS WARSAW URSUS POLAND URSUS GLOBAL PROGRAMME CURRENT INFRASTRUCTURE CURRENT FABRIC CELTIC OWNERSHIP CURRENT SYSTEMS SCENARIO A-B-C FORMAL ACTIVITIES INFORMAL ACTIVITIES WHAT DOES THIS MEAN BIBLIOGRAPHY


T H E

R E D A L T E R N A T I V E


VALUES


THE RED ALTERNATIVE The RED Alternative Urban Strategy looks at using the current systems, infrastructures, and social dynamics to promote Reciprocity, Empowerment and Democracy Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, the strategy works on this concept in three ways: • On an environmental level, reciprocity works to limit wastefulness and excessive energy use in industries, through industrial symbiosis. Industrial symbiosis explores the intercompany dimension in moving towards more closed-loop industrial systems, by looking at networks of industrial companies exchanging waste flows and sharing resources • On a business level, reciprocity works for the mutual benefit of businesses and industries to grow as a collective to form a polyopoly market in contrast with the current oligopoly, where few companies rule the market while others are left to struggle. On the site, the set up of the association for the development of Ursus is starting point for illustrating the collaboration of businesses for a common good for mutual benefit, in contrast with the Celtic developer which aims to dominate the site through capital and mono-ownership. • On a human level, reciprocity works to give groups and individuals a chance to step up onto the market without need for capital by the use of a barter exchange system of goods, knowledge, services and labour. These types of exchanges are allowed to happen in physical space, allowing for physical human interactions, and transforming place through activity. The strategy requires that any business/industry or individual/group entering onto the site must be to the benefit of someone else as well as themselves, and works through non-capital means within the current capitalism of the world.

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Empowerment is the subordination of economic power to social power, it is the act of releasing the power that’s embedded within individuals and groups to fight for a worthy cause, whether that is actively or passively. It can essentially overturn those holding capital power. Poland has a strong history of empowerment of the people, through the solidarity movement and the orange alternative to fight for injustice of governmental control. With high unemployment within the country, including graduate unemployment, increased job insecurities, working in poor conditions, and increased class divisions and poverty risks, there is increasing need for social change. The strategy utilises these groups to fight for the injustices on the site, overturning the Celtic ownership through passive techniques of occupation, offering security for the site as Celtic move out and ownership is handed over to a multiple of people working for the common good. It allows individuals and groups to take ownership of their own lives and working for personal human survival within a society which fundamentally favours capital and efficiency over human need and survival. In a fully democratic society, all people would have broadly equal access to the necessary means to participate meaningfully in decisions about things which affect their lives. Capitalism creates inequalities between people, in a capitalist society those with capital hold power, while those without hold none. The strategy challenges current power relations through subverting and challenging private claims to space, it allows for the claiming of territory through formal and informal means. Those with informal claims to space are equal to those who have a formal claim to space, with each actor participating in decision making. The industries occupying the site have little say in the future of the site, nor their own futures which has created a sense of insecurity. Through collective multiple “ownerships� the future of the site can be determined by those whose lives rely on it.

VALUES

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VALUES TO RULES GLOBAL HUMAN SURVIVAL These values are derived from the simple anthropological understanding, of basic human needs: shelter, water, and energy. This forms a structure to which the Ursus site can be analysed, and the spatial consequences of the activities highlighted by the Red Alternative rules, In order to scrutinise and specify which activities, are beneficial according to the programme, our values from the very conception of the strategy had to be translated into a set of recommendations or rules. These rules emphasise the importance of reciprocity, in the context of the current ,weaker ,programme of exchanges currently taking place on the Urus site. In order for all parties to benefit form reciprocity, certain ‘terms of practice’ need to be followed. To build a maintainable cooperative based on trust. As Professor Olin Wright states, the goal of current strategies should be: “to envision the contours of an alternative social world that embodies emancipatory ideals and then look for social innovations we can create in the world as it is that move us towards that destination”

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THE RED GUIDELINES Activities [company/individual/occupation of space/group] need to mutually exchange goods/ information/services/labour adapting to the current programme on site. Moving away from capital exchange towards a trust based market of goods/information/services/ labour. This form of exchange needs to be duplicated on all scales [human to meta scale] For occupation of the site Energetyka Ursus must continue to provide basic services to the activities occurring on site, however the company must develop a more sustainable/cooperative programme to continue to function. [away from coal and into the twenty-first century] The future activities on site need to be built upon and around the current concrete systems/fabric. The activities on the site must be a branch of mutual exchange on on both a national and a global scale, not another replicable pilot scheme, but operating in an organic network of constant refinement and expansion. Mutual exchange and its influences will become ever more complex [adding connections] which will lead to this organic self reciprocating expansion, based on human trust. Starting from the existing fabric up to the national then global alternative paradigm to capitalism. A rewiring of capitalism rather than a completely futile opposition to, what is now the global norm, which is capitalism. With the global problem of an unemployed generation, we need to provide a framework which taps into this valuable resource of youth [educated and non\skilled and unskilled] who have the knowledge and the motivation but no existing market/means to enter in to.

VALUES

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T H E

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RECIPROCITY URSUS


RECIPROCITY DEFINITION The practice of exchanging of ‘things’ with others for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by one country, organization or individual to another. The idea of reciprocity is doing one’s part to produce a common good, when [and especially because] others are doing theirs. Reciprocity is the exchange of gifts in favours in order to pressure someone into doing or purchasing something. It also has a more general meaning; you have two people or parties involved in a transaction, and each gives something and each gets something; there is an exchange. This is in comparison to a transaction in which only one party gives, and the other only receives. If someone asks me to donate to their cause (whatever that cause may be) and I do, there is no reciprocity (unless you count the receipt which I might use to claim a tax deduction - and even so, that is a very feeble form of reciprocity).

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[ ENVIRONMENTAL NEED FOR RECIPROCITY

When multiple actors are needed to make a real difference, even those who wish to be virtuous can be discouraged, as they see their own good efforts achieve little if anything. Yet despite the present hopes of realignment during the economic downturn, we seem to be making only limited efforts to create structures to encourage people to engage in virtuous behaviour with respect to climate change. As a result, Americans seem all too likely not to follow the un-golden rule, continuing to undermine good efforts of others. And our failures to pitch in will not be attributable just to selfishness or enjoyment of liberty, but to very real limits on the choices we have. (Leslie P. Francis)

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The idea of reciprocity expresses balanced and mutual exchanges. In natural systems, such exchanges take place at the most basic energetic level an essential law of physics states that, for every action, there will be an equal and opposite reaction. Activities on the Ursus site, need to see their actions in the wider environmental scope. In understanding that collaborating efforts of reciprocal exchange flows benefits not only the here and now, but states a change in attitude that benefits future generations, without the initial capital input. People can make a difference. The natural model of reciprocity is also linked with the cyclical view of time. The cyclical flow of time through seasons and solar energy through ecological systems, expresses the inescapable reciprocity of the natural world. In a global environmental sense, the cyclical world view indicates that all time is one, since no matter ever totally “disappears”, the planet is the biggest example of a closed loop system. The worlds perception that sees time as linear carries no notion of reciprocity with it. If time consists of points on a unidirectional arrow, then the past is left behind, and our actions now do not have later consequences. This leads to the assumption we can leave behind the consequences of our past actions. All we have to do is move on in order to escape the personal, cultural or material “waste” we create.

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GLOBAL NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES Humanity has tried many different ways to develop. Some ended in wars, others in economic slumps and economic depression. Choosing a wrong path again is not an option. Far too many important things are at stake: our well-being, economic prosperity, the environment, our future and that of generations to come! Only the path of sustainable development can lead us to the future. Sustainable development means meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. At the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, sustainable development was established as the guiding principle for policy-making. We urgently need to change our collective mind set and choose the sustainable development route. The consumption of raw materials, both organic as well as inorganic has increased fast recycling has been offered as the key to enhance material efficiency so much that the problem of materials overuse can be solved.

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EXTRACTION

RECYCLING OF WASTE

OTHER ACTIVITIE S [OFF URSUS SITE ]

WASTE

RAW MATERIALS

PRODUCTION ACTIVITY [ON URSUS SITE ]

WASTE

WASTE TO DUMPSITE

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TO CUSTOMER S [WASTE FROM URSUS MUNICIPALIT Y]


INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY NEED FOR INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS Industrial ecology has emerged as a body of knowledge that focuses on the possibilities of minimising the materials and energy requirement of the industrial sector, by transforming waste streams into valuable inputs, through the building of complex material and energy flow systems. Within this field, Industrial symbiosis (IS) explores the intercompany dimension in moving towards more closed-loop industrial systems, by looking at networks of industrial companies exchanging waste flows and sharing resources. Equally important for the practical implementation of IS initiatives as the study of the patterns material and energy flows within the industrial system, is the understanding of the organisational, institutional and social aspects that govern those material flows and the performance of the networks. Even given the potential economic and environmental benefits, the process of emergence and development of these networks seems far from straightforward. The effective operation of such networks relies heavily on aspects such as trust and general reciprocity. In order to build upon the current programme of material flows, the current situation needs to be determined. However with such a complex network, there is a need to determine certain flows that can be built upon. One of the ways of determining these more prominent flows is through the Materials flow analysis method. Which will be explained in more depth in the PROGRAMME heading of this document. In order to go explain the need for Industrial Symbiosis and a change in environmental attitude in Poland in more depth, we are going to take the example of POLAND’S ENERGY DEPENDANCE ON COAL, and look at the alternatives available in the context of the wider global ecology perspective.

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POLAND’S ENERGY SITUATION A NEED FOR CHANGE ? An example of the current exhaustion of the worlds natural resources, thus promoting the need for Industrial symbiosis, would be Poland reliance on coal and lignite. Although Poland states the amount of coal and lignite in the country have “long provided cheap domestic energy, and promise to remain abundant long into the future.”. What can be learned from other European countries that have already exhausted their natural sources of coal, for example the United Kingdom ?The nature of the Polish power sector is defined by two key characteristics: it is heavily coal and lignite dependent, and its generating fleet is very old and will require almost total replacement in a few years. In 2009, almost 90% of Poland’s electricity was produced from coal and lignite, with only 3% from natural gas, and 6% from renewable energy sources. Mining and subsequent use of coal has a long historical tradition in Poland, such that it is widely viewed by Polish citizens as an important part of the nation’s wealth, heritage, and independence. At first glance, Poland’s renewable energy sector appears to be doing quite well, and the government’s target of producing 10.4 per cent of the country’s final energy consumption from renewable energy by 2012 has already been exceeded. But a closer look shows that this growth in green energy has largely been achieved using methods that are cheap and easy, but hardly sustainable. Poland is the largest hard coal producer in the European Union and, together with brown coal, the dirty fossil fuel powers the production of more than 90 per cent of the country’s electricity. That means guaranteed high carbon emissions. According to the Renewable Energy Institute (IEO), an independent think-tank, Poland is utilising just 17 per cent of its potential renewable energy resources, with wind and solar a mere 0.2 per cent of potential. The lack of regulatory clarity has also harmed development. The Economy Ministry’s announcement two years ago that it would change the support system for renewable energy has frozen the market as banks wait to see the new proposals. After repeated delays the government is aiming to get the Renewable Energy Act into law in January next year, although most observers reckon it will actually pass in March or April. If the law encourages the diversification of technology types, such as small-scale biomass, biogas and wind projects, new jobs may be created, adds Mr Wisniewski. The potential for future growth is enormous.

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CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES WHAT ARE THE ALTERNATIVES ? There exist a large number of conversion technologies that can be deployed to generate electricity, heat or biofuel from biomass. Some of them have been used for centuries whereas others are still in their early development phases. Most of the conversion technologies produce several by-products along the processes. The optimisation of the use of such by-products between the various part of the energy chain is the greatest challenge to the energy system: maximizing waste and by-product utilisation form agriculture, forestry, manufacturing industries and linking it to the optimal conversion technology and finally adapting the electricity and heat production to the local market for district heating and the national electricity consumption.

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EUROPEAN POLICY PRESSURE ON POLAND There is clear European trend towards renewable technologies and energy security for the future. With the adoption of Andy Rifkins model for the Third Industrial Revolution into European Policy..... William Neale, member of cabinet for European environment commissioner said: “Europe cannot continue on this growth path. The EU uses a lot of resources [16 tonnes per person, per year ] and these are becoming more expensive” he added, “I don’t think just increasing resource productivity is enough. We need to look at reusing.

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“This would mean no longer selling our products, but ‘leasing’ them and creating a producer responsibility model. We must move from a linear model to a circular economy model and emulate it across the board,we must focus on building a framework to keep as much of the used materials inside the cycle and prolonging it,”

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Poland is well positioned to preserve its energy independence for decades to come, until it can fully provide for itself using renewable energy. It can continue being self sufficient in energy while maintaining a competitive industry, both in the short and long term. The ever stricter EU regulations on greenhouse gas emissions will only pose a small threat to the economy, as long as the right actions continue to be taken.

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BUSINESS NEED FOR RECIPROCITY Businesses/Industries and activities will work co-operatviely for mutual benefit. Progressing together rather than the success of one over another. “...cooperative rather than competitive, building self-reliance and mutual respect” (Hamdi) There is a need for collectivity in a world dominated by few while smaller businesses perish. The strategy touches upon the concepts found in sustantivism, which is a non-capital system, not based on market exchange but on redistribution and reciprocity. Granovetter describes the neo-liberal view of economic action as separating economics from society and culture, thereby promoting an ‘undersocialsed account’ that atomises human behaviour: “Actors do not behave or decide as atoms outside a social context, nor do they adhere slavishly to a script written for them by the particular intersection of social categories that they happen to occupy. Their attempts at purposive action are instead embedded in concrete, ongoing systems of social relations.” The strategy also overlaps with concepts of internal transaction costs, where costs are absorbed within the company, calling for exchange rather than transaction.

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MOVING TOWARDS POLYOPOLY MONOPOLY Exclusive possession or control of the supply of or trade in a commodity/service “By 1870, corporations had grown into monopoly capitalist enterprises that controlled entire markets and were powerful enough to set prices all other businesses had to meet” (Sharzer) OLIGOPOLY Limited competition, the market is shared by a small number of producers/sellers “Today, monopoly has grown into oligopoly, where corporations not only control national markets but global supply chains” (Sharzer) CURRENT MARKET CONDITION POLYOPOLY A market situation in which there are no large sellers but many small ones PROPOSED AGENDA

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SOCIAL NEED FOR RECIPROCITY With ever increased technology, working outside of the workplace is becoming more of an option, however are we becoming ever detached from reality and will ideas and innovation begin to stagnate? It’s argued that technology can hinder free-thinking, because we talk only to those who are like-minded and dismiss those who aren’t, the productive conflicts of democracy are lost (Ivan Krastev). Is this a productive atmosphere? Can we benefit from physical social interactions with a variety of different people from different fields? Universities are places of high activity and innovation within production (in the loosest sense), because physical interaction with a variety of people is a constant factor. When places lose the essence of human interaction and exchange, they become unproductive and inactive. UNPRODUCTIVE URSUS Within the Ursus district there are a number of unproductive spaces being created which have assigned activities but no reality of these activities happening, creating dead spaces. There is also increased security, with detached houses complete with guards dogs and fencing, especially to the east of the site. This is cutting people from people, and omitting important interactions. There is a sense that those who live in this way, sleep in Ursus then drive out of their gate to their place of work. “...first of all, Ursus is a ‘bedroom’. I guess it won’t be a district of an industry or a place of new companies development” (Ursus Resident) “It’s difficult to say about Ursus, that its parts are stable, that there are no changes here” (Ursus Resident) The perception of the Ursus factory site is that it is unused, and an unproductive space. There a high number of activities happening within buildings, but these are hidden to the ordinary passerby, and it is assumed it is a site of production gone by. It is classified as a post-industrial site in need of redevelopment. The main cause is that the spaces in-between the activities have become inactive and unproductive.

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“Big industry, big factory - these days are over” (Ursus Resident)

“...retreat from public space promotes more inequity, more segregation under the guise of more safety” (Hamdi)

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PRODUCTIVE SPACE URSUS However, on the other side of Ursus there are productive spaces, especially to the South of the site. These areas are ones of high activity and interactions within physical space. Whether they are informal shops tagged onto houses, kiosks placed on street corners, or informal meetings between groups in working public spaces. “Ursus is a district with huge potential – I guess the only in Warsaw, that through the last 20 years has changed like this. It became a district with intellectual potential – there are more and more young people here – it revived” (Ursus Resident) “This bond between people will stay here – I can count on these people and they can count on me” (Ursus Resident) The businesses on the old Ursus factory site have high numbers of activities occurring in the traditional sense of production, with personalisation of spaces and interactions between working labour. On the other side of the canvas are the informal social interactions between graffiti artists, and the emerging “working studios” in derelict buildings allowing for artists to test and experiment in a space where others have before them. These areas are highly productive and active spaces, constantly changing and involving a social [mutual] exchange of ideas. They create a lingering effect after the physical activity has dissolved, allowing for productive space in-between time and space.

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MUTUAL EXCHANGE & PHYSICAL INTERACTION The concept of mutual exchange revolves around the idea of the exchange of ideas and goods between actors on a human scale, promoting human activity in physical space. The physical interaction and constant exchange of ideas in physical space can give individuals, teams, and communities a chance to connect, share, learn and collaborate to increase innovation, productivity and quality. “Today’s workers rely on collaboration, self-regulation, and access to expertise inside and outside the traditional organization” (Cisco work centres) PRECEDENT CISCO WORK CENTRES In 2008, the concept Smart Work Centre was built in Amsterdam, the first in a planned network of Cisco Smart Work Centres, included facility management services, ICT services, and professional services such as catering, ATM, and child care. From the first day of operation, the Smart Work Centre experienced a 100 percent occupancy rate. Workers reduced their commutes significantly and stated that they enjoyed more opportunities for social and business interaction compared to working from home or at the office. Today, the Netherlands’ network of Cisco Smart Work Centres includes more than 100 sites operated by more than 30 member organizations, including entrepreneurs. The centres share centralized services such as an accounting system, web-based office reservation tool, and an augmented reality application for smartphones to find the nearest Smart Work Centre.

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MUTUAL EXCHANGE & BARTER Barter is a system of exchange by which goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money. By the provision of basic needs, the strategy can provide a platform for those unable to otherwise enter into a market for the benefit of themselves and others. Mutual exchange is reliant upon the human trust element, to provide a productive, active society. A failure in the system occurs when one actor occurs with no benefit to other activities. Mutual exchange works outside of the capital market, allowing for exchanges of goods and knowledge between people without the use of monetary exchanges and valuations. It works on the concept that a benefit to someone else will result in a benefit for yourself. For example the exchange of computer parts to help a young entrepreneur set up a small business for the receipt of a website design and increased online advertising of their business.

[

“Activities [company/individual/occupation of space/group] need to mutually exchange goods/ information/services/labour adapting to the current programme on site. Mutual exchange and its influences will become ever more complex [adding connections] which will lead to this organic self reciprocating expansion, based on human trust. Starting from the existing fabric up to the national then global alternative paradigm to capitalism� (Strategy Rules)

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NON-CAPITAL MARKET WITHIN A CAPITAL ENVIRONMENT The strategy works on the site between actors through non-capital markets of mutual exchange and barter. It is neither capitalist nor anti-capitalist, it does not conflict with the current environment, but works within it. Businesses still work on the basis of creating capital to grow outside of the site, but must work simply as a non-capitalist unit within the site and not extend their boundaries on inflict on other actors. “Capital is anti-human precisely because it only values people for the products they make” (Sharzer) “Time is everything, man is nothing; he is, at the most, time’s carcase(sic). Quality no longer matters. Quantity alone decides everything” (Marx) The strategy gives value to humans and their needs, moving from the exploitation of labour seen in capitalism and placing importance and value on other benefits, such as social interaction, happiness, development of ideas, human survival, etc. The system works to give equal value to all actors on site, however formal or informal, big or small, each play an equal role in developing and sustaining the programme. This moves away from the inequalities seen in the capitalist environment. A non-capitalist market can give value to the individual and collective at a human scale, while the capitalist market thrives, the individual perishes. This strategy turns the theory of value on its head. The stance of working to a non-capitalist system as opposed to one directly conflicting capitalism is taken due to the impossibilities of ever overcoming the capitalist environment we live in. A system is far more likely to succeed if it works to non-capitalist ideals within pro-market constraints, especially on a small scale. “All enterprises operating in a capitalist economy are subject to “the coercive laws of competition” that undergrid the capitalist laws of value production and realization” (David Harvey) “Any anti-capitalist alternative has to abolish the power of the capitalist law of value to regulate the world market” (David Harvey) 36

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T H E

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EMPOWERMENT URSUS


EMPOWERMENT DEFINITION “A broad and deep social empowerment means, first, subordinating state power to social power rooted in civil society. This is the ordinary meaning of the idea of “democracy”. Rule by the people means that power derived from voluntary association in civil society controls power rooted in the state. Social empowerment, however, is not restricted to meaningful democratic control of the state; it also means the subordination of economic power to social power. Fundamentally this means that private ownership of the means of production ceases to govern the allocation and use of productive resources. Make (someone) stronger and more confident, especially in controlling their life and claiming their rights The process which enables individuals/groups to fully access personal/collective power, authority and influence, and to employ that strength when engaging with other people, institutions or society. “Empowerment is not giving people power, people already have plenty of power, in the wealth of their knowledge and motivation, to do their jobs magnificently. We define empowerment as letting this power out (Blanchard, K).” It encourages people to gain the skills and knowledge that will allow them to overcome obstacles in life or work environment and ultimately, help them develop within themselves or in the society.

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HISTORY OF EMPOWERMENT IN POLAND 1970 THE POLISH WORKERS’ REVOLT Price increases for food and other basics amounting in some cases to 60%. At the same time, the “thirteenth month” salary, or Christmas bonus for workers in particularly dangerous industries such as ship building, steel mills and coal mines, was cancelled. Workers’ held strikes and The Catholic Church came out in support of civic and human rights 1976 WORKERS’ UPRISING Facing a budget drain due to large state subsidies which kept prices low, the government announced a price hike in June 1976. Protests broke out all over the country, especially in Radom and the tractor factory “Ursus,” but they were brutally put down. This time workers and the intelligentsia came together and a new dissident movement was born, supported by the. A group of intellectuals organized the Komitet Obrony Robotnikow - KOR (the Committee for the Defense of Polish Workers) in late summer-early fall 1976.

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HISTORY OF EMPOWERMENT IN POLAND 1980 SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT In 1979, the decline in Poland’s standard of living, as compared with 1973, was visible to the naked eye. As in the past, the government budget was overburdened by food subsidies and payment of interest on foreign debt, hence the decision to raise prices. The price hike announcement was followed by strikes all over Poland. People realized that strength lay in numbers and this broke the barrier of fear. The Pope’s visit in June 1979 was an important prelude to the birth of Solidarity in August 1980. Solidarity began as a Trade Union movement, but this was only one of its aspects. Solidarity wanted to democratize the existing communist system by instituting self-government at all levels of economic and public life. In this, it expressed the desires of the vast majority of Poles who wanted to run their own lives. The Catholic Church had taken the lead in demanding respect for human and civil rights in the 1970s. Later, it supported dissident movements that prepared the way for Solidarity.

[ ] The strength of the working class was such that, despite severe repression, in each case the state gave in. These uprisings underlined the fact that there was a line beyond which the state could not go at that time. They also meant that the state was forced to constantly rethink its strategies for increasing the competitiveness of Polish capital.

It shows us that even in the most unlikely of situations, up against ruthless enemies, the working class is capable of fighting hard and taking on the enemy. The way they organised themselves, in their strike committees and the ways their delegates reported their deliberations were an example for others. “It shows the limits of struggles within national borders and the need to spread the struggle internationally. When our class is united and the struggle is international, there is nothing that can not be accomplished.”

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HISTORY OF EMPOWERMENT IN POLAND 1980 ORANGE ALTERNATIVE “The Thesis is the Anti-Regime Slogan. The Anti-thesis is the Spot and the Synthesis is the Dwarf. Quantity evolves into Quality. The more Dwarves there are, the better it is.” The beginning of the Orange Alternative started as a student movement called the Movement for New Culture created in 1980 at the University of Wrocław. Its main purpose was to offer a wider group of citizens an alternative way of opposition against the authoritarian regime by means of a peaceful protest that used absurd and nonsensical elements. By doing this, Orange Alternative participants couldn’t be arrested by police for opposition to the regime without the authorities becoming a laughing stock. Orange Alternative has been viewed as part of the broader Solidarity movement. It’s suggested that it was the most effective of all Solidarity’s factions in bringing about the movement’s success. Initially it painted ridiculous graffiti of dwarves on paint spots covering up anti-government slogans on city walls. Afterwards, beginning with 1985 through 1990, it organized a series of more than sixty happenings in several Polish cities, including Warsaw.

[

The “Distribution of Toilet Paper” was a happening that laughed at the annoying, at the time, lack of that consumer product. After the publication of an article on the happening, the Orange Alternative became of interest to a number of Polish and foreign media.

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“In Poland there are only three places when you can feel free: In churches, but only for the meditations, in prisons, but not everyone can go to prison, and on the streets: they are the freest places. The Western World will find out much more about the situation in Poland from hearing that I was put to jail for giving tampons to a woman, than from reading the books and articles written by other people from the opposition. Can you treat a police officer seriously, when he is asking you the question: “Why did you participate in an illegal meeting of dwarfs?” 44

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CURRENT SOCIAL NEED FOR CHANGE UNEMPLOYMENT Poland has a high national unemployment at 12.4% (almost 2million people). It is higher than the EU average of 11.6%. Unemployment has become a recurrent problem within Poland, with many unemployed for 12 months or more. Those who are able to find work are on very low wages, some as little as 1,630zl per month. JOB INSECURITIES There is also a huge fear among the working population in terms of job loss, with 31% of Polish employees fearing they will lose their job. There has been an increase in the use of temporary contracts, especially within the employment of young people, causing job vulnerability. Thousands of Poles marched through downtown Warsaw on 29th Sept 2012 to demand social welfare and job security. GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT Youth unemployment is a global problem with approximately 75 million young people unemployed worldwide (12.6%). In the EU, youth unemployment reached 21.4% in 2011. Poland has a youth unemployment rate of 25.8% in 2011. In September 2012, employment offices registered 235,400 unemployed university graduates. It’s predicted 1 in 8 Polish graduates are unemployed, and 1 in 4 in larger cities. “In Poland, the number of higher education graduates is constantly growing and exceeding market leader needs” “...there are some regions in Poland with relatively small unemployment. But the real problem there is a decent salary, a perfect example of this is the capital, Warsaw. Being employed often means working on very bad terms”

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[

“...there are some regions in Poland with relatively small unemployment. But the real problem there is a decent salary, a perfect example of this is the capital, Warsaw. Being employed often means working on very bad terms�

]

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CURRENT SOCIAL NEED FOR CHANGE INCREASED WAGE GAP AND CLASS DIVISION Poland has a high level of income inequality, and distribution of income is among the least equal in the EU. The new capitalist market economy after the fall of the Communist state, gave birth to new careers in banking and the entire financial sector, including insurance. It is these sectors which have seen the highest wage growth. However, at the same time large groups in society fell behind due to the structural transformation of the economy. POVERTY INCREASE The poverty rate in Poland is 17.6%, and is 15% for Mazowieckie region. However, the neighbouring east region Lubelskie has the highest poverty rate in Poland at 30.7%. The threat of poverty for the unemployed in Poland is particularly acute. The poverty rate for unemployed persons (after social transfers) is 45.3%. Only 16.7% of all the unemployed receive unemployment benefits. Due to the low income levels of many workers in Poland, just over 9% of those engaged in physical work live below the statutory poverty line. The high level of poverty in Poland is due to welfare spending, which is the lowest among all EU states and is one third of the EU average. “By 2015 some of those living below the absolute poverty line may not even be eligible to claim social benefits” “If we are saying that the Polish economy is doing well yet the number of people living in poverty is rising, there is clearly a problem in our country’s social politics” Poland has a gap in life expectancy of 15 years between Warsaw’s richest and poorest districts. The trade union Solidarity recently organised nationwide protests at the failure of the centre-right government “in its constitutional duty to protect the poorest people sufficiently well”

EMPOWERMENT URSUS

49


50

EMPOWERMENT URSUS


HUMAN VOICE On the Ursus factory site, you will find the human voice of Ursus opposite the memorabilia of the old factory. The phrase “The Big Sleep and Its Clients” harks back to the Situationists of the 1960s, but is more of a social comment on todays increasingly capitalist society, and our seeming blindness towards it. The comment raises the need, or at least want, for action against a class and materialistic driven society. “THE BIG SLEEP AND ITS CLIENTS” ‘In a capitalist society, the construction of the frame and styles of life are enterprises restricted to isolated intellectuals’ Guy Debord ‘This “historical mission of installing truth in the world” cannot be accomplished by the isolated individual, or by the atomized crowd subjected to manipulation, but now as ever by the class which is able to effect the dissolution of all classes by bringing all power into the dealienating form of realized democracy, the [Workers’] Council, in which practical theory controls itself and see its own action. This is possible only where individuals are “directly linked to universal history”; only where dialogue arms itself to make its own conditions victorious’ Guy Debord ‘Art was at the root of the Situationists’ calls for reclamation of public space and leisure time, they intended to use it to deconstruct the spectacular way of seeing, and reconstruct playful new ways of being’ Hannah Nicklin

‘The Situationists also promoted a kind of unitary urbanism, they wanted each individual to augment their own environment; to take it and twist it, to reveal spaces as space, and not a means-to-an-end, a journey to work, the supermarket, a transaction in time’ Hannah Nicklin

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VIRTUAL VOICE

[ ] We are not econs. It may sound strange, but we are increasingly addressing social problems with the recognition that human beings don’t behave rationally much of the time, or even most of the time. Recent research from behavioural psychology and neuroscience has shed light on the different ways that emotions, unconscious drives, group identities, and situational cues guide human behaviour.

The Integration of Labor. For the past century, society has grown ever more specialized and balkanized. Today, we’re getting smarter about bringing people back together to build comprehensive solutions. This is a shift away from a trend that can be traced back to Adam Smith, who wrote in the very first sentence of “The Wealth of Nations” that the greatest gains in productive power come from the “division of labor.” Smith famously showed that a pin factory could multiply its productivity many fold if each worker specialized on one narrow aspect of pin making. Henry Ford adopted the principle and invented the assembly line. Modern society is full of “pin factories” — inward looking agencies and organizations that operate in silos and bounce people back and forth like pinballs. “It’s the space between movement that’s important” (Craig Calhoun)

52

EMPOWERMENT URSUS


VIRTUAL VOICE

[

We are the city! Reprivatisation and struggle for the right to the city in Warsaw..

]

In light of the radical loss of basic rights guaranteeing dignity of life in Warsaw and other cities, it comes as no surprise that people are taking matters into their own hands and demanding the right to the city. In the summer, residents threw in money to purchase a bolt cutter to remove the chains a developer used to close down the local park. Throughout the year, countless people, with assistance from local grassroots initiatives when necessary, moved into abandoned apartments, effectively squatting them. These are only the first signs that Warsavians will not tolerate further arrogance towards their needs. The dramatic call raised in March 2011 by Jola Brzeska’s friends, “you can’t burn us all!”, is today turned into practice. Reducing the city to a “limited liability company”, and its residents to “human capital” paves the road to social darwinism, not democracy. To reclaim the city, we must reclaim its meaning.

[ ] The priority for the government in Warsaw is profit, a t the dictation of developers, private investors and the city is privatized. Costs of these projects bear residents. Warsaw is losing public space at an alarming pace, thousands of people are deprived of the right to housing, living and contribute to the city.

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T H E

R E D A L T E R N A T I V E


DEMOCRACY URSUS


DEMOCRACY DEFINITION “Social empowerment means democratising civil society itself: creating an associationally thick civil society populated by both narrow and encompassing associations organised on democratic egalitarian principles. Taken together, these processes of democratisation would constitute a fundamental transformation of the class structure, for the core of the class relations of capitalism involves economic power linked to private ownership of the means of production”

[

“The full subordination of economic power to social power means the end of the subordination of the working class to the capitalist class”

]

The practice or principles of social equality and freedom. Democracy derives from the Greek “rule of the people” Direct democracy calls for direct input from all - “Democracy cannot consist solely of elections that are nearly always fictitious and managed by rich landowner and professional politicians” Che Guevara In a fully democratic society, all people would have broadly equal access to the necessary means to participate meaningfully in decisions about things which affect their lives.

56

DEMOCRACY URSUS


FULLY DEMOCRATIC POLAND? Although democracy was allowed to follow after the fall of communism and its oppression, through the social struggles of the solidarity movement and others, is Poland today a fully democratic society? “On the one hand, the elective democracy in Poland is highly valued with regard to “honesty” and the election transparency, the public access to government information, the work of the Constitutional Tribunal and the central bank, foreign and defence policies. On the other hand, Polish democracy receives the poorest marks in the areas such as: freedom of the media (concerning principally the politicisation of public media, since the level of the “media pluralism” is assessed much better), fighting corruption, health care reforms, integration policy (concerning immigrants) or science and education policy” (Kucharczyk & Zbieranek) Within Poland, there is increased distrust of media, and manipulation for right-wing and capitalist motives “The sacking of Przekrój’s left-leaning editors is the latest in a narrowing of public debate to the neoliberal viewpoint” Can Poland be fully democratic when one side isn’t given an equal voice? The fight over the Ursus site perhaps demonstrates the lack of a fully democratic society, with the local authorities backing a particular motive that would be financially beneficial to themselves, and pushing for a scheme that promotes luxurious lifestyles as opposed to the continuation and support of industries occupying the site currently, or other schemes which would perhaps not be as financially beneficial. With a ruling capitalist motive, and the huge inequalities between wealth, class and power that it brings, perhaps a fully democratic society is not possible. “In a fully democratic society, all people would have broadly equal access to the necessary means to participate meaningfully in decisions about things which affect their lives. Capitalism generates severe deficits in realizing democratic values by excluding crucial decisions from public deliberation, allowing private wealth to affect access to political power...” (Erik Olin Wright)

DEMOCRACY URSUS

57


SOCIAL EQUALITY “If the whole society were to be organised as confederation of autonomous municipalities, then what would prevent the development of large-scale inequality and injustice among communities and thereby the oppression of individuals who do not live in the more privileged and more powerful communities?” The challenge is therefore to give equal weight and power to all individuals and collectives within society and businesses/industries/activities a-like. By allowing the site to run beyond capitalist means and into non-capitalist systems, perhaps real equality can be reached between parties. “In a socially just society all persons would have broadly equal access to the material and social means necessary to live a flourishing life. Capitalism inherently generates levels of inequality in income and wealth that systematically violate social justice” (Erik Olin Wright) This “utopian” vision of an equal, democratic society may work in reality by envisioning an “alternative social world that embodies emancipatory ideals and then looks for social innovations” (Erik Olin Wright). Examples of these real utopias: 1. Participatory budgeting 2. Wikipedia 3. Solidarity finance 4. Public libraries 5. The Quebec social economy council 6. Urban agriculture and community land trusts 7. The Mondragon worker cooperative 8. Internet-based gift-economy in music 9. Policy juries and “randomocracy” 10. Unconditional basic income

58

DEMOCRACY URSUS


[

“...to build an understanding of the value of pooling resources - not just of money but of social and human resource capital as well - and how to work together equitably, how to establish some ground rules of engagement� (Hamdi)

]

DEMOCRACY URSUS

59


CLAIMING TERRITORY The strategy allows for the claiming of territories through formal and informal means. Each actor physically participates in decision making and spatial consequences through the claiming and appropriation of territory and space. The strategy offers security and importance to activities and gives them a platform of power, however small or informal an activity, it is equal to the formalized activities in the construct of the site and its partners. The claiming of territory can offer freedom. The sense of ownership, and belonging, gives power to the individuals and freedom to act alongside other actors. “...sense of belonging, we know, is a resource� (Hamdi) By allowing all actors to have power and active involvement in space and decision making as a collective it can eliminate vulnerability. Working in mutual cooperation can enforce and protect the individual. Currently there are insecurities and vulnerabilities among actors on the site, who are uncertain of their future with little to say in the matter. Through collective individual ownership (formal and informal) and increased say into the future of the site, actors may develop together.

60

DEMOCRACY URSUS


URSUS TO GLOBAL


URSUS ON SITE


AS AN ISLAND The Ursus tractor factory site has historical importance in the history of society empowerment. The Ursus factories complete self reliance became its downfall and disadvantage The factory was seen as too big to fail, with this growing self dependency came disconnection

66

URSUS ON SITE


VOIDS The site holds huge tracts of apparently disused space Dotted with part demolished and derelict buildings Large parts of the site have no visible human activity, giving the over all perception of disuse

URSUS ON SITE

67


IN-USE AND DISUSE Although most of the site is strewn with derelict and dilapidated buildings Some businesses have had the ingenuity to see the site as an opportunity for investment, locating themselves on site, and forming the Association for Ursus Development (ASMET; EL-BOX; Energetyka Ursus; BPI; Korurs; AIG / Lincoln; TOMKOR; Agencja Reklamowa Raphael)

68

URSUS ON SITE


RAILWAY AS A BOUNDARY On the site scale, although the railways act as a means of connection, they envelope the site on three sides creating a very physical barrier to the migration of human activity The site has poor connection on a human scale, due to its sheer size however certain key buildings like the power station act as visual wayfinding pointers

URSUS ON SITE

69


PERCEPTION Although some businesses have a physical plot on site, some actors in the sites ownership have simply a visual presence, for example the land developer Celtic, has used large banners and propaganda to state their presence and ownership on some parts of the site. The site has a large buffer zone created by a strip open land to the west. Although the site has no physical barrier on the same scale as a railway embankment, the absence of anything acts as an alternative barrier, thus paradoxically not having any activity still creates a barrier.

70

URSUS ON SITE


CELTIC OWNERSHIP The Celtic Developers have a huge presence on site, owning land occupied and in-between working industries. The influence on site has caused the demolition of buildings, and deterioration, adding to the perception of “post-industrial”. They have also created a sense of insecurity among existing industries. Celtic’s vision for the site is unrealistic without forced eviction and huge amounts of capital. And with Asmet winning the latest battle in securing their future on site, it is becoming obvious that Celtic are beginning to lose the battle.

URSUS ON SITE

71


ON-SITE OCCUPATION

72

URSUS ON SITE


FORMAL BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES FORMAL OCCUPATION By Activities Currently On Celtic Owned Land EXISTING MATERIAL FLOWS/CONNECTIONS CELTIC OWNERSHIP Hatched In On Diagram, Current Situation

PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES FORMAL ADVANCE

URSUS ON SITE

73


URSUS DISTRICT


RAILWAY AS A NATURAL BORDER “People still use to say here ‘going to Warsaw’, not ‘going to the centre’. In the past saying it was unwelcome– now it is not such a shame” (Ursus Resident) “Separation from the rest of Warsaw with railway tracks connects us inside. We live here as in a small town” (Ursus Resident) “The railway tracks create a natural border. As in the past, when cities were divided with rivers and mountains – as here now, it is clear where Ursus begins and ends” (Ursus Resident)

76

URSUS DISTRICT


GATED RESIDENTS Poland suffers from an over emphasis on the greatness of private ownership This leaves in-between spaces which seem dead and unused These voids give people the opportunity for personalisation or temporary occupation eg. graffiti, model plane flying, exploring

URSUS DISTRICT

77


ACTIVITY Ursus is dotted with small pockets of high activity, for example the street vendors and corner markets These points of activity increase the perception of these spaces having more human interactions In-between these human activities are other examples of more micro-entrepreneurship, eg. bike maintenance in a garage, small market of assorted vegetables set up at the end of a residents garden.

78

URSUS DISTRICT


URSUS OCCUPATION

80

URSUS DISTRICT


ACTIVITY PROPAGATES TO THE UNPRODUCTIVE NORTH-WEST BRIDGING ACTIVITIES TRAVERSE BOUNDARIES CELTIC OWNERSHIP CHALLENGED

FORMAL ACTIVITIES STRENGTHEN MIGRATION OF ACTIVITIES FROM PRODUCTIVE SOUTH

URSUS DISTRICT

81


URSUS WARSAW


RAILWAY CONNECTION The railway connection from Ursus to Warsaw means it is “located” closer to the city centre than to the site in terms of accessibility and time taken (as opposed to geographical location). The distance of Ursus from Warsaw, means it has perhaps become a “bedroom town” - a commuter town for the city of Warsaw. This has created a focus of activity in the city centre as opposed to Ursus itself. Ursus is well connected by rail meaning it has opportunities to connect and collaborate with other areas.

84

URSUS WARSAW


DEVELOPMENT SITES There are a number of areas within Warsaw which have been listed for re-development, including a number of “post-industrial” sites. These type-casted areas open up the opportunities of creating collaborations and connections. While each site is unique, local authorities are overlooking this and aiming for “luxury” residential developments. This opens up the opportunity to look to an alternative focusing on current situation.

URSUS WARSAW

85


UNIVERSITIES IN WARSAW Warsaw has a huge student and graduate population with a number of universities within the city. This population has a range of knowledge and skills with little opportunities to utilise them. While graduate unemployment is lower then elsewhere in Warsaw, graduates are often working on bad terms in jobs that do not suit their skills. Universities are churning out students with no place to go. This has created a transient population of graduates, who are able to move and adapt.

86

URSUS WARSAW


WATER CONNECTION The city has good rail connections to elsewhere, but also has a river running through it, opening up other opportunities to connect to other cities and around the world.

URSUS WARSAW

87


WARSAW OCCUPATION

88

URSUS WARSAW


ACTIVITY CONNECTIONS INCREASE RED ALTERNATIVES INFLUENCE URSUS INFILTRATES THE OTHER POST INDUSTRIAL SITES SURROUNDING WARSAW

POTENTIAL SITES FOR OCCUPATION

URSUS WARSAW

89


URSUS POLAND


POLAND INDUSTRY There are a number of post-industrial areas in Poland which open up the opportunity for connections and further development. There is a general reliance on coal and huge amounts of coal mining in Poland.

92

URSUS POLAND


POLAND OCCUPATION

94

URSUS POLAND


GDANSK REINFORCES EUROPEAN INFLUENCE WARSAW CITY TRANSMITS RED ALTERNATIVE NATIONALLY

LUBLIN AND OTHER NEIGHBOURING CITIES INSTIGATE CHANGE

KATOWICE INFLUENCES EUROPEAN CITIES TO THE SOUTH

URSUS POLAND

95


URSUS GLOBAL


POLAND POTENTIAL At all levels in Europe—local, regional, national, and international—industrial symbiosis (IS) is increasingly being seen as a strategic tool for economic development, green growth, innovation, and resource efficiency. Recent European policy documents have supported IS as an integral part of economic and environmental policy however they fail to specify they fail to make environmental issues the key driver of the need for a change in policy, the motive is European growth and financial security.

98

URSUS GLOBAL


URSUS POTENTIAL Global environmental problems of shrinking natural resources, pollution and population growth challenge the ways people live. The RED alternative suggests a model that empowers human societies in engaging in a less exploitative use of the earth’s natural resources. Industrial symbiosis on a European level is only part of the Global picture, if all of humanity could see the greater global incentive to work together then would it be unrealistic to suggest that this change in attitude could permeate from a single site on the outskirts of the city of Warsaw...?

Cities of International importance London, Paris

Cities of European importance Barcelona, Madrid, Zurik, Rome

Cities of Regional importance

URSUS GLOBAL

99


PROGRAMME


OPTION C

OPTION B

NEW ACTIVITY

INPUT

COMPANY A

NATIONAL/GLOBAL/REGIONAL SUPPLY (MATCHING POTENTIAL)

ENERGETYKA URSUS

NEW ACTIVITY

GOODS/INFORMATION/DSERVICES/LABOUR (MATCHING POTENTIAL)

COMPANY C

COMPANY B

NEW ACTIVITY

OPTION B

OPTION C

102

PROGRAMME

OPTION B

OUTPUT

OPTION C

OPTION


METHODOLOGY IDENTIFYING THE CURRENT SYNERGIES Opportunities for the industrial symbiosis program: Goals for the local initiative: Lower the local industries environmental impacts Reuse by-product and recycled products locally (optimisation of transportation) Create new activities (economical and social dynamism) Opportunities for existing industry: Make the industry more aware of flows management Offer precedents to optimise the use of resources Detection methods for synergies between companies: EMPIRICAL approach: Social networking SYSTEMATIC approach: Material Flow Analysis (MFA) and Input-Output Analysis of industrial partners DEDUCTIVE approach: Theoretical / technical detection of all possible synergies

P R O G R A M M E 103


CHIPBOARD ANALOGY

104

PROGRAMME


CONNECTIONS TO OTHER “POST-INDUSTRIAL” SITES

CONSTRUCTIVE

SUBSTITUTIONS

COLLECTIVE WORKING FOR SAME GOAL DETERMINED BY INFRASTRUCTURE

P R O G R A M M E 105


106

PROGRAMME


METHODOLOGY ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS In order to build upon this current framework of synergies, the strategy needs to be explored in three absolutes. If we take the three fundamental things needed for human survival and run them as three absolutes, then the fluctuations in activities on site can be assessed to greater effect. • To take the programme forward the Ursus sites programme had to be put into our model and the opportunities for closing material flow loops had to be identified • These activities depend on the programmes scenario, so Scenario B may be the closing of waste water streams, so the opportunities for formal activity would be involved in closing those loops. This could be seen as the bare minimum for the industrial symbiosis loop to work. •

With these collaborations identified, the informal activities can be transient in their participation on site. They also will have to be mutually beneficial to the motives of the RED Alternative, as set out by the guidelines.

So in proposing an amalgamation of scenarios A-B-C , the RED alternative, as it is presented, shows a more holistic understanding of the current and future potential of the Ursus district.

P R O G R A M M E 107


CURRENT INFRASTRUCTURE


110

CURRENT INFRASTRUCTURE


ENERGETYKA URSUS ENERGY The Ursus site has extensive existing infrastructure, with water, power and waste removal from nearly all four corners of the site. As no current up to date drawings of the extent of the subterranean infrastructure exist, an initial survey of the South of the site has been conducted and the density of the systems structure is impressive. This limited survey may determine the choice of plot for prospective formal activities, interested in locating on and around the Ursus site. The coal fired combined heat plant in the centre of the Ursus site, provides hot water for not only the site but parts of the surrounding Ursus district, giving it the influence and bargaining power to allow the local community to get involved and become more aware of the processes involved in sourcing their water and electricity. If more of the Ursus district were aware of the potential for the Ursus site, as more than a goldmine for investors, but a hotbed for human activity, promoting business, and community participation.

WATER

ENERGY

WASTE

C U R R E N T I N F R A S T R U C T U R E 111


C U R R E N T FA B R I C


UTILISATION OF CURRENT WORKING INDUSTRIES The working industries on site will be utilised to their maximum, creating the starting point for the strategy, allowing it to grow and expand organically from this point as collaborations are formed. The systematic workings of these industries are their strength, but their appearance and humanistic elements are lacking. The majority of industries own the land they are sited on (with the exception of Energetyka infrastructure buildings) allowing for further expansion and collaboration on collective owned land. By new collaborations, formal and informal, improvements can be made to the current deteriorating facades which give the perception of a “post-industrial site�. Also, by increasing security on site, the current insecurities can be eliminated, giving industries the incentive to improve and expand for mutual benefit.

114

C U R R E N T FA B R I C


C U R R E N T F A B R I C 115


BLANK FACADES Many of the buildings on site (in-use and out of use) have large blank facades which are inhuman in scale, creating a negative influence on the surrounding areas. They are essentially creating a “vertical void”. And voids are there to be “filled”. These “vertical voids” can be places of opportunity, offering a blank canvas for play. The strategy plays with the idea utilising these elements and humanising them.

116

C U R R E N T FA B R I C


C U R R E N T F A B R I C 117


EXPANSE OF EMPTY OPEN SPACE On site, there are also huge void plains, some of which is owned by Celtic, but not all. The expanse of empty unused land offers an opportunity for future activity. The space is calling out to be used, and to be built upon through formal and informal means. It offers a space for the claiming of territory. The strategy challenges private ownership, taking the view that is land is unoccupied it is available for use.

118

C U R R E N T FA B R I C


C U R R E N T F A B R I C 119


NATURE TAKES OVER _ NON-HUMAN ACTORS Nature has begun to take over parts of the site, as industries have moved out. These non-human actors are actively taking over and occupying land and buildings. These spaces are seen to be equally productive, and will remain within the strategy and built upon through collaborative activities. In particular, the site to the west of the Energetyka power plant is seen to be of high importance.

120

C U R R E N T FA B R I C


C U R R E N T F A B R I C 121


DERELICT BUILDINGS There are a number derelict buildings on site which offer the opportunity for occupation. They are currently unused and are left empty, with neither formal nor informal activities taking place. The strategy pinpoints these areas for further use, as they provide shelter and an already built structure and connections to infrastructure for informal activities to move in and utilise. They require less initial input than land left empty. Many of these buildings stand empty due to their location on Celtic owned (and managed) land.

122

C U R R E N T FA B R I C


C U R R E N T F A B R I C 123


UTILISED DERELICT BUILDINGS In contrast to the aforementioned unused derelict buildings, a few derelict buildings have become sites of informal activities, they are primarily used as graffiti studios and are highly productive spaces. These areas have become humanised through the human interactions that take place in them and the traces left behind. The strategy taps into these productive spaces, utilising the physical space but also the productiveness and skill set used here to transform and humanise other parts of the site. Many of these used derelict buildings are not on Celtic owned land, which may be due to less issues with security.

124

C U R R E N T FA B R I C


C U R R E N T F A B R I C 125


C E LT I C O W N E R S H I P


128

C E LT I C O W N E R S H I P


CELTIC DEVELOPER OWNERSHIP BATTLE The developer called Celtic, is the land owner for the majority of the site, with patches of land across the site. This poses a small challenge for the RED alternative, as most of the current industries and activities on site are functioning on land they do not own. If the tidal spread of Celtic ownership can be stemmed, and a strong enough bond ,reinforced by Industrial symbiosis, can be utilised to start working at claiming land back off the developer, and put it too productive use.

C E LT I C O W N E R S H I P 129


NO INFORMAL PRESENCE

130

C E LT I C O W N E R S H I P

ONE FORMAL ACTIVITY OCCUPIES SITE


CELTIC A CHANGE IN LAND OWNERSHIP POWER The diagrams below, read form left to right, depict the gradual change of land ownership power. From the left there is activity presence. With the arrival of other industries and activities the current stale-mate scenario of the developer having the land ownership power and the industries on site powerless to oppose, the RED alternative reinforces these existing industries and gives them majority power to make a difference. Celtic is claiming territory through bill board campaigns and publicly displaying Celtic banners all over the site. They are realising that without the support of the people of Urus and current businesses in and around the site the possibility of complete ownership will be unreachable. Already the court case of Asmet wining its court case to stay on the piece of site it occupies, is a step in the right direction.

ONE FORMAL ACTIVITY PRESENCE OPENS INFORMAL ACTIVITY OPPORTUNITY

MORE FORMAL ACTIVITY PRESENCE FEEDS MORE INFORMAL ACTIVITY OPPORTUNITY

FULL RED OCCUPATION THE FORMAL ACTIVITY PERMEATES BEYOND URSUS DISTRICT

C E LT I C O W N E R S H I P 131


CURRENT SYSTEMS


ON-SITE MATERIAL INPUTS

CURRENT MATERIAL INPUTS ON-SITE

134

CURRENT SYSTEMS


C U R R E N T S Y S T E M S 135


ON-SITE FINAL PRODUCTS

CURRENT ACTIVITIES/FINAL PRODUCTS ON-SITE

136

CURRENT SYSTEMS


C U R R E N T S Y S T E M S 137


ON-SITE WASTE

CURRENT WASTE PRODUCTS ON-SITE

138

CURRENT SYSTEMS


C U R R E N T S Y S T E M S 139


140

CURRENT SYSTEMS


ON-SITE POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES ANALYSIS ON-SITE SYNERGY FLY ASH REUSE Use of fly ash from power plant Use in Water Treatment Use within building products (concrete, asphalt, etc)

ON-SITE SYNERGY REUSE OF WASTE PAINT Use of “clean” waste paint for graffiti / street art

OPPORTUNITIES FOR ON-SITE SYNERGIES ON-SITE SYNERGY PAPER RECYCLING Waste paper from offices and packaging materials could be recycled into paper reused by Raphael Printers

ON-SITE SYNERGY REUSE OF ALUMINIUM WASTE Waste aluminium from industries (el-box, etc) may circulate aluminium waste back to Asmet

EXISTING ON-SITE CONNECTIONS INDUSTRIAL WASTE MUNICIPAL WASTE

C U R R E N T S Y S T E M S 141


IMMEDIATE CONTEXT POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES ANALYSIS

ON-SITE CONNECTIONS TO AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES Cleaning of Water Run-off Use of Treated and Tested Sewage Sludge on Agricultural Crops

OPPORTUNITIES FOR SITE-DISTRICT SYNERGIES

CURRENT ACTIVITIES OFF-SITE OFF-SITE MICRO-BUSINESSES Possible connections and informal precedents

ON-SITE CONNECTIONS TO COMPUTER COMPANIES Connection between on-site computer part making and outside small computer businesses

142

CURRENT SYSTEMS


C U R R E N T S Y S T E M S 143


SCENARIO A-B-C


SCENARIO A = WATER

= WATER

= WASTE

= OPPORTUNITY

= ACTIVITY FOOTPRINT

S C E N A R I O A - B - C 147


SCENARIO B = ENERGY

= WATER

= WASTE

= OPPORTUNITY

= ACTIVITY FOOTPRINT

S C E N A R I O A - B - C 149


SCENARIO C = WASTE

= WATER

= WASTE

= OPPORTUNITY

= ACTIVITY FOOTPRINT

S C E N A R I O A - B - C 151


OVERLAID TO DETERMINE AN ‘EXAMPLE’ The system flows in red and brown show current systems of exchange, existing on site. The red lines are opportunity flows. The scenarios were then overlaid to see the overlap and determine which combinations of synergies/activities that would transcend all three scenarios.

152

SCENARIO A-B-C


EMERGENCY WATER

METHANE GAS

BIOSOLIDS TESTING AGRICULTURAL USE

BIOPOLYEMER PRODUCTION PLANT

WATER PURIFICATION

= WATER

= WASTE

= OPPORTUNITY

= ACTIVITY FOOTPRINT

S C E N A R I O A - B - C 153


FORMAL ACTIVITIES


WHO? WHO IS INVOLVED IN THE FORMAL ACTIVITIES? The formal activities involve industries and businesses which slot into the gaps in systems on site, allowing for industries to come onto the site to the benefit of the existing. They would become huge players in the systems on site, and the collaborations between industries. These industries and activities are seen to be static on the site, with industries holding importance through their location and inputs and outputs. However, this does not mean that if one industry fails, the whole system would fail. These industries could be substituted for industries with similar inputs and outputs. The formal activities are ones with capital backing, providing investment into the site, to further it’s development as a productive site. These industries would also have the backing to buy Celtic owned land to secure the future of the collective.

156

FORMAL ACTIVITIES


WHY? WHY WOULD THEY BE INVOLVED? • Mutual benefit to every activity on site • A move towards polyopoly as oppose to oligopoly • Mutual growth and expansion - growing as a collective instead of competitively • Move onto the site to form collaborations with complimentary industries • Chances for Innovation and knowledge bases through collaborative efforts • Respond to EU pressure on environmental issues, by working towards a greater environmental cause

F O R M A L A C T I V I T I E S 157


WHAT? WHAT WOULD THE ACTIVITIES AND STRUCTURES BE? Formal activities would be industry based, responding to the synergy needs. Therefore, high capital buildings would be formed on site from these types of activities. The industries themselves would be dependent on which system they were plugging into. Examples of which include reed bed systems for water filtration collaborating with the sewage treatment plant; biopolymer production plant utilising the waste methane from the sewage treatment plant; Methane to energy plant using waste methane and collaborating with the power plant; waste to energy conversion of the power plant; paper mill for recycling of paper waste. These are just a few lines we have connected from the current industries on site, as the industries begin to grow, more connections can be formed.

FORMAL WORKING INDUSTRY WITH HIGH INITIAL CAPITAL FORMAL WORKING INDUSTRY SUPPORTING THE INFORMAL

158

FORMAL ACTIVITIES


F O R M A L A C T I V I T I E S 159


BENEFITS? BENEFITS OF INFORMAL ACTIVITIES ON SITE? • Formal occupation of unused land • Investment into the site, adding capital and security from outside forces and a capitalist environment • Industrial symbiosis, and looking at limiting resources for the environmental argument • Providing increased security on site by future buying and moving onto Celtic land, allowing for informal activities to legally occupy their land • Allowing the means for informal activities to happen by exchanging in things other than capital

160

FORMAL ACTIVITIES


INFORMAL ACTIVITIES


WHO? WHO IS INVOLVED IN THE INFORMAL ACTIVITIES? The informal activities are those businesses/industries/collectives set-up by the transient population. This transient population is made up of individuals and collectives wanting to set up by themselves due to circumstances or other reasons, they have no ties to formal companies. This includes those who are unemployed, job insecure, working on bad terms and importantly unemployed graduates. This population has no ties to the site, or systems, meaning they are able to move, expand develop and fight on the “front line” for the occupation of Celtic and social change on a wider scale. This population is not fighting for capital gain, but rather a sustaining income to warrant human survival. With such high poverty rates and class divisions, this alternative view of “capital” is required.

164

INFORMAL ACTIVITIES


WHY? WHY WOULD THEY BE INVOLVED? • Stepping stone for those who need it • “Free” platform through exchange of knowledge/services/labour/goods to set up own business/ industry/collective • The means to get started through barter exchange • Equalisation of capital to knowledge • Equality and equal say in decisions that effect their lives • Working for personal human survival • Opportunities • Collaborative, productive atmosphere • Informal “ownership” and claiming of territory • Security

I N F O R M A L A C T I V I T I E S 165


WHAT? WHAT WOULD THE ACTIVITIES AND STRUCTURES BE? Activities would slot in between the formal systems. They would be complimentary but not detrimental to the system, allowing for them to continuously change alongside the transient population. The structures would emulate this transient current, and be spontaneous and temporary at first, allowing for later expansion, progression and “ownership” of land. Activities may not even require structures to be built, working within existing or on the existing facades, such as graffiti studios which work with formal industries to change perceptions.

SPONTANEOUS ERECTION OF ACTIVITIES PROGRESSIVE SPONTANEOUS STRUCTURE ALTERING EXTERNAL PERCEPTION

166

INFORMAL ACTIVITIES


I N F O R M A L A C T I V I T I E S 167


BENEFITS? BENEFITS OF INFORMAL ACTIVITIES ON SITE? • Informal occupation of unused, derelict land • On the “front line” in occupying Celtic land, to eventually force their hand to sell their land for more productive, realistic uses that respect the human lives of those that it effects • Physical interactions in space transforming place • Adding the human element to the site, and changing perceptions • Productiveness of the site • Helping secure the future security of the site • Helping to form an alternative to a capitalist model of working, and securing the human argument for social change

168

INFORMAL ACTIVITIES


W H AT D O E S T H I S M E A N S ?


INTERPLAY OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL ACTIVITIES The strategy is an interplay of formal and informal elements both systematically on a meta-scale and spatially on a human-scale. The strategy will grown organically as it develops creating a more complex network of systems and full RED occupation of the site, and then further afield. The informal and formal actors on site are equally important in creating the RED alternative.

172

W H AT D O E S T H I S M E A N


EXAMPLE PAPER MILL AND CORRESPONDING INFORMAL ACTIVITIES

COMPUTER COMPANIES

COMPUTER COMPANIES

SCRAP PAPER REUSE

WASTE PAPER

WASTE PAPER CRAFT SHOP

WASTE PAPER DEPOT

PAPER CRAFTS

OFFICES: WASTE PAPER

INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPER ARTISTS’ STUDIO

WEBSITE DESIGNER

DULUX: WASTE PAINT

PAPER MILL

PRINTING PRESS

RAPHAEL PRINTERS

WASTE PAINT

COMPUTER FACTORY EL-BOX: COMPUTER CASING

BIOPOLYMER PRODUCTION: COMPUTER CASING

One example in the strategy is the paper mill, which connects to existing industries, waste streams and connects a multiple of different informal activities. It also allows for connection to the surrounding areas. This example embeds the strategy showing how all the elements could work together. The informal activities are simply complimentary collectives, but in reality these could be any number of things connected to the system.

W H A T D O E S T H I S M E A N 173


ACTIVE PLACE The strategy allows for a multiple of activities which cause walls to be irrelevant, the strategy allows for the play of activity, physical interactions and mutual exchange.

174

W H AT D O E S T H I S M E A N


W H A T D O E S T H I S M E A N 175


FINAL STRATEGY

GDANSK REINFORCES EUROPEAN INFLUENCE

OFFICES: WASTE PAPER

WARSAW CITY TRANSMITS RED ALTERNATIVE NATIONALLY

LUBLIN AND OTHER NEIGHBOURING CITIES INSTIGATE CHANGE

WASTE PAPER DEPOT ARTISTS’ STUDIO

INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPER

WEBSITE DESIGNER

INFORMAL ENTERPRISES

PRINTING PRESS

RAPHAEL PRINTERS

WASTE PAINT

PAPER MILL

EL-BOX: COMPUTER CASING

URSUS INFILTRATES THE OTHER POST INDUSTRIAL SITES SURROUNDING WARSAW

WARSAW OCCUPATION

COMPUTER FACTORY

BIOPOLYMER PRODUCTION: COMPUTER CASING

ACTIVITY CONNECTIONS INCREASE RED ALTERNATIVES INFLUENCE

DULUX: WASTE PAINT

KATOWICE INFLUENCES EUROPEAN CITIES TO THE SOUTH

POLAND OCCUPATION

FORMA

POTENTIAL SITES FOR OCCUPATION FORMAL ACTIVITIES

INFORMAL CO

PERMANENT FORMS

NEW FORMAL INVESTMENTS

WHY? Mutual benefit Move towards Polyopoly as oppose to Oligopoly Mutual growth and expansion Move onto site to form collaborations with complimentary industries Chances for innovation and different knowledge bases

ACTIVITY PROPAGATES TO THE UNPRODUCTIVE NORTH-WEST BRIDGING ACTIVITIES TRAVERSE BOUNDARIES CELTIC OWNERSHIP CHALLENGED

INDIVIDUALS / GROUPS GRADUATE UNEMPLOYED STUDENT POPULATION

BENEFIT? Formal occupation Investment Industrial Symbiosis Providing increased security, and future buying and moving onto Celtic Land Allowing for opportunities of the informal to happen FORMAL ACTIVITIES STRENGTHEN

FORMAL E INFORMAL ACTIVITIES

TRANSIENT INFORMAL OCCUPATION

MIGRATION OF ACTIVITIES FROM PRODUCTIVE SOUTH

URSUS OCCUPATION

WHY? Creating a stepping stone for those who need it Working for personal human survival Opportunities Collaborative, Productive Atmosphere Equalisation of capital to knowledge “Free” platform through exchange of knowledge/services/labour/goods

FORMAL BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES

INF

INFORMAL ST

BENEFIT? Informal occupation Physical interactions and activity in space to transform place Front line occupation of Celtic land Future Security

FORMAL OCCUPATION By Activities Currently On Celtic Owned Land EXISTING MATERIAL FLOWS/CONNECTIONS CELTIC OWNERSHIP Hatched In On Diagram, Current Situation

PROGRESSION OVER TIME OF CELTIC OWNE RSHIP

PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES FORMAL ADVANCE

Formal Synergies Set Up

2012

First Informal Occupations Move In

ON-SITE OCCUPATION

176

W H AT D O E S T H I S M E A N

WASTE PAPER PAPER CRAFTS

WASTE PAPER

WASTE PAPER DEPOT

WEBSITE DESIGNER BIKE FACTORY INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPER ARTISTS’ STUDIO

WASTE PAINT PAPER MILL

INFORMAL ENTERPRISES

RAPHAEL PRINTERS

PRINTING PRESS

WASTE PAINT

WASTE TO ENERGY

CHEMICAL RESEARCH

REED BEDS FOR WATER PURIFICATION

FLY ASH FOR WATER PURIFICATION

METHANE TO ENERGY

MARKET

ART INSTALLATION

BIOPOLYMER PRODUCTION

WASTE RESALE

WASTE SORTING

WASTE REUSE

WATER

WASTE PAINT

WASTE REPRODUCTION

WASTE STOCKPILING FOR REUSE DRINKING REUSE OF

Informal Occupation Spreads

ECIPROCITY

DETERMINING FACTORS

MPOWERMENT EMOCRACY Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, the strategy works on this concept in three ways: on an environmental level, the strategy aims to limit wastefulness by looking at industrial symbiosis to explore networks of industrial companies on site that could exchange waste flows and share resources; on a business level, the strategy looks at the concept of mutual benefit between businesses/industries, pushing for collective growth to form a polyopoly in contrast with the current oligopoly market; on a human level, the strategy works to give groups and individuals a chance to step up onto the market without the need for capital by the use of a barter exchange system of goods, knowledge, services and labour. Reciprocity involves the human element of exchange in physical space, allowing for physical human interactions, and transforming place through activity. The strategy requires that any business/industry or individual/group entering onto the site must be to the benefit of someone else as well as themselves, and works through non-capital means within the current capitalist environment.

ARCH568 URBAN STRATEGY ISLA MELVILLE | IAN MCNEILL

GRAFFITI ON BLANK FACADES

WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE COMPUTER FACTORY

INDUSTRIAL ART INSTALLATION

Democracy allows all people to have broadly equal access to the necessary means to participate meaningfully in decisions about things which affect their lives. Capitalism creates inequalities between people, in a capitalist society those with capital hold power, while those without hold none. The strategy challenges current power relations through subverting and challenging private claims to space, it allows for the claiming of territory through formal and informal means. Those with informal claims to space are equal to those who have a formal claim to space, with each actor participating in decision making. The industries occupying the site have little say in the future of the site, nor their own futures which has created a sense of insecurity. Through collective multiple “ownerships” the future of the site can be determined by those whose lives rely on it.

ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

WASTE REPRODUCTION

Empowerment is the subordination of economic power to social power, it is the act of releasing the power that’s embedded within individuals and groups to fight for a worthy cause, whether that is actively or passively. It can essentially overturn those holding capital power. Poland has a strong history of empowerment of the people, through the solidarity movement and the orange alternative to fight for injustice of governmental control. With high unemployment within the country, including graduate unemployment, increased job insecurities, working in poor conditions, and increased class divisions and poverty risks, there is increasing need for social change. The strategy utilises these groups to fight for the injustices on the site, overturning the Celtic ownership through passive techniques of occupation, offering security for the site as Celtic move out and ownership is handed over to a multiple of people working for the common good. It allows individuals and groups to take ownership of their own lives, working for personal human survival within a society which fundamentally favours capital and efficiency over human need and survival.

WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

WASTE STOCK=PILING

A L T E R N A T I V E

GRAFFITI

BIODEGRADABLE PACKAGING

T H E

R E D

Formal Expands


COMPUTER COMPANIES

WASTE PAPER

SCRAP PAPER REUSE

WASTE PAPER CRAFT SHOP

PAPER CRAFTS

FORMAL

INFORMAL ALTERING EXTERNAL PERCEPTION

OBTAIN LEGAL TENURE

AL CONNECTIONS

COMPUTER COMPANIES

ONNECTIONS

ELEMENTS

BUILD STRUCTURE

FORMAL ELEMENTS INFORMAL SPONTANEOUS ERECTION OF ACTIVITIES

TRUCTURES

MOVE ONTO LAND

INFORMAL Formal Buys Celtic Land

FORMAL WORKING INDUSTRIES

SCRAP PAPER REUSE

Informal Secures Celtic Land

INFORMAL PROGRESSIVE SPONTANEOUS STRUCTURE Full Red Occupation

OPTION C

WASTE PAPER

COMPUTER COMPANIES

OPTION B

NEW ACTIVITY

INPUT

COMPANY A

NATIONAL/GLOBAL/REGIONAL SUPPLY (MATCHING POTENTIAL)

NEW ACTIVITY

ENERGETYKA URSUS

OPTION B

GOODS/INFORMATION/DSERVICES/LABOUR (MATCHING POTENTIAL)

COMPANY C

OPTION C

OPTION D

OUTPUT

COMPANY B

NEW ACTIVITY

OPTION B

OPTION C

FORMAL PROGRAMME OF ACTIVITIES AND SUBSTITUTIONS

FURTHER WATER TREATMENT Connection to Sewerage Treatment Municipal Drinking Water

WATER FILTRATION: REED BEDS Positioned In Area Of “Nature” Interplay of Nonhuman Actors

METHANE TO ENERGY PLANT Use Of Waste Methane Formal Structure BIOPOLYMER PRODUCTION Use Of Waste Methane

INFORMAL STRUCTURES Informal structure as become permanent over time

RESALE OF WASTE

INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPER Informal Activity Use Of Recycled Paper Connection To Raphael WEBSITE DESIGNER Informal Activity Connection To Computer Companies Provide Online Advertising FOOD STALL Informal Activity Set-Up In Response To Informal Activities

PARASITIC Informal Structures Penetrate Existing

WEBSITE DESIGNER

ARTISTS’ STUDIO

INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPER

MICRO-ENTREPRENEURS

PAPER MILL

PRINTING PRESS

GRAFFITI: EXTERNAL PERCEPTION

BICYCLE FACTORY Use of Aluminium from Asmet

RAPHAEL PRINTERS

TRANSIENT ACTIVITIES

FORMAL INDUSTRY

INFORMAL STRUCTURES

NONHUMAN ACTORS

NATURE TAKEN OVER (EXISTING)

REED BED WATER FILTRATION

Asmet Aluminium Factory

WASTE TO ENERGY POWER PLANT

INFORMAL ACTIVITIES OCCUPY CELTIC LAND

PROGRESSED TRANSIENT STRUCTURES

PRINTING PRESS Informal Activity Set-Up In Connection To Newspaper Opportunities For Providing Packaging

EXISTING MARKET Resale stalls Connection to site

Informal Structure

TRANSIENT STRUCTURES

WASTE PAPER DEPOT Collection from Offices and Residents Municipal Waste Paper Drop-Off PAPER MILL Formal Activity Waste Paper Reproduction Supply to Raphael Printers

WASTE METHANE Connection to Sewerage Treatment

W H A T D O E S T H I S M E A N 177


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BOOKS/JOURNALS/ARTICLES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Society of the Spectacle No Local Rebel Cities Homo-sapiens must die The Third Industrial City Hamdi Guy Debord and the Situationist International The Situationists, Phenomenology and Pervasive Gaming: New Narrative Strategies. January 25, 2010 by Hannah Nicklin (http://www.hannahnicklin.com/2010/01/the-situationists-phenomenology-and-pervasivegaming-new-narrative- strategies/) 9. Urban Revolution 10. Kucharczyk, J. & Zbieranek, J. (2009) Democracy in Poland 1989â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2009: Challenges for the future. Warsaw: Institute of Public Affairs 11. Erik Olin Wright Envisioning Real Utopias: alternatives within and beyond capitalism - LSE talk < http://www2. lse.ac.uk/newsAndMedia/videoAndAudio/channels/publicLecturesAndEvents/player.aspx?id=1483> 12. Spatial Agency 13. The economics of the good and evil

WEBSITES 14. http://lawarchive.hofstra.edu/pdf/Academics/Journals/LawReview/lrv_issues_v37n04_CC4.Francis.final.pdf 15. http://www.isp.org.pl/files/8271284100947554001281523312.pdf 16. http://www.notbored.org/big-sleep.html

17. http://polandsite.proboards.com/index.cgi?action=display&board=polishfilms&thread=2197&page=2 18. http://dailyserving.com/2012/01/from-the-ds-archives-post-communism/ 19. http://www.pomaranczowa-alternatywa.org/orange%20alternative%20overview.html 20. http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/hist557/lect18a.htm 21. http://libcom.org/history/1970-71-uprising-poland 22. http://libcom.org/library/solidarnosc-trade-unionism-poland-1994-subversion 23. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/06/poland-economic-progress-social-inequality 24. http://beyondthetransition.blogspot.co.uk 25. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/24/poland-leftwing-voices-silenced 180

BIBLIOGRAPHY


IMAGES empowerment: 26. http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/europes-unemploymentwoes/2012/10/03/722eb718-0bd2-11e2-bb5e-492c0d30bff6_gallery.html#photo=11 27. http://share.banoosh.com/2012/10/03/polish-opposition-draws-thousands-for-anti-governmentrally/#!prettyPhoto-14635/0/ 28. http://dailyserving.com/2012/01/from-the-ds-archives-post-communism/ Full list of references on request

B I B L I O G R A P H Y 181


Isla Melville & Ian McNeill - Programme Booklet_Final