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Holly Utrata-Halcomb, Administrator Hamilton County Soil & Water Conservation District Contribution of some slides by Joe Boggs, OSU Extension, Hamilton County, Oh.


Root Needs • Water • Warmth • Oxygen [O]: the #1 element needed for root health – 25% of the soil volume – At 5%, root growth stops – At 2%, roots decline and die


Greater Cincinnati’s Key Challenge:

Clay Soils!

Amend clay soils with compost or peat moss - never sand!


Trouble on the Horizon Topsoil Removed

Topsoil Stockpiled


Trouble on the Horizon Only 2-3� of topsoil returned!


Bipolar Water and Clay Particles Clay particles The positive sideare surrounded negative attaches to theby negative sites on the clay particle charges

+ H2O -

- -+ H O - H O +- Clay Particle - H O +HO+ -- H O +- - - - - - -+ H O 2

2

2

2

2

2


Soil Properties: They Are Not Independent!

Biological

Chemical

Physical


Don’t Guess – Soil Test


pH Levels

pH::pH_Res 8.70

8.40

8.20

8.10

8.00

7.90

7.80

7.70

7.60

7.50

7.40

7.30

7.20

7.10

7.00

6.90

6.80

6.70

6.60

6.50

6.40

6.30

6.20

6.10

6.00

5.90

5.80

5.70

5.60

5.50

5.40

5.30

5.20

5.10

5.00

4.90

4.80

4.70

4.60

4.50

4.40

Frequency

pH Levels Drop Page Fields Here pH Levels in Soil Test Kit

70 Count of ID

60

50

40 range Within optimum

30 Below optimum

Above optimum

20

10

0


Nitrogen compounds comprise from 40 to 50% of the dry matter of plant cells. For this reason nitrogen is required in relatively large quantities in connection with all growth processes in plants.


Nitrogen Cycle


Phosphorus = Flowers and Fruit • Plants that don't get enough P have spindly, thinstems that are weak • Growth is stunted or Shortened • Marginal chlorosis progressing into a dry leathery tan scorch on recently matured leaves. • Phosphorus deficient plants have little production of seed, flowers, and fruits


Phosphorus Results for Turf – 589 Samples

Phosporous Levels (ppm) in Soil Test Kit Samples Showing Optimum Ranges for Turf 600

500

Number of Samples

400

Above Optimum: > 20 ppm 300

Below Optimum: <10 ppm Optimum: > 10 - < 20 ppm

536

200

100

44 9

0 Above Optimum: > 20 ppm

Below Optimum: <10 ppm Phosphorous Levels

Optimum: > 10 - < 20 ppm


Phosphorus Results for Vegetable Gardening 589 samples Phosporous Levels (ppm) in Soil Test Kit Samples Showing Optimum Ranges for Vegetable Gardens 350

300

Number of Samples

250

200 Below Optimum: < 40 ppm Optimum: > 40 - < 70 ppm Above Optimum: > 70 ppm 150

292

100 156

141

50

0 Below Optimum: < 40 ppm

Optimum: > 40 - < 70 ppm Phosphorous Levels

Above Optimum: > 70 ppm


Potassium (K) is important in the photosynthesis process and in helping plants metabolize their food to get energy. â&#x20AC;˘ Potassium controls water and chemicals inside plants that help plants function well. â&#x20AC;˘ Leaf symptoms include dull bluish-green discolorations, particularly in the interveinal areas of the leaves, dull, general chlorosis particularly at the leaf tips and margins; then tip burning and marginal scorch on the older leaves with the leaves curling under or upwards


Potassium Levels in Soil Test Kit Samples Showing Optimum Ranges for Turf Potassium Levels in Soil Test Kit Samples Showing Optimum Ranges for Turf

180

160

140

Number of Samples

120

100 Above Optimum: >125 ppm Below Optimum: < 60 ppm Optimum: > 60 ppm - <125 ppm

80

60

40

20

0 Above Optimum: >125 ppm

Below Optimum: < 60 ppm Potassium Levels

Optimum: > 60 ppm - <125 ppm


Potassium Levels in Soil Test Kit Samples Showing Optimum Ranges for Vegetable Garden Potassium Levels in Soil Test Kit Samples Showing Optimum Ranges for Vegetable Garden

300

250

Number of Samples

200

Above Optimum: >125 ppm

150

Below Optimum: < 90 ppm Optimum: > 90 ppm - < 125 ppm

100

50

0 Above Optimum: >125 ppm

Below Optimum: < 90 ppm Potassium Levels

Optimum: > 90 ppm - < 125 ppm


Life in 1 Cubic Foot of Soil


The Living Soil Micropore Spaces

Soil Particles: Mineral and Organic

Bacteria

Microbial “Glue”

Fungal Hyphae


CAUTION Beware of Different Types of Organic Matter


Carbon : Nitrogen Ratios Material

C:N Ratio

Newspaper

600 : 1

Fresh Sawdust

400 : 1

Oak Leaves

90 : 1

Wheat, Oat, or Rye Straw

80 : 1

Horse Manure

50 : 1

Alfalfa Hay

20 : 1

Dairy Manure

25 : 1

Poultry Manure

18 : 1

Compost

15 : 1

Clover and Alfalfa (early)

13 : 1

A ratio above 30:1 may cause problems with soil nitrogen deficiency


Fertilizer Decoding

Grade: the percent, by weight of N-P-K in a fertilizer product. 



5-10-5 fertilizer would have: 5% nitrogen; 10% phosphorus; and 5% potassium. A 10 lb. bag of that fertilizer would have: .5 lbs. of N; 1 lbs. of phosphorus; and .5 lbs. of potassium.

Example -_10_lbs.__ X _.05 lbs. of Nitrogen_ = _.5 or ½ pound of _Nitrogen lbs. of Fertilizer lbs. of Nutrient (%) lbs. of that Nutrient in the entire bag


COVER CROPS David and Jay Brandt 7/26/2012


Sources • Ray Archuleta - NRCS Conservation Agronomist • Midwest Cover Crops Council - www.mccc.msu.edu • “Managing Cover Crops Profitably” 3rd Edition – Published by the Sustainable Agriculture Network

• • • • • • •

University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Oregon State University Extension Service University of California Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Ohio State University Department of Horticulture and Crop Science The Jefferson Institute – www.jeffersoninstitute.org And many others


What are Cover Crops? • A cover crop is a crop that is not harvested but is grown to benefit the soil and/or other crops in a number of ways. – reduced soil erosion – improved soil quality – reduced weed pressure – reduced insect and other pest problems.


What are Cover Crops? â&#x20AC;˘ Legume cover crops fix atmospheric nitrogen into a form plants and microorganisms can use. â&#x20AC;˘ Non-legume species recycle existing soil nitrogen, reducing the risk of excess nitrogen leaching into groundwater, and make other nutrients easily available to successive crops.


What plants are Legumes? â&#x20AC;˘ Peas, Clover, Vetch


Why use Legumes? • • • • •

Fix atmospheric Nitrogen in the soil Provide Erosion Control Quick to establish Depending on type, may or may not winter kill Add Organic Matter to soil


Rhizomes from inoculant promote the â&#x20AC;&#x153;fixingâ&#x20AC;? of atmospheric Nitrogen nodules on plant roots

Fibrous root mass protects the soil from erosion, aids water permeation and provides food and environment for micro organisms


What are Non-Legumes? • Grasses – Cereal Grains • Oats • Flax • Rye

– Broadleaf

• Brassica – Turnip or Radish – Mustard – Canola


Grass Cover Crop Advantages • • • • • • •

Provides erosion control Scavenges nitrogen Grows a deep and fibrous root mass Quick to establish Relatively inexpensive Can be broadcast and lightly tilled in Intercropping will add additional value


Brassica Advantages • • • • • •

Prevent erosion Suppress weed growth Suppress soil borne pests Reduce soil compaction Scavenge nutrients Intercropping will add additional value


(cover crops)

Healthy soil


Planting Cover Crops

Apply Cover Crops broad casting by hand, small hand spreader, or with a large broad cast spreader. Cover with ½ inch of soil or mulch for best results.


Planting Cover Crops

Precision Garden Seeders and drop spreaders are not recommended. We are interested in getting 30 to 50 seeds per sq. ft., spread evenly over the ground, not in a single row. Drop spreaders generally have too small of openings for some of the larger seeds, giving an uneven distribution of seeds.


Planting Cover Crops Besides raking into the soil, the seeds can be mulched, either with compost or straw, or pressed into the ground with a roller.


4 WAY MIX


4 WAY MIX


6 WAY MIX


Preparing for Garden Planting Varieties that winter kill do not survive the freezing winter temperatures and can be used as a mulch for your spring planting or tilled in.

Varieties that survive freezing temperatures will continue to grow in the spring and will require mowing or crushing to control. The mulch should be allowed to decompose before planting in the garden.


Crimson Clover & Cover Crop


Cover Crop vs. Corn Stubble


One Year Cover Crop


No-Till Garden Examples


QUESTIONS?

THANK YOU

Holly oki rcc presentation 2013 [compatibility mode]  

Urban Garden Soil Fertility with Help from Cover Crops

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