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APPENDIX 2 – DATASHEETS FOR QUARANTINE PESTS CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

ACERIA TULIPAE (KEIFER, 1938) [ACARI: ERIOPHYIDAE] ......................................................................................3 AGRIOTES SPP. [COLEOPTERA: ELATERIDAE].........................................................................................................4 AGROTIS SEGETUM (DENIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER, 1775) [LEPIDOPTERA : NOCTUIDAE]..........................................5 APHIS FABAE SCOPOLI, 1763 [HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE]........................................................................................7 EUMERUS AMOENUS LOEW, 1848 [DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE] ...................................................................................10 EUMERUS STRIGATUS (FALLÉN, 1817) [DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE] ............................................................................11 EUMERUS TUBERCULATUS (RONDANI, 1857) [DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE] ..................................................................13 EUMERUS SP. [DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE]..................................................................................................................14 FRANKLINIELLA FUSCA (HINDS, 1902) [THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE] .................................................................15 FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS (PERGANDE, 1895) [THRIPIDAE: THYSANOPTERA] ..............................................17 HEPIALUS HUMULI (LINNAEUS, 1758) [LEPIDOPTERA: HEPIALIDAE] ...................................................................20 HEPIALUS LUPULINUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) [LEPIDOPTERA: HEPIALIDAE] ..............................................................20 LILIOCERIS SPP. [COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE]..............................................................................................21 LIOTHRIPS VANEECKEI PRIESNER, 1920 [THYSANOPTERA: PHALEOTHRIPIDAE]...................................................23 LIRIOMYZA TRIFOLII (BURGESS, 1880) [DIPTERA : AGROMYZIDAE] .....................................................................24 MACROSTELES SEXNOTATUS (FALLEN, 1806) [HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE: DELTOCEPHALINI] ..........................26 MERODON EQUES (FABRICIUS, 1805) [DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE].............................................................................28 MERODON EQUESTRIS (FABRICIUS, 1794) [DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE] ......................................................................29 MERODON SPP. [DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE] ...............................................................................................................30 NORELLIA SPINIPES (MEIGEN) [DIPTERA: SCATHOPHAGIDAE] .............................................................................31 OPOGONA SACCHARI (BOJER, 1856) [LEPIDOPTERA: TINEIDAE: HIEROXESTINAE] ..............................................32 PHENACOCCUS AVENAE BORCHSENIUS, 1949 [HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE]..................................................34 PHENACOCCUS EMANSOR WILLIAMS AND KORARZHEVSKAYA, 1988 [HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE] .............35 RHIZOGLYPHUS SPP. [ACARI: ASTIGMATA: ACARIDAE] .......................................................................................36 SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISDUVAL, 1833) [LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE] .......................................................37 STENEOTARSONEMUS LATICEPS (HALBERT) [ACARI: TARSONEMIDAE].................................................................39 ARTIOPOSTHIA TRIANGULATA (DENDY) [TRICLADIDA: TERRICOLA] .....................................................................40 DITYLENCHUS DESTRUCTOR THORNE, 1945 [NEMATODA: ANGUINIDAE].............................................................41 DITYLENCHUS DIPSACI (KÜHN) [NEMATODA: ANGUINIDAE]................................................................................43 GLOBODERA PALLIDA (STONE, 1973) BEHRENS, 1975 [NEMATODA: HETERODERIDAE] ......................................44 GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS (WOLL.) BEHRENS. [NEMATODA: TYLENCHOIDIDAE] ............................................46 MELOIDOGYNE CHITWOODI GOLDEN, O'BANNON, SANTO & FINLEY, 1980 [NEMATODA: MELOIDOGYNIDAE]...47 LONGIDORUS SPP. [NEMATODA: LONGIDORIDAE] - L. ATTENUATUS MICOLETZKY, 1922 (FILIPJEV, 1934), L. ELONGATUS (DE MAN, 1876) MICOLETZKY 1922, L. MACROSOMA MICOLETZKY, 1922 (FILIPJEV, 1934)......................49 34. XIPHINEMA SPP. [NEMATODA: LONGIDORIDAE]...................................................................................................51 35. AECIDIUM NARCISSI LIOU [UREDINALES: PUCCINIACEAE]....................................................................................53 36. BOTRYTIS HYACINTHI WESTERD. & V. BEYMA THEO KINGMA [LEOTIALES: SCLEROTINIACEAE].........................54 37. BOTRYTIS POLYBLASTIS DOWSON [ASCOMYCOTA]................................................................................................55 38. CERCOSPORA AMARYLLIDIS ELLIS & EVERH. ........................................................................................................56 39. COLEOSPORIUM NARCISSI GROVE .........................................................................................................................57 40. EMBELLISIA HYACINTHI DE HOOG ET P J MULLER ................................................................................................57 41. FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. GLADIOLI (MASSEY) SNYDER & HANSEN ['MITOSPORIC FUNGI'] ............................59 42. FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. LILII IMLE [FUNGI: 'MITOSPORIC FUNGI'] ................................................................60 43. FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. NARCISSI SNYDER & HANSEN ['MITOSPORIC FUNGI'] ..............................................61 44. FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM SCHL. F. SP. TULIPAE APT ['MITOSPORIC FUNGI'] .............................................................62 45. HENDERSONIA UCRAINICA PETR............................................................................................................................63 46. MYCOSPHAERELLA CINXIA.....................................................................................................................................64 47. MYCOSPHAERELLA MARTAGONAS ARX ..................................................................................................................64 48. PHYLLOSTICTA LILIICOLA CEJP 1967 [SPHAEROPSIDALES: SPHAERIOIDACEAE]....................................................65 49. PUCCINIA GLADIOLI (DUBY) CAST. [UREDINALES : PUCCINIACEAE] ...................................................................66 50. PUCCINIA NARCISSI LAUNDON 1965 [UREDINALES : PUCCINIACEAE] ..................................................................66 51. PUCCINIA PROSTII MOUG. [UREDINALES: PUCCINIACEAE] ..................................................................................67 52. PUCCINIA SCHROETERI PASS. [UREDINALES: PUCCINIACEAE]..............................................................................68 53. RAMULARIA VALLISUMBROSAE CAVARA 1899 [MONILIALES: MONILIACEAE].......................................................68 54. SCLEROTIUM PERNICIOSUM VAN SLOGT & THOMAS 1930 [STEREALES: CORTICIACEAE] ....................................69 55. SCLEROTIUM WAKKERI BOEREMA &POSTHUMUS 1963 [STEREALES: CORTICIACEAE] .........................................70 56. STROMATINIA NARCISSI DRAYTON & GROVES 1952 [HELOTIALES: SCLEROTINIACEAE]. .....................................71 57. SEPTOCYLINDRIUM SPP. [HYPHOMYCETES] ..........................................................................................................72 58. UROCYSTIS COLCHICI (SCHLECH.) RABENH. F. SP. NARCISSI G. FRAG. 1925 ........................................................73


59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82.

UROMYCES AECIDIIFORMIS [STR.] REES [UREDINALES: PUCCINIACEAE]..............................................................74 UROMYCES CROCI PASSERINI. [UREDINALES : PUCCINIACEAE]............................................................................75 UROMYCES ERYTHRONII [UREDINALES : PUCCINIACEAE] .....................................................................................76 UROMYCES HOLWAYI LAGERH. 1889 [UREDINALES: PUCCINIACEAE] ..................................................................77 CORYNEBACTERIUM FASCIANS (TILFORD 1936) DOWSON 1942 ............................................................................78 CURTOBACTERIUM FLACCUMFACIENS PV. OORTII (SAAL. & MAAS GEE.) COLL. & JONES 1983 ...........................79 ASTER YELLOWS [MOLLICUTES: ACHOLEPLASMATALES] ...................................................................................80 FREESIA LEAF NECROSIS VARICOSAVIRUS VAN DORST (1973) ............................................................................82 HIPPEASTRUM MOSAIC POTYVIRUS KUNKEL (1922); BRANTS AND VAN DEN HEUVEL (1965).............................83 IRIS YELLOW SPOT TOSPOVIRUS ...........................................................................................................................84 LILY MOTTLE POTYVIRUS BRIERLEY AND SMITH (1944). ....................................................................................85 LILY X POTEXVIRUS STONE (1976) .....................................................................................................................86 NARCISSUS LATE SEASON YELLOWS (?) POTYVIRUS BRUNT (1977).....................................................................87 NARCISSUS TIP NECROSIS VIRUS (?) CARMOVIRUS ASJES (1972) .........................................................................88 NERINE LATENT CARLAVIRUS BRUNT ET AL. (1970) ............................................................................................89 RASPBERRY RING SPOT NEPOVIRUS CADMAN (1956)...........................................................................................90 REMBRANDT TULIP-BREAKING POTYVIRUS..........................................................................................................91 STRAWBERRY LATENT RINGSPOT (?) VIRUS LISTER (1964) .................................................................................92 TOMATO BLACK RING NEPOVIRUS SMITH (1946).................................................................................................94 TULIP BAND-BREAKING POTYVIRUS ASJES AND SEGERS (1985) ..........................................................................96 TULIP SEVERE MOSAIC (?) CLOSTEROVIRUS .........................................................................................................97 TULIP TOP BREAKING POTYVIRUS ........................................................................................................................97 TULIP X POTEXVIRUS, MOWAT (1982)................................................................................................................98 VALLOTA MOSAIC POTYVIRUS .............................................................................................................................99


The following pest and disease fact sheets represent our present state of knowledge and are subject to change as a result of reclassification of organisms and new scientific evidence.

Arthropods 1.

Aceria tulipae (Keifer, 1938) [Acari: Eriophyidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Eriophyes tulipae Keifer, 1938. Common name(s): garlic mite; onion mite. Host(s): Allium species including Allium ascalonicum (shallot); Allium cepa (onion); Allium sativum (garlic); Tulipa sp. Plant part(s) affected: whole plant including bulb. Distribution: Africa- Egypt; South Africa; Tanzania. Asia – Georgia; India; Indonesia; Japan; Philippines; Thailand; Vietnam. Europe - Bulgaria; Denmark; Finland; Italy; Moldova; Netherlands; Poland; Russia; Spain. Americas- Brazil; Chile; Cuba; USA; Venezuela. Oceania Fiji; New Zealand. There are no confirmed records of this mite being in Australia (Halliday 1988). Biology: Adult and juvenile stages of this mites feed on developing leaves causing stunting, twisting and discolouration of the growing plant. Adults invade bulbs searching for oviposition sites. Feeding inside the bulb causes scarification and drying of bulb tissue. All stages are able to survive from one season to the next within bulbs in storage or left in the soil. Formerly this mite was confused with the wheat curl mite, now known as A. tosichella Keifer. Entry potential: High. This pest infests bulbs and as a result can be transported on them. Establishment potential: High, both Allium species and tulips are commercial crops in southern Australia. Spread potential: Medium, likely to be spread by movement of infested planting material. Economic importance: High, as a pest of Allium and Tulips where it causes stunting and general loss of yield. It may also be involved in the transmission of viruses. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest Reference(s): CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International. Halliday, R. B. (1998). Mites of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. Shevtchenko, V. G., De Millo, A. P., Razvyazkina, G. M. and Kapkova, E. A. (1970). Taxonomic boundaries of closely related mites Aceria tulipae Keif. and A. tritici sp. n. (Acarina, Eriophyoidea) – vector of the onion and wheat viruses. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 49: 224-235.


2.

Agriotes spp.1 [Coleoptera: Elateridae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: unknown. Common name(s): wire worms; click beetles. Host(s): a highly polyphagous genus that feed on roots and other subterranean parts of plants. Recorded hosts include: Allium cepa (onion); Anemone spp. (anemones); Beta vulgaris (sugar beet); Capsicum spp. (peppers); Curcurbitaceae; Dacus carota (carrot); Fragaria sp. (strawberries); Helianthus annus (sunflower); Humulus lupulus (hops); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Nicotiana tobacum (tobacco); Papaver spp. (poppies); Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane); Solanum tuberosum (potatoes); Tritium aestivum (wheat); Zea mays (maize). Plant part(s) affected: Roots and other subterranean parts of plants. Distribution2: Europe, temperate Asia, North America, including: Austria; Canada; the Czech Republic; India; Italy; France; Germany; Greece; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Russia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; United Kingdom; Yugoslavia. Biology: The larvae of Agriotes species are polyphagous and injurious to a wide range of plants, especially root crops. They also cause damage to pasture by attacking roots of grasses. There are a large number of species in this genus. These vary in their injuriousness and their preferences for different hosts and not all species are pests.

Eggs are laid in clusters in the upper layers of the soil. Some 80 eggs are laid by each female. Larvae burrow through the soil and feed on roots and other subterranean parts of plants (including bulbs) as they do so. Larvae of different stages overwinter by burrowing deep into the soil. The life cycle may take several years to complete. Entry potential: High, larvae can be transported on bulbs. Larvae are also likely to survive the low temperatures used in the transportation of bulbs. Establishment potential: High, as the insect is polyphagous and suitable hosts are widespread and common in Australia. Spread potential: High, as the adult is capable of flight. Juvenile stages can also be transported in soil on machinery etc. Economic importance: High, may cause economic damage to a wide range of crop plants including bulbs. May also be a vector of bacterial diseases. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): 1 The genus includes a large number of species, for instance 40 species occur in Russia and 72 in the Palaearctic region. In the United Kingdom, about 60 wireworm species occur. 2 The single Agriotes species recorded from Australia (Agriotes quadripunctatus from Raffles Bay, NT) has recently been shown to belong to the genus Paracardiophorus Schwarz, 1895 (Calder, 1996).


Agaev, B.I. (1981). Toward the knowledge of the fauna of click-beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae) in bioeconoses of the Maly Caucasus (within the USSR). Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Entomologicheskogo Obshchestva. 63: 72-73. Agren, L. (1986). Adult phenology of Agriotes (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on the Baltic Island of Oland. Entomologisk Tidskrift, Stockholm: Entomologiska foreningen. 107: 47-50. Calder, A.A. (1996). Click beetles : genera of the Australian elateridae (Coleoptera). Monographs on Invertebrate Taxonomy; vol. 2. Collingwood, Vic., Australia : CSIRO Australia, 401 p. Furlan, L. (1996). The biology of Agriotes ustulatus Schaller (Col., Elateridae). 1. Adults and oviposition. Journal of Applied Entomology 120: 269-274. Furlan, L. (1998). The biology of Agriotes ustulatus Schaller (Col., Elateridae). II. Larval development, pupation, whole cycle description and practical implications. Journal of Applied Entomology. 122: 71-78. Gur'yeva, Ye.L. (1972). A review of Palaearctic species of the genus Agriotes Esch. (Coleoptera, Elateridae). Entomological Review 51: 509-520. Hoshikawa, K., Tsutsui, H., Honma, K. and Sakagami, S.F. (1988). Cold resistance in four species of beetles overwintering in the soil, with notes on the overwintering strategies of some soil insects. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 23: 273-281. Khinkin, S. (1983). Biology and ecology of the western click beetle - Agriotes ustulatus Schall (Elateridae, Coleoptera). Rasteniev"dni Nauki. 20: 115-122. Popov, P. (1971). Wireworms in Bulgaria. Rastitelna Zashchita., 19: 17-19. Rusek, J. (1972). On the activity and distribution of adult Agriotes brevis (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in fields in southern Moravia. Pedobiologia, 12: 149-155.

3.

Agrotis segetum (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) [Lepidoptera : Noctuidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Agrotis fucosa Butler; Agrotis segetis Hubner; Euxoa segetis; E. segetum (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775); E. segetum form albiptera Turati; Feltia segetum (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775); Noctua segetum Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775; Scotia segetum (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775). Common name(s): black cutworm; common cutworm; dart moth; tobacco cutworm; turnip dart moth; turnip moth. Host(s): A. segetum is a highly polyphagous pest that attacks a wide range of important crop plants such as cereal crops, oilseeds, beverage crops, root crops, vegetables and ornamental plants including bulbaceous species. Hosts include: Abelmoschus esculentus (okra); Allium cepa (onion); Allium porrum (leek); Allium sphaerocephalon (roundhead garlic); Anethum graveolens (dill); Apium graveolens var. dulce (bleached celery); Arachis hypogaea (groundnut); Asparagus officinalis (asparagus); Aster; Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade); Avena sativa (oats); Beta


vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet); Boehmeria nivea (ramie); Brassica chinensis (chinese cabbage); Brassica juncea (indian mustard); Brassica napus (rape); Brassica napus var. napobrassica (rutabaga); Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower); Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbages); Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (turnip rape); Camellia sinqensis (tea); Cannabis sativa (hemp); Capsicum annuum (chilli pepper); Carum carvi (caraway); Chrysanthemum (daisy); Cicer arietinum (chickpea); Cichorium endivia; Coffea arabica (arabica coffee); Cucumis melo (melon); Cucurbita pepo (courgette); Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge); Daucus carota (carrot); Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation); Foeniculum vulgare (fennel); Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry); Freesia refracta; Gladiolus hybrids (gladiolus); Glycine max (soyabean); Gossypium (cotton); Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton); Guizotia abyssinica (niger thistle); Helianthus annuus (sunflower); Hevea brasiliensis (rubber); Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf); Hordeum vulgare (barley); Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato); Lactuca sativa (lettuce); Linum; Lupinus luteus (yellow lupin); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree); Medicago sativa (lucerne); Mentha spp. (mints); Nicotiana rustica (wild tobacco); Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); Oryza sativa (rice); Paeonia officinalis (common paeony); Papaver somniferum (opium poppy); Petroselinum crispum (parsley); Picea sitchensis (sitka spruce); Pinus sylvestris (scots pine); Quercus (oaks); Raphanus sativus (radish); Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant); Ricinus communis (castoroil plant); Secale cereale (rye); Sesamum indicum (sesame); Solanum laciniatum (kangaroo apple); Solanum tuberosum (potato); Spinacia oleracea (spinach); Trifolium (clovers); Trifolium incarnatum (crimson clover); Triticum aestivum (wheat); Vitis vinifera (grapevine); Zea mays (maize). Plant part(s) affected: foliage, stems, bulbs, roots Distribution: Widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa. Afghanistan; Algeria; Angola; Austria; Bangladesh; Benin; Bhutan; Belarus; Belgium; Botswana; Bulgaria; Cape Verde; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Côte D’Ivoire; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Korea; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Malta; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Netherlands; Norway; Pakistan; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Saint Helena; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Slovakia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Switzerland; Tanzania; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; UK; Vietnam; Yemen; Yugoslavia; former USSR; Zambia; Zimbabwe. Biology: Female moths lay between 200-2000 eggs depending on conditions. These are laid singly or in small batches on dry plant material or on the soil. The eggs hatch in 3-14 days and the young larvae can move to the top of the plant where they can be dispersed by wind. Larvae live in the soil and emerge nightly to feed on plant material above ground. As larvae grow the damage they do


increases in severity. Feeding by mature larvae can kill entire plants by severing the stem at the soil surface. In bulbs and root crops feeding may result in deep holes being excavated. Between 1 and 4 generations can occur in a year depending on conditions. In cool temperate climates, the mature larva spends winter in soil and pupates in the spring. In warmer climates breeding may be continuous.

Severe economic damage caused by this species has been reported in crops of cotton, maize, potatoes, beetroot and lettuce. The level of damage caused is most severe under dry conditions when plants are under stress. Entry potential: High on infested plant material or in soil contaminating shipments; both larvae and pupae can hide within infested bulbs. Establishment potential: High. The host range of A. segetum is very wide. Spread potential: High, larvae can disperse and adult moths are capable of strong flight. Economic Importance: High, A. segetum is reported as a serious pest of a wide range of crop plants. Quarantine Status: Quarantine pest. References: CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International. Rees, A.R. (1992). Ornamental Bulbs, Corms and Tubers. CAB International. Wallingford. 220pp.

4.

Aphis fabae Scopoli, 1763 [Hemiptera: Aphididae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Anuraphis cynariella Theobald, 1924; Aphis abientaria Walker, 1852; Aphis addita Walker, 1849; Aphis adducta Walker, 1849; Aphis advena Walker, 1849; Aphis aparines Fabricius, 1775; Aphis aparinis Blanchard, 1840; Aphis apii Theobald, 1925; Aphis apocyni Koch, 1854; Aphis atriplicis 1775 nec Linnaeus, 1758; Aphis brevisiphona Theobald, 1913; Aphis carpathica Tshumak, 1993; Aphis chaerophylli Koch, 1854; Aphis citricola van der Goot, 1912; Aphis dahliae Mosley, 1841; Aphis erecta del Guercio, 1911; Aphis fabae Blanchard, 1840; Aphis fumariae Blanchard, 1840; Aphis hortensis Fabricius, 1781; Aphis indistincta Walker, 1849; Aphis inducta Walker, 1849; Aphis insularis Blanchard, 1923; Aphis ligustici Fabricius, 1779; Aphis neri 1843, nec Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1841; Aphis papaveris auct.; Aphis phlomoidea del Guercio, 1911; Aphis polyanthis Passerini, 1863 nec Gmelin, 1790; Aphis rumicis auctt. prior 1930 nec Linnaeus; Aphis silybi Passerini, 1861; Aphis thlaspeos Schrank, 1801; Aphis translata Walker, 1849; Aphis tuberosae Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1841; Aphis valerianina del Guercio, 1911; Aphis watsoni Theobald, 1929; Doralis fabae Scopoli; Myzus roseum Macchiati, 1881; Myzus rubra Macchiati, 1884; Myzus rubrum del Guercio, 1900. Common name(s): Bean aphid; black bean aphid; black dolphin; blackfly.


Hosts: A highly polyphagous species, recorded hosts include: Angelica sp.; Aquilegia sp.; Arctium sp.; Aster sp. (aster, Easter daisy, Michaelmas daisy); Atriplex sp.; Beta sp. (beet); Beta vulgaris (beetroot); Brassica spp. (cabbage, kale, rape); Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's-purse); Carduus sp.; Chamaenerium angustifolium; Chenopodium album (fat hen, white goosefoot); Cirsium sp.; Cucurbita spp. (marrow, pumpkin, squash); Dahlia sp.; Dieffenbachia sp.; Euonymous europaeus; Gladiolus sp.; Glaucium sp.; Impatiens sp.; Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Lysimachia sp. (loosestrife); Matricaria sp.; Narcissus spp. (daffodill); Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); Papaver sp. (poppy); Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean, kidney bean, string bean); Philadelphus coronarius (sweet mock orange); Pisum sativum (pea); Rumex sp. (dock, sorrel); Senecio sp.; Solanum tuberosum (potato); Solanum sp. (nightshade); Tropaeolum sp. (nasturtium); Tulipa gesneriana (tulip); Urtica urens (annual nettle, small nettle, stinging nettle); Viburnum opulus; Vicia faba (broad bean, fava bean). Plant part affected: Buds, shoots, and other aerial parts of plants. Distribution: Widespread in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere (including the UK and Netherlands), North and South America and Africa. Biology: A. fabae adults are black or brownish-black, between 1.5-3.1mm long. A. fabae is probably a species complex (Stroyan 1984) with currently four described subspecies (Heie 1986). In much of Europe, A. fabae sensu stricto (s.str.) has a heteroecious and holocyclic lifecycle. It alternates between its primary host, usually spindle (Euonymus europaeus), on which it overwinters as an egg stage, and a wide range of secondary hosts in plants from spring to autumn. Other species can act as the primary host eg. sterile guilder rose (Viburnum opulus), mock orange (Philadelphus cornarius) and some other species of Euonymus.

In Northern Europe, eggs are laid on E. europaeus between October and December. Eggs hatch (from late February to April in Europe) into nymphs which go through four instars to become fundatrices which are large parthenogenetically reproducing adult apterous females. About three generations occur on spindle, until alates (spring migrants) are produced between mid-May and early June. The spring migrants colonise a wide range of secondary hosts, including field beans, sugarbeet and numerous wild host plants, on which apterous females are produced which reproduce parthenogenetically. Rapid rates of population growth occur, resulting in dense colonies. One female may produce up to 100 young at a rate of 10 per day. Alates are produced on secondary hosts throughout the summer (summer migrants), partly in response to overcrowding, and these continuously colonise fresh herbaceous secondary host plants.

Around September in Northern Europe, shorter day lengths modified by temperature, initiate physiological and behavioural changes, resulting in the production of gynoparae (autumn migrants)


and males. Gynoparae undertake obligatory migratory flights to locate a primary host. Once there they produce apterous oviparae or sexual females. Several weeks after the gynoparae appear, sexual males are produced on the secondary host plants. They independently locate E. europaeus, and find the oviparae using sex pheromone cues. Soon after mating, the oviparae lay their eggs in bark crevices on the stem or on the winter buds. Each oviparae lays around four to six yellow-green eggs, which darken with time to a shiny black. The embryos need to go through a cold spell and enter diapause before they hatch.

In Southern Europe this aphid may reproduce parthenogenetically on secondary hosts throughout the year. In the tropics the aphid, which is most likely to be the subspecies A. fabae solanella, does not overwinter as an egg stage. It is anholocyclic, breeding parthenogenetically throughout the year, with alate forms being produced in response to overcrowding. Vector relationship: The species is a vector for more than 30 persistent and non-persistent plant pathogenic viruses, including Narcissus mosaic, Tulip breaking and Cucumber mosaic viruses. Entry potential: Low - dormant bulbs are not a primary host. Contamination of bulbs is a possibility. Establishment potential: High if apterous or alate virgin oviparae present. Ability to establish may vary between strains. Those that do not require a specific overwintering host are of particular concern. Spread potential: High, as it is a polyphagous species. Winged stage may fly and/or be carried on the wind. It may also be spread with movement of infested plant materials. Economic Importance: High – this species can quickly develop heavy populations that can become debilitating to infested plants. This species is also a vector of a number of viral diseases, including Beet mosaic virus and Potato leafroll virus (Heie 1986). Quarantine Status: Quarantine pest. References: Blackman, R. L. and Eastop, V. F. (1985). Aphids of the World’s Crops: an Identification Guide. John Wiley and Sons: New York. Dixon, A. F. G. (1987). The way of life of aphids: Host specificity, speciation and distribution. Pp. 197–207 in Minks, A. K. and Harrewijn, P. (eds.) Aphids : Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol 2A. World Crop Pests Series. Elsevier: Amsterdam, 450pp. Heie, O. (1986). The Aphidoidea (Hemiptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. III Family Aphididae: subfamily Pterocommatinae and tribe Aphidini of subfamily Aphidinae. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 17: 1–314.


Lane, A. (1984). Bulb Pests. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. Remaudière, G. and Remaudière, M. (1997). Catalogue des Aphididae du monde. Catalogue of the World’s Aphididae Homoptera Aphidoidea. Institut National de la Recherche (INRA) Agronomique: Paris, 473 pp. Stroyan, H.L.G. (1984). Aphids-Pterocommatinae and Aphidinae (Aphidini). Pp:74-75, 119-122 in Fitton, M.G. (1984). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol. 2 (6), Royal Entomological Society of London, 232pp.

5.

Eumerus amoenus Loew, 1848 [Diptera: Syrphidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None known. Common name(s): Mediterranean lesser bulb fly; onion bulb fly. Host(s): Allium cepa (onion) (stored and field); Narcissus spp. (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: Bulb. Distribution: Egypt; France; Israel. Biology: Up to about 90 eggs are laid by each female fly, which hatch in about 1.5 to 6 days depending on temperature. Larvae of this species feed internally on bulbs which, in combination with the development of various fungal rots, may cause the complete destruction of the infested plant. Development of E. amoenus occurs during the active vegetative growth of its hosts from autumn to spring, during which at least two generations may be produced, and ceases when the bulbs enter summer dormancy. In Egypt, numbers build up in early February and reach a maximum during April to June. This species probably survives the summer as an adult. Irrigation or cultivation in cooler climates may delay summer bulb dormancy and allow development to continue so that adults will also emerge in summer. Entry potential: High, as there is a risk of the pupae adhering to the bulbs and larvae being present in damaged bulbs. Establishment potential: High, especially in areas with a Mediterranean climate where suitable hosts occur. Spread potential: High, as adults are capable of flight. Economic Importance: Yes, known to cause economic loss to stored and field growing onions, and is regarded as a serious pest in Egypt. Quarantine Status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Avidov, Z. and Harpaz, I. (1969). Plant pests of Israel. Israel Universities Press, Jerusalem. CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International


Farag, S.S. and Doss, S.A.A. (1981). Biological studies on the onion bulb fly, Eumerus amoenus Loew (Diptera: Syrphidae). Agricultural Research Review 59: 79-86. Haydar, M.F. and Sherif, L.S. (1987). Ecological aspects and developing method of onion pest control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series 16: 119-126. Speight, M.C.D., Claussen, C. and Hurkmans, W. (1998). Révision des syrphes de la faune de France: III – Liste alphabétique des espèces des geners Cheilosia, Eumerus et Merodon et Supplément (Diptera, Syrphidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 103: 401-414.

6.

Eumerus strigatus (Fallén, 1817) [Diptera: Syrphidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Eumerus aeneus Meigen; Eumerus lunulatus Meigen; Paragopsis strigatus Fallén; Pipiza strigatus Fallén, 1817. Common name(s): eristale du bulbe de l'oignon; kleine Narcissenvlieg; kleine Nareisvlieg; Kleine Narzissen- Fliege; Kogata-kyukon-hana-abu; lesser bulb fly; lesser narcissus bulb fly; mosca de los bulbos; mosca de los narcisos; Mosca dei bulbi; mouche des bulbes; onion bulb fly; onion bulb fly; small narcissus fly; syrphe des bulbes; Zwiebelmond- Fliege. Host(s): Allium cepa (onion); Allium sativum (garlic); Amaryllis spp. (belladonna lily); Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage); Calla elliottiana (water arum); Cyrtanthus spp. (fire lily); Galtonia spp. (summer hyacinth); Gladiolus spp. (gladiolus); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis, barbados lily); Hyacinthus spp. (hyacinth); Iris spp. (iris); Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Proiphys spp. (proiphys); Pastinaca sativa (parsnip); Solanum tuberosum (potato); Scilla spp. (bluebell); Sprekelia formosissima (jacobean lily); Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Bulb, tuber, interior of roots. Distribution: Widely distributed in Europe and North America including Canada; China; France; Japan; New Zealand; Romania; Sweden; Taiwan; United Kingdom; USA; former USSR. Biology: In Britain, flies emerge in the spring (April) and females each lay 35-100 eggs in groups of 10 or more close to the host material. Eggs take 3-10 days to hatch. Newly hatched larvae enter via the neck region of the bulb and feed on the inner tissue of the bulb reducing it rapidly to a rotting mass. The larval and pupal stages take 20-30 days and 7-12 days respectively at 21-23°C. Larvae are dirty white or brownish, 8-12 mm long when full grown. Pupation takes place in or near the plant, often at the base of a bulb. Adults are bee-like, 4-6 mm long, black with yellowish abdominal bands. In England this species has two generations per annum and over-winters as the pupal stage in bulbs or the soil, or as an adult in the soil. Further south in Europe, up to three generations per year can occur. Some pupae may take up to two years to hatch. Adult flies have also been found in bulb stores.


E. strigatus is reported as causing up to 25-30% losses of onion over a five year period in the former USSR and a 10-15% yield loss of late-maturing onion varieties in Romania. It is a very common pest of narcissus in Britain. It is considered to be a secondary pest of bulbs and infestation usually follows damage by other agents such as fungi, nematodes, slugs and other insects.

This species has been intercepted on onions exported from the US to Japan. Entry potential: High, as there is a risk of the pupae adhering to the bulbs and larvae being present in damaged bulbs. There is a slight risk of eggs adhering to bulbs and of live adults surviving transportation. The species is believed to have been spread by trade to Japan and has been intercepted by quarantine inspection at the Australian border. Establishment potential: High, suitable hosts are present. Spread potential: High, as adults are capable of strong flight. Economic Importance: High, as the species causes economic damage not only to ornamental bulbs, but also to some root vegetables. Quarantine Status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Aihara, E., Matsumoto, N. and Mauramatsu, T. (1985). Varieties of dipterous insects found on imported onions and how to distinguish the insects. Plant Quarantine Station Investigation Research Report 21: 75-80. CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International. Essig, E.O. (1926). Insects of Western North America. MacMillans; New York. Evans, J.W. (1943). Insect Pests and their Control. Gherasim, V. (1973). The bulb fly – Eumerus strigatus Fall. (Diptera – Syrphidae) a pest new to onion crops in the Republic of Romania. Analele Institutului de Cercetari centru Protectia Plantelor 11: 141-146. Mulin, Y.I (1990). A dangerous pest of onion. Zashchita Rastenii Moskva 3: 31-32. Neboiss, A. (1957). Comparative Study of Victorian bulb Flies, Eumerus species (Syrphidae, Diptera). Victorian Naturalist 74: 3-11. Speight, M.C.D., Claussen, C. and Hurkmans, W. (1998). Révision des syrphes de la faune de France: III – Liste alphabétique des espèces des geners Cheilosia, Eumerus et Merodon et Supplément (Diptera, Syrphidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 103: 401-414.


7.

Eumerus tuberculatus (Rondani, 1857) [Diptera: Syrphidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Eumerus funeralis3 Meigen, 1822 sensu auctores; Eumerus funeralis (Meigen, 1822); Eumerus strigatus Fallen 1817; Eumerus victorianus Paramonov, 1957. Common name(s): lesser bulb fly; lesser narcissus bulb fly. Host(s): Allium cepa (onion); Allium sativum (garlic); Amaryllis spp. (belladonna lily); Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage); Calla elliottiana (water arum); Cyrtanthus spp. (fire lily); Galtonia spp. (summer hyacinth); Gladiolus spp. (gladiolus); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis, barbados lily); Hyacinthus spp. (hyacinth); Iris spp. (iris); Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Proiphys spp. (proiphys); Pastinaca sativa (parsnip); Solanum tuberosum (potato); Scilla spp. (bluebell); Sprekelia formosissima (jacobean lily); Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs, tubers, interior of roots. Distribution: Europe (from Spain and Italy in south to UK, central Sweden and Finland in north, including the Netherlands and UK) ; introduced into Australia (Victoria, Tasmania only); Colombia; NZ; USA. Biology: Female flies lay up to 40 eggs on or near the host bulb, between bulb scales or on leaves at the neck of bulbs or nearby on the soil surface. Eggs hatch in 5 to 10 days. Between 10-30 larvae may typically develop inside a bulb, reducing it to a semi liquid mass. After about 30 days, larvae pupate. This can take place within the infested plant material or in the surrounding soil or soil surface. One to four weeks later, adult flies emerge and may live for up to 36 days following emergence. Up to three generations may occur in a year.

Although larvae can successfully attack a healthy bulb, they do not complete development in the absence of certain decay organisms. Bulbs already infested with stem nematodes (Ditylenchus dipsaci Kuehn) or infected with a root rot fungus are especially vulnerable to attack. Infested bulbs often die or are damaged to such an extent that only stunted leaves appear the following year.

E. tuberculatus originated in Europe and has been accidentally introduced into the USA. This species has been intercepted on onions exported to Japan from Australia and Korea. Entry potential: High, as eggs, larvae and pupae can occur on and in the bulb. It has a record of successful introductions to areas outside its natural range. Establishment potential: High, as a high range of hosts are present in Australia and this species is capable of surviving in a wide range of climates. Spread potential: High, as species is capable of strong flight.

3 According to Speight et al. (1998) E. funeralis has priority over E. tuberculatus.


Economic importance: High, as it causes economic damage to a range of economically important plant species. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest for all States except Tasmania. Reference(s): Aihara, E., Matsumoto, N. and Mauramatsu, T. (1985). Varieties of dipterous insects found on imported onions and how to distinguish the insects. Plant Quarantine Station Investigation Research Report 21: 75-80. Essig, E.O. (1926). Insects of Western North America. MacMillans; New York. Evans, J.W. (1943). Insect Pests and their Control. Gherasim, V. (1973). The bulb fly – Eumerus strigatus Fall. (Diptera – Syrphidae) a pest new to onion crops in the Republic of Romania. Analele Institutului de Cercetari centru Protectia Plantelor 11: 141-146. Lundbeck, W. (1912). Diptera Danica - Genera and species hitherto found in Denmark, Part IV Dolichopodidae. Mulin, Y.I. (1990). A dangerous pest of onion. Zashchita Rastenii Moskva 3: 31-32. Neboiss, A. (1957). Comparative Study of Victorian bulb Flies, Eumerus species (Syrphidae, Diptera). Victorian Naturalist 74: 3-11. North Carolina State University Web Page http://www.ifas.ufl.edu/~apkweb/ncstate/fly2htm Speight, M.C.D., Claussen, C. and Hurkmans, W. (1998). Révision des syrphes de la faune de France: III – Liste alphabétique des espèces des geners Cheilosia, Eumerus et Merodon et Supplément (Diptera, Syrphidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 103: 401-414.

8.

Eumerus sp. [Diptera: Syrphidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: this species has not yet been described. Common name(s): Small narcissus fly. Host(s): Amaryllidaceae; Liliaceae. Plant part(s) affected: Bulb. Distribution: Israel Biology: Larvae of this species, which has not yet been formally described, in common with other Eumerus species, feed internally on bulbs. Such feeding, in combination with the development of various fungal rots may cause the complete destruction of the infested plant. In Israel, this species can have three to four generations between April and October. Development from egg to adult takes about 39 days. This species is considered a secondary pest of bulbs and usually follows damage done by various means including by other insect pests. Entry potential: High, as eggs, larvae and pupae can occur on and in the bulb.


Establishment potential: High, as suitable hosts are widely grown in Australia. Spread potential: High, as adults are capable of strong flight. Economic importance: High, as it causes economic damage to a range of economically important plant species. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Ben-Yakir, D., Hadar, Ester and Chen, M. (1997). Evaluating insecticides for the control of narcissus flies under field conditions in Israel. Phytoparasitica 25: 93-97. Nestel, D., Ben-Yakir, D., Chen, M. and Freidberg, A. (1994). The narcissus bulb flies in Israel: species of agricultural importance and monitoring systems. Hassadeh 75: 81-85.

9.

Frankliniella fusca (Hinds, 1902) [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Euthrips fuscus Hinds, 1902; Euthrips nicotianae Hinds, 1905; Frankliniella nicotianae (Hinds, 1905); Physopus fuscus Trybom, 1910; Physopus nicotianae (Hinds, 1905); Scirtothrips owreyi Watson, 1924. Common name(s): tobacco thrips; thrips du tabac; Tabak-Blasenfuss. Host(s): a highly polyphagous species, recorded hosts include: Arachis hypogaea (groundnut, peanut); Capsicum annuum (bell pepper); Citrullus lanatus (watermelon); Digitaria sanguinalis (crabgrass); Glycine max (soyabean); Gossypium spp. (cotton); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis, Barbados lily); Liliaceae; Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Narcissus hybrids (daffodil); Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); Phaseoulus vulgaris (bean); Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish); Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard); Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard); Vigna unguiculata (cowpea); Zea mays (maize); and many other plants. Plant part(s) affected: bulbs, leaves, stems, growing points, inflorescence, fruits/pods, and vegetative organs. Distribution: Canada; Martinique; Mexico; the Netherlands; Puerto Rico; United States of America. Biology: Two forms of adult tobacco thrips occur, one with shorter wings than the other. Both adults are yellowish-brown and about 1 mm long. The whitish egg is concealed within plant tissue. The yellowish-orange larva varies from 0.25 mm to 1 mm in length. The pupa ranges in length from 0.6 to 1 mm. Its body is yellowish-orange, but the wing pads and legs are pearly white.

In temperate climates, Tobacco thrips probably overwinter as adult females under ground litter or in other protected places. Each female deposits 50 to 60 eggs in the tissue of the foliage which hatch in about 7 days. Unfertilised eggs produce males and fertilised eggs produce only females. The two


larval stages feed for 5 to 6 days before pupating, either on the plant or in the soil. The larvae and adult thrips are found on young leaves or flowers. In flowers they feed by sucking out the contents of pollen grains and the cell sap of other flower tissues, such as around the bases of the anthers and on the developing fruits. On young leaves the cells of the upper parenchyma layers are emptied. After pupating for 3 to 4 days, the adults emerge and begin feeding. Total development time from egg to adult is about 16 days. Five overlapping generations per year have been reported in the USA.

Tobacco thrips is the principal, damaging species of thrips to tobacco and are most damaging to young plants. As the upper surfaces of developing leaflets unfold, they appear scarred and even deformed. With heavy thrips infestations in combination with other stresses, stunting occurs during early development and the damaged plants recover slowly. In the Netherlands F. fusca is a pest of Hyppeastrum and Narcissus bulbs held in store rooms, although it is rated as rare. Damage to bulbs of the Liliaceae is restricted, but these bulbs, which are widely traded, can be the medium by which the thrips can enter new areas. Vector relationship: TSWV (tomato spotted wilt virus) is known to be transmitted by F. fusca in the USA. F. fusca is considered the most important vector of TSWV in tobacco, whereas both F. fusca and F. occidentalis are important vectors in tomato and pepper and both thrips species are confirmed as the vectors of TSWV on groundnut. Entry potential: High, can be found on bulbs. Establishment potential: High as hosts are numerous and abundant and the preferred climate is available. Spread potential: High as adults are winged. This species can also be spread by movement of infested plant material. Economic importance: Yes, apart from its direct damage to seedlings and flowers, F. fusca is an efficient vector of TSWV (tomato spotted wilt virus) in crops, such as tomato, groundnut, pepper and cotton. In addition to the damage it may do in its own right, presence of F. fusca may improve the transmission of TSWV in Australia to crop plants with resulting increase in economic loss. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Brolman-Hupkes, J. E. (1975). A virus-complex in Hippeastrum hybridum. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 24: 253. CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International. Hobbs, H.A., Johnson, R.R., Story, R.N., Black, L.L., Kuo, C.G. (1996). Weed hosts and transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus in Louisiana. International Symposium on


Tospoviruses and Thrips of Floral and Vegetable Crops, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Taichung, Taiwan, 7-10 November 1995. Acta Horticulturae, 431:291-297. Lewis, T. (1997). Major crops infested by thrips with main symptoms and predominant injurious species. In: Lewis T, ed. Thrips as Crop Pests. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 675-709. Lowry, V.K., Smith, J.W. Jr, Mitchell, F.L. (1992). Life-fertility tables for Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and F. occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peanut. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 85(6):744-754. Mantel, W.P., Vrie, M. van de (1988). A contribution to the knowledge of Thysanoptera in ornamental and bulbous crops in the Netherlands. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 23(3-4):301-311. Mantel, W.P., Vierbergen, G. (1996). Additional species to the Dutch list of Thysanoptera and new intercepted Thysanoptera on imported plant material. In: Jenser, G., Ă dĂĄm, L., eds. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Thysanoptera. Folia Entomologia Hungarica, 57(suppl.): 91-96. Mound, L.A. (1996). Thysanoptera. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 26:249-332. Mound, L.A., Teulon, D.A.J. (1995). Thysanoptera as phytophagous opportunists. In: Parker BL, Skinner M, Lewis T, eds. Thrips biology and management. Proceedings of the 1993 International Conference on Thysanoptera. London, USA; Plenum Publishing Co. Ltd, 3-17. Nakahara, S. (1989). Annotated checklist of the Thysanoptera of Bermuda. Journal of the new York Entomological Society 9: 251-260. Ullman, D.E., Sherwood, T.L., German, M.D. (1997). Thrips as vectors of plant pathogens. In: Lewis T, ed. Thrips as Crop Pests. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Vierbergen, G. (1992). Interceptions of species of the genus Frankliniella in the Netherlands (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Proceedings of the section Experimental and Applied Entomology of the Netherlands Entomological Society, 3:175-180. Vierbergen G, 1995. The genus Frankliniella in the Netherlands, with a key to the species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam, 55(12):185-192.

10.

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895) [Thripidae: Thysanoptera]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Frankliniella californica Moulton, 1911; Frankliniella helianthi (Moulton, 1911); Frankliniella moultoni Hood, 1914; Frankliniella treherneri Morgan, 1925. Common name(s): Alfalfa thrips; western flower thrips. Hosts: a highly polyphagous species recorded from over 240 species of plants from the 62 families including Allium cepa (onions); Beta vulgaris (beetroot); Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet); Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage); Capsicum spp. (capsicum, chilli, pepper);


Carthamus tinctorius (safflower); Chrysanthemum x morifolium (florists’chrysanthemum); Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit); Cucumis melo (melon); Cucumis sativus (cucumber); Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); Cucurbita pepo (courgette, ornamental gourd, squash, zucchini); Cyclamen sp.; Dahlia sp.; Daucus carota (carrot); Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation); Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia); Ficus carica (fig); Fragaria ananassa (strawberry); Fuchsia sp.; Geranium sp. (cranesbill); Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy); Gladiolus spp. (sword lily); Gossypium sp. (cotton); Gypsophila sp. (chalkplant); Hibiscus sp. (hibiscus, rosemallow); Impatiens sp. (balsam); Kalanchoe sp.; Lactuca sativa (lettuce); Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena); Limonium sinuatum (sea pink); Lisianthius sp.; Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Malus domestica (apple); Medicago sativa (alfalfa, lucerne); Petroselinum crispum (parsley); Phaseolus spp. (bean); Pisum sativum (pea); Prunus spp. (almond, cherry, peach, plum); Purshia tridentata (bitterbrush); Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish); Rhododendron sp. (rhododendron); Rosa sp. (rose); Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet); Salvia sp. (sage); Secale cereale (rye); Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard); Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia); Solanum melongena (aubergine, eggplant); Sonchus sp. (sow thistle); Syzygium jambos (rose apple); Trifolium spp. (clover); Triticum aestivum (wheat); Vitis vinifera (grapevine); Zinnia sp. (zinnia). Plant part affected: Flower, foliage. Distribution: Originally from North America (Canada, USA and Mexico) this species has been spread widely in trade to Argentina; Australia (NSW; Qld; SA; WA); Austria; Belgium; Brazil; Bulgaria; Central Russia; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Crete; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Estonia; Finland; France; French Guyana; Germany; Greece; Guatemala; Hungary; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Lithuania; Malaysia; Malta; Martinique; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; RÊunion; Romania; Sardinia; Sicily; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Southern Russia; Spain; Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Tunisia; Turkey; United Kingdom; Venezuela; Zimbabwe. Biology: The western flower thrips is a highly polyphagous species. Up to five to seven generations per year can be produced in outdoor situations with double this number being possible under glasshouse conditions.

Frankliniella occidentalis overwinters in the adult and nymphal stages. It has not been shown to overwinter outdoors in Europe but it is one of the commonest flower thrips outdoors in British Columbia (Canada), indicating the ability to survive a cool damp climate. Adults and nymphs feed on pollen and plant tissue but will also feed on eggs of other arthropods when these are abundant.


Minute eggs are laid in soft tissues of the plant, particularly in flowers. Each female lays about 20 eggs that hatch in about five days. The nymphs feed on the host through two larval (nymphal) stages lasting a total of seven to twelve days. Their prepseudopupal and pseudopupal stages last four to five days in the soil debris or flowers. Reproduction apparently ceases above 32oC.

There are three colour forms of the adult female: light, intermediate and dark. The dark form is predominant in the early spring; the light and intermediate forms are most common later. The light form generally is the most numerous. Males are numerous only in spring (CAB International/EPPO, 1997). Numerous pesticide resistant forms have developed overseas.

F. occidentalis is indigenous to North America (Canada, the United Mexican States and continental United States of America). It began to spread internationally about 1980 and has now been reported from countries in all continents of the world, including the Netherlands and Australia, where it is under official control in Tasmania, South Australia and Northern Territory. Vector relationship: The species is a major vector of the tomato spotted wilt virus. Entry potential: Low, bulbs are not a host, however they may act as a vehicle for transportation. It is frequently intercepted by quarantine on imported cut-flowers. Establishment potential: High, this species has a broad range of hosts and is parthenogenetic. Spread potential: High, this species has ability to secrete itself in small crevices etc., and the eggs are protected by the epidermis of the plant. This species is frequently and easily transported in plant material. Economic importance: High, this species causes severe losses on a wide range of horticultural and ornamental crops through direct impact and indirectly through virus transmission and additional costs associated with the control of pesticide resistant forms. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest as it is under official control in some states of Australia.

References: CAB International/EPPO (1997). Frankliniella occidentalis. pp. 267-272 in Smith, I.M., McNamara, D.G., Scott, P.R., Holderness, M. and Burger, B. (eds). Quarantine Pests for Europe (2nd edition). CAB International: Wallingford UK, 1425 pp. Garcia, F., Greatrex, R.M., Gomez, J., Albajes, R. and Carnero, A. (1997). Development of integrated crop management systems for sweet peppers in southern Spain. Integrated control in protected crops, Mediterranean climate. Proceedings of the meeting at Teneriffe, Canary Islands, 3-6 November 1997. Bulletin OILB SROP 20: 8-15.


Vierbergen G, 1995. The genus Frankliniella in the Netherlands, with a key to the species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam, 55(12):185-192.

11.

Hepialus humuli (Linnaeus, 1758) [Lepidoptera: Hepialidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Phalalaena (Noctua) humuli Linnaeus, 1758; Hepialus thulensis Newman, 1865; Hepialus hethlandica Staudinger 1871. Common name(s): Ghost swift moth, Ghost moth. Host(s): Polyphagous on a wide range of plants including both wild and cultivated species, including cereals, grasses, root vegetables and bulbs. Plant part(s) affected: Roots, bulbs and other subterranean parts. Distribution: Northern and central Europe including the UK and Ireland. Biology: In the UK adult moths fly at dusk in early summer (June – July) and occasionally later in the year. Females lay eggs on the wing scattering them over the soil surface. On hatching, larvae tunnel into the soil feeding on any root material they come across. Damage caused by feeding increases as larvae grow and peaks in late autumn through to early spring. Feeding can leave ragged holes, which can result in death or stunting of the affected bulb. Pupation occurs underground in the soil or in a root mass, tuber or bulb. The pupa is motile and moves to the surface to allow the emergence of the adult moth. Egg to adult development takes two years under British conditions. Entry potential: High, larvae and pupae can be present inside bulbs. Establishment potential: High, being a highly polyphagous species. Spread potential: High, adults can fly. Economic importance: Moderate, this species can be a pest of a wide range of plant species. It is not as serious a pest as the related H. lupulinus. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Heath, J (ed.) (1976) The Moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol 1, Micropterigidae – Heliozelidae, Blackwell Scientific publications, Oxford, UK, pp343.

12.

Hepialus lupulinus (Linnaeus, 1758) [Lepidoptera: Hepialidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Phalalaena (Noctua) lupulinus Linnaeus, 1758; Hepialus fuscus Haworth, 1809; Hepialus angulum Haworth, 1809; Hepialus nebolosus Haworth, 1809. Common name(s): Common Swift. Host(s): Highly polyphagous on a wide range of plants including both wild and cultivated species, including cereals, grasses, root vegetables and bulbs. Distribution: Northern, central and south-eastern Europe including UK and Ireland.


Plant part(s) affected: roots, bulbs and other subterranean parts. Biology: In the UK, adult moths fly at dusk in late spring- early summer (May – June) and occasionally later in the year. Females lay eggs on the wing scattering them over the soil surface. Eggs hatch in about 10-14 days, on hatching, the larvae tunnel into the soil, feeding on any root material they come across. Damage by feeding increases as larvae grow and peaks in late autumn through to early spring. Feeding can leave ragged holes, which can result in death or stunting of the affected bulb. Pupation occurs underground in the soil or in a root mass, tuber or bulb. The pupa is motile and moves to the surface to permit the emergence of the adult moth. Egg to adult development usually takes one year. Entry potential: High as larvae and pupae can be present inside bulbs. Establishment potential: High, being a highly polyphagous species. Spread potential: High, adults can fly. Economic importance: The moth is a significant pest in the UK. High densities (100,000 larvae per hectare) of this insect can develop in commercial root crops. Such densities cause significant economic loss to the affected crop. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. (1984). Swift moths. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK. 160: 1-5. Heath, J (ed.) (1976) The Moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol 1, Micropterigidae – Heliozelidae, Blackwell Scientific publications, Oxford, UK, pp343 Jalava, J. (1977). Lepidoptera new to the Finnish fauna. Notulae Entomologicae 57: 65-68. Lane, A. ( 1984). Bulb pests. MAFF reference book 51. HMSO, London Merleire, H. de (1976). The ghost swift moth. Phytoma 28: 11-12. Rees, A.R.(1992). Ornamentals and tubers. CAB International. Wallingford 220pp.

13.

Lilioceris spp. [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: not known. Common name(s): Lily beetles; lily leaf beetles. The best known pest species is L. lilli (Scopoli, 1763). Host(s): members of this genus feed mainly on Lilium spp. and Fritillaria spp., but will taste or feed lightly on other plants species nearby. Some Lilioceris species (but not L. lilli) will also feed on Allium spp., including cultivated onion (A. cepa). Distribution: L. lilli - Europe (including Netherlands, U.K - introduced.), North Africa. Introduced to Canada (Quebec), and has recently spread into NE USA (c1992). Other species, eg Lilioceris falsermanni and Lilioceris merdigera, occur in Europe and western Asia, including Israel. Plant part(s) affected: Foliage; stems; seed pods.


Biology: The best known member of this genus is L. lilli. The adult beetle is a striking insect, 68mm long, with a bright scarlet body and black legs, head, antennae, and undersurface. They will squeak if handled roughly. The reddish/orange eggs are laid in an irregular line on the underside of leaves of Lilium and Fritillaria spp. As many as 450 eggs are laid by each female, sometimes over two growing seasons. Eggs typically hatch in 7-10 days. The slug-like larvae feed on leaves, stems and seed pods, in doing so they tend to camouflage themselves in their own excrement. Feeding by larvae and adults can do considerable damage to affected plants. After 16-24 days larvae leave the plant and enter the soil to pupate. Adults emerge 16-22 days later and feed on foliage of host plants until autumn. The following spring they mate and lay eggs after spending the winter hiding in plant debris or soil, sometimes at a distance away from host plants.

The introduction and spread of L. lilli in the UK and North America is well documented. In the UK L. lilli is spreading slowly, with its area of distribution centred on the Thames valley immediately west of London. In North America L. lilli first became established in Montreal, Canada in about 1945. In 1992 it had spread into neighbouring parts of the USA and has now reached the Boston area.

Other species of this genus may also be found infesting Lilium and Fritillaria spp., especially those grown in southwest Asia where a number of Lilioceris species are known to occur. Entry potential: Low, as adults and larvae are associated with foliage rather than with dormant bulbs. Establishment potential: Low to high, establishment depends on presence and density of its specific host plants. Spread potential: Moderate to high, by movement of infested plants or by beetles on the wing. L. lilli at least has a proven record of successful introduction outside its home range. Economic importance: Causes serious economic damage to a high-value flower crop and is a troublesome pest of the home garden. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. (1998). Pest Pamphlet from the Biological Control Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 2/98 Berti, N and Rapilly, M. (1976) Fauna of Iran, list of species and a revision of the genus Lilioceris Reitter (Col.: Chrysomelidae). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 12: 31 – 73. Lane, A. ( 1984). Bulb pests. MAFF reference book 51. HMSO, London Luczak, I. (1993). The effect of growing methods and onion (Allum cepa L. ) cultivars on the occurrence of the onion beetle (Lilioceris merdigera L.). Folia Horticulturae 5: 33-41.


Luczak, I. (1993). The threat of onion beetle Lilioceris merdigera L. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) to onion grown from seed and sets in southern Poland. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 23: 61-66. Luczak, I. (1993). The protection of onion grown seed against Lilioceris merdigera (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) by the use of onion sets. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 23: 67-73. Okhrimenko, N. V. and Gnezdilov, V. M. (1997) Larvae, egg, distribution and bionomics of the Caucasian endemic beetle Lilioceris (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Vestnik Zoologii 31: 9699.

14.

Liothrips vaneeckei Priesner, 1920 [Thysanoptera: Phaleothripidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None. Common name(s): Lily thrips Host(s): Lilium canadense (meadow lily); Lilium carolinianum (lilium); Liliun longiflorum (easter lily); Lilium martagon (common turk's cap lily); Lilium pardalinum (leopard lily); Lilium regale (regal lily); Lilium washingtonianum (lilium); Orchidaceae. Distribution: Canada; China; India; Italy; Japan; The Netherlands, New Zealand; Sri Lanka; U.K.; USA. Biology: This species lives and breeds between the scales of Lilium bulbs. Thrips damage leaf and soft tissue of bulbs by piercing and rasping. They feed between the scales close to the base plate producing small rusty-brown sunken spots on the scales. Heavily attacked bulbs may become desiccated in store. Infested bulbs when planted have reduced vigour with the result that scale production is severely reduced. Infested bulbs are also at risk from secondary infestation by fungi etc. Once a bulb becomes infested, successive generations of thrips will survive in it for many years. Bulb stores can become infested with this thrips and spread takes place from bulb to bulb in stores, especially at high temperatures when the thrips are very active. Some four to seven generations may occur in a year depending on conditions. In the UK adult and second larvae will overwinter either on foliage or between the scales of bulbs. Typically each female may lay up to 50 eggs. Population increase in this species is rapid under warm conditions. The species is extremely active at temperatures of 13oC and above but is torpid below about 7oC. Entry potential: High. This species has been transported and introduced to new regions on bulbs. Establishment potential: High. Wide geographic distribution suggests high probability of establishment. Rapid multiplication increases likelihood of establishment. Spread potential: High. May be spread by movement of infested bulbs, adult insects can also be carried by the wind. Economic importance: High. An important pest of a high value bulb crop.


Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Becker, P. (1974). Pests of ornamental plants. MAFF. Bull.97. HMSO. London. 170pp Lane, A. (1984). Bulb Pests. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. Lewis, T. (1973). Thrips their biology, ecology and economic importance. Academic Press, Lond. Lewis, T. (Ed.). Thrips as crop pests. CAB International. Morison, G. D. ( ). Thysanoptera of the London area. The London Naturalist Supplement. Part 1. Morison, G. D. (1957). A review of British glasshouse Thysanoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 109: 467-513. Mound,L.A. and Walker, A.K. (1986). Tubulifera( Insecta: Thysanoptera), Fauna of New Zealand Vol. 10.

15.

Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess, 1880) [Diptera : Agromyzidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Agromyza phaseolunta Frost; Liriomyza alliivora; L. alliovora Frick; L. phaeolunta Frick; Oscinis trifolii Burges Common name(s): American serpentine leafminer, chrysanthemum leaf miner; serpentine leaf miner Host(s): A highly polyphagous species – hosts include: Abelmoschus esculentus (okra); Ageratum (flossflower, pussy-foot); Allium cepa (onion); Allium sativum (garlic); Allium schoenoprasum (chives); Arachis hypogaea (groundnut, peanut); Aster (Easter daisy); Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet); Bidens (burmarigold); Brassica chinensis (Chinese cabbage); Callistephus chinensis (China aster, annual aster); Capsicum annum (chilli pepper); Chrysanthemum x morifolium (florists chrysanthemum); Compositae; Cucumis melo (melon); C. pepo (zucchini); C. sativus (cucumber); Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits); Dahlia (dahlia); Dendranthema; Dianthus (carnation); Gaillardia (blanket flower); Gerbera spp. (gerbera); Glycine max (soybean); Gossypium (cotton); Gypsophila spp. (gypsophila); Helianthus (sunflower); Lactuca sativa (lettuce); Lathyrus (vetchling); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Medicago sativa (lucerne); Phaseolus spp. (beans); P. lunatus (lima bean); P. vulgaris (kidney bean); Pisum sativum (pea); Salvia spp. (sage); Senecio (groundsel); Solanum melongena (eggplant); S. tuberosum (potato); Spinacia oleracea (spinach); Tagetes (marigold); Trifolium (clover); T. repens (white clover); Tropaeolum (nasturtium); Vicia (vetch); Vigna unguiculata (cowpea); Zinnia. Secondary nonAllium hosts include: Apium graveolans var. dulce (bleached celery); Bellis (daisy); Cassia (senna, shower tree); Centaurea (knapweed); Chenopodium (goosefoot); Citrullus (citrullus); Daucus carota (carrot); Erigeron (fleabane); Gazania; Gladiolus hybrids (gladiolus); Hordeum (barleys); Linaria (toadflax); Medicago (medics); Primula (primrose); Xanthium (cocklebur). Wild hosts


include: Alsotroemaria (lily of the Incas, Peruvian lily); Ambrosia (ragweed); Antirrhinum (snapdragon); Arachis; Artemisia (wormwoods); Avena sativa (oats); Baccharis; Basella (malabar nightshade); Carthamus; Cestrum; Crataegus (hawthorns); Crotalaria (rattlebox); Eupatorium (boneset, thoroughwort); Galingsoga; Ipomoea (morning glory); Malva (mallows); Melilotus (melilots); Mollecella; Ocimum (basil); Phlox; Physalis (ground cherry); Ricinus communis (castor bean, castor-oil plant); Sonchus (sow thistle); Taraxacum (dandelion); Tithonia (Mexican sunflower); Tragopogon (goatsbeard); Tribulus (caltrop); Typha (bulrush, cat-tail); Verbena (vervain). Plant part(s) affected: Foliage. Distribution: American Samoa; Asia; Austria; Bahamas; Barbados; Belgium; Benin; Bermuda; Brazil; Canada; China (including Taiwan); Colombia; Costa Rica; Côte D’Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Ethiopia; France; French Guiana; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guyana; India; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kenya; Korea; Lebanon; Madagascar; Malta; Martinique; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia; Netherlands; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Reunion; Romania; Russia; Samoa; Senegal; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Sudan; Switzerland; Taiwan; Tanzania; Tonga; Trinidad & Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; USA; former USSR; Venezuela; Yemen; Yugoslavia; Zambia; Zimbabwe. Eradicated from the Czech Republic; Denmark; Finland; Germany; Hungary; Norway; Sweden; UK. Biology:. Duration of life cycle is temperature dependant and can take as little as 12 days. Under heated glasshouse conditions breeding can be continuous. Adults can survive temperatures as low as 12°C however the pest is not thought to be able to survive outdoors through northern European winters. Eggs are laid just below the leaf surface. Many eggs can be laid on one leaf and the number depends on temperature and host plant. Larvae feed within the leaf. Pupation generally takes place either on the leaf or in the soil nearby. Damage is caused to plants both by feeding punctures in leaves produced by female flies and by mines produced in leaves as a result of larval development. Feeding punctures are often used as oviposition sites.

L. trifolii is a major pest of Compositae, especially chrysanthemums, and vegetable crops, and is particularly damaging under glasshouse conditions. Larval feeding reduces the photosynthetic capability of the plant and can delay the development of young plants. Mines and puncture marks can also reduce the value of ornamental plants and crops. Infestation can cause leaf fall which may result in stems being exposed to wind damage and flower buds/developing fruit being exposed to scald.


This species can survive cold storage at 1.7°C for at least 10 days on chrysanthemum cuttings and 4.5°C for 8 weeks in the laboratory. All stages of larvae are killed after 1-2 weeks at 0°C. Newly laid eggs can survive for up to 3 weeks in cold storage at 0°C.

Adults may transfer plant pathogens (eg viruses) during feeding or egg laying but they are not inherent carriers of pathogens. Entry potential: Medium, while bulbs are not a primary host but pupae can become lodged in bulbs or can be carried in soil attached to bulbs. Establishment potential: High. Suitable hosts are widely grown in Australia. Spread potential: High. May be spread by movement of infested plant material, adult insects can also fly. Economic importance: High. L. trifolii is reported as a serious pest of a range of ornamental and vegetable crops and is an A2 quarantine pest for the EPPO. Quarantine Status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International. CAB International/EPPO (1997) Quarantine Pests for Europe – Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation. CAB International. 16.

Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallen, 1806) [Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalini]

Synonyms and changes in combination: . Cicada 6-notata Fallén; Cicada sexnotata; Cicadula fascifrons (Stål); Cicadula quadrilineatus (Forbes); Cicadula sexnotata (Fallén); Jassus sexnotatus; Macrosteles fascifrons Stål; Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén), Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Forbes). Some confusion exists between M. sexnotatus and M. quadrilineatus (Forbes). – a species of North American origin. The datasheet below refers to information concerning Eurasian populations of what is described in references below as M. sexnotatus. Common name(s): European six-spotted leafhopper. Host(s): A highly polyphagous species. It has been recorded as being a pest on Gladiolus spp. and Hyacinthus spp. It has also been reported from apple and peach orchards, vineyards and on cotton, rice and wheat. Plant part(s) affected: foliage Distribution: widespread in Europe and Asia, countries where it is recorded include: Belgium, Egypt, Netherlands, Germany, Italy, India, Poland, Spain, and Turkey.


Biology: M. sexnotatus is a polyphagous species and feeds on over 200 species of plants from 38 families. Its preferences may change during the growing season possibly due to the availability of tender young growth. The species usually feeds low on stems or on the underside of leaves, but will leap or dodge when disturbed. Physical damage caused by feeding may be slight. However this species is a vector of several plant diseases. In bulbs M. sexnotatus is known to transmit the mycoplasma disease ‘aster yellows’ in Gladioli spp. and the related condition (probably caused by the same agent) known as ‘lissers’ in Hyacinthus spp. M. sexnotatus has also been implicated in the spread of ‘rice yellows’ in rice (Oryzae sativa). Entry potential: Low as it is a pest of foliage rather than bulbs, unlikely to be present on dormant bulbs except as an accidental. Establishment potential: High, being polyphagous it is highly likely to find suitable hosts in Australia. Of particular concern is its ability to attack rice and cotton which are major crops. Spread potential: High, as adults are mobile. Economic importance: High, especially if it became established in broadacre crops such as rice and cotton. Of particular concern is its ability to vector plant diseases to these and other crops. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. References: Abul-Nasr, S., El-Nahal, A.K.M., Nasr, S Abil, Nahal, A.K.M. El (1969). Seasonal population of Hemiptera-Homoptera infesting cotton plants in Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d’Egypte 52, 371-389. Bosco, D., Alma, A., and Arzone, A. (1997). Studies on population dynamics and spatial distribution of leafhoppers in vineyards (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Annals of applied Biology 130, 1-11. Kwon Y.J., (1988). Taxonomic revision of the leafhopper genus Macrosteles Fieber of the world (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). PhD Thesis. Cardiff, UK: University of Wales. Groen, N.P.A. and Slogteren, D.H.M. van (1974). Symtoms and control of aster yellows in gladioli. Praktijkmededling, Laboratorium voor Bloembollenonderzoek, Lisse. No. 41. Lehmann, W. (1973). Investigations on the leafhopper fauna of orchards by means of light traps. Biologisches Zentralblatt 92, 625-635. Maramorosch, K and Harris, K. F. (eds) (1979). Leafhopper vectors and plant disease agents. Academic Press. Slogteren D.H.M. van, Muller, P.J. (1972). Pathogens, probably mycoplasmas, isolated from gladiolus plants with symptoms of aster yellows and from hyacinths with the so-called ‘lisser’


syndrome and their behaviour on the test plant Vinca rosea. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 21, 111.

17.

Merodon eques (Fabricius, 1805) [Diptera: Syrphidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: not known. Common name(s): Large narcissus fly. Host(s): Amaryllis sp.(belladonna lily); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis, Barbados lily); Iris spp. (Iris); Narcissus spp. (daffodil - both wild and cultivated); Rhodophiala spp. Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs and rhizomes Distribution: Southern Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor including: Algeria; Greece; Israel4; Turkey. (Introduced to the Netherlands on bulbs from Israel). Biology: The life history of this insect has not apparently been completely described. In common with M. equestris, larvae of this species bore into bulbs producing deep galleries which can result in the bulb being destroyed or becoming blemished or misshapen. Infected plants may be recognised by yellowing and withering of outer leaves attached to the section of the bulb damaged by larval feeding. Infested bulbs can also have a brown sunken area close to the base.

Adult emergence from infested narcissus and belladonna lily bulbs held in the laboratory in Israel took place between the second half of April and the first half of May. Adult flies also emerged in September from belladonna lily bulbs grown under irrigation. This indicates that if conditions are suitable a second generation a year is possible. Entry potential: high as larvae can hide within bulbs. This species has demonstrated its ability to survive transportation in trade, being detected in consignments of bulbs from Israel entering the Netherlands and the USA. Establishment potential: High, where suitable hosts are grown. Spread potential: High, can be transported on bulbs and adult flies are capable of strong flight. Economic importance: High, damage to infested bulb can result in their total physical or economic loss. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Avidov, Z. and Harpaz, I. (1969). Plant pests of Israel. Israel Univeristies Press, Jerusalem.

4 Hurkmans and Goffau (1995) consider that the specimens first identified as M. geniculata from Israel (Avidov and Harpaz, 1969) probably belong to the species M. eques. This is confirmed by Nestel et al. (1994).


Hurkmans, W. and Goffau, L. de. (1995). The genus Merodon in the Netherlands: phytosanitary, ethological, ecological and systematic aspects (Diptera: Syrphidae). Entomologishe Bericten 55: 21-29. Nestel, D., Ben-Yakir, D., Chen, M. and Freidberg, A. (1994). The narcissus bulb flies in Israel: species of agricultural importance and monitoring systems. Hassadeh 75: 81-85. Pehlivan, E. and Akbvulust, N. (1991). Some investigations on the syrphid species attacking on Narcissus in Karaburun (Izmir) and the biology and control measures of Merodon eques (F.) (Diptera). Tr. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 15: 470-481.

18.

Merodon equestris (Fabricius, 1794) [Diptera: Syrphidae]

Synononym(s): Lampetia equestris (Fabricius, 1794); Syrphus equestris Fabricius, 1794. Common name(s): Grosse Narzissen-Fliege; grote Narcisvlieg; large narcissus fly; LNF; Mosca dei narcisi; mosca del narciso; mouche des narcisses; narcissus bulb fly. Host(s): Wide range of bulbaceous plants including: Allium spp. (onion); Amaryllis spp. (belladonna lily); Brunsvigia spp. (Josephine's lily, candelabra flower); Crinum amoenum (crinum lily); Cyrtanthus spp. (fire lily); Eucharis spp. (Amazon lily, eucharist lily); Galanthus spp. (snow drop); Galtonia spp. (summer hyacinth); Habranthus spp. (habranthus); Haemanthis spp. (blood lily); Hymenocallis sp. (spider lily); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis, Barbados lily); Hyacinthus spp. (hyacinth); Iris spp. (iris); Leucojum sp. (snow flake); Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Nerine spp. (spider lily, Guernsy lily); Priophys spp. (priophys); Rhodophiala spp. (Chilean lily); Sprekelia formosissima (Jacobean lily); Scilla sp. (blue bell); Tulipa spp. (tulip).

Some of these hosts are only attacked in artificial ie greenhouse, situations. The major host for this species appears to be Narcissus spp. Distribution5: Native to southern Europe, now widely distributed north to southern Sweden (including France; Italy; the Netherlands; Poland U.K); introduced to Canada (1903), Japan, New Zealand and USA (1879). Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs and rhizomes Biology: The conspicuous adults are about 12 mm long and are a bumble bee mimic. They vary in colour from black light brown with the abdomen banded in various colours of red, orange and grey. In warm sunny weather adults can be found flying over bulb fields. Eggs are laid on bright, warm, windless days at temperatures above 18oC. Each female fly lays about 40 eggs, depositing them singly in the soil close to the bulb or on the bulb or base of foliage. The female may move into the 5 Although CIE distribution map no. 120 (1960) indicates that Merodon equestris occurs in Tasmania and New Zealand, A. Terauds (1984 in litt.) shows that the Tasmanian record is based on a misidentification. M. equestris does not occur in Australia.


crevice between the soil and the bulb to gain better access. Normally, only one egg is laid per bulb. Eggs, about 1.6mm long, hatch in 10 to 15 days. Newly hatched larvae burrow into the bulb through the base plate and leave a small rust-coloured hole. Larvae tunnel into the interiors of bulbs, making a cavity filled with frass and decaying tissue. The base plate of the bulb becomes corky and infested bulbs produce weak, grassy foliage. Larvae are 18mm long when full-grown and occur singly within a bulb. They spend winter within the bulb, leaving to pupate in the surrounding soil in spring. Adults emerge late spring/early summer. Adult females live for about 17 days and the males about 11 days. In northern Europe there is one generation a year, however in Israel two generations are produced a year, with flies emerging from December to March in the field and in June to July from stored bulbs. Entry potential: High, eggs and larvae can be present in and on bulbs. Establishment potential: High as suitable hosts are present, it has record of successful establishment in areas outside its natural distribution. Spread potential: High, can be transported on bulbs and adult flies are capable of strong flight. Economic importance: High. A major pest, especially of bulbs of Narcissus spp. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Bogatko, W. (1988). Program for controlling Merodon equestris on narcissi. Ochrona Roslin 32: 11-14. Brosh, S., Hadar, E., Tadmor, V. and Matsliach, I. (1978). Control for the large narcissus fly and observation on its development. Hassadeh 59: 493-499. CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International. Hurkmans, W. and Goffau, L. de. (1995). The genus Merodon in the Netherlands: phytosanitary, ethological, ecological and systematic aspects (Diptera: Syrphidae). Entomologishe Bericten 55: 21-29. Lane, A. (1984) Bulb pests. MAFF Reference Book 51. HMSO. London. Speight, M. C. D., Claussen, C. and Hurkmans, W. (1998). Révision des syrphes de la faune de France: III – Liste alphabétique des espèces des geners Cheilosia, Eumerus et Merodon et Supplément (Diptera, Syrphidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 103: 401-414.

19.

Merodon spp. [Diptera: Syrphidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Common name(s): bulb flies. Host(s): bulbs of the families Liliaceae and Amaryllidaceae.


Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs and rhizomes. Distribution: Europe, Africa and into western Asia Biology: The genus Merodon contains some 150 species with the likelihood that more species remain undescribed. One species M. equestris is a well-known economic pest. Little is known of the ecology and life cycles of most other species despite some being widespread and common. Larvae of this genus probably all develop inside bulbs or rhizomes of monocotyledons such as members of the Liliaceae and Amaryllidacae. Merodon species form a large part of the hover fly fauna of some regions; in Turkey some 50 species are known and in Israel some 20% described species of Syrphidae belong to this genus. Many fewer species are known from northern Europe, in the Netherlands for example, only five species are known, two of which have been introduced. The Mediterranean basin and south-west Asia are especially rich in wild bulb species, many of which are likely hosts for these flies. As more and more bulb species are introduced into commerce so the risk exists that other Merodon species may in turn become horticultural pests. An example of this is Merodon costans (Rossi); a species of central and southern Europe that has been introduced to the Netherlands in imported bulbs of snowdrops (Galanthus nivalus). Entry potential: High, eggs and larvae can be present in and on bulbs. Establishment potential: Low to high depending on availability of host, species from Mediterranean basin and south-west Asia are likely to be well adapted to large areas of southern Australia. Spread potential: High, can be transported on bulbs and adult flies are capable of strong flight. Economic importance: low to high. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Hurkmans, W. (1993). A monograph of Merodon (Diptera: Syrphidae). Part 1. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 136: 147-234. Hurkmans, W. and Goffau, L. de. (1995). The genus Merodon in the Netherlands: phytosanitary, ethological, ecological and systematic aspects (Diptera: Syrphidae). Entomologishe Bericten 55: 21-29. Speight, M. C. D., Claussen, C. and Hurkmans, W. (1998). Révision des syrphes de la faune de France: III – Liste alphabétique des espèces des geners Cheilosia, Eumerus et Merodon et Supplément (Diptera, Syrphidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 103: 401-414.

20.

Norellia spinipes (Meigen) [Diptera: Scathophagidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None known.


Common name(s): Scathophagid fly. Host(s): Narcissus pseudonarcissus (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: Leaves. Distribution: France; the Netherlands; United Kingdom. Biology: N. spinipes is a leaf miner which specifically attacks daffodils. The larvae develop at ground level in the leaves of the plant which may cause the leaves to wilt. Dormant bulbs are not the normal host of this species, however larvae of this species may pupate within them. The distribution of N. spinipes in the Netherlands appears to be correlated with the presence of daffodils. It is a relatively recent immigrant to England. Entry potential: Low, feeds on foliage but not bulbs, however larvae may pupate within the bulb. Establishment potential: High as host plant is an important and widely grown bulb crop. Spread potential: High as adults are winged. Economic importance: Moderate, causes both yield reduction and leaf damage. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): DeJong, H. (1985). Norellia spinipes (Meigen) in the Netherlands and its distinction from N. tipularia (Fabricius) Diptera: Scathophagidae). Entomologische Berichten 45; 21-23. Stehr, F W [Ed.]. Immature Insects. Volume 2. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, USA. [22] 21.

Opogona sacchari (Bojer, 1856) [Lepidoptera: Tineidae: Hieroxestinae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Alucita sacchari Bojer, 1856, Tinea subcervinella Walker, Opogona subcervinella (Walker) . Common name(s): Banana moth; sugarcane stalk borer. Host(s): A polyphagous pest, recorded hosts include: Alpinia spp. (ornamental ginger); Bambusa spp. (bamboo); Begonia spp. (begonia); Bougainvillia spp. (bougainvillia); Bromeliaceae; Cactaceae; Capsicum spp. (pepper, chilli); Chamaedorea spp. (palm); Cordyline spp. (cabbage tree); Dahlia spp. (dahlia); Dieffenbachia spp. (dumb cane); Dracaena spp.; Euphorbia spp. (milkweed, spurge); Ficus spp. (fig); Gladiolus spp.; Heliconia spp. (lobster claw, false bird-ofparadise); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis); Maranta spp.; Musa paradisiaca (banana); Philodendron spp.; pineapples; potato; Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane); Saintpaulia spp. (African violet); Sansevieria spp. (bowstring hemp, snake plant); Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia); Solanum melongena (aubergines, eggplant); Strelitzia spp. (bird of paradise); Yucca spp.; Zea mays (maize). It has been found on ornamental plants belonging to more than 20 different genera.


Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs, woody and fleshy stems Distribution: This species originates from humid tropical and subtropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa, including Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and Seychelles. A serious pest of bananas in the Canary Islands (Spain) also present in Maderia and Azores (Portugal). The species has been introduced into Brazil and parts of Central America and Caribbean and is reported from USA (Florida) and China (Beijing and Hebei). In Europe it appears only to survive under glass; in Italy, Netherlands, Poland and Switzerland outdoor populations are not known. Populations in Denmark, France, Hungary, Germany, Greece and UK have been eradicated. Intercepted in Belgium, Finland and Sweden. Biology: Female moths lay eggs in groups of about five into crevices of plants. They may lay up to 200 eggs. Larvae hatch and feed by tunnelling into plant tissue. In many species they feed in the stem, in bananas they attack the flowering head. In woody plants they may feed on dead and living cortex and pith. Feeding by larvae causes significant damage to affected plants. Pupation occurs within the plant tissue. Under suitable conditions breeding is continuous with up to eight generations being produced in a year. Entry potential: Moderate, this pest is very unlikely to be present in bulbs grown outdoors in northern Europe, but may be present on bulbs grown under glass eg Hippeastrum spp. Larvae and pupae may be present within the bulb. This species is known to be moved in international trade in infested propagation material (esp. Dracaena and Yucca spp.). Establishment potential: Moderate – high. In southern Australia it is likely to survive only under glass. In humid sub tropical and tropical regions (eg the east coast) conditions are likely to be highly suitable for it to survive outdoors on a wide range of plant species. Spread potential: Moderate as adults capable of flight over short distances. Larvae and pupae can be transported in infested plant materials. Economic importance: High - while this species is unlikely to be a major threat to outdoor bulb growing in southern Australia it could threaten a variety of horticultural crops grown under glass in these areas. A greater potential threat exists in tropical and sub-tropical areas where it could become a threat to crops such as bananas, maize and sugar cane as well as to many ornamental plant species. It also has potential to become an environmental pest in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where it may attack some native plant species such as Ficus spp and palms. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International. Smith, I.M., McNamara, D.G., Scott, P.R. and Holderness, M. [Eds]. Quarantine Pests for Europe. Second Edition. CAB International and EPPO.


22.

Phenacoccus avenae Borchsenius, 1949 [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Caulococcus avenae (Borchsenius, 1949). Common name(s): Iris mealybug; oat mealybug Host(s): Plant species of the families Amaryllidaceae, Gramineae, Iridaceae and Liliaceae – recorded host species include; Avena fatua (wild oats); Crocus spp. (crocus); Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Indian doub, South African couch); Freesia spp.; Galanthus elwesii (giant snowdrop); Hordeum murinum (barley); Hyacinthus azureus (hyacinth); Iris spp. (Iris); Leucojum spp. (snowflake); Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Poa bulbosa ; Scilla bifolia (bluebell); Scilla luciliae (bluebell); Sternbergia spp. (autumn crocus, autumn daffodil); Tulipa spp. (tulip); Urginea maritima (sea squill, sea onion). Plant part(s) affected: stems ,corms, bulbs and rhizomes. Distribution: This species was first described from the former soviet Armenia. Its natural range is likely to include parts of Turkey and other neighbouring republics, either independent or still part of Russia. Introduced to Hungary; Israel; Italy; the Netherlands. Intercepted at quarantine on imported bulbs in the UK and USA Biology: This species feeds on the roots, corms and rhizomes of various ornamental plants and inside the leaf sheaths of grasses. The mealybugs hide between the dry skins covering bulbs and feed on the scale tissue of the bulb. First instar crawlers migrate in search in uninfested bulbs and can be dispersed by wind. Older instars may be transported by ants.

In the Netherlands this species has become an important pest of bulbs (eg. Iris spp.) under storage at high temperatures, despite regular chemical control. It does not appear to have become naturalised outdoors, probably due to climatic conditions. Over the a storage period of up to 9 months considerable damage can be inflicted by this pest. Entry potential: High. This species attacks dormant bulbs and has a proven track record of being transported on bulbs in international trade. Establishment potential: High, suitable hosts are present in Australia. Large areas of Australia have a climate potentially suitable for this pest to become naturalised. Spread potential: High, can be transported on infested plant material. Juvenile stages can be transported by wind. Ants will also attend and transport individuals. Economic importance: High, a pest of economic importance to the bulb industry, in particular to producers who store bulbs. Of much greater concern however is the potential ability of this pest to attack grass species, which include cereal crops and pasture grasses. May also have potential as an environmental pest of native grass species. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest.


Reference(s): Ben-Dov, Yair (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealy bugs of the world. Intercept Ltd. U.K. 686pp. Hofker, K., Conijn, C. and van Alphen, J. J. M. (1991). Is the iris mealybug, Phenacoccus avenae Borchsenius, able to multiply itself and spread in bulb fields in the Netherlands? Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent 56: 9951001. Hollinger, T. and Muller, P. J. (1981). Control of mealybugs during retardation storage of flower bulbs. Bloembollencultuur 92: 352-353. Schipper, J. A. and Waardenburg,-Bos, W. E. (1977). Control of mealybugs (Phenacoccus) during the storage of retarded irises. Bloembollencultuur 87: 1019. Williams, D. J. and Miller, D. R. (1985). Phenacoccus avenae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from the Netherlands and Turkey, intercepted at quarantine on bulbs, corms and rhizomes of ornamental plants. Bulletin of Entomological Research 74: 671-674.

23.

Phenacoccus emansor Williams and Korarzhevskaya, 1988 [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: none. Common name(s): mealybug Hosts: Iris spp. (iris), Lilium spp. (lily, lilium). Plant parts affected: bulbs. Distribution: Netherlands, Turkey (likely to be its original home), intercepted in quarantine in Russia, UK and USA. Biology: Little information is vailable as this is a recently described species. It is assumed that details of its biology would be similar to P. avenae. In the Netherlands, P. emansor has been reported as a pest of dormant iris bulbs held in store. Entry potential: High. This species attacks dormant bulbs. Establishment potential: High, suitable hosts are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, can be transported on infested plant material. Juvenile stages of this genus can be transported by wind. Ants will also attend and transport individuals of this genus. Economic importance: Potentially high, in particular to producers who store bulbs. Impact on other plant species unclear. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s):


Pijls, J.W.A.M., Driessen, G.J.J.; Butot, R.P.T., Conijn, C.G.M., Alphen,-J.J.M., van, Sommeijer, M.J. (ed.) and Francke, P.J. (1998) Development of an environmentally friendly method to control the mealybug Phenacoccus emansor in iris bulb stores in the Netherlands. Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of Experimental and Applied Entomologists, Leiden, Netherlands, 19 December 1997. In Proceedings of the Section ‘Experimental and Applied Entomology’ of the Netherlands Entomological Society. 9: 111-116. 24.

Rhizoglyphus spp. [Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Common name(s): Bulb mites. Host(s): Allium spp. (onion); Beta spp. (beet); Caladium spp.; Capsicum spp. (pepper, chilli); Citrus spp.; Curcuma domestica (turmeric); Dacus carrota (carrot); Dioscorea spp. (yams); Freesia spp. (freesia); Gladiolus spp. (gladiolus); Hyacinthus spp. (hyacinth); Hypomoea spp., Iris spp. (iris); Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Lolium longiflorum (rye grass); Oryza sativa (rice); Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Secale cereale; Solanum spp.; Solanum tuberosum (potato); Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs , roots and other subterranean structures of plants. They have occasionally been found associated with foliage of Lilium. Some species can attack seeds. Distribution: Members of this genus are distributed worldwide, currently some 13 species have been described as agricultural pests. Two species, R. echinopus and R. robini are probably now of cosmopolitan distribution. R. robini has been recorded in Australia however the status of R. echinopus in Australia is uncertain. Classification of this genus in Australia and worldwide is in a state of confusion and is in urgent need of clarification. It is likely that many species remain undescribed and that currently described species may be incorrectly classified. Biology: In bulbiferous species, Rhizoglyphus spp. attack the roots and other subterranean parts of the plant. Mites enter the bulb through the basal plate or via the outer skin layer and become established between scales. Feeding can cause a severe reduction in vigour and yield. Mites are attracted by chemicals released by moulds (eg. Fusarium spp.) which infest bulbs. They may attack bulbs infected with such fungi in preference to healthy bulbs. This mite can also feed on a variety of dead and living plant, seeds, dead arthropods, nematodes fungi and manure.

Reproduction of this mite is sexual, with each female laying hundreds of eggs. For E. echinopus development can take place at temperatures above 9.7ºC. Development can continue in storage. During winter mites may avoid low surface temperatures by moving downwards in the soil profile. Under poor conditions non-feeding deutonymphs may be formed. These are equipped with a sucker plate which allows them to attach to a host, which include a range of soil-living beetles. These mobile insects may then help to disperse the mite.


Entry potential: High as carried on bulbs. Worldwide, Rhizoglyphus species are a frequent pest of commercial shipments of bulbs Establishment potential: High as has a wide host range, In addition to ornamental bulbs, potential crop species such as onions, potatoes and some cereals are widely grown in Australia. Populations can persist in soil feeding on a range of organic matter. Spread potential: High, can be spread by members of the soil biota eg. beetles. Rhizoglyphus can be transported in infested soil and plant material. Economic importance: High, an important pest of ornamental bulbs and of related crop species such as onions. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. The classification of this genus is in a state of confusion. It is currently not possible to say what species are present or not present in Australia. Reference(s): Halliday, R. B. (1998). Mites of Australia. Check list and Bibliography. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia. Diaz, A, Okabe, K., Eckenrode, C.J., Villani, M.G., and Oconnor, B.M. (2000) Biology , ecology and management of the bulb mites of the genus Rhizoglyphus (Acari: Acaridae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 24: 85-113.

25.

Spodoptera littoralis6 (Boisduval, 1833) [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Hadena littoralis Boisduval, 1833; Noctua gossypii; Prodenia littoralis (Boisduval, 1833); Prodenia litura Fabricius; Prodenia retina (Guen). Common name(s): Afrikanischer Baumwollwurm; cotton leafworm; Egyptian cotton leafworm; Egyptian cotton worm; gusano negro; Mediterranean brocade moth; Mediterranean climbing cutworm; mĂŠditerranĂŠenne noctuelle; rosquilla negra; tobacco caterpillar; tomato caterpillar; ver du coton. Host(s): S. littoralis is a highly polyphagous pest that attacks a wide range of wild and cultivated plants including cereal crops, cotton, oilseeds, beverage crops, root crops, trees and scrubs, vegetables and ornamentals including bulbiferous species. Plant part(s) affected: Leaves, stems, fruits and seed pods. Distribution: Widely distributed in Africa, southwest Asia, and Mediterranean basin- (including Israel where it is an important pest). In Northern Europe, including the Netherlands and UK, it is an erratic migrant from the south and is not established outdoors. It may however become established under glass attacking crops such as Chrysanthemum and as a result of being imported on cutting material. It is a pest of glasshouse crops in parts of southern Europe. 6 Spodoptera exigua is a pest of Allium cepa in Israel and should perhaps be included but it does not appear to have any non Allium bulb hosts.]


Although CAB International report that S. littoralis has been recorded from Queensland, this record is unconfirmed and Nielsen et al.(1996) does not list the species as occurring in Australia. Biology: Female moths each can lay 1000-2000 eggs. These are laid in masses of several hundred on the underside of leaves and hatch in as little as four days. Larvae feed on plant tissue and may bore into stems, fruits, developing seed head/pods etc, including possibly bulbs. Considerable damage may be done to the affected plant. Late instar larvae may leave the plant during the day only to return at night, when ready to pupate they burrow into the soil.

Development from egg to adult can take as little as five weeks. Under suitable conditions this species can be continuously brooded with up to eight annual generations. Fewer generations occur in cooler areas or in areas with pronounced dry seasons. It may survive dry seasons in the pupal stage, however S. litorialis appears unable to survive winter conditions in northern Europe unaided. Adult moths fly at night and are capable of flying 1.5km in 4 hours. Moths can also be transported much greater distances by getting caught up in wind and weather systems.

Control of this pest in the field is often difficult as many populations have or can rapidly develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides used against them. This had lead to control breakdown and disruption of integrated pest management programs for other pests. Entry potential: low to moderate – there is a chance that larvae may be contained within bulbs, unlikely on bulbs grown outdoor in northern Europe . Establishment potential: High as species has huge host range which includes many important crops that are grown widely in Australia. Spread potential: High as adults are very mobile. Economic importance: High, S. littoralis is a destructive pest on a wide range of important crops and can be difficult to control. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): CAB International (1998). Crop Protection Compendium Module 1 CD-ROM. CAB International. Carter, D.J. (1984) Pest Lepidoptera of Europe with special reference to the British Isles, Dr W. Junk, Publishers. Chen, C. (1997). Pest lists for Lilium bulbs from Israel. Division of Plant Quarantine, Seeds and Nursery Stock Inspection, State of Israel. EPPO/CAB International, 1997. Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera litura. In: Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M, eds. Quarantine pests for Europe. 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 518-525.


Nielsen, E. S. Edwards, E. D and Rangsi, T.V. (1996) Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera 4. CSIRO Australia. 26.

Steneotarsonemus laticeps (Halbert) [Acari: Tarsonemidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Tarsonemus approximatus narcissi Ewing. Common name(s): Bulb scale mite. Host(s): Cyrtanthus spp. (fire lily); Eucharis spp. (Amazon lily, eucharist lily); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis); Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Sprekelia spp. (Jacobean lily). Plant part(s) affected: Bulb scales and leaves. Distribution: the Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; United Kingdom (widespread in the UK). Biology: This mite lives and feeds between the scales of bulbs. Mites feed in groups from the top of the bulb and spread downwards resulting in brown scars at the angles of the scales. As numbers increase, the mites disperse upwards and feed on leaves. Mites continue to attack bulbs when in storage, where the majority of damage is done. In store mites can move quickly between bulbs, when planted out movement between bulbs is comparatively slow.

In the UK, S. laticeps is a major pest of narcissus cultivation and is most severe in forced bulbs. Infested bulbs show a considerable reduction in flower yield and quality. Feeding damage caused by this mite appears as reddish streaks and spots at the base of developing leaves and stems. The streaks elongate as growth proceeds and leaves become distorted and can fail to grow in badly affected bulbs. Red marks can be seen inside the bulb where the mites are feeding.

This species reproduces throughout the year and there are several overlapping generations. The rate of development is dependent on temperature and at 14-16oC under humid conditions, the life cycle can be completed in two weeks. Most eggs were laid at 20oC (about 30 per female), the highest percentage egg hatch occurred at 15oC (93%) and development from egg to adult was fastest at 20oC (15 days). At temperatures outside of 10 to 25oC, either development was very slow (51 days) or no adults were produced.

This species may transmit or facilitate development of smoulder (Scelerotinia narcissicola or Botrytis narcissicola) in Narcissus. Feeding by the bulb scale mites at the base of the leaves causes the leaves to loose their bloom leading to fungal attack. It has been shown that the distribution of damage caused by bulb scale mite coincides closely with smoulder infestation. Entry potential: High – this species can occur in susceptible bulbs in high numbers.


Establishment potential: Moderate, this mite appears specific to certain bulb species, its potential distribution would likely to be limited to place where these are grown. Spread potential: Moderate, adult mites are capable of limited movement between plants, process is faster when bulbs are close together in store. This mite may be moved on infested bulbs. Economic importance: Moderate. Can be a significant pest of forced and stored Narcissus bulbs. It rarely causes extensive damage to bulbs growing in the open. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Gray, E. G. and Shiel, R. S. (1987). Narcissus smoulder: a review of the disease and its association with bulb scale mite infestation. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 44; 541547. Lane, A. (1984a). Bulb Pests. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. Labanowski, G. and Jaworski, A. (1992). Control for the bulb scale mite – Steneotarsonemus laticeps (Halbert) on Hippeastrum. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa I Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach. Seria B. Rosliny Ozdobne 17: 179-188. Lane, A. (1984). Bulb scale mite. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK. No 456. Lynch, S. M.T. and Bedi, A. (1994). A novel technique for culturing the bulb scale mite (Steneotarsonemus laticeps) and its implications for studies on biology and control. Proceedings Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, November 1993 2: 583-588.

Flatworms and Nematodes 27.

Artioposthia triangulata (Dendy) [Tricladida: Terricola]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Common name(s): New Zealand flatworm. Host(s): A predator of lumbricoid earthworms. Plant part(s) affected: Plants are unaffected by this species, however plant material, esp. bulbs, roots and soil associated with plants may act as a means by which this species is spread. Distribution: A native of New Zealand, introduced into Iceland, United Kingdom (now established in north and western regions) and also into California, USA. Biology: In New Zealand this species naturally occurs as an uncommon component of the soil biota of Nothophagus forests. However it readily invades and breeds in areas under horticulture and other disturbed habitats where it feeds on introduced lumbricoid earthworms. These earthworms have


been introduced to NZ into agricultural land as soil conditioners, because native species tend not to colonise such areas. Predation of these introduced worms by flatworms reduces their beneficial activities.

In the UK, A. triangulata attacks native populations of lumbricoid earthworms eliminating them in places. Entry potential: Moderate – in soil attached to bulbs or in the bulb itself, if grown in an area where this pest is present. Establishment potential: High. Earthworms, which form the diet of this pest, are important components of the soil biota on agricultural land Spread potential: High, able to move within soil, spread can also be aided by movement of rooted plants, soil, machinery, etc. Economic importance: High, can have a considerable effect on populations of introduced earthworms. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest References: Bradshaw, R.P. (1990). Studies on Artioposthia triangulata (Dendy) (Tricladida: Terricola), a predator of earthworm. Annals of Applied Biology 116: 169-176. Bradshaw, R.P. (1995). Changes in populations of the predatory Artioposthia triangulata and its earthworm prey in grassland. Acta Zoologica Fennica 196: 107-110. Bradshaw, R.P. and Stewart, V.I. (1992). Artioposthia triangulata (Dendy 1894), a predatory terrestrial planarian and its potential impact on lumbricoid earthworms. Agricultural and Zoological Review. 5: 201-219. Christensen, O. M. and Mather, J. G. (1998). Population studies on the land planarian Artioposthia triangulata (Dendy) at natural and horticultural sites in New Zealand. Applied Soil Ecology 9: 257-262.

28.

Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945 [Nematoda: Anguinidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: not known. Common name(s): Potato rot nematode; potato tuber nematode; potato eelworm; eelworm. Host(s): A pest of a wide range of plant species, especially root crops such as potatoes and also some bulbs. It can also feed on a number of soil fungi. Attacks a wide range of weed species and can persist on such plants. Recorded hosts include: Allium sativum (garlic); Allium cepa (onion ); Beta vulgaris (beetroot); Arachis hypogaea (peanut, groundnut); Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet); Camellia sinensis (tea); Capsicum annuum (capsicum, bell pepper); Chenopodium album (fat hen); Chrysanthemum x morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists)); Citrus sinensis (navel


orange); Crocus spp. (crocus); Cucumis sativus (cucumber); Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin); Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass); Datura stramonium (jamestown-weed); Daucus carota (carrot); Dahlia hybrids; Eleusine indica (fowlfoot grass); Elymus repens (quackgrass); Fragaria ananassa (strawberry); Fumaria officinalis (common fumitory); Gladiolus spp. (gladiolus); Glycine max (soyabean); Humulus lupulus (hop); Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato); Iris spp (iris); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Mentha (mints); Panax ginseng (Asiatic ginseng); Solanum (nightshade); Solanum melongena (aubergine); S. nigrum (blackberry nightshade); S. tuberosum (potato); Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle); Tagetes minuta (stinking Roger); Taraxacum officinale (dandelion); Trifolium (clovers); Triticum aestivum (wheat); Tulipa spp. (tulip); Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur); Zea mays (maize). Plant part(s) affected: leaves; roots; tubers, bulbs. Distribution: D. destructor is a pest of temperate regions. It is widely but patchily distributed in Europe and North America and parts of Asia. Countries where the pest has been recorded include: Albania; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; China (Guizhou; Hainan; Hebei; Jiangsu; Liaoning; Shandong; Yunnan); Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; Canada (British Columbia; Prince Edward Island); Czech Rep.; Estonia; Ecuador; France; Germany; Greece; Haiti; Hungary; Iran; Ireland; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea; Lativia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Mexico; Moldova; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Peru; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Saudi Arabia; Sweden; Switzerland; Tajikistan; Turkey; Ukraine; UK (England; Scotland); USA (Arkansas; California; Hawaii; Idaho; Indiana; New Jersey; North Carolina; Oregon; South Carolina; Virginia; Washington; West Virginia; Wisconsin); Uzbekistan.

Records from South Africa appear to be of a closely related species, Ditylenchus africanus. D. destructor was once detected in Tasmania on potatoes, but no longer appears to be established there. Records of the occurrence of this pest elsewhere in Australia (in CAB International and EPPO) are in error. Biology: D. destructor is a parasite of roots and other underground parts of plants. Populations can develop in root, tuber and bulb tissue. In bulbs, infestations usually begin at the base and extend up the fleshy scales, causing grey to black lesions. Roots may become blackened and leaves are poorly developed with yellow tips. Lesions on bulbs and a lowering of plant health make the infested bulb more susceptible to other pests and diseases.

This nematode cannot move very far by itself, and is reliant on human activity for long distance transportation. The main means of dispersal is with the movement of infested plant material (including bulbs and rhizomes) or soil. D. destructor may also be transported over short distances in irrigation water. Unlike the closely related species D. dipsaci, D. destructor is unable to withstand


excessive desiccation, and for this reason is usually important only in cool, moist soils. D. destructor does not have a resistant resting stage; the species can persist in soil by feeding on weed species, potato ground keepers and even some fungal mycelia. Entry potential: High – though reduced by restricting importation to only certified bulbs. Of particular concern is the inadvertent inclusion of potatoes and/or soil in consignments of bulbs. Establishment potential: High; it can infest a wide range of crop and weed species. Spread potential: Medium. If this species was present in Australia, additional restrictions would need to be placed on the movement of infestable plant material and soil from affected areas. Economic importance: High; an economic pest of a wide range of horticultural crops including many bulb species. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest References: CAB International (1998). Ditylenchus destructor data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium; Module 1; Wallingford; UK. Sampson; P.J. & Walker; J. (1982). An annotated list of plant diseases in Tasmania. Department of Agriculture; Tasmania.

29.

Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) [Nematoda: Anguinidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Tylenchus dipsaci (Kühn), Ditylenchus phloxidis Kirjanova, Ditylenchus fragariae Kirjanova Common name(s): Stem nematode, Stem and bulb eelworm. Host(s): A pest of a huge range of plant species. Many different races of this pest are known, some have a wide host range, while others are quite specific. Hosts include many ornamental plants, bulbs and cereal crops. Plant part(s) affected: leaves; roots; tubers, bulbs. Distribution: D. dipsaci is a widespread pest in most temperate areas of the world. It occurs in Europe and the Mediterranean region, North and South America, North and South Africa, and parts of Asia and Oceania. It has been recorded in all countries covered by this IRA. Some races are present in Australia. Biology: D. dipsaci is a parasite of stems and bulbs of plants. Feeding causes swellings and necrosis of plant parts and rooting of stem bases, bulbs, tubers and rhizomes. This feeding will lower plant health and vigour and make the infested plant more susceptible to other pests and diseases. D. dipsaci can continue to develop within bulbs held in cold storage.


Fourth instar juveniles can aggregate on or just below the surface of infested plant material to form clumps, known as eelworm wool. In this state, they can survive desiccated for several years. They can also become attached to seeds of host plants.

This nematode cannot move very far by itself and is reliant on human activity for long distance transportation. The main means of dispersal is with the movement of infested plant material (including seeds, bulbs and rhizomes) or soil. D. dipsaci is able to withstand excessive desiccation and can survive years in this state in dry soil free of growing plant material. Entry potential: High – although reduced by restricting importation to only certified bulbs. Establishment potential: High; it can infest a wide range of crop and weed species. Spread potential: Medium, mainly by the movement of infested planting material including seeds. Economic importance: High; an economic pest of a wide range of horticultural and agricultural crops including many bulb species. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. While this species is present in Australia, it is unclear if all races of economic importance are present. Given the uncertainty of which strains are present both in Australia and in overseas locations, the risk associated with importation of new strains should be minimised. Reference: Smith, I.M., McNamara, D.G., Scott, P.R. and Holderness, M. (eds.) (1997). Quarantine pests for Europe. CAB International /EPPO, Paris, France.

30.

Globodera pallida (Stone, 1973) Behrens, 1975 [Nematoda: Heteroderidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Heterodera pallida Stone; Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber. Common name(s): pale potato cyst nematode; potato cyst nematode; potato root eelworm; white potato cyst nematode.

This species is closely related to G. rostochiensis, with which it was once confused. Host(s): A major pest of potatoes and related species. Hosts include: Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (currant tomato); Oxalis tuberosa (oca); Solanum mauritianum; S. gilo (gilo); S. indicum; S. marginatum (white-edged nightshade); S. melongena (aubergine); S. nigrum (blackberry nightshade); S. quitoense (narangillo); S. aviculare (kangaroo apple); S. sarrachoides; S. tuberosum (potato). G. pallida does not attack bulbs but can be accidentally transported in consignments of bulbs, especially if contaminated with soil and/or potatoes.


Plant part(s) affected: roots; tubers. Distribution: Originally from the High Andes, taken to Europe with introduction of potato cultivation there. Recorded in Algeria; Austria; Belgium; Canada (Newfoundland); Cyprus; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece (Crete); Iceland; India (Himachal Pradesh, Kerela, Tamil Nadu); Ireland; Italy; Japan; Libya; Luxembourg; Malta; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Portugal; South Africa; Slovakia; South America (High Andean region; Argentina; Bolivia; Chile; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Venezuela); Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tunisia; USSR; UK; former Yugoslavia. Biology: Eggs of this nematode are enclosed in protective flask-shaped cysts, which are the dead swollen bodies of females. The cysts are a protective covering for the eggs and are resistant to chemicals and desiccation. They are each smaller than a pinhead and each cyst may contain up to 500 eggs and larvae. Eggs remain dormant in soil until stimulated to hatch by exudates released from the roots of host plants. The larvae then migrate and enter the roots. Each individual nematode feeds on the cells of the pericycle, cortex or endodermis, and remains in these cells for its entire life, passing through two larval stages before maturing. On maturity, females break through the root surface although they remain attached to the root. Females become almost spherical in shape following the development of their eggs. Gravid females are white in colour. Eventually the females die and their bodies form a protective coat (cyst) around the eggs. These cysts fall from the roots and remain in the soil, where the eggs may hatch immediately or remain dormant. Cysts are highly resistant and can remain viable in the soil for many years.

Symptoms of attack are not specific, with affected plants showing signs of yellowing, poor growth and reduced vigour. Reduction of yield of potatoes can be related directly to the number of these nematodes in the soil. When severe, numbers of these nematodes may become so great that they may effectively prevent the infested ground from being used for susceptible crops. Entry potential: Medium; bulbs may be contaminated with soil containing cysts of this nematode; also bulb consignments could be contaminated with infested potato ground keepers. Establishment potential: High. Potatoes are a major crop and are grown in regions used for commercial cultivation of bulbs. Spread potential: Medium. Following arrival of this pest, restrictions would be needed on movement of plant material and soil from affected areas. Economic importance: A major pest of potatoes, especially in cool-temperate climates and where resistant varieties are unavailable. Repeated cultivation of potatoes in infested fields can result in an 80% reduction of yield. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest.


References: CAB International (1998). CAB International Crop Protection Compendium; Module 1; Wallingford; UK. Smith, I.M., McNamara, D.G., Scott, P.R. and Holderness, M. (eds.) (1997). Quarantine pests for Europe. CAB International /EPPO, Paris, France.

31.

Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Behrens. [Nematoda: Tylenchoididae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Heterodera schachtii forma solani; Heterodera rostochiensis Wollenweber. Common name(s): Potato cyst nematode; yellow potato cyst nematode; golden potato cyst nematode; golden nematode. Records pre-1973 may also include the closely related species, G. pallida. Host(s): A major pest of potatoes and related species. Hosts include: Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (currant tomato); Oxalis tuberosa (oca); Solanum mauritianum; S. gilo (gilo); S. indicum; S. marginatum (white-edged nightshade); S. melongena (aubergine); S. nigrum (blackberry nightshade); S. quitoense (narangillo); S. aviculare (kangaroo apple); S. sarrachoides; S. tuberosum (potato). G. rostochiensis does not attack bulbs, but can be accidentally transported in consignments of bulbs, especially if contaminated with soil and/or potatoes. Plant part(s) affected: tubers, roots. Distribution: Originally from the High Andes, taken to Europe with introduction of potato cultivation there. From there it was spread elsewhere. Recorded in: Albania, Algeria, Australia (Western Australia and Victoria – under official control), Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada (Newfoundland and Vancouver Island) , Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India (Kerela, Tamil Nadu) Ireland, Japan (Hokkaido only), Lativa, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Norfolk Island, Pakistan, Poland, Panama, Portugal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Spain, South Africa, South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela), Russia, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, UK (England and Channel Islands), USA (New York State). Eradicated from Israel. Biology: Eggs of this nematode are enclosed in protective flask-shaped cysts, which are the dead swollen bodies of females. The cysts are a protective covering for the eggs and are resistant to chemicals and desiccation. They are each smaller than a pinhead and each cyst may contain up to 500 eggs and larvae. Eggs remain dormant in soil until stimulated to hatch by exudates released from the roots of host plants. The larvae then migrate and enter the roots, passing through 2 larval


stages before maturing. On maturity, females break through the root surface although they remain attached to the root. Females become almost spherical in shape following the development of their eggs. Gravid females of this species are darker in colour than those of G. pallida. Eventually females die and their bodies form a protective coat (cyst) around the eggs. These cysts fall from the roots and remain in the soil, where the eggs may hatch immediately or remain dormant. Cysts are highly resistant and can remain viable in the soil for many years.

Symptoms of attack are not specific, with affected plants showing signs of yellowing, poor growth and reduced vigour. Reduction of yield of potatoes can be directly related to the number of these nematodes in the soil. When severe, numbers of these nematodes may become so great that they may effectively prevent the infested ground from being used for susceptible crops. Entry potential: Medium. Bulbs may be contaminated with soil containing cysts of this nematode; also bulb consignments could be contaminated with infested potato ground keepers. Establishment potential: High. Potatoes are a major crop and are grown in regions used for commercial cultivation of bulbs. Spread potential: Medium. Following arrival of this pest, restrictions would be needed on movement of plant material and soil from affected areas. Economic importance: A major pest of potatoes, especially in cool-temperate climates and where resistant varieties are unavailable. Repeated cultivation of potatoes in infested fields can result in an 80% reduction of yield. Quarantine status:. Quarantine pest. References: CAB International (1998). CAB International Crop Protection Compendium; Module 1; Wallingford; UK. Smith, I.M., McNamara, D.G., Scott, P.R. and Holderness, M. (eds.) (1997). Quarantine pests for Europe. CAB International /EPPO, Paris, France.

32.

Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden, O'Bannon, Santo & Finley, 1980 [Nematoda: Meloidogynidae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: none. Common name(s): Columbia root-knot nematode Host(s): M. chitwoodi can infest a wide range of plant species, including important crop plants and common weeds of cultivation. Good hosts include potatoes and tomatoes. Can persist in barley, oats, maize and sugar beet. Liliaceae are recorded as being amongst ‘poor to moderate hosts’. In the Netherlands, this species has been recorded attacking carrots, cereals, maize, peas (Pisum sativum),


beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), potatoes, Scorzonera hispanica, sugarbeet and tomatoes. Plant part(s) affected: tubers, roots. Distribution: First described from north-western USA. Also recorded in Argentina, Belgium, Germany (c. 1995 - Hamburg, and an area near Dutch border), Netherlands (restricted area in south east), Mexico and South Africa. First noted in Netherlands in the 1980’s though examination of records and old specimens suggest that the introduction may have occurred as early as the 1930’s. Biology: Larvae hatch from eggs in the soil or on surface of roots. Infective juveniles (second stage larvae) penetrate root tips through wounds or immature epidermal cells. Soon after entry the nematode stimulates giant cell and gall formation, causing the plant tissue considerable injury. On maturity, worm-like males leave the root. Females also emerge, but remain attached to plant material. Females have white pear-shaped bodies. Eggs are laid in a gelatinous sac near the root surface. This species over-winters either as eggs or juveniles, and can survive extended periods of sub-zero temperatures. Development can begin with soil temperatures above 5°C. Under favourable conditions development can be completed in 4-5 weeks.

Infected plants show a range of symptoms, including stunting, lack of vigour and propensity to wilt, which result in loss of yield. Roots, bulbs and tubers may display swellings, galls and discolouration. Entry potential: High. If bulbs are sourced from an area where this nematode is present, may directly infest bulbs and/or be present in soil which may adhere to bulbs. Establishment potential: High. Potential host species are widely grown in Australia. If M. chitwoodi ever becomes established in Australia, its host range would severely limit possibilities for break crops to be grown to limit its economic impact. Spread potential: Medium. This species has very limited potential for natural movement, but is spread by movement of infested soil and planting material. This nematode can also be moved via irrigation systems. Economic importance: High. Not only is this species a pest of root crops such as potato, but it can breed in cereals and a range of vegetable crops. Both are critical species to Australian agriculture. In the Pacific north-west of the USA, this species is the major nematode pest of potato production. If unchecked, damaged caused by this nematode can render potatoes unmarketable. In addition, and unlike Globodera spp., this nematodes can also breed on bulbs. In terms of climatic requirements, this species is similar to Globodera rostochiensis, so it has considerable potential to spread further than its current distribution. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. References:


CAB International (1998). CAB International Crop Protection Compendium; Module 1; Wallingford; UK. Smith, I.M., McNamara, D.G., Scott, P.R. and Holderness, M. (eds.) (1997). Quarantine pests for Europe. CAB International /EPPO, Paris, France.

33.

Longidorus spp. [Nematoda: Longidoridae] - L. attenuatus Micoletzky, 1922 (Filipjev, 1934), L. elongatus (de Man, 1876) Micoletzky 1922, L. macrosoma Micoletzky, 1922 (Filipjev, 1934)

Synonyms and changes in combination: L. elongatus - Dorylaimus elongatus de Man, 1876, Trichodorus elongatus (de Man, 1876), Filipjev, 1921, Dorylaimus tenuis von Linstow, 1879, Longidorus menthasolanus Konicek & Jensen, 1961, Longidorus monohystera Altherr, 1953 Common name(s): Longidorids, needle nematodes. Host(s): The species of Longidorus covered here are polyphagous and have been found associated with a wide ranges of economically important plants, together with weed and native flora. Plant species that Longidorus nematodes have been associated with include: Acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple); Acer negundo (boxelder); Acer saccharinum (silver maple); Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bent (grass)); Allium cepa (onion); Ananas comosus (pineapple); Asparagus officinalis (asparagus); Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet); Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbages); Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (turnip rape); Capsicum annuum (capsicum, bell pepper); Cedrus (cedars); Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa goosefoot); Citrus aurantiifolia (lime); Citrus limon (lemon); Citrus sinensis (navel orange); Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit); Coffea (coffee); Cucumis melo (melon); Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin); Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass); Daucus carota (carrot); Digitaria; Dioscorea (yam); Elymus repens (quackgrass); Ficus carica (fig); Fragaria ananassa (strawberry); Glycine max (soyabean); Gossypium (cotton); Helianthus; Hordeum vulgare (barley); Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato); Lactuca sativa (lettuce); Lamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle); Ligustrum; Lolium (ryegrass); Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass); Lotus corniculatus (bird's-foot trefoil); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Matricaria matricarioides (rounded chamomile); Medicago sativa (lucerne); Mentha piperita (peppermint); Musa paradisiaca (plantain); Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); Ostrya virginiana (American hophornbeamn?); Rosa (roses); Pennisetum (feathergrass); Persea americana (avocado); Petunia hybrida; Phaseolus (beans); Phlox; Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine); Pisum sativum (pea); Prunus avium (cherry); Prunus persica (peach); Prunus virginiana (common chokecherrytree); Quercus alba (white oak); Ribes nigrum (black currant); Ribes uva-crispa (gooseberry); Rubus fruticosus (blackberry); Rubus idaeus (raspberry); Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane); Secale cereale (rye); Senecio (groundsel); Solanum melongena (aubergine); Solanum tuberosum (potato); Sorghum; Spinacia oleracea (spinach); Stellaria media (common chickweed); Theobroma cacao


(cocoa); Trifolium (clovers); Trifolium incarnatum (crimson clover); Trifolium pratense (purple clover); Trifolium repens (white clover); Triticum (wheats); Vitis vinifera (grapevine); Zea mays (maize). Plant part(s) affected: Whole plant, leaves; roots. Distribution: L. attenuatus: Europe – Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, UK (England). L. elongatus: Europe – widespread in north, including Belgium, Bulgaria* Estonia, Finland, France*, Germany, Greece*, Italy*, Netherlands, Latvia, Poland, Portugal*, Russia*, Spain*, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan*, Ukraine, Uzbekistan*, UK. (*Some records outside NW Europe may be of closely related species). Introduced into Canada, (British Columbia and Ontario), India, Pakistan, New Zealand, South Africa, USA – Oregon (records in other U.S. states proved to be other species) L. macrosoma: Europe, especially NW – Belgium, France Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, UK (southern England). Also recorded from Ireland, Italy, Slovakia, Spain, Tajikistan and the former Yugoslavia.

L. elongatus was once recorded in South Australia on rye grass. There is no indication that it is currently present or established in Australia. L. attenuatus and L. macrosoma have not been recorded from Australia. Biology: Adult and juvenile Longidorus feed at, or just behind, the root tips of host plants. This feeding results in root galling and a reduction in root system growth, which may be most severe in seedlings? and cuttings. As a result, general plant health and vigour suffers. In addition, if viruses are transmitted by this feeding, then the affected plant may also show symptoms of virus disease.

Under temperate conditions, egg laying and larval development occur in spring, coinciding with rapid growth of host plants. An additional period of egg laying may occur later on in summer. Under tropical conditions, development may be continuous. Adult nematodes can be very long lived, for example, individual L. macrosoma and L. elongatus adults have been observed to survive for 5 and 2 years respectively.

Some Longidorus species are vectors of nepoviruses which have extensive plant host ranges. In many plants, these may be symptomless, but in other plants they may cause serious symptoms which lead to substantial loss of yield. Tomato black ring nepovirus is transmitted by L. attenuatus and L. elongatus. The later species, together with L. macrosoma, can transmit Raspberry ringspot virus. Both of these viruses are symptomless in bulbs. Adult nematodes may remain infective for their entire life should they be contaminated by plant viruses


Entry potential: Medium. While bulbs are not a usual host of these nematodes, they may contaminate them as a result of infestations of better hosts such as weeds and grasses growing amongst the bulbs. Infestations may also be a hangover from previous cropping use of the land. Nematodes may enter bulbs or be transported in soil adhering to bulbs or contaminating consignments. Establishment potential: High. A wide range of potential host species are available in Australia. The longevity of adult nematodes could greatly assist them in the process of establishment, and increases their potential efficacy as viral vectors. Spread potential: Medium. Spread of this nematodes would result from movement of infested plant material and/or soil. Other nematodes, already present Australia, could also transmit the viruses if introduced. Economic importance: High. While these nematodes and the viruses they transmit are unimportant to the bulb industry, they are important to other horticultural crops. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest References: CAB International. (1998). CAB International Crop Protection Compendium; Wallingford; UK. Taylor, C.E. and Brown, D.J.F. (1977). Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses, CAB International, Wallingford, England.

34.

Xiphinema spp. [Nematoda: Longidoridae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: The genus Xiphinema contains over 200 species. Classification of these is far from stable and many current ‘species’ may in fact turn out to be several species. Common name(s): dagger nematodes Host(s): Xiphinema spp. are non specific with regard to plant species they attack. They are soilliving root feeders that occur in wide range of natural and cultivated environments. In addition, some species of this genus can transmit a range of nepoviruses to orchard, soft fruit and vine crops. Plant part(s) affected: Whole plant and roots. Distribution: Xiphinema spp. have a worldwide distribution. This genus includes a number of species of quarantine interest, principally for their ability to transmit plant viruses. Species capable of transmission of viruses include X. americanum sensu lato, X. americanum sensu stricto, X. bicolensis, X. californicum, X. diversicaudatum, X. index, X. intermedium, X. italae, X. rivesi and X. tarjanense. X. americanum sensu lato is a species complex consisting of at least 34 species and possibly other as yet undescribed species. It has been reported from Australia, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Uruguay. X. americanum sensu stricto appears confined to the eastern half of Canada and the USA.


Other related species restricted to the Americas include X. bricolense, X. californicum, X. intermedium and X. tarjanense. X. diversicaudatum is distributed through northern and western areas of Europe away from the Mediterranean coast. It was recorded only once in Australia (on a rose), and there is no evidence that it is established here. X. index is a species closely associated with vineyards originally from the Middle East, having then been spread into Europe (esp. southern Europe) with the spread of grape production. From there it has been taken to other grape growing regions of the world, including California. In Australia, it is restricted to the Rutherglen area of north-eastern Victoria. X. italiae is a species associated with grapevines in southern Europe from Spain to Bulgaria. X. rivesi is a species of American origin, widespread in the USA and parts of Canada (southern Ontario), and it now also occurs in Cyprus, France, Germany, Iran, Jordan, Portugal and Spain.

In Europe, species previously described as X. americanum sensu lato have since been described as X. taylori and X. pachtaicum. X. pachtaicum:- Australia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, UK and the former Yugoslavia.

X. taylori (previously described as X. brevicolle): Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Malawi, Mauritius, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Slovak Rep., Spain, Switzerland and the former Yugoslavia. The classification of non-European specimens is unclear. Biology: Xiphinema spp. live in the soil/water film and feed externally on plant roots. They feed at the root tip and in the root hair zone. Attacked root tips may become hook-shaped or swell to form terminal galls. Root growth and branching is affected. This feeding may cause decline and lack of vigour in affected plants. The nematodes have a long lifespan, normally 3-5 years, and a low reproductive rate. Above 5째C, an egg is produced every 21 degree days and from egg to adult takes about 9 months (7-9 months for X. index at 20-23째C). Adults may persist in soil, even in the absence of hosts, for several years.

The greatest impact these nematodes have on agricultural and horticultural activities is by the transmission of viruses, although some (eg. X. index) cause serious diseases in the absence of viruses. Economic losses caused by viral transmission generally out-weigh those caused by direct feeding. Entry potential: Low - medium, these nematodes are not common in bulb crops. However, they are long-lived and could persist in ground that had been used previously for other host crops.


Establishment potential: High. These nematodes have a record of successful establishment in areas outside their natural range. Spread potential: Medium; these nematodes move through soil only slowly. Nematodes can be moved via planting material and soil/machinery. Viruses in imported nematodes or bulbs may become transmitted by locally occurring Xiphinema spp. Economic importance: Low in bulb crops, but high on a range of other horticultural crops such as fruit. These nematodes can act as vectors of a number of viruses, including Tomato ringspot, Tobacco ringspot and Raspberry ring spot. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. The exact status of individual species of these nematodes in Australia is somewhat unclear. Imported nematodes, even if they are of a species already present, carry the risk of importing exotic viruses in addition to being a pest in their own right. Imported viruses may be ingested and transmitted by Xiphinema nematodes already in Australia, for example established populations of X. americanum sensu lato. Other Xiphinema species currently not present in Australia, such as X. diversicaudatum, are effective vectors of viruses (eg. Arabis mosaic virus) that are present in Australia, but are currently without a vector. With an effective vector, such viruses may become more important on a range of horticultural crops. References: CAB International. (1998). CAB International Crop Protection Compendium; Wallingford; UK. Taylor, C.E. and Brown, D.J.F. (1977). Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses, CAB International, Wallingford, England.

Fungi 35.

Aecidium narcissi Liou [Uredinales: Pucciniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Puccinia sesselis Schneid. ex Schrot; Aecidium iridis (Ger.) Peck. 1872; Aecidium majanthae Schum. 1803; Puccinia phalaridis Plowr. 1888; Puccinia majanthae A & H., 1901. Common name(s): rust. Host(s): Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley); Narcissus tazetta (daffodil); Iris spp. (iris); Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass). Plant part(s) affected: Foliage and bulbs. Distribution: Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, USA, UK. Biology: The disease mainly affects foliage and could contaminate bulbs externally with fungal spores. The pathogen is a heteroecious and macrocylic fungus. Uredospores, teliospores and basidiospores are produced on reed grass, Phalaris arundinaceae. Reed grass is widely established in Australia. Basidiospores could infect different species of Narcissus/Iris and other hosts


producing spermagonia and aecidia. Acediospores from the aecidium could infect reed grass to produce uredospores. The fungus requires both reed grass and bulb hosts to complete the life cycle. Entry potential: Moderate - pathogen could enter on bulbs as external contaminant. Establishment potential: High, both primary and secondary hosts are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, air-borne nature of spores helps in long distance spread. Economic importance: Could be low. Holland (1992) reports the disease to be of minor economic importance. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. References: Arthur, J.C. and Cummins, G.B. (1962). Manual of the Rusts in United States and Canada. Hafner, New York, USA. Boerema, G.H. and Hamers, Maria E.C. (1989). Check List for Scientific Names of Common Parasitic Fungi. Series 3b. Fungi on bulbs. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 95. Supp. 3: 1-32. [26] Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989). Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. [37] Holland, S. (1992). A review of post entry quarantine procedures for bulbs – Pests & diseases. Research Report Series #206, June 1992. Moore, W.C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45] Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia Wilson, M. & Henderson, D.M. (1966). British Rust Fungi. Cambridge Uni. Press

36.

Botrytis hyacinthi Westerd. & v. Beyma Theo Kingma [Leotiales: Sclerotiniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Common name(s): Hyacinth fire. Host(s): Hyacinthus; Iris; Lilium; Muscari. Distribution: USA; Netherlands; Germany; UK. Plant part(s) affected: Mainly flowers and stems. Could infect bulbs through external contamination of spores or systemic latent mycelium. Biology: Detailed information with regard to this species is not available. The fungus mainly infects flowers and stems, however bulbs could be contaminated with fungal spores or carry systemic mycelium. The spores can be spread by wind or water dispersal. Based on the general biology of the genus, the fungus could overwinter as sclerotia in soil or infected plant tissues, as saprophytic mycelium in dead plant material, or pass the winter on different host plants.


Four types of dispersal propagule are important in the epidemiology of the fungus: ascospores, conidia, mycelia and sclerotia. Mycelia can also be important in latent infections in stored bulbs and corms. Latent infections of bulbs, or their contamination by conidia or saprophytic mycelium in the field, could result in losses during postharvest storage and transport. Entry potential: Medium, mainly infects flowers and stems. Could enter through sporecontaminated bulbs or systemic mycelium in the bulbs. Establishment potential: High, hosts available in Australia. Spread potential: High, through wind-borne spores and latent infections in bulbs. Economic importance: Could be high. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. References: CAB International International (1998). Botrytis cinerea data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium, Module 1, Wallingford, UK. Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989). Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. APS Press. [37] Holland, S. (1992). A review of post entry quarantine procedures for bulbs – Pests & diseases. Research Report Series #206, June 1992. Moore, W.C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45] Boerema, G. H. and Hamers, Maria E. C. (1988). Check List for Scientific Names of Common Parasitic Fungi. Series 3a. Fungi of bulbs. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 94. Supp. 1: 1-32. [25] Westcott, C. (1989). Plant Disease Handbook. [4th Ed]. Revised by R. Kenneth Horst. Van Nosstrand Reingold Co, New York. 803 pp. Smith, I. M., Dunez, J., Lilliott, R. A., Phillips, D. H. and Archer, S. A. (1988). [Eds]. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 583 pp.

37.

Botrytis polyblastis Dowson [Ascomycota]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Sclerotinia polyblastis Greg.; Botryotinia polyblastis [Greg] Buchwald. Common name(s): Narcissus fire. Host(s): Narcissus spp. (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: Mainly flowers and leaves. Could infect bulbs through external contamination of spores or systemic mycelium. Distribution: UK; Netherlands; USA.


Biology: Detailed information with regard to this species is not available. The fungus mainly infects flowers and leaves, however bulbs could be contaminated with fungal spores or carry systemic mycelium. Ascospores infect perianth of early blossoms. Masses of conidia develop, and spread by wind and rain splash to susceptible blossoms and leaves. Sclerotes form in leaves, and overwinter in litter. Apothecial fruiting bodies form in spring producing air-borne spores (ascospores) and the cycle continues. Mycelia can also be important in latent infections in stored bulbs and corms. Latent infections of bulbs, or their contamination by conidia or saprophytic mycelium in the field, could result in losses during postharvest storage and transport. Entry potential: High, through latent infections of bulbs. Establishment potential: High, host plants present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through wind-borne spores and latent infections in bulbs. Economic importance: Could be high in Narcissus. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. References: Boerema, G. H. and Hamers, Maria E. C. (1989). Check List for Scientific Names of Common Parasitic Fungi. Series 3b. Fungi on bulbs. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 95. Supp. 3: 1-32. [25] Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45] Williams, M. A. J. and Spooner, B. M. (1991). Sclerotinia narcissicola. Commonwealth Mycological Institute Descriptions of Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. No. 1083. [57] Smith, I. M., Dunez, J., Lilliott, R. A., Phillips, D. H. and Archer, S. A. (1988). [Eds]. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 583 pp. Crop Protection Compendium (1999). Global Module CAB International CD-Rom.

38.

Cercospora amaryllidis Ellis & Everh.

Synonyms and changes in combination: Common name(s): Leaf spot. Host(s): Amaryllis spp. (belladonna lily); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis); Hymenocallis spp. (spider lily); Manfreda; Zephyranthes spp. (windflower, zephyr lily). Distribution: Occurs in south-western USA; West Indies; Europe. Plant part(s) affected: Foliage and probably stems and bulbs. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the fungal species is not available. The fungus generally infects leaves and could infect stems and contaminate bulbs. Long distance dispersal is by wind-borne conidia. Within the plant, the spread could be primarily by rain splash carrying conidia which could contaminate bulbs.


Entry potential: Medium, mainly infects leaves. Could enter through spore-contaminated bulbs. Establishment potential: High; host plants present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through wind-borne spores.. Economic importance: Could be low, minor leaf spot of Hippeastrum. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. References: Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989). Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. APS Press. [37] Chupp, C. (1953). A monograph of Cercospora. Ithaca, NY. Holland, S. (1992). A review of post entry quarantine procedures for bulbs – Pests & diseases. Research Report Series #206, June 1992. 39.

Coleosporium narcissi Grove

Synonyms and changes in combination: not known. Common name(s): narcissus rust. Host(s): Narcissus spp. (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: Leaf. Could contaminate bulbs with spores. Distribution: United Kingdom. Biology: Detailed information is not available for this fungus. Entry potential: Medium. Establishment potential: Could be high, host plants are present in Australia. Spread potential: High; due to windborne spores. Economic importance: Could be low; Reported by Holland (1992) to be of minor economic importance. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989). Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press.[37] Holland, S. (1992). A review of post entry quarantine procedures for bulbs – Pests & diseases. Research Report Series #206, June 1992. Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45]

40.

Embellisia hyacinthi de Hoog et P J Muller

Synonyms and changes in combination: not known.


Common name(s): Skin spot of hyacinths. Host(s): Freesia spp.; Scilla spp. (squill, bluebell); Muscari spp. (grape hyacinth); Hyacinthus orientalis (hyacinth). Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs; foliage and flowers. Distribution: Japan; the Netherlands; South America; United Kingdom; USA. Biology: The fungus has been isolated from various cvs. of Hyacinth, Scilla and Freesia and causing dark brown leaf tips and spots on emerging leaves. Tan-coloured water-soaked spots sometimes appear on the petals. Infected plants usually turn yellow earlier than healthy ones and outer bulb scales show patchy necrosis, dry rot or cracking at lifting time. Factors affecting incidence of the disease include the cultivar, bulb size, temperature treatment, soil temperature and time of housing.

The fungus overwinters in plant debris, soil and bulbs and could spread through windborne conidia. Entry potential: High as the fungus infects bulbs. Establishment potential: High, host plants present in Australia. Spread potential: High, the fungus overwinters in soil, plant debris and on bulbs and produce windborne conidia. Economic importance: Unknown. BKD tolerance is 0.1%. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Boerema, G H. and. Hamers, Maria E C [1988]. Check List for Scientific Names of Common Parasitic Fungi. Series 3a. Fungi of bulbs. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 94. Supp. 1: 1-32. [25] David, J C [1991]. Embellisia hyacinthi. Commonwealth Mycological Institute Descriptions of Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. No. 1079. [34] Hoog, G.S-de. & Muller, P.J. (1973). A new species of Embellisia, associated with skin disease of hyacinths. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology. 79:85-93. Morikawa. T. & Nomura.Y. (1994). Embellisia leaf spot of hyacinth caused by Embellisia hyacinthi in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan. 60: 104-106. Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45] Commonwealth Mycological Institute 1079 Embellisia hyacinthi. Crop Protection Compendium (1999). Global Module CAB International CD-Rom. Holland, S. (1992). A review of post entry quarantine procedures for bulbs – Pests & diseases. Research Report Series #206, June 1992.


41.

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyder & Hansen ['mitosporic fungi']

Synonyms and changes in combination: Fusarium oxysporum var. gladioli Massey; Fusarium orthoceras App. & Woll. Var. gladioli McCulloch. Common name(s): Brown rot or basal rot of Gladiolus. Host(s): Gladiolus hybrids; Crocosmia crocosmiiflora (montbretia); Crocus spp. (crocus); Freesia spp.; Iris spp. (iris); Sparaxis spp. (harlequin flower); Streptanthera spp.; Tritonia spp.; Washingtonia spp. (washingtonia palm). Plant part(s) affected: Corms/bulbs; roots; foliage. Distribution: Widespread. Europe (Italy; Netherlands); USA; Taiwan. Presence of this species was reported in gladioli in Australia in WA (Shivas, 1989); NSW (Anon, 1996) and Vic. (Chambers, 1980). However, these records do not indicate whether or not Koch’s postulates or in vitro tests were undertaken to confirm pathogen identity up to specialis level. Biology: Detailed information specific to the specialis gladioli is not available. Infected plants are generally stunted and leaf tips and corms turn yellow. Roots show discrete lesions and general rotting. The fungus could survive for many years as dormant chlamydospores or as a saprobe in plant debris. During favourable conditions chlamydospores germinate and infect susceptible plants through roots. On death of the host, micro and macro conidia can be dispersed by water splash droplets. Movement of infested soil or plant material may transmit the fungus more widely. Entry potential: High, as the bulbs and roots can be infected. Establishment potential: High, hosts are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through contaminated soil and infected or contaminated plant material. Economic importance: Could be high. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest – status of this fungi in Australia is unclear as the pathogen identity is not established up to specialis level, current status maintained until proper tests are undertaken to confirm or otherwise establishment of this fungi in Australia. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The National Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for Horticultural Development, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Commonwealth Mycological Institute 1266 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli Chambers, S.C. (1980) List of diseases recorded on ornamentals, native plants and weeds in Victoria before 30 June, 1980. Victorian Department of Agriculture Technical Report Series # 61. Crop Protection Compendium (1999) - Global Module CAB International CD-Rom


Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45] Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. [37] Shivas, R.G. (1989) Fungal and bacterial diseases of plants in WA. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 72 (1&2). Smith, I. M., Dunez, J., Lilliott, R. A., Phillips, D. H. and Archer, S. A. (1988). [Eds]. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 583 pp.

42.

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii Imle [Fungi: 'mitosporic fungi']

Synonyms or changes in combination: not known. Common name(s): fusarium scale rot, basal rot of lily. Host(s): Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Crocus spp. (crocus); Freesia spp. Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs, foliage. Distribution: Europe (no specific details of presence in Netherlands but assumed to be present) & North America. There are no confirmed reports of this fungus in Australia although F. oxysporum has been detected on Liliums in NSW and in Freesia in Vic. However, these records do not indicate whether or not Koch’s postulates or in vitro tests were undertaken to confirm pathogen identity up to specialis level. Biology: Detailed information specific to the specialis lilii is not available. Infected plants are generally stunted and leaf tips and corms turn yellow. Roots show discrete lesions and general rotting. The fungus could survive for many years as dormant chlamydospores or as a saprobe in plant debris. During favourable conditions chlamydospores germinate and infect susceptible plants through roots. On death of the host, micro and macro conidia can be dispersed by water splash droplets. Movement of infested soil or plant material may transmit the fungus more widely. Entry potential: High, as the bulbs can be infected. Establishment: High, hosts are present in Australia. Spread: High, through contaminated soil and infected or contaminated plant material. Economic importance: Could be medium. Some debate over whether it is a primary pathogen or part of a complex as experiments have shown the fungus cannot penetrate unwounded scale tissue. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest – status of this fungus in Australia is unclear as the pathogen identity is not established up to specialis level, current status maintained until proper tests are undertaken to confirm or otherwise establishment of this fungus in Australia Reference(s):


Anon. (1996). The National Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for Horticultural Development, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Chambers, S.C. (1982) Lists of diseases recorded on ornamentals, native plants and weeds in Victoria before 30 June, 1980. Dep. Ag. Report. Tech. Report 61 Crop Protection Compendium (1999) - Global Module CAB International CD-Rom Loffler, HJM & Rumine, P. (1991) Virulence & vegetative compatibility of Dutch and Italian isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. lilii. J. Phytopath. 132:12-20. [42] Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45] Smith, I M Dunez, J Lilliott, R A Phillips, D H and Archer, S A [1988]. [Eds]. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 583 pp. Westcott, C [1989]. Plant Disease Handbook. [4th Ed]. Revised by R Kenneth Horst. Van Nosstrand Reingold Co, New York. 803 pp.

43.

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi Snyder & Hansen ['mitosporic fungi']

Synonyms or changes in combination: Fusarium bulbigenum Cooke & Massee. Common name(s): Narcissus basal rot. Host(s): Narcissus (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: Whole plant affected including bulbs, flowers & leaves. Distribution: Europe (no specific details of presence in Netherlands but assumed to be present), UK. There is one record of this fungus in Western Australia (Shivas, 1989) and F. oxysporum is reported on Narcissus in Victoria. However, these records in Australia do not indicate whether or not Koch’s postulates or in vitro tests were undertaken to confirm pathogen identity up to specialis level. Biology: Detailed information specific to the specialis narcissi is not available. The fungus causes very destructive rot of bulbs resulting in stunted plants, leaf tip damage and deformed flowers due to rotting of bulbs and limited root development. Particularly a problem when bulbs are stored incorrectly at high temperatures.

The fungus could survive for many years as dormant chlamydospores or as a saprobe in plant debris. During favourable conditions chlamydospores germinate and infect susceptible plants through roots. On death of the host, micro and macro conidia can be dispersed by water splash droplets. Movement of infested soil or plant material may transmit the fungus more widely. Entry potential: High, as the bulbs and roots can be infected. Establishment potential: High, hosts are present in Australia.


Spread potential: High, through contaminated soil and infected or contaminated plant material. Economic importance: Could be high. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest – status of this fungi in Australia is unclear as the pathogen identity is not established up to specialis level, current status maintained until proper tests are undertaken to confirm or otherwise establishment of this fungus in Australia. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The National Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for Horticultural Development, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Crop Protection Compendium (1999) - Global Module CAB International CD-Rom Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45] Shivas, R.G. (1989) Fungal and bacterial diseases of plants in WA. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 72 (1&2). Westcott, C. (1989). Plant Disease Handbook. [4th Ed]. Revised by R Kenneth Horst. Van Nosstrand Reingold Co, New York. 803 pp.

44.

Fusarium oxysporum Schl. f. sp. tulipae Apt ['mitosporic fungi']

Synonyms or changes in combination: not known. Common name(s): Bulb rot, basal rot. Host(s): Tulipa spp. (tulips). Plant part(s) affected: Leaves and bulbs. Distribution: Cosmopolitan wherever tulips are grown. Europe (no specific details of presence in Netherlands but assumed to be present), UK. F. oxysporum is recorded in Australia on tulips. However, these records in Australia do not indicate whether or not Koch’s postulates or in vitro tests were undertaken to confirm pathogen identity up to specialis level. Biology: Detailed information specific to the specialis tulipae is not available. Infected plants could be stunted and leaf tips and corms are affected.

The fungus could survive for many years as dormant chlamydospores or as a saprobe in plant debris. During favourable conditions chlamydospores germinate and infect susceptible plants through roots. On death of the host, micro and macro conidia can be dispersed by water splash droplets. Movement of infested soil or plant material may transmit the fungus more widely. Entry potential: High, as the bulbs and roots can be infected. Establishment: High, hosts are present in Australia.


Spread: High, through contaminated soil and infected or contaminated plant material. Economic importance: Could be high, in countries with a warm late spring, the disease can limit profitable tulip bulb cultivation. In the glasshouse, it can cause severe losses in cut flower production, although good hygiene and bulb handling generally limits problem. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest – status of this fungus in Australia is unclear as the pathogen identity is not established up to specialis level, current status maintained until proper tests are undertaken to confirm or otherwise establishment of this fungus in Australia. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The National Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for Horticultural Development, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Crop Protection Compendium (1999) - Global Module CAB International CD-Rom Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45] Smith, I. M., Dunez, J., Lilliott, R. A., Phillips, D. H. and Archer, S. A. (1988). [Eds]. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 583 pp.

45.

Hendersonia ucrainica Petr.

Synonyms or changes in combination: Moore (1979) lists Hendersonia ucrainica as a pathogen of Iris but this is the only record found. The record is on Iris sibirica, a rhizomatous Iris. Disease status and taxonomy of this fungus is questionable. Common name(s): none. Host(s): Iris spp. (iris). Plant part(s) affected: Leaf. Distribution: Europe (no specific details of presence in Netherlands but assumed to be present). Biology: Detailed information is not available. Entry potential: Low - disease causes a leaf spot and is not reported to affect bulbs, may not be in the pathway. Establishment potential: Moderate - host plants present. Spread potential: Moderate. Economic importance: Could be low. Limited information available and taxonomy of this fungus is not clear. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45]


46.

Mycosphaerella cinxia

Synonyms or changes in combination: Not known. Common name(s): Leafspot of Liliums. Host(s): Lilium spp. (lily, lilium). Plant part(s) affected: Leaves and bulbs contaminated with fungal spores. Distribution: Israel ?? Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of the fungus is not available. The fungus mainly infects foliage producing leaf spots. Based on the general biology of the genus Mycosphaerella the fungus could overwinter on infected dead leaves, and perithecia formed in overwintering leaves discharge ascospores in the spring. Presumably, primary infections result from ascospores and secondary infections result from disseminating conidia and could contaminate bulbs. Entry potential: Medium, through contaminated bulbs. Establishment potential: High, host plants present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne ascospores and condidia. Economic importance: Unknown. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Crop Protection Compendium (1999) - Global Module CAB International CD-Rom Holland, S. (1992) A review of post entry quarantine procedures for bulbs – Pests & diseases. Research Report Series #206, June 1992. Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. [45]

47.

Mycosphaerella martagonas Arx

Synonyms or changes in combination: Pseudocercosphaerella hungarica Baum.; Cercosporella hungarica Baum. Common name(s): Leafspot of Liliums. Host(s): Lilium spp. (lily, lilium). Plant part(s) affected: Leaves and bulbs contaminated with fungal spores. Distribution: Switzerland; United Kingdom. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of the fungus is not available. The fungus mainly infects foliage producing leaf spots. Based on the general biology of the genus Mycosphaerella the fungus could overwinter on infected dead leaves, and perithecia


formed in overwintering leaves discharge ascospores in the spring. Presumably, primary infections result from ascospores and secondary infections result from disseminating conidia. Entry potential: Medium, through contaminated bulbs. Establishment potential: Moderate, host plants present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne ascospores and conidia. Economic importance: Unknown. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Crop Protection Compendium (1999). Global Module CAB International CD-Rom. Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. Sivanesan, A. (1984). The Bitunicate Ascomycetes. J. Cramer Pub.

48.

Phyllosticta liliicola Cejp 1967 [Sphaeropsidales: Sphaerioidaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination None known. Host(s): Lilium spp.(lily, lilium). Plant part(s) affected: Foliage, stem and bulbs contaminated with spores. Distribution: Europe; United Kingdom (ambiguous ref. by Moore et al, 1979). Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology and epidemiology of the fungus is not available. The pathogen produces leaf and stem lesions and survive in infected and dead plant material. Conidia are windborne. It presumably is similar to other coelomycetes in favouring moist conditions for infection and dispersal. Entry potential: Medium, through contaminated bulbs. Establishment potential: Could be high, as host plants are present in Australia, however there is not enough information available to gauge host range and longevity between host crops. Spread potential: Could be high through windborne inoculum. Economic importance: Unknown. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Cejp, K. 1967. New or rare species of the genus Phyllosticta in Czechoslovakia, Nova Hedwigia, 13: 183-97. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia.


Sutton, B.C. 1980. The Coelomycetes – Fungi Imperfecti with Pycnidia, acervuli and Stromata. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England.

49.

Puccinia gladioli (Duby) Cast. [Uredinales : Pucciniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Not known. Common name(s): Gladioli rust. Host(s): Gladiolus spp. (gladiolus). Plant part(s) affected: Foliage, and bulbs contaminated with fungal spores. Distribution: Southern Europe; South-East Asia; North America; North Africa; found once in Britain (1924). Biology: On leaves the fungus produces oblong reddish brown spots which are limited by veins. Telia produced in these spots are black, rounded and densely crowded forming a crust. The aecidial mycelium is systemic during winter and spring but localised during the summer. Uredia are not found. The disease can spread through windborne spores. Entry potential: Medium, bulbs could be contaminated with windborne fungal spores. Establishment potential: High, host plants present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne spores. Economic importance: Could be low, apart from the isolated record in Britain in 1924, pathogen not widespread in countries considered in this PRA. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia. Wilson, M. and Henderson, D.M. (1966) British Rust Fungi. Cambridge Uni. Press, London, England.

50.

Puccinia narcissi Laundon 1965 [Uredinales : Pucciniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Aecidium narcissi Liou. Common name(s): Narcissus rust. Host(s): Narcissus spp. (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: Foliage and bulbs contaminated with fungal spores. Distribution: France; the Netherlands.


Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of this fungus is not available. Based on the general biology of genus Puccinia, the fungus mainly infects foliage. However, windborne uredo or teliospores could contaminate the bulbs.. Entry potential: Medium, the bulbs could be contaminated with windborne fungal spores. Establishment potential: High, hosts are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne spores. Economic importance: Unknown. There is insufficient information on host range and virulence in cultivated plants to predict economic importance. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia. Strider, D. L. (1985). Diseases of Floral Crops – Volume 2. Praeger Publishers, New York, USA.

51.

Puccinia prostii Moug. [Uredinales: Pucciniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None known. Common name(s): Rust. Host(s): Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Foliage and bulbs contaminated with windborne fungal spores. Distribution: UK, Scotland. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of this fungus is not available. Based on the general biology of genus Puccinia, the fungus mainly infects leaves. However, windborne uredo and teliospores could contaminate the bulbs. Entry potential: Medium, through contaminated with windborne fungal spores.. Establishment potential: High, as hosts are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne spores. Economic importance: Unknown. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Massee, G. (1913). Mildews, Rusts and Smuts. London, England. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia.


Strider, D L [1985] [Ed.]. Diseases of Floral Crops. Vols 1 and 2. Praeger Publishing. Holt Saunders Pty Ltd. Sydney, Australia

52.

Puccinia schroeteri Pass. [Uredinales: Pucciniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None known. Common name(s): Rust. Host(s): Narcissus spp. (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: Foliage and bulbs contaminated with windborne fungal spores. Distribution: United Kingdom. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of this fungus is not available. Based on the general biology of genus Puccinia the fungus is mainly a foliar pathogen. However, the bulbs could be contaminated with windborne uredio and teleo spores. Entry potential: Medium, through bulbs contaminated with windborne fungal spores. Establishment potential: High, as Narcissus hosts are present and well distributed in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne spores. Economic importance: Unknown. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Massee, G. (1913). Mildews, Rusts and Smuts. London, England. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia. Wilson, M. and Hendesson, D.M. (1966). British Rust Fungi. CUP.

53.

Ramularia vallisumbrosae Cavara 1899 [Moniliales: Moniliaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Cercosporella narcissi Boud.1901; Ramularia narcissii Chittenden 1906. Common name(s): White mould of narcissus. Host(s): Narcissus spp. (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: Flowers; foliage and bulbs contaminated with fungal spores Distribution: Canada; England; France; Italy; Netherlands; northern Mediterranean; United Kingdom; United States. Biology: The disease appears soon after leaf emergence as small, sunken, grey green or yellowish spots or streaks on the leaves, especially towards the tips and on the flower stalks. The lesions


increase in size to form yellowish brown patches on which, in moist weather, the spores of the fungus appear as a white powdery mass. In warm, wet springs, the disease becomes epidemic and causes the leaves to die down early. The fungus survives as sclerotia in dead leaves and bulbs could be contaminated with sclerotia or spores. Germination of the sclerotia occurs under the same conditions as leaf emergence. Sclerotia produce conidia which infect the newly emerging leaves. The disease is favored by warm moist weather, under which conditions conidia are produced on the leaves and lead to subsequent disease development. Wind and water splash disperse the spores from plant to plant but they cannot survive drying for any length of time. When spore production ceases and leaves wither, masses of minute black sclerotia are formed. These remain dormant in the leaf trash during summer and autumn and germinate in winter to produce spores which infect the new emerging leaves. Entry potential: High, pathogen is commonly detected and present in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, and bulbs could be contaminated with windborne fungal spores. Establishment potential: High, as Narcissus is present in Australia. Spread potential: High through contaminated bulbs and windborne spores. Economic importance: Could be high. R. vallisumbrosae can be a serious disease in warm, wet springs. The loss of leaf area and early senescence can cause a considerable reduction in bulb size and flower yields for next season. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Commonwealth Mycological Institute Map No 228 (2), 1971. Moore, W. C. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. [2nd Ed.] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 205 pp. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia. Strider, D. L. (1985). Diseases of Floral Crops – Volume 2. Praeger Publishers, New York, USA.

54.

Sclerotium perniciosum van Slogt & Thomas 1930 [Stereales: Corticiaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Not known. Common name(s): Smoulder of tulip. Host(s): Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Leaves and bulbs. Distribution: Denmark; the Netherlands; United Kingdom. Biology: Mycelium produced by germinating sclerotia attacks leaf bases at soil level, causing wilting and leaf death, and may rot bulbs enough to completely prevent emergence. The mycelium


can grow down from lesions at the leaf base to colonise the bulb. The fungus could spread through resistant sclerotia. Entry potential: High, through infected or contaminated bulbs. According to Smith and Jenkins (1998) the BKD tolerance of this pathogen is 0%. However the entry potential of a pathogen associated with planting material must be considered high from different sources. Establishment potential: High, as the fungus produces resistant soil borne inoculum. Spread potential: Moderate, as no airborne inoculum is produced. . Economic importance: Unknown. It has been an uncommon cause of loss of tulip production in Denmark and the Netherlands. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. 1991. “Gewasbeschermingsgids”. Handboek voor de bestrijding van ziekten, plagen en onkruiden en de toepassing van groeiregulatoren in de akkerbouw, veehouderij, tuinbouw en het openbaar groen. Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia. Strider, D. L. (1985). Diseases of Floral Crops – Volume 1. Praeger Publishers, New York, USA. van Slogteren, E. and Thomas, K.S. 1930. Smeul, een tulpenzeigte veroorzaakt door een schimmel, Sclerotium perniciosum nov. spec. Meded. Lab. BloembOnderz, Lisse, 38,12pp.

55.

Sclerotium wakkeri Boerema &Posthumus 1963 [Stereales: Corticiaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None recognised. Common name(s): Smoulder; blackleg of tulips. Host(s): Gladiolus spp. (gladiolus); Iris spp. (iris); Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Tulipa spp. (tulip). Of the bulb and corm crops there is clear pathogenicity in tulips, lily and iris but indications of less clear pathogenicity in others. Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs; corms; flowers; leaves. Distribution: Japan; Netherlands; United Kingdom. Biology: The bases of infected flower stalks turn grey to black and shrink toward the end of the growing season. Leaves become discoloured. Shrunken black lesions form at the base of the new bulbs and/or on the outermost fleshy scales (and the ethylene produced by these infected bulbs may


cause gummosis in otherwise healthy tulip bulbs). Diagnosis and identification of the fungus is usually only possible by isolation and lesion development can be slow therefore visual detection can be unreliable or time consuming. Visual identification in the field of different species of Sclerotium often is not possible.

The pathogen can be transmitted by diseased bulbs, and healthy bulbs become diseased when planted into contaminated soil. Sclerotia are formed but no conidia or other spore types have been identified. The pathogen resembles Sclerotium denigrans and is distinct from Sclerotia sclerotiorum. Entry potential: High, as the pathogen infects bulbs and is present in several of the exporting countries. BKD tolerance 0.5%. Establishment potential: High, as host plants are present in Australia. Spread potential: Medium, through resistant soil borne inoculum and infected bulbs. However, there is no evidence of airborne inoculum. Economic importance: Could be high, for Lilium, Iris and Tulipa. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Boerema, G.H. and. Hamers, Maria E.C. (1988). Check List for Scientific Names of Common Parasitic Fungi. Series 3a. Fungi of bulbs. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 94. Supp. 1: 1-32. Boerema, G.H. and Posthumus, C.J.M. (1963). ‘Zwartbenighied’ bij tulp en iris, veroorzaakt door Sclerotium wakkeri nov. spec. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 69:200-207. Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia. Strider, D. L. (1985). Diseases of Floral Crops – Volume 1. Praeger Publishers, New York, USA.

56.

Stromatinia narcissi Drayton & Groves 1952 [Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae].

Synonyms and changes in combination: Sclerotium narcissi (Sacc.) Boerema & Hamers. Common name(s): Dry rot of narcissus; scale speck.


Host(s): Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Zephranthes spp. Plant part(s) affected: Bulb. Distribution: North America; Europe. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the symptoms caused by this fungus is not available. The fungus produces apothecia and sclerotia on bulbs. Windborne conidia and ascopores acts as source of inoculum for the spread of the disease. Entry potential: High, through infected bulbs. Establishment potential: High, hosts are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne inoculum. Economic importance: Could be low. Considered to be a saprophyte. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Drayton, F.L. and Groves, J.W. (1952). Stromatinia narcissi, a new, sexually dimorphic discomycete. Mycologia, 44:199-140. Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia.

57.

Septocylindrium spp. [Hyphomycetes]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None known. Common name(s): None known. Host(s): Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs; leaves. Distribution: Netherlands. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of Septocylindrium spp. is not available. The anamorphic genera of Septocylindrium has been reduced to synonym of Ramularia (Braun, 1988). Based on the general biology of Ramularia spp. the fungus mainly infects leaves and windborne conidia could infect other parts of the plant including bulbs producing lesions. Cankers/sclerotium-like bodies and infected plant debris are the main source of infection.


Primary infection could be by conidia and the secondary spread of the pathogen could be through rain splash, dew and airborne conidia. Entry potential: High, through infected bulbs. Establishment potential: High, hosts are present in Australia. Spread potential: High through windborne inoculum. Unknown. Economic importance: Unknown. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anema, B.P., Bouwman, J.J. and de Vlugt, J. (1988). Fluazinam, a new broad spectrum fungicide for use in bulbs. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbeowwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent. 1988, 53:2b, 635-641. Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Braun, U. (1988). Studies on Ramularia allied genera (I). International-Journal-of-Mycology-andLichenology. 3:271-285. Ellis, M.B. (1993). More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. CAB International, Wallingford, England Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia.

58.

Urocystis colchici (Schlech.) Rabenh. f. sp. narcissi G. Frag. 1925

Synonyms and changes in combination: Caeoma colchisi Schlechtendal 1826; Erysibe arillata Wallroth var. colchisi Wallroth 1833; Polycystis colchisi Tulasne 1846; Polycystis colchisi Strauss 1853; Polycystis colchisi Fuckel 1869; Sorosporium colchisi Libert 1832; Tubercinia colchisi (Schlechtendahl) Liro 1922; Uredo colchisi Link. 1833; Urocystis colchici (Schlech.) Rabenh. 1861; Urocystis colchici Strauss 1853; Urocystis colchici Fuckel 1869; Urocystis colchici-lutei Zundel 1944. Common name(s): Leaf smut of narcissus. Host(s): Urocystis colchisi sensu stricto is probably confined to Colchicum, although there are reports of it infecting other members of the Liliaceae and Amarayllidaceae: Allium spp. (onion, garlic); Bulbocodium spp. ; Camassia spp. (camas, quamash, beargrass); Colchium spp. (autumn


crocus); Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Polygonatum spp. (Soloman's seal); Smilacina spp. (false Soloman's seal); Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Bulbs; leaves. Distribution: Europe (including the Netherlands); Canada; India; Japan; Turkey; USA; former USSR. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of this fungal species is not available. Based on the general biology of the genus Urocystis, the fungus mainly produces symptoms on leaves. Sori are produced on the leaves as elongated blisters, sometimes extending to the bulb scales. The covering of host leaf epidermis ruptures to release the spore mass. The ustilospores aggregated as spore balls survive in infected plant remains and in the soil. Under favourable conditions the spores germinate to infect the new season’s growth. The fungus is mainly soilborne. Bulbs can be infected or contaminated with fungal spores. Entry potential: High, as bulbs can be infected or contaminated with fungal spores. Establishment potential: High, host plants present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through persistent soil borne inoculum. Economic importance: Could be medium. The pathogen causes an extremely disfiguring disease. In the Netherlands the smut is of minor or local economic significance although occasional heavy outbreaks have been reported. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Mordue, J.E.M. 1988. Urocystis colchisi. Mycopathologia 103: 181-182. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia. Strider, D. L. (1985). Diseases of Floral Crops – Volume 1. Praeger Publishers, New York, USA.

59.

Uromyces aecidiiformis [Str.] Rees [Uredinales: Pucciniaceae].

Synonyms and changes in combination: Uromyces lilii (Link) Fuck. Common name(s): Rust of fritillaria; rust of lily. Host(s): Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Fritillaria spp. (fritillaria).


Plant part(s) affected: Leaves; stem and bulbs contaminated/infected with fungal spores. Distribution: America; Europe; United Kingdom. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of the species is not available. Based on the general biology of the genus, the pathogen mainly infects leaves. On leaves the fungus produces yellowish (uredinia) or blackish-brown (telia) pustules, either solitary or aggregated. The uredinia are the first to develop and these produce yellowish, urediniospores. The telia develop later and produce brown, teliospores. The spores could infect stems producing lesions and bulbs could be contaminated or infected with spores. The spores are windborne. Entry potential: High, through contaminated or infected bulbs. Establishment potential: High, host plants are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne inoculum. Economic importance: Could be high for lilies. One of the bulb rust for ex: gladioli rust caused by Uromyces gladioli causes serious losses in Santa Fe, Argentina, and the disease has spread north of Buenos Aires province and into Uruguay (CAB International, 1998). Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. CAB International (1998). Uromyces gladioli data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium, Module 1, Wallingford, UK. Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Saville, D.B.O. (1961). Some fungal parasites of Liliaceae. Mycologia, 53:31-52 Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia. Wilson, M and Henderson, D.M. (1966). British Rust Fungi. CUP.

60.

Uromyces croci Passerini. [Uredinales : Pucciniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None known. Common name(s): Crocus rust. Host(s): Crocus spp. (crocus). Plant part(s) affected: Corms; leaves. Distribution: the Netherlands; United Kingdom.


Biology: The fungus invades both above and below ground tissue. Teleutospores present in soil infect corms. Lesions are subsequently produced on the corms and are visible while the scales remain fleshy (early bulb harvest) however after the scales become brown the lesions become less obvious. Teleutosori can be produced deeply within the tissue of the corm. Systemic mycelium in the corms can be transmitted to progeny bulbs. The association of the mycelium with the vascular tissue of the host can lead to the internal production of teleutosori in new corms, without symptoms on the outer scales. Entry potential: High, through infected corms and persistent spores. Establishment potential: High, host plants present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through infected bulbs corms and airborne spores. Economic importance: Moderate, the pathogen is host specific and the hosts are of limited commercial significance in Australia. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Boerema, G.H. and van Kesteren, H.A. (1965). The underground attacks on Crocus and Colchisum by the rusts Uromyces croci and Uromyces colchisi respectively. Neth. J. Pl. Path., 71:136144. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia.

61.

Uromyces erythronii [Uredinales : Pucciniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: None known. Common name(s): Rust. Host(s): Erythronium spp.; Tulipa spp. (tulip) Plant part(s) affected: Foliage; stems, bulbs contaminated/infected with fungal spores. Distribution: France; Japan; United Kingdom. Biology: Detailed information with regard to the biology or epidemiology of the species is not available. Based on the general biology of the genus, the pathogen mainly infects leaves. On leaves the fungus produces yellowish (uredinia) or blackish-brown (telia) pustules, either solitary or aggregated. The uredinia are the first to develop and these produce yellowish, urediniospores. The


telia develop later and produce brown, teliospores. The spores could infect stems producing lesions and bulbs could be contaminated or infected with spores. The spores are windborne. Entry potential: High, through contaminated/infected bulbs. Establishment potential: High, host plants are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne inoculum. Economic importance: Could be high for tulips. Tulips are emerging as an important floricultural crop. One of the bulb rust for ex: gladioli rust caused by Uromyces gladioli cause serious losses in Santa Fe, Argentina, and the disease spread north of Buenos Aires province and into Uruguay (CAB International, 1998). Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for Horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. CAB International (1998). Uromyces gladioli data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium, Module 1, Wallingford, UK. Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. Fukuda, T. and Nakamura, S. (1985). On the host range of Uromyces erythronii. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 26: 4, 487-492. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia.

62.

Uromyces holwayi Lagerh. 1889 [Uredinales: Pucciniaceae]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Nigredo lilii Arth. 1906; Nigredo holwayi Arth. 1926; Uredo prostii; Uromyces lilii Clint 1875; Uromyces lilii (Link.) Kunze. 1873. Common name(s): Rust of lily. Host(s): Lilium spp. (lily, lilium). Plant part(s) affected: Leaves, stems and bulbs contaminated/infected with fungal spores. Distribution: Japan; United Kingdom; United States. Biology: Detailed information regarding the biology and epidemiology of this species is not available. Based on the general biology of the genus, the pathogen mainly infects leaves. The pathogen is a autoceous and macrocyclic rust which infects different species of liliums. On leaves the fungus produces yellowish (uredinia) or blackish-brown (telia) pustules, either solitary or


aggregated. The uredinia are the first to develop and these produce yellowish urediniospores. The telia develop later and produce brown teliospores. The spores could infect stems, producing lesions, and bulbs could be contaminated or infected with spores. The spores are windborne. Entry potential: High, through contaminated/infected bulbs. Establishment potential: High, host plants are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through windborne inoculum. Economic importance: High, as Lilium is a crop with increasing significance in Australia. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Anon. (1996). The Nation Collection Databases for Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. Institute for horticultural Development, Department for Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Arthur, J.C. and Cummins, G.B. (1962). Manual of the Rusts in United States and Canada. Hafner, New York, USA. CAB International (1998). Uromyces gladioli data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium, Module 1, Wallingford, UK. Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., Chamuris, G.P. and Rossman, A.Y. (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press. Moore, C.B.E., Brunt, A.A., Price, D., Rees, A.R. and Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, England. Saville, D.B.O. (1961). Some fungal parasites of Liliaceae. Mycologia, 53:31-52 Smith, P.R. and Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the Importation of Ornamental Bulbs from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel. Australia.

Bacteria 63.

Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford 1936) Dowson 1942

Synonyms or changes in combination: Rhodococcus fascians (Tilford 1936) Goodfellow 1984; Rhodococcus rubropertinctus; Bacterium fascians (Tilford) Lacey 1939; Phytomonas fascians Tilford 1936; Pseudobacterium fascians (Tilford) Krasil'nikov 1949. Common name(s): Fasciation. Host(s): Host range includes Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Gladiolus spp. (gladiolus); Hyacinthus spp. (hyacinth). Plant part(s) affected: Stems and corms of gladioli are reported to be affected by the bacterium. Distribution: Europe (no specific details of presence in the Netherlands but assumed to be present); Canada; Israel; United Kingdom; USA.


Biology: Essentially an epiphyte growing abundantly on apical meristems, causing fasciation of floral and vegetative parts. Survives in soil and with infected plant material. Entry potential: Moderate as an epiphyte in bulbs and plant parts of a wide host range. Hot water treatment should control epiphyte. Establishment potential: High, given wide host range. Spread potential: High, given wide host range. Economic importance: Important in other crops, low in bulbs. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Estimated risk: Low - no interceptions have been reported in Australia despite high number of imports. Effectively controlled by hot water treatments and visual inspections. References: Bradbury, J.F. (1986). Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Commonwealth Mycological Institute 121. Corynebacterium fasciens. Crop Protection Compendium (1999). Global Module CAB International CD-Rom. Moore, E.C., Brunt, A.A., Rees, A.R., Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. MAFF, London. England.

64.

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. oortii (Saal. & Maas Gee.) Coll. & Jones 1983

Synonyms and changes in combination: Corynebacterium oortii Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969; Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. oortii (Saaltink & Maas G. 1969) Carlson & Vidaver 1982; Corynebacterium tulipae Maas Geesteranus 1968; Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. oortii (Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969) Dye & Kemp 1977. Common name(s): Bacterial tulip canker; yellow pock of tulip. Host(s): Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Whole plant. Distribution: Europe (no specific details of presence in the Netherlands but assumed to be present); Japan; United Kingdom. Biology: The bacterium causes systemic disease of bulbs, producing yellow pustules on bulbs and silver grey spots on leaves. Stems become yellow inside and the bacterium invades vascular tissues. Severely infected bulbs will die soon after planting without producing a shoot, but plants from slightly infected bulbs are stunted. The flowers of these plants usually wither. Entry potential: High through infected or contaminated plant parts. Establishment potential: High. The bacterium could overwinter in infected plant debris. Spread potential: High - spreads by water splash/irrigation water and infested plant material. Economic importance: Unknown. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest.


References: Bradbury J.F. (1986). Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Moore, E.C., Brunt, A.A., Rees, A.R., Dickens, J.S.W. (1979). Diseases of Bulbs. MAFF, London. England. Crop Protection Compendium (1999). Global Module CAB International CD-Rom Holland, S. (1992). A review of post entry quarantine procedures for bulbs – pests & diseases. Research Report Series #206, June 1992.

Phytoplasmas 65.

Aster yellows [Mollicutes: Acholeplasmatales]

Synonyms and changes in combination: Alstroemeria decline; American aster yellows; blueberry stunt; broccoli phyllody; bunias phyllody; cactus virescence; calendula virescence; cardaria phyllody; carrot proliferation; chlorantie; chrysanthemum yellows; cyclamen virescence; dogfennel yellows; dwarf western aster yellows; eggplant dwarf; erigeron yellows; European aster yellows; grassytop disease of gladiolus; gladiolus virescence; gladiolus phytoplasma; hydrangea phyllody and virescence; ipomoea obscura witches’ broom; Italian cabbage yellows; Italian lettuce yellows; kale phyllody; lisser syndrome; maize bushy stunt; mallow yellows; marguerite yellows; Maryland aster yellows; mitsuba witches’ broom; multiplier disease; oenothera virescence; onion yellows and virescence; papaver virescence; paulownia witches’ broom; periwinkle little leaf; periwinkle yellows; poplar witches’ broom; portulaca yellows; primula yellows; purple coneflower yellows; ragweed yellows; ranunculus phyllody; severe western aster yellows; tomato big bud; turnip virescence; Western aster yellows; wild radish yellows. Common name(s): aster yellows phytoplasma; yellow disease phytoplasma. Host(s): Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily); Allium cepa (onion); Ambrosia artemisiifolia (hogweed); Anemone coronary (poppy anemone); Apium graveolens (celery); Brassica napus (rape); B. oleracea var. capitata (cabbage); B. oleracea var. italica; B. rapa (turnip); Calendula officinalis (pot marigold); Callistephus chinensis (China aster); Cardaria draba (heart-podded hoary cress); Catharanthus roseus (pink periwinkle); Celtis australis (European nettle tree); Chrysanthemum coronarium (crown daisy); C. frutescens (marguerite); Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane); Cornus racemosa (dogwood); Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort); Cucurbita pepo (ornamental gourd); Cyclamen persicum; Daucus carota (carrot); Delphinium hybrids; Eupatorium capillifolium (dog fennel); Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia); Fragaria ananassa (strawberry); Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily); Hyacinthus (hyacinth); Hydrangea macrophylla (French hydrangea); Lactuca sativa (lettuce); Lotus corniculatus (bird's-foot trefoil); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Malva (mallow); Morus bombycis (Japanese mulberry); Myrtus communis (myrtle); Olea europaea subsp.


europaea (olive); Opuntia sp. (prickly pear, cholla); Papaver rhoeas (common poppy); Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia); Petroselinum crispum (parsley); Populus nigra (black poplar); Portulaca oleracea (pussley); Primula spp.(primrose); Prunus armeniaca (apricot); P. persica var. nucipersica (nectarine); P. salicina (Japanese plum); Ranunculus asiaticus (garden crowfoot); Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish); Rudbeckia purpurea (purple coneflower); Santalum album (Indian sandalwood); Solanum melongena (aubergine); S. tuberosum (potato); Solidago (goldenrod); Spinacia oleracea (spinach); Spiraea tomentosa (hardhack); Stellaria media (common chickweed); Tagetes patula (French marigold); Trifolium pratense (purple clover); Trifolium repens (white clover); Vaccinium (blueberries); Vitis vinifera (grapevine); Zea mays (maize). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant: fruits/pods; growing points; inflorescence; leaves; roots; stems. Distribution: Argentina; Belgium; Bermuda; Brazil; Canada; China; Colombia; Czechoslovakia; France; Germany; Guatemala; Hungary; India; Israel; Italy; Japan; Malaysia; Mexico; Mozambique; Netherlands; Peru; Poland; Romania; Spain; Thailand; U.S.A; U.K and Zambia. Biology: Aster yellows (AY) phytoplasma, exists in several strains and subgroups (Davis and Sinclair, 1998). In Australia there is no record of aster yellows in ornamental bulb crops. AY phytoplasma affect plants by causing extensive abnormalities in plant growth and development. Symptoms on herbaceous plants include yellowing of the leaves, stunting, proliferation of auxiliary shoots resulting in a witches'-broom appearance, bunchy appearance of growth at the ends of stems, virescence of flowers and sterility, phyllody, shortening or elongation/etiolation of internodes, and small and deformed leaves. Yellowing, decline, sparse foliage and dieback are predominant in woody plant hosts. However, it is well known that distantly related phytoplasmas can cause identical symptoms in a given host plant, whereas closely related forms can cause distinctly different symptoms.

The agent for Aster yellows can be transmitted vegetatively and by grafting and can also be spread by insect vectors. Leafhoppers, including Macrosteles fascifrons, M. laevis, M. striiformis, M. quadripunctulatus, M. sexnotatus, M. viridigriseus, Euscelis plebeja, E. lineolatus, E. incisus, Euscelidius variegatus, Aphrodes bicinctus, Hishimonoides sellatiformis, Scaphytopius acutus, Dalbulus elimatus, Colladonus montanus and C. geminatus, are reported as vectors of aster yellows However, M. fascifrons is reported to be the principal vector. These leafhopper species are polyphagous and can transmit the phytoplasmas to a wide range of host plants. AY phytoplasmas are also readily transmissible by dodder (Cuscuta spp.). Entry potential: Medium, an uncommon disease of bulbs, but may be transported via infected insect vectors. Establishment potential: Medium, suitable hosts are present in Australia.


Spread potential: Low, if spread of infection is via infected bulbs, however if suitable vectors were present then spread would be much more rapid. Economic importance: Low in bulbs but potentially high in other crops. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. References: CAB International (1998). Aster yellows phytoplasma group data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium, Module 1, Wallingford, UK. Davis, R.E. & Sinclair, W.A. (1998). Phytoplasma identity and disease etiology. Phytopathology 88: 1372 - 1376. Lee, I.M., Gundersen-Rindal, D.E. & Bertaccini, A. (1998). Phytoplasma: Ecology and genomic diversity. Phytopathology 88:1359-1366.

Viruses 66.

Freesia leaf necrosis varicosavirus Van Dorst (1973)

Synonyms and changes in combination: not known. Common name(s): Host(s): Chenopodium amaranticolor; C. quinoa; Freesia refracta; Nicotiana hesperis (flowering tobacco); N. occidentalis (flowering tobacco). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant: corms; flowers; inflorescence; leaves. Distribution: Eurasian region; Germany; Ireland; Italy; Netherlands; Poland; UK. Biology: Infection by this virus reduces plant height, number and length of leaves, number of inflorescences and number of flowers and corms per plant. The virus is transmitted vegetatively in corms and by mechanical inoculation with difficulty. As well, the virus is transmitted by a fungus Olpidium brassicae (Chytridiales) and by the aphid Myzus persicae. Entry potential: Medium, through infected corms and associated fungal or aphid vectors, a rare disease in bulbs. Establishment potential: High, freesia are widely grown in Australia, in addition there are naturalised populations of this bulb which are outside anyone’s control and could become a reservoir for the disease. Spread potential: High, in freesias. Vectors (Olpidium brassicae) and (Myzus persicae) are present in Australia. Economic importance: Medium. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s):


Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Freesia leaf necrosis varicosavirus data sheet in ‘Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database’. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ Dorst, H.J.M van. (1975). Evidence for a soil borne nature of freesia leaf necrosis. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology. 81: 45-48. Rizkallah, L.R. & Fawzy, R. N. (1993). Freesia leaf necrosis, a new disease of Freesia refracta in Egypt. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor. 28: 401-411.

67.

Hippeastrum mosaic potyvirus Kunkel (1922); Brants and van den Heuvel (1965)

Synonyms and changes in combination: Amaryllis mosaic virus. Common name(s): Host(s): Chenopodium quinoa; Crinum spp.; Datura stramonium (Jimson weed, Jamestown weed, common thorn apple); Eucharis grandiflora (Amazon lily, eucharist lily); Hippeastrum spp. (amaryllis, Barabados lily); H. equestre; H. hybridum; Hymenocallis spp. (spider lily, filmy lily, sacred lily of the Incas); Hyoscyamus niger; Ismene; Nicotiana clevelandii (flowering tobacco); N. rustica (flowering tobacco); N. tabacum (tobacco); Petunia × hybrida (petunia); Phaedranassa spp. (queen lily); Urceolina. Plant part(s) affected: whole plant. Distribution: Czech Republic; Fiji; Japan; Netherlands; South Africa; UK; USA. Biology: This virus causes irregular light and dark green mosaic pattern on leaves and flower stalks. It is transmitted by aphids; Aphis fabae, A. gossypii and Myzus persicae in a non-persistent manner. It is also transmitted by mechanical inoculation but not by contact between plants nor by seed or pollen. Entry potential: High, through infected bulbs and associated aphid vectors. The virus is common in Hippeastrum spp. Establishment potential: High, the virus can infect hosts other than bulbs. Spread potential: High, through movement and growth of infected plant material, but probably more effectively spread by aphids which are present in Australia. Economic importance: Medium, these bulbs are a high value crop, anything that reduces bulb performance is important to the trade. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J.(eds.) (1996 onwards). Hippeastrum mosaic potyvirus data sheet in “ Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions


and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997�. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ Derks,A.F.L.M. (1995). Bulb and corm crops – Hippeastrum (amaryllis). pp. 294 in Loebenstein, G., Lawson, R. H. & Brunt, A. A. (eds). Virus and virus-like diseases of bulb and flower crops. John Wiley & Sons. UK.

68.

Iris yellow spot tospovirus

Synonyms and changes in combination: not known. Common name(s): sapeca. Host(s): Iris hollandica; Lilium (lily, lilium); Allium cepa (onion); A. porrum (leek). In addition the following species could be infected mechanically Chenopodium amaranticolor; C. quinoa; Datura stramonium (jimson weed, Jamestown weed, common thorn apple); Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth, bachelor's buttons); Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); N. rustica (wild tobacco); Petunia (petunia); Portulaca oleracea (purslane). Plant part(s) affected: Whole plant; bulbs; leaves; flowers. Distribution: Brazil; Israel; the Netherlands. Biology: On Iris, symptoms of this virus are characterised by chlorotic spots which later develop into yellow and necrotic spots. In onion, the plants show numerous eyelike spots on the leaves and flower stalks resulting in flower abortion. The virus can be transmitted by the thrips, Thrips tabaci (but not by Frankliniella schultzei and F. occidentalis). Entry potential: High, through infected Iris bulbs. The virus is symptomless in dormant bulbs but becomes apparent when the plant is growing. Establishment potential: High, suitable hosts are available in Australia. Spread potential: High, potential vectors of this virus are common and widely distributed in Australia. Economic importance: High, depending on iris cultivar, the percentage of infected plants can range between 50 and 90%. It may also affect other crops of economic importance such as onions. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Cortes, I., Livieratos, I.C., Derks, A., Peters, D. & Kormelink, R. (1998). Molecular and serological characterisation of iris yellow spot virus, a new and distinct tospovirus species. Phytopathology. 88: 1276-1282. EPPO Reporting Service, EPPO Alert list, 99/128. Nagata, T., Almeida, A.C.L., Resende, R. de O. & de Avila, A.C. (1999). The identification of the vector species of iris yellow spot tospovirus occurring on onion in Brazil. Plant Disease. 83: 399.


Pozzer, L., Bezerra, I.C., Kormelink, R., Prins, M., Peters, D., Resende, R. de O. & de Avila, A. C. (1999). Characterisation of a tospovirus isolate of iris yellow spot virus associated with a disease in onion fields, in Brazil. Plant Disease. 83: 345-350.

69.

Lily mottle potyvirus Brierley and Smith (1944).

Synonyms and changes in combination: tulip breaking virus7; lily mosaic virus. Common name(s): Host(s): Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Tulipa spp. Plant part(s) affected: whole plant: leaves; flowers. Distribution: Germany; Israel; Japan; Korea; Netherlands; Poland; USA. Biology: Symptoms of lily mottle potyvirus (LmoV) in lily cultivars vary according to their susceptibility and sensitivity. Symptoms may vary from vein clearing, leaf mottle, leaf mosaic, chlorotic and yellow streaking, leaf curling and narrowing, and reddish-brownish necrotic spots to milder forms of leaf symptoms or even symptomless infection in some growth stages in the field. Some cultivars may show breaking of the flower colour and malformed and asymmetric flowers while others may show brown-necrotic ring-spotting in the scales of the bulbs. A reduction in bulb yield generally results from infection.

The disease is more conspicuous in forced bulbs for cut flowers grown out of season under greenhouse conditions than those under ’natural’ conditions in an open field. The leaves mature earlier and buds and flowers drop early, particularly in dark periods of the year, for example, autumn/winter. In addition, the vase life of cut flowers from diseased plants is reduced.

In inoculation tests under controlled conditions, this virus was transmitted by aphids, Neomyzus circumflexus, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Asjes et al., 1973). Transmission in a non-persistent manner was reported by Aphis gossypii, M. persicae and Aulocorthum (Macrosiphum) solanifolii (Lawson and Hsu, 1996). The following aphids are reported as being able to transmit the virus: Acyrthosiphum pisum, Anoecia corni, Aphis spp., Brevicoryne brassicae, B. persicaecola, Cavariella hippophaes, C. theobaldi, Capitophorus sp., Dysaphis sp., Hyalopterus pruni, Hyperomyzus lactucae, H. pallidus, Kallistaphis basalis, Liaphis erysimi, Macrosiphum rosae, Macrosiphoniella sejuncta, Macrosiphum dirhodum, Myzus cerasi, Myzus persicae,

7 The tulip breaking virus infecting lilies (Asjes et al., 1973) was found to differ in host range and in serological and hybridization tests from the tulip breaking virus commonly prevalent in tulips. Both have been considered to be different viruses since the early nineties, and the name lily mottle virus was reintroduced. The tulip breaking virus isolates mechanically transmissible to Chenopodium spp., which occur in lilies, were considered to be different from lily mottle potyvirus (tulip breaking potyvirus) (Derks et al., 1994).


Nasonovia ribisnigri, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. pilipes, Sitobion avenae, Tetraneura ulmi and Uroleucon spp. Entry potential: High, through importation of infected bulbs and associated insect vectors. Establishment potential: High, host plants are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through infected bulbs and aphid vectors, some of which are already present in Australia. Economic importance: High. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Asjes, C.J., Vos, N.P de.& Slogteren, D.H.M. van. (1973). Brown ring formation and streak mottle, two distinct syndromes in lilies associated with complex infections of lily symptomless virus and tulip breaking virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 79:23-35. Asjes, C.J., Blom-Barnhoorn, G.J., Piron, P.G.M., Harrewijn, P.& Oosten, A.M van. (1996). Control review of air-borne tulip breaking virus and lily symptomless virus in Lilium in the Netherlands. Acta Horticulturae, 432:290-297. Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J.(eds.) (1996 onwards). Lily mottle potyvirus data sheet in “ Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ CAB International (1998). Lily mottle potyvirus data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium, Module 1, Wallingford, UK. Derks,A.F.L.M. (1995). Bulb and corm crops – Lily. pp. 315-316 in Loebenstein, G., Lawson, R. H. & Brunt, A. A. (eds). Virus and virus-like diseases of bulb and flower crops. John Wiley & Sons. UK. Derks, A.F.L.M., Lemmers, M.E.C.& Gemen, B.A.van. (1994). Lily mottle virus in lilies: characterisation, strains and its differentiation from tulip breaking virus in tulips. Acta Horticulturae, 377:281-288. Lawson, R.H. & Hsu, H.T. (1996). Lily diseases and their control. Acta Horticulturae, 414:175-187. Lee, K.H., Choi, H.S., Choi, G.S. & Kim, J.S. (1996). Virus diseases of lilies in Korea. Acta Horticulturae, 414:195-201.

70.

Lily X potexvirus Stone (1976)

Synonyms and changes in combination: Lily potex virus. Common name(s):


Host(s): Lilium formosanum (lily, lilium); Chenopodium capitatum; C. murale; C. quinoa; Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth); Nicotiana benthamiana (flowering tobacco); N. clevelandii (flowering tobacco); Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant. Distribution: Netherlands; UK. Biology: The virus causes faint chlorotic spots on the leaves of lilies that can become necrotic. Infected plants grow more slowly and are smaller than healthy plants. The virus can be transmitted by mechanical inoculation but not by contact between plants. Transmission by vectors has not been confirmed. Entry potential: Medium, through infected bulbs. Establishment potential: Medium, through propagation of infected bulbs. Spread potential: Low, vector transmission is not confirmed. Economic importance: Low. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Asjes, C.J. (1991). Control of air-borne field spread of tulip breaking virus, lily symptomless virus and lily virus X in lilies by mineral oils, synthetic pyrethroids, and a nematicide in the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology. 3: 129-138. Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Lily X potexvirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997�. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ Stone, O.M.(1980). Two new potexviruses from monocotyledons. Acta Horticulturae. 110: 59-63.

71.

Narcissus late season yellows (?) potyvirus Brunt (1977)

Synonyms and changes in combination: Narcissus white streak virus; Narcissus silver streak virus. Common name(s): Host(s): Narcissus pseudonarcissus (daffodil). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant. Distribution: Netherlands; UK. Biology: The virus causes symptomless infection throughout much of the growing season but characteristically causes chlorotic striping and extensive leaf chlorosis of narcissus, late in the season. Symptoms of the virus may not recur every year, although the plants remain infected. The virus was not transmitted by manual inoculation to any of the 11 herbaceous species tested (Chenopodium amaranticolor; C. quinoa; Cucumis sativus; Lycopersicon esculentum; Petunia


hybrida; Phaseolus vulgaris; Physalis floridana; Nicotiana glutinosa; N. tabacum cv. Samsun NN; N. tabacum cv, White burley and Vinca rosea) but was transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae (Mowatt et al., 1988). Entry potential: Medium, through infected bulbs and associated aphid vectors. Rare in bulbs. Establishment potential: High, host plants are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, the virus can spread by propagation/movement of infected bulbs and aphid vectors. Economic importance: Medium, rare in bulbs Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Narcissus late season yellows potyvirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997�. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ Mowat, W.P., Duncan, G. H. & Dawson, S. (1988). Narcissus late season yellows potyvirus: symptoms, properties and serological detection. Annals of Applied Biology. 113: 531-544.

72.

Narcissus tip necrosis virus (?) carmovirus Asjes (1972)

Synonyms and changes in combination: none known. Common name(s): Host(s): Narcissus poeticus (peoticus daffodil); N. pseudonarcissus (wild daffodil, lent lily); N. tazetta (tazetta daffodil); Chenopodium amaranticolor; C. capitatum; C. murale; C. quinoa; Nicotiana benthamiana (flowering tobacco); Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach). Plant part(s) affected: leaves and probably whole plant. Distribution: Netherlands; UK. Biology: Symptoms displayed resulting from infection by this virus range from none to leaf chlorosis where chlorotic areas form near leaf tips which later becoming brown and necrotic and die. The virus is widespread in commercially important cultivars and is transmitted by mechanical inoculation but not by grafting. Vectors are unknown. Entry potential: High, through infected bulbs (common in commercial cultivars). Establishment potential: Medium, through propagation of infected bulbs. Spread potential: Low, vectors are unknown. Economic importance: Low. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s):


Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Narcissus tip necrosis (?) carmovirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/. Brunt,A.A. (1995). Bulb and corm crops – Narcissus. pp. 329-330 in Loebenstein, G., Lawson, R. H. & Brunt, A. A. (eds). Virus and virus-like diseases of bulb and flower crops. John Wiley & Sons. UK. Mowat, W.P., Asjes, C.J. & Brunt, A.A. (1977). Occurrence, purification and properties of narcissus tip necrosis virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 86: 189-198.

73.

Nerine latent carlavirus Brunt et al. (1970)

Synonyms and changes in combination: Hippeastrum latent virus. Common name(s): Host(s): Chenopodium amaranticolor; C. capitatum; C. murale; C. quinoa; Datura stramonium (jimson weed, Jamestown weed, common thorn apple); Eucharis (Amazon lily, eucharist lily); Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth, bachelor's buttons); Hippeastrum hybridum (amaryliis, Barabados lily); Nerine bowdenii (pink spider lily, large pink nerine); Nicotiana clevelandii (flowering tobacco); N. glutinosa x N. clevelandii (flowering tobacco). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant. Distribution: the Netherlands; UK. Biology: The virus causes general symptomless infection in Hippeastrum hybridum and Nerine bowdenii. The virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation and through infected bulbs, and aphid vectors such as Myzus persicae but not through seed or pollen or contact between plants. Entry potential: Medium, through infected bulbs and associated aphid vectors, a rare disease in bulbs. Establishment potential: High, host plants are present in Australia. Spread potential: High in Hippeastrum hybridum and Nerine bowdenii. Suitable aphid vectors are present in Australia. Economic importance: Low, the virus causes symptomless infection. This is a rare disease in bulbs. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Nerine latent carlavirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/


Derks, A.F.L.M. (1995). Bulb and corm crops – Hippeastrum (Amaryllis). pp. 293-297 in Loebenstein, G., Lawson, R. H. & Brunt, A. A. (eds). Virus and virus-like diseases of bulb and flower crops. John Wiley & Sons. UK.

74.

Raspberry ring spot nepovirus Cadman (1956)

Synonyms and changes in combination: none known. Common name(s): cherry pfeffinger disease; cherry rasp leaf; European rasp leaf of cherry; leaf distortion of gooseberry; Pfeffinger disease of sweet cherry; raspberry Lloyd George yellow blotch ; ring-spot disease of raspberry; ring-spot disease of redcurrant; ring-spot disease of strawberry; ring spot disease of flowering currant; ring-spot of raspberry and spoonleaf of red currant.

The virus has different strains. Type strain, Lloyd George yellow blotch strain and English strain.

Host(s): Beta vulgaris (sugar beet); Capsella bursa-pastoris; Cerastium fontanum; Chenopodium amaranticolor; C. quinoa; Cucumis sativus (cucumber); Cynara scolymus (artichoke); Daphne spp.; Datura stramonium (jimson weed, jamestown weed, common thorn apple); Delphinium spp.; Fallopia convolvulus; Forsythia spp.; Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry); F. ananassa (strawberry); Iberis saxatilis; Lamium amplexicaule (deadnettle); Lingustrum vulgare (privet); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Myosotis arvensis (forget-me-not); Narcissus pseudonarcissus (wild daffodil); Nicotiana benthamiana (flowering tobacco); N. clevelandii; N. debneyi; N. occidentalis; N. rustica; N. tabacum (tobacco); Petunia x hybrida (petunia); Phaseolus vulgaris (french bean); Phlox spp.; Prunus avium (cherry); Ribes spp. (currants); Rubus idaeus (raspberry); Sambucus nigra (common elder); Spergula arvensis; Spinacia oleracea (English spinach); Stellaria media (chickweed); Veronica spp. (speedwell); Vigna unguiculata (cowpea); Vitis vinifera (wine grape). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant: fruits/pods; leaves; pollen. Distribution: Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Denmark; Finland; France; French Guiana; Germany; Ghana; Greenland; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Kazahkstan; Latvia; Luxembourg; Macau; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation (Central Russia; Russian Far East); Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Turkey; UK; USA; former Yugoslavia; Yemen. Found with no evidence of spread in Denmark. Biology: The raspberry ring-spot virus (RRV) is symptomless in Narcissus pseudonarcissus. However, in other hosts such as raspberry and strawberry, the virus causes leaf curling, dwarfing, dieback and death. This virus can be transmitted by mechanical inoculation, infected bulbs, seeds, pollen and nematode vectors, Longidorus caespiticola; L. leptocephala; L. elongatus and L.


macrosoma. L. elongatus has been once recorded in South Australia on ryegrass. There is no indication that it is currently established in Australia. Entry potential: Medium, the risk of this disease being imported on infected bulbs is low, however nematodes infected with this disease could use bulbs and/or soil attached to them as a vehicle on which they could be transported. It is possible that horticultural crops that are good hosts for this virus be grown in close proximity to bulb production. Land currently used for bulb production could have previously contained such crops. Such areas may contain infectious nematodes or crop residues and/or weeds with the virus. Adult nematode vectors of this disease are long-lived and individuals may thus remain infective for years after acquiring the virus. Bulbs could become contaminated by such nematodes even if they themselves do not become infected with the virus. Establishment potential: Medium, establishment depends on importation of vector nematode and movement and propagation of infested plant material. Spread potential: Medium, spread would depend on movement of infested plant material and/or presence of compatible bitype of nematode vectors. Natural spread within a field is slow and patchy resulting from the limited mobility of the nematode. Areas containing infected nematodes may remain ‘infective’ for some years. Economic importance: Low in bulbs but high on other horticultural crops such as soft and cane fruits and raspberries, especially if imported with its nematode vector. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest.

Reference(s): Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Raspberry ring-spot nepovirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ CAB International (1998). Raspberry ring-spot virus data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium, Module 1, Wallingford, UK.

75.

Rembrandt tulip-breaking potyvirus

Synonyms and changes in combination: none known. Common name(s): Host(s): Lilium formosanum (lily, lilium); Tulipa spp.(tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Probably whole plant. Distribution: Netherlands.


Biology: Rembrandt tulip-breaking virus (ReTBV) causes light green bands of the leaves, and a deep purple and white flower break. The virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation and probably through progeny bulbs. Entry potential: Low; through infected bulbs. Rare disease in bulbs. Establishment potential: Low; through propagation of infected bulbs. Other means of transmission are not known. Spread potential: Low; vectors are not known. Host range is restricted to Lilium and Tulipa. Economic importance: Low, rare disease in bulbs. Limited information is available. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Dekker, E.L., Derks, A. F.L.M., Asjes, C.J., Lemmers, M.E.C., Bol, J.F. & Langeveld, S.A. (1993). Characterisation of potyviruses from tulip and lily which cause flower-breaking. Journal of general virology. 74: 881-887. Derks, A.F.L., Vink - van Den Abeele, J.L. & van Schadewijk, A.R. (1982). Purification of tulip breaking virus and production of antisera for use in ELISA. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 88: 87-98.

76.

Strawberry latent ringspot (?) virus Lister (1964)

Synonyms and changes in combination: Aesculus line pattern virus; Rhuburb virus 5. Common name(s): Host(s): This virus has been recorded on a wide range of plants including: Aesculus x carnea (red horse-chestnut); Allium porrum (leek); Amaranthus retroflexus; Antirrhinum majus (garden snapdragon); Apium graveolens (wild celery); Arachis hypogaea (peanut); Asparagus officinalis (asparagus); Atriplex hortensis (orach, mountain spinach); Beta vulgaris (sugar beet); Brassica campestris ssp. rapa (canola); Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower); Calendula officinalis (pot marigold); Capsella bursa-pastoris; Celosia argentea (cockscomb); Chenopodium album; C. amaranticolor; C. ambrosioides; C. foetidum; C foliosum; C hybridum; C. murale; C. quinoa; Citrullus lanatus (watermelon); Citrus aurantium (sour orange); Coriandrum sativum (coriander); Cucumis melo (melon); C.sativus (cucumber); Cucurbita maxima (squash); C. pepo (pumpkin); Datura stramonium (jimson weed, jamestown weed, common thorn apple); Daucus carota (carrot); Delphinium hybridum; Dianthus barbatus (sweet William); Emilia sagittata; Euonymus europaeus (European spindle tree); Fragaria ananassa (strawberry); F. vesca (wild strawberry); Gladiolus spp.; Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth, bachelor's buttons); Humulus lupulus (hops); Hordeum vulgare (barley); Hyoscyamus niger; Lactuca sativa (lettuce); Lamium amplexicaule (deadnettle); Lavatera trimestris (annual mallow); Lilium spp. (lily, lilium); Lobelia erinus (edging lobelia); Lolium multiflorum (rye grass); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Narcissus jonquilla (jonquil);


Nerium oleander (oleander); Nicandra physalodes; Nicotiana clevelandii (flowering tobacco); N. glutinosa; N. megalosiphon; N. occidentalis; N. sylvestris; N. tabacum (tobacco); Ocimum basilicum (basil); Pastinaca sativa (parsnip); Petroselinum crispum (parsley); Phaseolus vulgaris (bean); Phlox drummondii (annual phlox); Physalis floridana (ground cherry); Physalis peruviana (cape gooseberry); Pisum sativum (pea); Poa annua; Prunus armeniaca (apricot); P. domestica (plum); P. persica (peach); Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb); Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant); R. rubrum; Robinia pseudoacacia (false acacia, black locust); Rosa spp. (rose); Rubus fruticosus (bramble, blackberry); R. idaeus (raspberry); Sambucus nigra (European elder); Senecio vulgaris; Solanum nodiflorum; S. tuberosum (potato); Spinacia oleracea (english spinach); Stellaria media (common chickweed);Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion); Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach); Torenia fournieri (bluewings); Trifolium incarnatum (clover); T. pratense (red clover); T. repens (white clover); Tropaeolum majus (garden nasturtium); Urtica dioica (stinging nettle); Verbesina encelioides; Vicia faba (broad bean); Vigna unguiculata (cowpea); Vitis vinifera (grapevine); Zinnia elegans (youth-and-old-age). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant and leaves. Distribution: Belgium; Canada; Czech Republic; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Luxembourg; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Slovak Republic; Spain; Switzerland; Turkey; UK; USA (California); the former Yugoslavia. In Australia this virus has been recorded once on Rheum rhabarbarum in South Australia (EPPO 1992) with no evidence of spread or establishment. In a survey in Tasmania, out of 165 cultivars of Narcissus, 1.2% tested positive for this virus by ELISA (Smith and Jenkins 1998), however validity of these tests needs review due to the lack of proper positive and negative controls used in the tests.

There are a number of isolates of this virus. Isolates of SLRSV from the UK are very similar. However, some isolates from olive, peach, raspberry and grapevine in Italy, from parsley in the USA, and from tree species in Germany were different both from the type strain and from each other (CAB International, 1998). Biology: Symptoms caused by SLRSV vary depending on the host plant. In general the virus causes mosaic mottling, chlorotic ring-spots, line patterning, stunting and death. In gladiolus, the virus infection was associated with flower colour break. The virus can be transmitted by mechanical inoculation, infected bulbs, seeds, grafting, and a nematode vector, Xiphinema diversicaudatum which has been recorded once in Australia (on Roses in Victoria). Entry potential: Low, an uncommon disease of bulbs which may arrive as infection of bulbs or in nematodes in bulbs or in soil associated with bulb consignments. Establishment potential: Medium. Suitable hosts are available in Australia


Spread potential: High; especially in the presence of vector, however there is no indication that the vector is currently present or established in Australia. The virus can also spread by the movement of infected planting material. Economic importance: Low in bulbs but important in other horticultural crops, particularly if vectors are present. In some crops, the virus induces severe decline in vigour which result in significant losses in productivity. Quarantine status:. Quarantine pest. The status of this virus in Australia is unclear and the taxonomy of the virus is not well defined. While this virus has been recorded here once on Rheum rhabarbarum in South Australia (EPPO 1992), there is no evidence of establishment or spread. This may be due to the fact that its nematode vector does not appear to be established in Australia. To minimise risk of this disease in Australia it is therefore important to ensure that infected bulbs are not imported with its nematode vector. Reference(s): Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Strawberry latent ring-spot (?) nepovirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ CAB International (1998). Strawberry latent ring-spot virus data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium, Module 1, Wallingford, UK. Everett, K.R., Milne, K.S. & Forster, R.L. (1994). Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein genes of strawberry latent ring-spot virus: lack of homology to the nepoviruses and comoviruses. Journal of General Virology 7: 1821-1825. Smith, P.R. & Jenkins, P.T. (1998). Pest Risk Analysis of the importation of ornamental bulbs from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Israel – Survey results. pp 42.

77.

Tomato black ring nepovirus Smith (1946)

Synonyms and changes in combination: bean ring-spot virus; beet ring-spot virus; celery yellow vein virus; lettuce ring-spot virus; potato bouquet virus; potato pseudo-aucuba virus. Common name(s): grapevine chrome mosaic virus. Host(s): Allium porrum (leek); Amaranthus caudatus (love-lies-bleeding, tassel flower); Amaranthus retroflexus; Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon); Apium graveolens (celery); Atriplex hortensis (orach, mountain spinach); Bellis perennis (English daisy, common daisy); Beta vulgaris (sugarbeet); Brassica rapa (turnip); Calendula officinalis; Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd’s purse); Capsicum (peppers); Celosia argentea (cockscomb); Chenopodium amaranticolor; C. foetidum; C. quinoa; Coriandrum sativum (coriander); Cucumis melo (melon); C. sativus (cucumber); Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa (pumpkin; Datura stramonium (jimson weed,


jamestown weed, common thorn apple); Daucus carota (carrot); Emilia sagittata; Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat); Forsynthia intermedia (golden bells); Fragaria ananassa (strawberry); Fraxinus spp. (ash); Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily); Glycine max (soy bean); Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth, bachelor's buttons); Helianthus annuus (sunflower); Hyoscyamus niger; Lactuca sativa (lettuce); Lamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle); Lens culinaris (lentil); Lobelia erinus (edging lobelia); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Matthiola incana (stock, gillyflower); Myosotis sylvatica (garden forget-me-not); Narcissus pseudonarcissus (daffodil); Nicandra physalodes; Nicotiana clevelandii (flowering tobacco); N. rustica; N. sylvestris; N. tabacum (tobacco); Petunia Ă— hybrida (petunia); Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean); Physalis floridana; Phytolacca americana (pokeweed, pokeberry); Pisum sativum (pea); Prunus persica (peach); Robinia pseudoacacia (false acacia, black locust); Rubus (blackberry, raspberry); Salvia splendens (scarlet sage); Sambucus nigra (common elder); Senecio vulgaris; Solanum melongena (aubergine); S. tuberosum (potato); Sonchus oleraceus; Spinacia oleracea (English spinach); Stellaria media (common chickweed); Syringa vulgaris (lilac); Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach); Torenia fournieri (bluewings); Trifolium repens (white clover); Tropaeolum majus (garden nasturtium); Tulipa spp. (tulip); Vicia faba (broan bean); Vigna unguiculata (cowpea); Vitis (grapevine); Zinnia elegans (youth-and-old-age). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant: fruits/pods; leaves. Distribution: Brazil; Canada (Ontario); Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Ireland; Italy; Japan; Kenya; Moldova; Morocco; the Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Sweden; Turkey; UK; the former USSR; the former Yugoslavia. Found, but with no evidence of spread; in Japan. Biology: Tomato black-ring virus (TBRV) produces symptoms such as necrotic rings, spots and flecks, systemic chlorotic ring spots, mottle, stunting, leaf malformation and vein yellowing. In some crop plant species the virus induces severe decline in vigour causing significant losses in productivity. In some species the symptoms disappear soon after infection. The virus can be transmitted by mechanical inoculation; grafting; infected bulbs; seeds; pollen to the seeds and nematode vectors; Longidorus elongatus and L. attenuatus. L. elongatus was once recorded in South Australia on ryegrass. There is no indication that it is currently present or established in Australia. L. attenuatus has not been recorded from Australia. Entry potential: Medium; through infected bulbs and associated nematode vectors. This is a rare disease in bulbs. Establishment potential: High; suitable host species exist in Australia Spread potential: Medium; the virus may be spread by movement of infected planting material or by nematodes.


Economic importance: Low in bulbs but important in other horticultural crops; particularly if introduced with its nematode vectors. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Brunt; A.A.; Crabtree; K.; Dallwitz; M.J.; Gibbs; A.J.; Watson; L. & Zurcher; E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Tomato black ring nepovirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ CAB International (1998). Tomato black ring virus data sheet. CAB International Crop Protection Compendium; Module 1; Wallingford; UK.

78.

Tulip band-breaking potyvirus Asjes and Segers (1985)

Synonyms and changes in combination: none known. Common name(s): Host(s): Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Probably whole plant. Distribution: the Netherlands. Biology: Tulip band breaking virus (TBBV) causes light green bands of the leaves and a yellowwhite flower break. The virus can be transmitted by mechanical inoculation and probably through progeny bulbs. Entry potential: Low; through infected bulbs. Rare disease in bulbs. Establishment potential: Medium; through propagation of infected bulbs. Other means of transmission are not known. Spread potential: Low; vectors are not known. Host range is restricted to tulips. Economic importance: Low, rare disease in bulbs. Limited information is available. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Brunt; A.A.; Crabtree; K.; Dallwitz; M.J.; Gibbs; A.J.; Watson; L. & Zurcher; E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Tulip band-breaking potyvirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ Dekker, E.L., Derks, A. F.L.M., Asjes, C.J., Lemmers, M.E.C., Bol, J.F. & Langeveld, S.A. (1993). Characterisation of potyviruses from tulip and lily which cause flower-breaking. Journal of general virology. 74: 881-887.


79.

Tulip severe mosaic (?) closterovirus

Synonyms and changes in combination: none known. Common name(s): Host(s): Tulipa spp. (tulips). Plant part(s) affected: Probably whole plant and leaves. Distribution: the Netherlands. Biology: Rare disease of tulips. Detailed information is not available. Entry potential: Low, through infected bulbs. Establishment potential: Medium, through infected bulbs and vector not known. Spread potential: Low; the natural mode of transmission is unknown. Economic importance: Low, rare disease in bulbs. Limited information is available. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Asjes, C.J. (1994). Viruses in tulip in the Netherlands. Acta Horticulturae. 377: 289-300. Mowat, W.P. (1995). Bulb and corm crops – Tulip. pp. 353 in Loebenstein, G., Lawson, R. H. & Brunt, A. A. (eds). Virus and virus-like diseases of bulb and flower crops. John Wiley & Sons. UK. Nagao, N., Nishio, T. & Kobayashi, T. (1988). Fine structure of tulip leaves infected with tulip severe mosaic virus, occurring in the Netherlands. Research Bulletin of Plant Protection, Japan. 24: 57-61.

80.

Tulip top breaking potyvirus

Synonyms and changes in combination: none known. Common name(s): Host(s): Tulipa spp. (tulip). Plant part(s) affected: Probably whole plant. Distribution: the Netherlands. Biology: Tulip top breaking virus (TTBV) induces large yellow-green and grey necrotic ring-spots in the leaves and a light yellow colour in the flower, bordered by dark red areas. The symptoms develop most severely at the top of the leaves and the flowers. The virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation and probably through progeny bulbs. Entry potential: Low; through infected bulbs. Rare disease in bulbs. Establishment potential: Medium; through propagation of infected bulbs. Other means of transmission are not known. Spread potential: Low; vectors are not known. Host range is restricted to tulips. Economic importance: Low, rare disease in bulbs. Limited information is available.


Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Dekker, E.L., Derks, A. F.L.M., Asjes, C.J., Lemmers, M.E.C., Bol, J.F. & Langeveld, S.A. (1993). Characterisation of potyviruses from tulip and lily which cause flower-breaking. Journal of general virology. 74: 881-887.

81.

Tulip X potexvirus, Mowat (1982)

Synonyms and changes in combination: Tulip virus X. Common name(s): Host(s): Anthriscus cerefolium (chervil); Apium graveolens (wild celery); Beta vulgaris (sugar beet); Chenopodium amaranticolor; C. quinoa; Coriandrum sativum (coriander); Cucumis sativus (cucumber); Dacus carota (carrot); Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth); Heracleum sphondylium (cow parnsip); Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato); Narcissus spp. (daffodil); Nicotiana benthamiana (flowering tobacco); Petroselinum crispum (parsley); Spinacia oleracea (english spinach); Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach); Trifolium incarnatum (clover); Tulipa spp. (tulip); Viola odorata (violet). Plant part(s) affected: whole plant: leaves; petals. Distribution: the Netherlands; Sweden; UK. Biology: Tulip X virus (TVX)) produces chlorotic or necrotic grey-brown streaking of leaves and streaks of intensified pigment (or of necrosis) in petals. Although the virus infection does not distort or dwarf plants, it nevertheless renders flowers unsaleable. The virus can be transmitted by mechanical inoculation with moderate efficiency and is perpetuated in progeny bulbs. Natural mode of transmission is unknown. Entry potential: Medium; through infected bulbs. Establishment potential: Medium, suitable hosts exist in Australia Spread potential: Low; the natural mode of transmission is unknown. Economic importance: Low. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Brunt, A.A., Crabtree; K., Dallwitz; M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Tulip X potexvirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997�. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ Fujiwara, Y., Saito, N. & Kimura, S. (1994). Tulip virus x isolated from tulip imported from the Netherlands under post entry quarantine. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 30: 99-103.


Mowat, W.P. (1995). Bulb and corm crops – Tulipa. spp. 355-357 in Loebenstein, G., Lawson, R. H. & Brunt, A. A. (eds). Virus and virus-like diseases of bulb and flower crops. John Wiley & Sons. UK. Mowat, W.P. & Chambers, J. (1979). Viruses of flower bulbs. Scottish Horticultural Research Institute, 25th Annual Report for the year 1978. 102-104.

82.

Vallota mosaic potyvirus

Synonym(s) or changes in combination: none known. Common name(s): Host(s): Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa; Freesia spp. (freesia); Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth); Hyoscyamus niger; Nicotiana clevelandii (flowering tobacco); Spinacea oleracea (English spinach); Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach); T. expansa; Vallota speciosa. Plant part(s) affected: Whole plant. Distribution: the Netherlands, found with no evidence of spread in the U.K. Biology: The virus infection produces systemic mosaic symptoms in Freesias. The virus is transmitted vegetatively by corms and by mechanical inoculation. As well the virus is transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae. Entry potential: Medium, through infected corms and associated aphid vectors. Establishment potential: High, through propagation of infected corms and insect vectors. Aphid vectors, Myzus persicae are present in Australia. Spread potential: High, through aphid vectors. Economic importance: Unknown. Quarantine status: Quarantine pest. Reference(s): Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. & Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Vallota mosaic potyvirus data sheet in “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version 16th January 1997”. URL http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ Inouye, N. & Hakkaart, F.A. (1980). Preliminary description of a potyvirus from Vallota speciosa. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 68: 265-275.


Datasheets for quarantine pests