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ACADEMY OF MARKETING

CONFERENCE 2019 ‘When you tire of marketing you tire of life’ 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings 2 – 4 July 2019


Meet the

Sponsors and Exhibitors

Marketing Trust Meet the Marketing Trust and nd out how to access research funding. All subjects considered, but preference given to those with a marketing bias or which widen the general cannon of marketing knowledge. You must agree to share your nal Report with the Marketing Trust and to have it added to the Trust Website. Meet Mary Davies and Nigel Coates, AGM, 11.45am Wednesday 3rd July.

www.marketingtrust.org

The Marketing Trust, Moor Hall, Cookham, Berkshire, SL6 9QH Email: secretary@marketingtrust.org Telephone: 01628 427 001

ISBN: 978-1-5272-4485-6 Copyright in the Conference Proceedings as a whole is with the Academy of Marketing. Authors retain the rights to their individual papers included in the proceedings, and authors submitting a paper to the Conference grant the Academy a non-exclusive licence to reproduce their paper. The Academy of Marketing, Regent’s University London, their publisher and staff take no responsibility and accept no liability whatsoever for the accuracy, impact, or consequences of any paper published in the Conference proceedings, whether refereed or not. Papers reflect the authors’ opinions, not those of the Academy of Marketing, Regent’s University London, their publisher, or their staff.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING

CONFERENCE 2019 ‘When you tire of marketing you tire of life’ 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings 2 – 4 July 2019

Contents Meet the Academy of Marketing Executive Committee................................................................ 2 Welcome from the Conference Chair.................................................................................................. 3 Delegate information................................................................................................................................ 5 Campus map............................................................................................................................................... 6 Track chairs................................................................................................................................................. 9 Keynote speakers................................................................................................................................... 10 Event timetable.........................................................................................................................................11 Track timetable........................................................................................................................................ 10 ■■

Tuesday 2 July....................................................................................................................................13

■■

Wednesday 3 July..............................................................................................................................16

■■

Thursday 4 July...................................................................................................................................19

Abstracts................................................................................................................................................... 23 Academy of Marketing Research Fund / Abstracts.....................................................................88 Author list................................................................................................................................................... 91


Meet the Academy of Marketing Executive Committee

President Caroline Tynan

Vice-President John Egan

Chair Anne Marie Doherty

University of Nottingham

Regent’s University London

University of Strathclyde

Secretary Finola Kerrigan

Treasurer Nicholas Telford

Research Sub-Committee Chair Lisa O’Malley

University of Birmingham

University of the West of Scotland

University of Limerick

Education Sub-Committee Chair Lynn Vos

Dep. & Regional Coordinator Helen Woodruffe-Burton

SIG Coordinator Jacqueline Lynch

University of Hertfordshire

Edge Hill University

University of Westminster

Awards Coordinator Audrey Gilmore

Workshop Lead Nick Lee

ECR Representative Rohit Talwar

Ulster University

University of Warwick

London South Bank University


Welcome from the Conference Chair

Friends and colleagues Welcome to the 52nd Academy of Marketing Conference hosted by Regent’s University London in Regent’s Park, at the centre of the most exciting and vibrant city in the world. Regent’s University London occupies a site with a rich and diverse history, and a long tradition of education and achievement. The University campus was originally built for Bedford College, the first higher education institution for women in the United Kingdom, founded in 1849 by Elizabeth Jesser Reid. The Regent’s Park campus, designed by architect Basil Champneys in Queen Anne style, opened in 1913. The conference theme, ‘When you tire of marketing you tire of life’, unashamedly borrows from that most eloquent of Londoners, Samuel Johnson, whose love for the capital was unbounded. Samuel Johnson also said, ‘there is in London all that life can afford’. So, while you are here, don’t miss what London has to offer in terms of attractions and entertainment. The Regent’s Park itself attracts thousands of visitors each year. For example, the Open-Air Theatre, the Bandstand and Queen Mary’s Garden (with more than 30,000 roses) are both a short walk from the University. If the weather is fine you might enjoy riding a pedalo on the lake or admire the floral arrangements, both in the University grounds and in the park. I look forward to meeting you in person during the Conference

Professor John Egan Chair, 52nd Academy of Marketing Conference


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Information Registration

First Aid and Emergency procedures

The registration will be in the foyer of Herringham building

If you require the Emergency Services, Security or a qualified First Aider, please dial the University Emergency Response Number x2222 or 020 3075 6222. The call will be answered by a member of the Reception or Security team, who will request the following details:

Conference venues ■■ Darwin ■■ Herringham ■■ Tuke

Transport and parking By car Our main campus and Marylebone facilities are both off the A501 (Marylebone Road) in central London. There are a number of parking spaces for visitors and students at the Regent’s Park campus. Parking spaces are not preallocated and are available on a first-come, first-served basis. Cash and card payments may be made at the pay station in the main car park, to the right of the main University entrance in the Herringham building. If the campus car park is full, on-street parking is available on the Inner Circle just opposite the University.

By London Underground (Tube) The closest Tube station is Baker Street. To help plan your journey, use the Transport for London Journey Planner at www.tfl.gov.uk From Baker Street station take the Marylebone Road exit. Turn left and walk past Madame Tussauds to York Gate on your left. For the Regent’s Park campus, turn left into York Gate. Continue over the bridge into the park. The University entrance is on the left. Total journey time approximately 10 minutes.

By bus Many buses stop at Baker Street Station. Alight there and follow the directions as above.

Cloakroom The cloakroom for this event is in the basement of Herringham Building. Conference assistants and reception will give you the directions.

1. Your name 2. Your location 3. The nature of the incident 4. How serious you believe the incident to be

An appropriate response will then be coordinated to provide first aid or incident assistance.

Disclaimer Any risk related to delegates’ property in the conference building or grounds, including theft or fire, shall be borne by the delegates. The Academy of Marketing and Regent’s University London shall not insure said goods. With the exception of death or injury caused by negligence, the Academy and Regent’s University London shall not be liable for damages to property or persons deriving directly or indirectly from participation in the conference, whatever the cause of damage.

AM Conference Registration Data Protection Statement Regent’s University London may process personal data you submit through the Conference Registration System which is supplied by WPM Education. The legal basis for this processing is Contract, namely the provision of Conference services. Name, meal choices and dietary requirements may be given to any catering organisations used for the conference. Name and appropriate accessibility requirements may be disclosed to accommodation and conference venues where assistance may need to be arranged. The registration includes the membership of the Academy of Marketing and therefore, your personal data will be shared with the Academy of Marketing. The Academy of Marketing may process your membership data (‘membership data’). The membership data may include your title, name, address, email address, interests, educational details, employment details, membership number, and membership purchase and renewal details. By registering to the conference, you consent to Regent’s University of London and to the Academy of Marketing using your personal data. The full Privacy Policy of the Academy of Marketing is available at academyofmarketing.org/privacy-policy/ The Regent’s University London Data Protection Policy is available at www.regents.ac.uk

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Campus map Herringham

Tuke

Reception (G) Security office (G) Herringham Hall (G) Knapp Gallery (G) Regent’s Conferences & Events (G)

Tuke Hall lecture theatre (G) Tuke Common Room (G) The Hive (G) Bedford’s Bar (B) Media services (B)

Oliver

Reid Hall

Regency Suite (1) The Brasserie (G) Refectory and deli (G)

Halls of residence

Botany Facilities & Estates management

Claim 30 days free access to the Routledge top 10 Business & Management journals

Visit www.bit.ly/aom-routledge and log in/register to Taylor & Francis Online to claim your free access

Map key

Campus entrance Building entrance Accessible entrance Lift Bicycle parking Car park

Assembly point Reception (B) Basement (G) Ground floor ( 1 ) First floor (2) Second floor


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

7

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Oliver park entrance and deliveries

Main entrance

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Car park exit

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track chairs Arts and Heritage

Dr Chloe Preece, Royal Holloway, University of London

Brand, Identity and Corporate Reputation

Professor Stuart Roper, University of Huddersfield

Consumer Culture Theory

Dr Máire O Sullivan, Edge Hill University Professor Debbie Keeling, University of Sussex

Consumer Research

Dr Nina Michaelidou, Loughborough University Dr Nikoletta Theofania Siamagka, KCL

Critical Marketing

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Entrepreneurial and Small Business Marketing

Fashion Marketing and Consumption

Dr Mona Moufahim, University of Stirling Professor Mark Tadajewski, University of Stirling Dr Amy Goode, University of Stirling Dr Fatema Kawaf, University of Greenwich Dr Roz Jones, University of Birmingham Dr Zubin Sethna, Regent’s University London Dr Kate Armstrong Professor Liz Barnes, The University of Manchester

International Marketing

Dr Dafnis Coudounaris, University of Tartu, Estonia

Making Markets

Dr George Maglaras, University of Stirling

Marketing Education Marketing of Higher Education Non-Profit and Social Marketing

Nigel Coates, Northumbria University Yvonne Dixon-Todd, The University of Sunderland Helen O’Sullivan, Bournemouth University Dr Chris Hand, Kingston University London Dr Rita Kottasz, Kingston University London

Political Marketing

Professor Paul Baines, University of Leicester

Retail Marketing

Professor Christoph Teller, University of Surrey

Services and Customer Relationship Marketing

Professor Kim Cassidy, Edge Hill University

Strategic Marketing

Dr Carolyn Strong, Cardiff University

Sustainability and Ethics

Dr Claudia Henninger, The University of Manchester

Tourism and Place Marketing

Dr Vish Maheshwari, Staffordshire University Dr Heather Skinner, Higher Education Academy

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Keynote speakers Pauline Maclaran Professor of Marketing & Consumer Research School of Management, Royal Holloway, University of London Pauline’s research interests focus on cultural aspects of contemporary consumption, and she adopts a critical perspective to analyse the ideological assumptions that underpin many marketing activities, particularly in relation to gender issues. She has published widely in international journals as well as co-editing and co-authoring various books that include: Motherhoods, Markets and Consumption: The Making of Mothers in Contemporary Western Culture (Routledge) and Royal Fever: The British Monarchy in Consumer Culture (University of California Press).

Stuart Sherman CEO, IMC Finalist, European AI CEO of the Year 2018 Stuart runs one of the most innovative AI companies in the world, pioneering two new classes of AI, ‘Behavioural AI’, and ‘Simulation AI’. This isn’t exactly surprising, given his history. Having studied managerial sciences at university, specifically the aspects of managerial accounting relating to behavioural economics, and organisational behavior, Stuart went on to start an early management information services company which, in the late 1980s, ran a private network for mail and file transfer between Toronto, New York and Mexico City. Selling that company, Stuart founded

one of Canada’s first digital agencies – before the internet was a household thing! That company was sold in 1999 to WPP and Stuart transitioned into finance, creating an innovative subprime lender, building a substantial automotive loan portfolio which he sold shortly before the financial crisis of 2007. After that Stuart once again got interested in technology, and specifically the early stages of AI. Today you will find him working with some of the world’s largest companies, designing and implementing AI designed to change the way they understand their Big Data.

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Event timetable Date

Monday 1/7/19

Tuesday 2/7/19

Event

Time

Venue

Doctoral Colloquium

08.30 –12.00

Darwin & Knapp Gallery

Doctoral Lunch

12.00 – 13.00

Refectory

Doctoral Colloquium

13.00 – 17.00

Darwin & Knapp Gallery

AM Executive Meeting

13.00 – 16.00

Acland

Doctoral Dinner

19.00 – 21.00

Herringham Hall

Registration

08.45 – 09.30

Foyer

AM Research/SIGs

08.45 – 09.30

Darwin

Refreshments

09.00 – 10.00

Refectory

Welcome

09.30 – 10.00

Tuke Hall

Workshops (part 1)

10.00 – 11.15

Darwin

Refreshments

11.15 – 11.30

Refectory

Workshops (part 2)

11.30 – 12.30

Darwin

Lunch

12.30 – 13.30

Refectory

Keynote

13.30 – 14.30

Tuke Hall

Track 1

14.30 – 15.45

Darwin & Knapp Gallery

Refreshments

15.45 – 16.00

Refectory

Marketing Heads of Department

16.00 – 17.15

Acland

Track 2

16.00 – 17.15

Darwin & Knapp Gallery

SIG Fair

17.30 – 18.30

Tuke Common Room

Welcome Drinks

18.00 – 20.00

Brasserie Lawns

Workshops (part 1)

09.00 – 10.15

Darwin

Refreshments

10.15 – 10.30

Refectory

Workshops (part 2)

10.30 – 11.45

Darwin

Academy of Marketing AGM and Prizegiving

11.45 – 12.30

Tuke Hall

Lunch

12.30 – 13.30

Refectory

12.30 – 13.30

Darwin

13.30 – 14.30

Tuke Hall

Meet the Editors

14.30 – 15.30

Darwin

Track 3

14.30 – 15.45

Darwin

Refreshments

15.45 – 16.00

Refectory

Track 4

16.00 – 17.15

Darwin

Conference Dinner/Entertain’t

19.00 – 11.30

Tuke Lawns & Bedford Bar

Track 5

09.00 – 10.30

Darwin & Knapp Gallery

Refreshments

10.30 – 10.45

Refectory

Track 6

10.45 – 12.00

Darwin & Knapp Gallery

Lunch

12.00 – 13.00

Refectory

Track 7

13.00 – 14.45

Darwin & Knapp Gallery

Wednesday Journal Boards 3/7/19 Keynote

Thursday 4/7/19

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Workshop timetable Date

Tuesday 2/7/19 10.00 – 12.30

Wednesday 3/7/19 09.00 – 11.45

Workshop

Conveners

Venue

Are non-profits tired of marketing?

Fran Hyde & Sarah-Louise Mitchell

D05

Embedding Employability into the Marketing Curriculum: Rethinking Traditional Approaches

Laura M. Chamberlain

D06

Presenting Life Differently: How to perform Post-Representational Perspectives into marketing practice.

Jack Coffin & Tim Hill

D105

Envisioning Responsibility in Marketing and Consumption.

Caroline Moraes, Isabelle Szmigin and Mike Saren

D107

Understanding the visual in marketing and consumer research.

Finola Kerrigan & Natalia Yannopoulou

D204

Methodological challenges when conducting consumer research with social impact (CRSI)

Emma Banister, Kathy Hamilton, Maria Piacentini

D05

The Virtual International Classroom – Linking Marketing Students at Different Universities in Different Countries

Al Marshall 

D06

Immersive Storytelling and Experiential Marketing

Chloe Preece, Rohit Talwar

D105

Places of Consumer Activism

Vera Hoelscher & Andreas Chatzidakis

D107

Yogesh Dwivedi, Nripendra Rana, Hatice Kizgin, Anabel Gutiérrez

Tuke Cinema

A Research Workshop on Advances in Theory and Practice of Digital Marketing Academy of Marketing 105x148.qxp_Layout 1 10/05/2019 09:12 Page 1

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track timetable TUESDAY 2 JULY Track 1

Tuesday 2 July 14.30 – 15.45 89

Services and CRM

Political Marketing

Retail Marketing

Marketing Education

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Consumer Research

Exploring Football Fan Engagement: A Case Study in Customer Experience Innovation

Room Clare Keogh, Philip J. Rosenberger III, Ameet Pandit, Hartmut Holzmuller

124 Tiring of Life: Value Destruction in Multichannel Service Systems

Ilaria Dalla Pozza, Julie Robson, Jillian Farquhar

129 Relationship Marketing and Brand Equity: The Case Study of GCB

Emmanuel Arthur, George Amoako, Robert Dzogbenuku

77

Minita Sanghvi, Phillip Frank

Reimagining the Marketing Mix for Political Marketing

273 HMS Hood: The Genesis, Life and Death of an Imperial Brand Icon

Robert Hamlin

73

Optimal Pricing Practices within the Context of One Product, One Retailer, and Two Channels

Majed Helmi, Sarah Xiao, Mike Nicholson

81

A Strategic Approach to Amplifying an Experiential Event Using Social Currency to Reach a Mass Audience

Holly Barry Rose Leahy, Pio Fenton

97

Internationalising Luxury Fashion Retailers’ Direction of Post-Entry Expansion in Mainland China

Huifeng Bai, Julie McColl, Louise McBride

132 How Do Ethics Processes Influence Decision-Making in Student Research Projects?

Daniel Nunan, Anne Dibley

149 Exploring Value-Related Perspectives of Students Over Time: Describing a Linked Research Programme Comprising Four Studies

Sheilagh Resnick, Tony Woodall, Linda W Lee, MMojtaba Poorrezaei

306 Marketing Students’ Perceptions of Developing Employability Skills: A Case Study Based on The Business Clinic

Katie Gray,Julie Crumbley, Nigel Coates

69

Augmented Reality: Engaging Consumers

James E Richard Paul Harrison

78

The Psychological Processes Underlying Online Buyers’ Mobile Purchasing ‘Cognitive Effort – Resistance Behaviour’

Jacques Nel, Christo Boshoff

85

NOT Reviewing the Movie, But Reviewing Other Reviews: Effective Online Movie Reviews in Japan, a Country with High UncertaintyAvoidance Behaviour

Miyuki Morikawa

86

Managing Relationships on Social Media in Business-To-Business Firms: The Case of Service Providers and Product Providers

Severina Iankova, Iain Davies, Chris Archer-Brown

88

The Use of Websites as a Digital Marketing Communication Channel: A Case of B2B SMEs

Justina Setkute, Simone Kurtzke

94

The Role of Digital Orientation in SMEs Company: A Study in the Chinese Context

Xiya Zhang, Martin Liu

71

Provocative Advertising in Social Media – Congruence with Ad and Sharing Intentions

Juha Munnukka, Silja Kyyrönen, Outi Uusitalo

100 Brand Personality, Customer Satisfaction and Word of Mouth: A Study of Three Important Financial Brands in India

Brajesh Bolia

116 Consumption in Time: A Spacetime Perspective on Consumer Behaviour

Kai Zhu, Tony Woodall, Julie Rosborough

118 Gender Differences in Responses to Sexual and Violent Humour in Advertising

Richard Freeman, Matthew Gorton, Robert Angell

328 Linking people with Mobile Apps: A Case Study in Jordan

Faten Jaber, Muneer Abbad

D02

D03

D06

D105

D106

D107

D202

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track 1

Tuesday 2 July 14.30 – 15.45

Room

122 Are Millennials Different from Non-Millennials in their Recommendations?

Rahul Chawdhary, Francesca Dall’ Olmo Riley

127 Consumer Readiness for Driverless Vehicles? Deciphering the 3M Hierarchy of Motivation and Personality

Fraser McLeay, Hongfei Liu, Hossein Olya, Chanaka Jayawardhena

139 The Moderating Roles of Consumers’ Sense of Power and Selfconstruals on the Effect of Word-of-Mouth Valence on Brand Attachment: A Conceptual Paper

Chanthika Pornpitakpan, Wei Yue

110 A Not-for-Profit Sharing Platform in Political Context

Fiona Cheetham, John Lever

136 Superhero Brands and Fantasy Worlds: An Investigation into Children’s Brand Relationships

Diliara Mingazova

162 ‘Me’ to ‘We’: Conflicts and Synergies in Doing the Collective Meal

Ratna Khanijou, Benedetta Cappellini, Sameer Hosany

Special Sessions

Session 1 Future Weatherproofing for Marketing Academics and Staying Woke

Jonathan A.J. Wilson

Track 2

Tuesday 2 July 16.00 – 17.15

Consumer Research

Consumer Culture Theory

Services and CRM

International Marketing

161 The Psychology of Frustration: Appraisal Theory, Satisfaction and Loyalty 185 Employee Rhetorical Sensitivity as a Mediator in the Relationship between Customer Orientation and Customer Retention

Suraya Akmar Mokhtaruddin, Che Aniza Che Wel, Nor Rahimy Khalid

218 Ethnocentric Exploitative Perceptions of Firms Activities and their Consumer Outcomes

Ruby Appiah-Campbell, Kemefasu Ifie, John Cadogan, Nina Michaelidou

219 Knowledge Transfer Intricacies between Firms and their Subsidiaries in Emerging Markets: A Resource-Advantage Theory Approach

Aniruddha Pangarkar,

246 From FOMO to Changxin: A Cross-cultural Exploration of Consumer Response to Newness in the Fast-moving Consumer Goods Industry

Carolyn Wilson, Sarah Xiao

Sustainability and Ethics

Songyi Yan

151 Changing Behaviors from University: Professors as Advocates for ‘Degrowth Marketing’

Marlon Bruno Matos Paiva, Claudia Buhamra Abreu Romero

Retail Marketing

Investigating the Roles of Perceived Green Value and Utilities in Impacting Green Purchase Intention

Knapp Gallery

D02

D03

Katherine Casey, Lisa O’Malley, Maria Lichrou, Colin Fitzpatrick

105 Types of Sustainable Knowledge Used to Uncover the Attitude and Behavioural Intention Towards Microfibre Pollution from a Consumer Perspective

83

Non-Profit and Social Marketing

(Dis)Possession, (In)Convenience and Recycling: Insights from Consumer Electronics

D204

Room Helena V. GonzálezGómez, Sarah Hudson, Aude Rychalski

98

D203

D04

Ruizhi Yuan, Martin Liu

209 Operationalization and Implementation of CSR Practice among Indian Companies: A Comprehensive Review

Ankur Jha

214 Charitable Donations, Home and Away: Is It All Political?

Andrew Robson, David Hart

230 From Social Marketing to Social Innovation in a Transformational Economy

Mike Saren, Marta Gasparin, William Green, Martin Quinn, Christophe Schinckus

154 Understanding the Scope of In-store C2C Influence in Retailing

Richard Nicholls, Alex Kay

229 Location-based Mobile Games: What’s in it for Shopping Malls?

Belem Barbosa, Valentina Chkoniya, Armando Mateus, Hugo Almeida

350 The Application of XHAE at the MEI Xenoheteroglossic Auto Ethnography

Jonathan Deacon, Elizabeth Lloyd-Parkes

D05

D06


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track 2

Marketing Education

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Consumer Research

Consumer Research

Consumer Culture Theory

Special Sessions

Tuesday 2 July 16.00 – 17.15

Room

156 A Special Idea’ For Marketing Education: Virtual CooperativeLearning across Cultures

Natascha Radclyffe-Thomas, Anne Peirson-Smith

252 Exploring the Use Of the Digital Platform Slack to Mediate Group Assessments and Provide Assessment Support: A Case Study of Student Satisfaction

Julia Cook, Rachael Mabe, Brian Harman

275 An Exploration Of ‘Hs’: A Realtime, In-Lecture Online, Student Engagement Tool

Cristina Sambrook

200 Signature Pedagogies in Marketing

Andrew Paddison, Michael Harker, Lucy Gill-Simmen, Neil Kelley

96

Yue-Yang Chen, Hui-Ling Huang, Tsai-Pei Liu

The Performance Consequences of E-Marketing Orientation

144 The Impact of Social Media Influencers on Collaborating Brands: Examining the Effects of Parasocial Interaction and Identification

Dalal Aljafari, Tamer Elsharnouby

130 The Impact of the General Data Protection Regulation on the Design and Measurement of Marketing Activities: Introducing Permission Marketing and Tracking for Improved Marketing and CRM Compliance with Legal Requirements

Victoria-Anne Schweigert, Andreas Geyer-Schulz

138 Inspired Employees Encourage eWOM

Aisling Keenan Gaylard, Ann Torres

145 The Effect of Common Grammatical Errors on Email Marketing Effectiveness

Aodheen McCartan

215 Understanding how peripheral cues influence the e-satisfaction-eloyalty link in the emerging market context: A multilevel analysis

Neeru Malhotra, Sunil Sahadev, Peter Leeflang, Keyoor Purani

366 Self-Gifting on Religious Occasions: The Case of the Religious Festivals of Ramadan and Eid

Caroline Tynan, Mona Moufahim, Teresa Heath, Rana Al-Yafai

80

An Examination of Consumer Purchase Intention and Effectiveness of Marketing Instruments in WeChat

Tao Chang Lingxiao Mao

17

Impact of Consumer Knowledge on Diabetes Management – Making A Case for Qatar

Khurram Sharif, Abdelhamid Kerkadi

24

Advertising Music and the Effects of Incongruity Resolution on Consumer Response

Morteza Abolhasani, Steve Oakes, Helen Oakes

169 A New Methodology for Segmenting Customers Via Unconscious Needs

Sid Simmons, Paul Baines

260 The Impact of Product and Brand Fit on the Consumption Value: The Case of Brand Alliances.

Ilia Protopapa

262 Stereotype and Counter Stereotype in Children’s Product and its Role in Parents’ Purchase Decision

Pallavi Singh, Ping Hsuan Lu

234 The Adult Fans of Lego and their Online Communities: Proposing a Brand Culture Typology

Barry Ardley, Claire May, Eleanor McIntosh, Marcus Langmaid

284 The Birkin Bag: Differing Value Perspectives in an Online Brand Community

Niklas Vallström, Janet Ward, Seema Bhate

270 Fluid Fandom: Reframing Post-Fan Identity utilizing Play as a Mode of Social Performance

Dave Alton, Stephen O’Sullivan

Session 2 Teaching Excellence in Marketing – A Grassroots Approach

Lynn Vos & Jackie Lynch

D105

D106

D107

D202

D203

D204

Knapp Gallery

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

WEDNESDAY 3 JULY Track 3

Services and CRM

International Marketing

Sustainability and Ethics

Wednesday 3 July 14.30 – 15.45 196 Service innovation and public sector performance: An employee perspective

Iman Behmanesh, Philip J. Rosenberger III, David Cunneen, Ashish Malik

204 Creating Customer Value in Health and Social Care Services through Co-location

Julie Boalch, Antje Cockrill

224 Positive Waiting: A Counter-Intuitive Approach

Gerard Ryan, Othmane Aride, Mireia Valverde

282 The Nature and Evolution of County Image Definition: An Analysis of Four Decades of Research

Ernest Kwan, Irene R. R. Lu, Louise Heslop, Roland Thomas, Marzena Cedzynski

291 Recent Literature Review on Effectuation

Marketing Education

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Jessica Lichy, Tatiana Khvatova, Mauro Jose De Oliveira

217 Common Reasons for Adopting SustainableConsumption Behaviour and Digital Engagement: A Systematic Literature Review

Nuzhat Nuery, Natalia Yannopoulou, Raffaele Filieri, Danae Manika

153 Put it on Your Bucket List: Repeated Blood Donation and the USR Strategy. An Extended TPB Model

Iuliana Raluca Gheorghe, Victor Lorin Purcărea, Consuela Mădălina Gheorghe

191 Pleasure, Pride and Guilt, How Do They Interplay in Sustainable Luxury Consumption?

Zi Wang, Martin Liu, Maria LUO, Dandan Ye

An Approach to Modelling Charity Donor Behaviour Concerning Unpopular Causes

Samanthika Gallage, Caroline Tynan, Teresa Heath

353 Exploring the Growth Challenges of Social Enterprises: Identifying Staffing, Earnings-Generation and Communications as Critical Success Factors

Simon O’Leary, Rebecca Fakoussa, Adeseye Lawal-Solarin

208 Addressing the elephant in the room – Graduate Teaching Assistance, Teaching Certificates, and Employability

Claudia Henninger, Jennifer Slaughter, Thomas Rodgers

351 ‘Removing Bricks from the Wall?’: Harnessing Students’ Creativity and Criticality Through the Arts

Teresa Heath

47

Bruno Cignacco

Effective Teaching Tools for a Marketing Module

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Roger Bennett, Rohini Vijaygopal, Rita Kottasz

250 ‘Responsible Drinking’: Mistrusted, Misused and Misunderstood

179 Understanding Star Ratings on Product Review Websites

Rajesh Rajaguru, Lin Yang

194 The Impact of Self-disclosure by Social Media Influencers on Consumer Behavior

Sara Al Rabiah, Ben Marder, David Marshall

210 Exploring the Value Co-creation and Engagement Process in China: The Role of Social Media Marketing

Man Lai Cheung, Guilherme D. Pires, Philip J. Rosenberger III, Mauro Jose De Oliveira

254 Execution Factors Affecting Product Placement Effectiveness in Hip Hop Videos

Consumer Research

Dafnis Coudounaris, Henrik Arvidsson

344 SNS consumption among Gen Z and Millennials in BRIC countries

3

Non-Profit & Social Marketing

Room

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Shree Maharaj, Debbie Ellis

186 The Influence of Personal and Product Factor on Halal Cosmetics Purchase Intention

Nor Rahimy Khalid, Che Aniza Che Wel, Suraya Akmar Mokhtaruddin

197 Investigating the Relationship Between Brand Engagement, Brand Community and Customer Engagement Value: The Moderating Role of Employee Brand Engagement

Mark Mills, Magnus Hultman, Aris Theotokis

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track 3

Wednesday 3 July 14.30 – 15.45 213 Predicting Consumers’ Cheating Behavior. The Role of Mental Representation of Goods and Psychological Ownership

Consumer Research 226 Attitudes towards Advertising: The Views of UK and US Millennials

326 Legitimation Networks of Incentivized Wellness

Consumer Culture Theory

365 You Seem Distant? Informal Caring for Elderly Family Members and the Impact on the Self 279 Lads on Stags: Implications for Service Providers

Special Sessions

Session 3 Machiavelli, Marketing and Brexit

Track 4

Wednesday 3 July 16.00 – 17.15 248 A Grounded Theory of Customer Experience

Services and CRM

International Marketing

Sustainability and Ethics

Non-Profit & Social Marketing

Critical Marketing

Room Vito Tassiello, Laura Grazzini, Giampaolo Viglia, Sianne GordonWilson Fred Beard, Sally Laurie, Kathleen Mortimer Cecilia Ruvalcaba, Duygu Akdevelioglu Rachel Trees, Dianne Dean Lisa O’Malley, Lloyd Harris, Vicky Story Phil Harris, Paul Baines & Stephan Henneberg

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Room Ozge Demir , Elif Karaosmanoglu

256 Customer Relationship Management Practices and Profitability in Ghana’s Mobile Communications Industry

Emmanuel Arthur, Ebenezer Effah Asare, Nana Owusu-Frimpong

263 A Comparison of UK and Finnish Teenagers Participation Styles in a Collective Service Environment

Janet Ward

42

Acquisition as a Mode for Servitisation: What are the Consequences?

Christina Oberg

36

Unleashing the Dynamics of Product-Market Ambidexterity for Seizing on International Opportunities Among Emerging Economy Firms

Bradley Barnes, Lianxi Zhou, Paul Whitla

43

Creativity and International Marketing

Bruno Cignacco

62

Consumers in Emerging Markets: Subjective Well-Being and Affective Consumption Choice

Gregory Kivenzor

193 Understanding how Message Framing and Companies’ Trustworthiness Determine the Effectiveness of Green Marketing Communications

Giovanni Pino, Alessandro Peluso, Giampaolo Viglia, Gianluigi Guido

327 A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective on CSR Practices of SMEs: Their Impact on Reputational Advantage and Performance

Pantelitsa Eteokleous, Leonidas Leonidou, Maria Georgiou, Artemis Gapazachariou Andria Zevedeou

300 Hedonistic Sustainability: Upcycling and Alternative Engagement with Sustainable Consumption

Grace O’Rourke, Stephen O’Sullivan

26

Value Creation and the Role of the Donor in Supporter-led Fundraising

Anna-Lena Ackfeldt Katie Mitchell

28

An Exploratory Investigation of the Antecedents of Charity Trust

Walter Wymer

372 Nonprofits Are Not Tired of Marketing

Roger Bennett

99

Hounaida El Jurdi, Mona Moufahim

Tearing the Invisibility Cloak- The Hijab in Ads: A Feminist PostColonial Perspective of a Stigmatized Identity

D203

277 Myth, Community and Transformation

Katherine Casey, Maria Lichrou, Lisa O’Malley

147 Getting Angry about Adverts-Advertising Paratexts and Minor Literature

Chris Hackley, Paul Haynes

195 Tear Gas, Visual Brands and Opposition: An Exploratory Study on the Use of Visual Branding Techniques by the 2014 Hong Kong Umbrella Movement

Georgios Patsiaouras, Anastasia Veneti, William Green

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track 4

Marketing of Higher Education

Wednesday 3 July 16.00 – 17.15 297 We are Education: the Potential Impacts of the Sharing Economy on the Future of Higher Education

Aurelie Le Normand

220 The Effect of Social Media Communication on Customer Brand Engagement in Open Higher Education of Thailand

Anothai Ngamvichaikit

221 Exploring New Frontiers Through Higher Education and Business Sector Collaboration In the UK: A Transactional–Relationship Marketing Management Approach

Fred Yamoah, Julie Trindade, Malcolm Stewart

222 The Role of University Social Augmenters in Enhancing University Brand Preference and Student Actual Enrolment

Ahmed Eldegwy, Tamer Elsharnouby

66

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Entrepreneurial & Small Business Marketing

Consumer Research

Consumer Research

Brand, Identity & Corporate Reputation

Special Sessions

Room

GDPAaaarrggh! An Analysis of Email Marketing Communications Informing Consumers of new EU Data Regulations

D105

David Hart, Craig Bradshaw, Hiba Koussaifi

227 Resisting the Lure of Digital – Exploring the Consequences of Digital Marketing on the Marketing Profession and Investigating the Relationship between these Negative Effects and Marketers’ Stage of Career

Tim Crowley, Pio Fenton, Gearoid O’Suilleabhain

259 ‘Hey, I saw this on Instagram!’ – How Exposures to Products on Social Media, Engagement and Fear of Missing Out Affect Attitudes

Dominik Neumann, Patricia Huddleston, Bridget Behe

112 Transforming Insight into Innovation. How Start-ups Use Customer Insight to Create New Products and Services.

Antonietta Rosiello, Emanuel Said, Frank Bezzina

146 Towards a Model of Improved Digital Marketing Communication in Small Firms: Striking the Right Balance Between In-house and Outsourcing

Aodheen McCartan, Sandra Moffett

265 Does Geographic Distance Strengthen the Effects of Positive Psychological Capital Language and Quality Signals? Evidence from Crowdfunding Campaigns

Mohammad Tajvarpour, Devashish Pujari

232 The Role of Moral Idealism, Consumer Ethics, and Materialism on Consumer Well-being

Tassanee Suanchimplee, Prathanporn Jhundra-indra

242 Mexicanising the Non-Mexican: Analysing Food Consumption Practices of Mexican Immigrants to the UK

Cecilia Ibarra Cantu, Fiona Cheetham

251 Collecting Customer Feedback on Destination Image Formation: Facilitating Deep Thought Using a Group Interview Approach

Chelsea Bailey, David Arnott, Lloyd Harris

74

Hate Is Such a Strong Word… Or Is It?

Asli Kuscu

90

Impact of Online Cross-Cutting Exposure on Consumer Political Participation and Social Anxiety

Maria Shahid, Seong Jae Min, Waseem Hassan

370 The Influences of Aesthetic Responses and Product Involvement on 3C Product Attitudes and Purchase Intentions: Evidence from China

Chih-Huang Lin

123 A Systematic Review of Brand Equity and its Antecedents in a B2B Setting

Ellie Jones, Nigel Coates

140 An Examination of the Role of Social Media on Contemporary Luxury Branding

Dean Creevey, Joseph Coughlan, Christina O’Connor

177 Organizational Identity Construction of Colombian Brands of Swimwear on Social Networking Sites Based on Images

Manuelita Arias Arango, Carlos Andrés Osorio Toro

Session 4 Children and Young People: Sustainability and Marketing

Pallavi Singh, Claudia Henninger, Caroline J. Oates and Nicki Newman

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

THURSDAY 4 JULY Track 5

Services and CRM

Fashion Marketing and Consumption

Sustainability and Ethics

Non-Profit & Social Marketing

Critical Marketing

Marketing of Higher Education

Thursday 4 July 09.00 – 10.30

Room

264 Service Recovery Performance: The Role of Internal Market and Technology Orientations

Samiha Mjahed, Muslim Amin, Hayam Almousa

266 Towards Public Customer Logic

Saila Saraniemi, Hanna Komulainen, Satu Nätti, Pauliina Ulkuniemi

305 Job Stress in Front-Line Employees of Professional Services Firms: The Case of the UK Law Firms

Arash Valipour, Ghasem Zaefarian, Matthew Robson, Zhaleh Najafi Tavani

134 Luxury Fashion and Hedonic Consumption among Black African Women in the UK

Christiana Emmanuel-Stephen, Ayantunji Gbadamosi

175 Do Materialism and Empowerment Influence Slow Fashion Consumption? Evidence from Brazil

Érica Sobreira, Clayton Silva, Claudia Buhamra

228 Customer Engagement Behaviours in Dialogic Co-Creation Activities from a Customer-Dominant Perspective: A Study of Chinese Fast Fashion Shoppers

Xuefeng Huang, Liz Barnes, Patsy Perry

303 Smart Technology for Sustainability: Understanding Consumer Response to Smart Green Interactive Devices

Inès Kolli, Gilles N’Goala

308 Towards a Cross-Cultural Understanding of the Determinants of Sustainable Consumption: A Systemic Perspective on the Case of the Sultanate Of Oman

Helena H Knight, SR Farhad Nikhashemi

313 Pre-owned Versus Brand-New: Why Consumers (De)Value Shared Goods? Examining the Role of Self-Perception Theory

Nicole Koenig-Lewis, Carmela Bosangit

321 An Investigation of the effect of Product and Individual-based Motivations on Consumers’ Willingness to Adopt a Vegan Diet and Vegan Lifestyle

Mahsa Ghaffari, Padmali Rodrigo, Yuksel Ekinci, Giovanni Pino

29

(The Fallacy of) Choice in Non-Profit Residential Aged Care

Paul Harrison, Amy Maddison, Laura Hill, Kathryn Chalmers

31

Social Marketing, Gender Discrimination and Hashtag Movements in the Digital Era: A French Perspective

Jessica Lichy, Jo Brewis

68

Consumer Reactions to Conflict Management in Non-Profit Online Communities

Denitsa Dineva, Jan Breitsohl, Brian Garrod, Phil Megicks

125 The Exorcist: Selling Demonic Identity Work

Andrew Dean

255 You Say It Best When You Say Nothing At All: How Relational Aspects of Visibility and Representation Embody the Meaning of Family in the Marketplace

Daniela Pirani, Rohit Talwar

269 The Shape of Value Co-Destruction to Come

Niklas Vallström, Janet Ward, Seema Bhate

271 Modelling e-learner Satisfaction: The Role of Online Customer Experience.

James Santa, Justin Pelletier, Neil Hair

67

Fiona Cownie, Van Vu, James Haft, Natalia Sonata, Monsak Chaiveeradech

Gratitude within ASEAN Higher Education: An Exploratory Study

320 Reviewing Engagement and Touch Points in Higher Education Course Selection Decision-making

Angela Hall Towers

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track 5

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Brand, Identity & Corporate Reputation

Thursday 4 July 09.00 – 10.30

Room

274 Consumers’ Reaction to Online Brand Hate

Marta Grybś-Kabocik

276 Virtual Community Participation and Purchase Decisions: An Empirical Investigation

Surat Teerakapibal, Junyun Liao

286 Nature and Outcome of Technology Adaptation: A Study of Rohingya Refugees’ Use of Smartphones in Bangladesh

Bidit Dey, Mujahid Babu, Syed Muhammad

233 Determinants of Social Media Marketing Adoption in a Major Telecom Multinational Corporation in Greece: An Internal and External Perspective

Maria Zoitsa Chroni, Pravin Balaraman

207 Is Brand Love Blind? The Impact of Brand Love on Customer Perceived Value.

Anna Ivanova, Stavros P Kalafatis, Lesley Ledden

178 Rebranding the Carmel Market in Tel Aviv: From a Small Commercial Open-Air Market to a Trendy International Hot Spot

Paulette Schuster

8

Samit Chakravorti

Positioning and Branding of Wine: Role of Wine Spectator Magazine

‘It takes a village’: Exploring Collective Craftwork in Informal Economies of Exchange

Stephanie Anderson Amy Goode

Investigating the Boomerang Effect of Recipient’s Reaction to Sender’s Recommendation on the Sender’s Own Firm and Self-Related Outcomes: Moderating Effect of Narcissism and Involvement

Rahul Chawdhary

Life Under a Cloud of Nuclear Decommissioning: Community Stories, Tensions and Envisaged Futures

Emma Banister, Helen Bruce, Stephanie Jones, Emma Long

Does Online Chatter Matter? The Effect of UserGenerated Content and Company Response on Consumers’ Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility Communication

Katie Dunn

Narratives of Vulnerability: Disrupted Consumption Lives of Ex-offenders

Martina Hutton Francesca Crangle-Sim

Special Sessions

Session 5 What the Hell is Entrepreneurial Marketing (EM)? Taking an EM Approach to Life When You’re Tired of a Life of Marketing

Rosalind Jones, David Hansen, Jonathan Deakin, Vincent Pascal, Zubin Sethna, Can Uslay

Track 6

Thursday 4 July 10.45 – 12.00

AM Funded Research Papers

Services and CRM

D106

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Knapp Gallery

D107

Room

331 Understanding Customer Switching Behaviour in the Retail Banking Sector: Direction for Further Studies

Kareem Sani, Ayantunji Gbadamosi, Rula Al-Abdulrazak

364 Relationship Building in Social Enterprise: Social Value Creation and Financial Sustainability

Madeline Powell

4

Value Co-creation on Britain’s Doorsteps by Night: An Exploration of the UK Doorstep Milk Delivery Business

Christian Hoerger

35

Effect of Business Ethics and Etiquette on Relationship Performance: Evidence from China

Hiram Ting, Kim Shyan Fam, Djavlonbek Kadirov, Ahmet Bardakcı, Wenchao Liu

D02


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track 6

Fashion Marketing and Consumption

Sustainability and Ethics

Strategic Marketing

Thursday 4 July 10.45 – 12.00 235 Content Strategies for Celebrity Bloggers in China: The Role of Selfpresentation and Self-disclosure strategy

Jiayan Huang

239 Do Fashion Involvement, Innovativeness and Opinion Leadership Affect Brand Sensitivity? A Multi-Group Analysis of Turkish and German Adolescents

Tutku Eker Iscioglu, Serap Atakan

258 Analysing the Effects of Cohort Experiences on Luxury Brand Purchases by Millennials Through The Application Of Generational Cohort Theory

Rebecca Biggins, Ren Chen

337 Mobile Consumers Shopper Journey Types: Eye Tracking Digital User Behaviour Patterns in Fashion m-Retail

Zofija Tupikovskaja-Omovie, David J Tyler

203 Investigating Sustainability as a Firm-initiated Initiative to Engage Customer in Luxury Fashion Industry

Shuchan Luo, Claudia Henninger, Marta Blazquez Cano

338 The impact of Ethical Textile Labels on Unprompted Consumer Choice

Robert Hamlin, Elizabeth Geddes

343 Identifying Hidden Agreements in Value Co-Creation Process in Marketing Alliances

Ediz Akcay, Kaouther Kooli, Elvira Bolat

128 Chicken or Egg? How to Make Innovation Successful in the FMCG Industry. Empirical evidence from Spain

Belen Derqui, Nicoletta Occhiocupo

141 Research on Emerging Markets: A Resource-Advantage Theory Perspective

Aniruddha Pangarkar

150 ‘No Marketer like an Old Marketer?’ A Model of Effective Marketing Derived from Observing ‘Best Practice’ at Procter & Gamble

Peter Young

168 Gamification as an Engagement Marketing Strategy

Elaine Marie Grech, Marie Briguglio, Emanuel Said

32

Making Markets/ Arts & Heritage

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Entrepreneurial & Small Business Marketing

Consumer Research

Room

Think Category Not Brand to Break Through at the Bottom-of-thePyramid (BOP)

D03

Jonathan Liu, Mouhamed Thiam, Thanasis Spyriadis

298 Marketers Never Tire of Improving Online Customer Experiences: Digital Interventions by B2B Firms to Improve Conversion and Purchase Occurrences

Lucill Curtis

311 Examining the Relationship between Endorsed Ads on Social Networks and Customers’ Need for Uniqueness

Ibrahim Abosag, Zahy Ramadan

20

Timmy H. Tseng, Crystal T. Lee, Sara H. Hsieh

280 Exploring the Profiles of Youth Entrepreneurial Motivation

Irene Lu, Louise Heslop, Francois Brouard, Ernest Kwan, Diane A. Isabelle

310 An Effectual Approach to Online Social Networking in Entrepreneurial Marketing: An Empirical Research from Small Hospitality Firms

Emily Ngan Luong, Ayesha Owusu-Barnaby

315 Social Media Marketing: The Impact of Gender in the Experience of Muslim Entrepreneurs in the UK Food Industry.

Mudassar Sohail, Pravin Balaraman, Nicholas Telford

318 Entrepreneurship, Marketing and the Multicultural: The Case of a European Union Erasmus+ Project in Medias Race

Nicholas Telford, Veronika Gustafsson

25

Luxury Consumption Behavior of Rich Muslims through the Lens of Domains of Living

Khurram Sharif

34

Do Muslim Generation Cohorts Differ in Purchase Intention: The Case of Islamic Financial Products

Hiram Ting, Kim Shyan Fam, Revti Raman Sharma, Farhana Newaz

330 Choice Overload: Explaining the Discrepancies of Existing Observations with a Machine Learning Based Meta-Analysis

D05

May Nagy, Charles Graham, Dag Bennett

368 Performance Management and Marketing the National Lottery

Investigating the Effects of Design Factors on the Marketing Effectiveness of Gamified Branded Applications

D04

Nan Zhang, Heng Xu

D06

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track 6

Thursday 4 July 10.45 – 12.00 93

Technology Enabled Guest Centricity in Hospitality

Room Alessandro Inversini, Manuela De Carlo, Lorenzo Masiero

115 Faking a Supernatural Sales Identity: Making Sense of the Plastic Shaman

Andrew Dean

117 Willingness to Pay and Travel Frequency: Understanding Customer Habituation in the Hospitality Industry

Marta Nieto Garcia, Pablo Antonio Muñoz Gallego, Oscar Gonzalez Benito

Brand, Identity & Corporate Reputation

9

An Interpretive Enquiry into CEO Personal Branding on Social Media

Khanyapuss Punjaisri, Sharifah Faridah Syed Alwi, Krista Kajewski

33

Brand Communication and Gender Fluidity in the Beauty and Fashion Industry

Ria Wiid, Amar Bains

Special Sessions

Session 6 If You Tire of Surveys and Interviews, Try Experiments

Track 7

Thursday 4 July 13.00 – 14.45

Tourism and Place Marketing

Services and CRM

Strategic Marketing

How does the Shared Frontline Experience between Tourist and Tour Leader Affect Tourists’ Relationship-sustaining and Unplanned Purchase Behaviors: An Emotional Convergence Perspective

Wei-Bo Huang, Cindy Yunhsin Chou, Tseng-Lung Huang

57

Consequences of Customer Orientation in Highly Relational Services

Javier Morales Mediano, José L. Ruiz-Alba, Miguel Á. Rodríguez-Molina

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Consumers’ Responses to Reactive CSR: The Role Of CSR Motives and Domain on Perceived Corporate Benevolence and Negative Word of Mouth.

Ilaria Baghi

40

The Need for a Sustainability Marketing Model in the Fashion and Textile Industry: Case Studies in Brazil

Jose Rodrigues Filho, Jose Austerliano Rodrigues Beverly Barker

342 Alternatives to Marine Spatial Planning and impact on Marketing Strategies: the case of Greater Houston Port Bureau

Joan Mileski, Cassia Galvao

Thuy Luyen, Haseeb Shabbir, Dianne Dean

367 Pricing in the digital platform

Jonathan Liu, Gabor Rekettye

369 A Firms’ Digital Transformation and its Digital Marketing Performance: A Connection or Causation

Eleonora Cattaneo, Bhavini Desai

A Structural Model of Value Co-creation, Customer Experience and Customer Engagement of Thai Consumers in e-tailing

332 Antecedents and Outcomes of Value Co-creation: A Conceptual Framework

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

D05

Sarah Bowman

363 The Negative Effect of Effort in Interactive Value Formation and Customer Loyalty

6

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283 Media Strategy & Planning: What is going wrong in Media Briefing?

Nonmarket Marketers: A New Way to look At Public Affairs Practitioners

Knapp Gallery

Dongmei Zha, TC Melewar, Pantea Foroudi, ZhongQi Jin

39

59

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37

249 Using Bibliometrics to Evaluate the Brand Experience Research: Possible Future Research Directions

Sustainability and Ethics

Sabine Benoit Vito Tassiello Giampaolo Viglia

D203

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Vinai Panjakajornsak Faten Jaber, Muneer Abbad

21

Exploring Drivers of Location Information Sharing in Social Networks: A Dual Route Perspective

Crystal Lee, Sara H Hsieh

22

The Digitisation of the UK Automative Industry: The Role of Social Media in Shaping SMEs’ Future Trend

Yehia Sabri Nawar, Saba Moyad Al Tatanchi, Elham Javaherizadeh

27

Content Analysis in Times of Big Data And Sophisticated Machine Learning: A Systematic Review of Methods to Analyse Text in Online Consumer Reviews

Raffaello Rossi, Nikolaos Stylos, Agnes Nairn

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Track 7

E-Marketing and Digital Marketing

Thursday 4 July 13.00 – 14.45 41

Are Branded Tweets Effective under the Conditions of Low Attention? Exploring the Effects of Brand Familiarity and Product Category

Irene Santoso, Malcolm Wright, Giang Trinh, Mark Avis

56

Exploring the Attitudes and Behaviour of Generation Z Students towards Branded Mobile Applications

Debbie Ellis, Shana Axcell

294 Can Online Control be Associated with Emotional Consumer Behaviour?

Consumer Research

Tourism and Place Marketing

AM Funded Research Papers

Special Sessions

Room

Annetta Paps-King, Athina Dilmperi, Charles Dennis

45

The Senses and Luxury: Product Haptic Effects On Product Evaluation of Non-Luxury and Luxury Branded Products

Sheena Karangi, Ben Lowe

38

Reassessing the Influence of Dispositional Guilt in the Context of Consumer Behavior

Ghadeer Kayal, Nripendra Rana, Antonis Simintiras

61

Customer Experience Memorability: Effect of Customer Participation and Environmental Relationship

James E Richard, Jorge Pablo Correa González,

236 In Search of Nirvana: An exploration of Cognitive Value Structures behind Buddhist Pilgrims’ Consumption of Dambadiva Pilgrimage

Padmali Rodrigo, Sarah Turnbull, Mahsa Ghaffari

288 A Possible Solution to Issues Related to Overtourism? Linking Sustainable Tourism Practices to Community Well-being

Carmela Bosangit, Sheila Malone

309 How Destination Brands Tell Stories: An Analysis of Destination Commercials using Joseph Campbell’s The Hero’s Journey

S M A Moin, Sameer Hosany, Justin O’Brien

55

Carol Xiaoyue Zhang, Neve Isaeva

Trust in Sharing Economy: Perspectives of Hosts

D106

Developing Socially Conscious Students: Can Social Consciousness be Embedded through Teaching?

Mazia Yassim, Ewa Krolikowska-Adamczyk

‘Going Agile’: An Exploratory Study of the Use of Project Management Tools in Fostering Psychological Safety in Marketing Group Work

Ben Marder, Pauline Ferguson, Caroline Marchant, Shona Black, Caroline Hedler, Marco Rossi, Rona Doig, Mary Brennan

Session 7 Marketing in the Financial Sector

Seyedeh Asieh H. Tabaghdehi, Pantea Foroudi

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

ABSTRACTS 3

An Approach to Modelling Charity Donor Behaviour Concerning Unpopular Causes

6

Roger Bennett1, Rohini Vijaygopal2, Rita Kottasz1 1

Vinai Panjakajornsak

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom. Open University, London, United Kingdom

2

A procedure for developing models of donor behaviour applicable to unpopular causes is suggested and tested in relation to fundraising for mental health charities. A review of literature concerning general fundraising and public attitudes towards mental health generated an extensive list of variables potentially influencing people’s willingness to give to mental health causes. As the inclusion within a questionnaire of full inventories measuring all the constructs to be considered would have resulted in too long a document, a questionnaire was constructed using single items or reduced forms to measure key constructs. This was completed by 244 members of the public, and the responses employed in a random forest regression that reduced the number of variables to be configured into a predictive model. The model provided a good fit to the data and sound predictive power. Willingness to give to a mental health charity was affected positively and significantly by messages describing contact between non- and mentally disabled people; by ‘protest’ messages; and by altruism, self-congruence, empathy and sympathy. Affect intensity and stigmatic stereotyping exerted negative influences, indicating that potential donors who felt their emotions with great intensity were likely to be psychologically disturbed by images of mental illness.

4

Value Co-creation on Britain’s Doorsteps by Night: An Exploration of the UK Doorstep Milk Delivery Business

A Structural Model of Value Co-creation, Customer Experience and Customer Engagement of Thai Consumers in e-tailing King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss a structural model of factors influencing value co-creation, customer experience, and customer engagement of consumers in the context of e-tailing business in Thailand. Based on a review of relevant literature in previous studies and reports, it is found that customers expect more and more in their service experiences with both store-based and Internet-based retailers. In addition, more consumers in Thailand are expected to make online purchases for goods and services online in the future. In spite of the increased importance of online purchase of goods, relatively empirical studies on Thai consumers’ value co-creation, customer experience, and customer engagement are scarce. Building on previous studies on value co-creation, service experience, customer engagement, this paper proposes a structural model to examine how value co-creation affects customer experience, and customer engagement in online purchases of goods from e-tailers on digital devices, such as smartphones, tablets, notebooks, and personal computers. The research instruments used to collect primary data include self-addressed questionnaires and personal interviews. After the data collection, questionnaires will be processed and analysed with SPSS 21 and Amos 21 programs. Content analysis technique will be used for personal interview data.

8

Positioning and Branding of Wine: Role of Wine Spectator Magazine

Christian Hoerger

Samit Chakravorti

University of Gloucestershire, Munich, Germany

Western Illinois University, Macomb, USA

My research aims to contribute to service-dominant-logic (S-Dlogic) based research in marketing and business, particularly on the value-co-creation-process in the traditional, almost iconic, UK doorstep milk delivery business (= ‘The Milkman’). My intention is to analyse, the nature of the interactions and the roles of the milkmen and the customers in value-co-creation by doing ethnographic fieldwork and conducting semi-structured interviews. The research will help understand ‘how valueco-creation works in the situational context of ‘milk rounds’’. The theoretical context for the research is service-dominantlogic (=S-D-logic) (Vargo & Lusch, 2004a). The research will contribute to S-D-logic’s eleven Foundational Premises and Axioms (Vargo & Lusch, 2016) by fulfilling three objectives that draw on four Foundational Premises and one Axiom:1. To investigate value-co-creation in a UK doorstep milk delivery business by exploring how service providers (milkmen) and service users (customers) conceptualize value when framed from an S-D-logic-perspective. 2. To explore how the service users (customers) determine value (Foundational Premise 10 (Axiom 4)) within the value-co-creation process with the service provider (milkmen). 3. To investigate the impact of and on actors and institutions that are not centrally involved in the value-co-creation (such as the companies/dairies milkmen are working for).

The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of Wine Spectator magazine, a well-known publication of the wine industry, in positioning and branding of wine, wine regions, wineries and wine brands. Content analysis was performed on the magazine’s 15 issues of the year 2016. Findings show that the magazine positions wine through a wine centered lifestyle presentation. This is achieved through descriptions of various aspects of such a lifestyle, and supporting that with wine and non-wine product advertisements. The magazine also selectively facilitates positioning, branding and reputation of certain origins (regions, wineries or brands) directly through creating awareness, humanizing the origin by connecting it with stories on wine makers, and providing extensive expert ratings, and indirectly through allowing a considerable percentage of magazine space to wine advertisements. This content analysis based research on a wine publication with its particular focus on wine positioning and branding is the first of its kind in the wine academic field. It helps readers to understand the role that a major publication in the wine world plays in facilitating the same. This also has implications for strategic moves for wine makers through collaboration with the publication.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

9

An Interpretive Enquiry into CEO Personal Branding on Social Media

15

Khanyapuss Punjaisri1, Sharifah Faridah Syed Alwi2, Krista Kajewski3 College of Management Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. 2 Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom. 3 Educated Change Ltd., Minneapolis, USA

Arezou Ghiassaleh1, Bruno Kocher1, Basilio Noris2 University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. 2Pomelo Sàrl, Renens, Switzerland

1

1

Social media has altered the corporate communication environment. Organisations have put their CEOs on social media to build corporate brand image whilst creating a strong personal brand. However, creating a personal brand online is complicated and problematic, especially when the personal brand serves various stakeholders. While CEOs become recognised as a brand, there has been limited insight into how a CEO personal brand can be crafted and how it impacts stakeholders. Furthermore, CEOs are regarded as a core presentation of the corporate brand. Thus, it is important to understand how CEO personal brand affects the corporate brand. To address these questions, this study adopted a multimethod research, combining qualitative in-depth interviews with netnography, in an attempt to gain understanding of CEO personal brand from both CEOs’ and stakeholders’ perspectives. The findings indicate key CEO characteristics and employee involvement as pre-requisite to developing a CEO personal brand. Also, by bridging corporate branding and online personal branding literature, this study illustrates how a CEO personal brand influences corporate brand image, employee advocacy and consumer loyalty.

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The Shape and the Space: Marketing Mapping in the Big Data Era Stephen France Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA

In this workshop paper, I focus on the topic of marketing mapping, with a particular focus on perceptual mapping of products and consumers. I give a brief literature review of mapping applications in marketing and summarize a range of mapping papers that have been published in marketing journals in the last 50 years. I start with simple mapping techniques from the 1960s, going through more complex, recently introduced methods, which utilize a range of complex scanner, web, and social media data. I describe some of the challenges of implementing and evaluating marketing maps, particularly with respect to the larger datasets that have been used in recent years. I describe data and algorithm design issues that can prevent marketing maps from being used effectively. I give a series of recommendations for improving the implementation of marketing mapping techniques. These recommendations are aimed at both academics and practitioners. In any presentation associated with this workshop paper, I will focus on practical visualization examples. I will show some of the pitfalls of implementing marketing mapping techniques and I will show how mapping quality can be visualized and explored using the QVisVis framework.

Leveraging Conceptual Categorization in Consumer Shopping Experience

This research disentangles the impact of conceptual and perceptual categorization and demonstrates the benefits of conceptual categorization to enhance consumer shopping experience in online and offline contexts. Across four studies (two field studies and two lab studies), we show that conceptual (vs. perceptual) categorization induces a rational thinking process, which subsequently influences a series of managerially important variables (e.g., time consumers spend in the store, multi-category purchases, and the number of purchased products). In addition, our findings demonstrate that conceptual (vs. perceptual) categorization increases consumer satisfaction for utilitarian, but not for hedonic products. This work contributes to a novel and extended view of research on categorization and presents substantial managerial implications for both online and offline retailers.

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Impact of Consumer Knowledge on Diabetes Management – Making a Case for Qatar Khurram Sharif, Abdelhamid Kerkadi Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Diabetes has become an endemic problem in Qatar. This has serious consequences to health and well-being of the people at large. The research objective is to understand the extent of consumer knowledge of nutrition, physical activity and diabetes in Qatar. It seeks to understand the causal factors (nutritional, physical and attitudinal) leading to accumulation of such knowledge. The relationship between knowledge and positive attitudes towards diabetes prevention, with emphasis on health-related behaviors, will be explored. The findings will yield prescriptions regarding cultivating knowledge and awareness about nutrition, physical activity and diabetes in the Qatari society. Finally, the study will outline promotion and communication strategies that will yield the best response in terms of improving knowledge and behaviors for reducing diabetes in line with the findings of the study.

Investigating the Effects of Design Factors 20 on the Marketing Effectiveness of Gamified Branded Applications Timmy H. Tseng1, Crystal T. Lee2, Sara H. Hsieh3 1 Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, Taiwan. 2Wenzhou Business College, Wenzhou, China. 3Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan

Although companies have launched gamified branded applications (apps) to connect with consumers, most of the gamification efforts have resulted in failure. It is imperative to identify design factors influencing the marketing effectiveness of gamified branded apps. The aim of this study is to identify and investigate the design factors influencing the marketing effectiveness of gamified branded apps. Relevant gamification design factors in the current research context were selected to denote story, mechanics, aesthetics, and technology elements in Schell’s (2008) elemental tetrad model of game design. An

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online survey was conducted to collect the data for two wellknown gamified branded apps (Starbucks Rewards and Nike Running). Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze 196 valid data. The results indicate that all the selected gamification design factors facilitate marketing effectiveness. Specifically, symbolic benefits, reward uncertainty, goal clarity, design aesthetics, and playability are determinants of consumer-brand engagement, which in turn generates app continuance intention, purchase intention, and feedback intention. Furthermore, consumer-brand engagement mediates the relationships between design factors and marketing effectiveness.

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Exploring Drivers of Location Information Sharing in Social Networks: A Dual Route Perspective Sara H. Hsieh1, Crystal T. Lee2 Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan. 2Wenzhou Business College, Wenzhou, China

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SoLoMo which stands for ‘Social, Local and Mobile’, is one of the fastest growing trends in marketing. By leveraging GPS technology, individuals are able to ‘check-in’ to specific locations. This spatiotemporal information provides great potential opportunity for marketers, as the location information shared among friends in the SNS can be seen as a kind of word-of-mouth which may increase brand awareness and attract more consumers. Thus, understanding the underlying factors that drives location information sharing provides significant value for practitioners. However, despite its importance, our understanding on this topic is limited. To close the research gap, present research draws from social exchange theory, dramaturgical theory and technology acceptance model to exemplify underlying factors which drives individuals to engage in location-based information self-disclosure on SNS. By using online survey, the result indicate that location self-disclosure intention is driven by a dual route model. One is the facilitating route, driven by social benefits (impression management) and functional benefits (perceived usefulness). The other is the impeding route driven by the perceived risk related to privacy concerns. The findings provide important academic and managerial implications.

The Digitisation of the UK Automative 22 Industry: The role of Social Media in shaping SMEs’ Future Trend. Saba Moyad Al Tatanchi, Dr Yehia Sabri Nawar, Elham Javaherizadeh University of West London, London, United Kingdom The sole purpose of this study is to discuss the role of social media in the automotive industry within the UK. More specifically, the paper focuses on the used car industry from perspectives of SMEs owners and consumers. The paper addresses the questions of how social media could play a vital role in shaping SMEs future trend and business growth within the used car industry. The paper tries to shed light on the impact social media platforms on the consumers’ purchasing decisions. Social media has been considered a powerful tool for boosting SMEs’ growth. This research employed a qualitative research design used in semi-structured interviews to afford a detailed and clear understanding of the effect of social media platforms on SMEs owners and consumers

viewpoint. The paper draws upon the experiences of a range of SMEs’ owners of used car operating within the automotive industry in London to propose a model setting out and linking the technical, business and socio-cultural benefits of social media adoption in supporting business growth and development. The findings of this paper show that there is a significant relationship between social media and the growth of SMEs as well as causing an impact on consumers purchase intention. It shows that social media has helped SMEs improve their sale figures, visibility and communication.

Advertising Music and the Effects of 24 Incongruity Resolution on Consumer Response Morteza Abolhasani1, Steve Oakes2, Helen Oakes3 The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 3 Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom 1

2

The present study examines the effects of in/congruent background music upon consumers’ cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to advertising. It adopts Heckler and Childers’ (1992) twin component congruity framework to investigate the effects of musical in/congruity quadrants, and particularly to examine the benefits of moderate incongruity in the context of advertising music. The present study used quantitative survey experiment approach to explore participants’ responses to various in/congruent background music used for an advertisement prompting a fictitious restaurant. The findings of the present study reveal how using mildly incongruent background music enhanced consumers’ recall of information, attitude, perceptions, as well as their purchase intents. The results show that recall of advertising information was enhanced when using mildly incongruent background music. Furthermore, mildly incongruent background music used to represent the unexpected/relevant in/congruity quadrant resulted in a better ad/brand attitude, perceived food and service quality, as well as a higher level of purchase intent amongst participants.

Luxury consumption behavior of rich Muslims 25 through the lens of domains of living Khurram Sharif Qatar University, Doha, Qatar The study investigated the relationship between the domains of living (DOLs) and luxury consumption behavior (LCB) of affluent Muslims. Being domain of living included elements that indicated who one is and how one defines the self; belonging domain of living linked an individual to its environment; and becoming domain of living referred to the set of social activities that an individual performed. Research survey conducted in Qatar resulted in the collection of 213 usable questionnaire. Key results indicated significant association between the three DOLs and LCB. There were indications that for affluent Muslim consumers, consumption of luxury products seemed to have become a socially accepted norm. This behavior could be related to high levels of affluence amongst Qatari Muslims that makes acquisition of luxury products easy and not effort or time intensive.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Value Creation and the Role of the Donor in 26 Supporter-Led Fundraising

An Exploratory Investigation of the 28 Antecedents of Charity Trust

Katie Mitchell, Anna-Lena Ackfeldt

Walter Wymer

Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom

University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada

In 2015, a series of scandals exposed aggressive fundraising practices by charities that did not prioritise the needs of the donor. In contrast, services marketing theory argues that the customer experience is vital to securing competitive advantage and the prosperity of the firm. Fundraisers now recognise that how donors feel about their experience of fundraising is crucial. This paper finds that, far from being ‘tired of marketing’, fundraisers should regard services marketing as an opportunity to reverse the declining reputation of fundraising and increase the income that drives their social impact. In particular, we examine the concept of value and the role of the donor in value creation. We explore fundraiser’s perceptions to discover that the phenomenological nature of value described by services marketing theory can be applied to the donor’s experience of fundraising. We use the categories of value creation spheres (provider, joint, customer) described by Grönroos and Voima (2013) to identify the donor as an independent creator of value. We make recommendations for a confirmatory study that explores the donor’s perceptions of value and its impact on donor satisfaction and we raise specific questions about the tangible resources provided to donors for further research.

Content Analysis in Times of Big Data 27 and Sophisticated Machine Learning – A Systematic Review of Methods to Analyse Text in Online Consumer Reviews. Raffaello Rossi, Nikolaos Stylos, Agnes Nairn University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom Big Data has been proclaimed a revolution that will transform how we live, work, and think. It has been used to forecast everything from stock market developments to HIV epidemiology and, of course, consumer behaviour. This trend has driven marketing scholars as well as those from a range of other disciplines to investigate research questions such as the correlations between Online Consumer Reviews (OCR)s and sales figures, gender differences in writing or perceiving OCRs, and even racist remarks evident in these short reviews. However, while answers to these questions tend to be sought by analysing written OCRs, there is no consensus or, indeed, much research about how best to analyse this kind of text. In particular there appears to be an elephant in the room: Are computer-aided text analyses a suitable substitution for human analysis of this sort of data? This working paper presents systematic review of recent publications using either human or computer content analyses in order to firstly, identify and map the many specific research approaches that are commonly used in different research disciplines in the field of Big Data and secondly, to examine and compare forms of content analysis by explaining what their limitations and opportunities are.

Analyzing data collected from a national survey, potential antecedents of public trust in charities were tested. Of the eight potential antecedents that influence public trust in charities, two were found to be significant: transparency, the degree to which a charity communicates how it uses its funding, and the degree to which the charity is well-known. Gender was tested as a potential moderator and was found to be nonsignificant.

(The Fallacy of) Choice in Non-Profit 29 Residential Aged Care Paul Harrison1, Amy Maddison2, Laura Hill1, Kathryn Chalmers1 1 Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. 2Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

Entering residential aged care is often fraught with emotional distress for all involved, with the decision often being put off until the last minute, and most often made at times of crisis. Little research has examined the level of satisfaction from residents and their families during this critical decisionmaking process and after the move, nor the residents’ choice experiences regarding the transition. Following discussions with more than 40 residents in aged care homes and their families, this paper considers the abovementioned, alongside the associated complexities of what consumer choice looks like in the non-profit residential aged care context. While results from the qualitative research indicated general contentment with the decision made, many participants inferred a perceived lack of choice throughout the process and move. Interestingly, what often exasperated an already emotional transition was the apparent urgency to accept a bed vacancy when one arose, as well as the already preconceived negative perceptions of what residential aged was like; with many happily surprised. Further research into the processes of yield management, and considerations for ways to evolve the societal perception of aged care would be useful, and in many ways is paramount for a more recognised greater sense of consumer choice.

Lifestyle segmentation: when is it applicable 30 for the brands? Murat Akkaya Yeditepe University, İstanbul, Turkey Lifestyle segmentation is one of the leading sub-concept associated with segmentation in general which has increased its popularity in the last decades. So many research attempt has been published on this subject mainly aiming to define the lifestyle segments on a given product/service market in a positivist look. But, there is a lack of research interest on the normative look of lifestyle segmentation efficiency across different product categories in order to have a guidance for the brands regarding when to implement lifestyle segmentation for which product types and which consumer groups. Thus, this research aims to define a formulation to understand when lifestyle segmentation is applicable for the brands. By a

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cross-categorical analysis, consumers of 4 different product categories have been reached by this research using an online questionnaire and the relationship between lifestyle segments exposed by using AIO scale, the perceived brand value of these segmented consumers and also the purchase intention variation of these segments.

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Social marketing, gender discrimination and hashtag movements in the digital era: a French perspective Jessica Lichy 1, Jo Brewis2 1 IDRAC Business School, Lyon, France. 2University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

This paper analyses social marketing efforts to raise awareness of but also tackle discrimination against women in the workplace. Set in France, it explores the role played by social media in digitally disclosing and addressing such discriminatory behaviour. It highlights how individuals use social media to (re)construct their identities and share information with like-minded users. Interviews with female employees reveal evidence of ongoing discrimination at work and subsequent debates on social media. Preliminary analysis suggests a perception amongst these respondents that, while government intervention has augmented existing online interest, mobilisation and awareness around workplace gender discrimination, the social media ‘hype’ has not yet triggered tangible action or solutions.

Think Category Not Brand to Break through at 32 the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid (BOP) May Nagy , Charles Graham , Dag Bennett 1,2

2

2

The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt. 2London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

1

As established markets mature, international marketers are turning their attention to the underserved BOP markets, defined as consumers earning less than $2/day. While there is much estimated market demand at the BOP, it is capped by low category penetration rates due to low consumer knowledge levels, weak infrastructure, informal distribution systems, etc. Approaches to market development are therefore necessary to drive category growth and tap into BOP market potential. This study investigates how market players drive category expansion and develop consumer markets in emerging economies to realise growth. Twelve executives of FMCG market-leading brands serving Egypt’s BOP markets were identified and invited to semi-structured interviews to discuss their approaches to BOP category growth. A model is presented proposing that marketing strategies should go beyond brand-building activities to 1) trigger consumer interest by offering substitutes to the locally-made solutions that dominate BOP markets, 2) drive demand by re-setting value standards in favour of effectiveness and long-term saving, 3) raise category awareness in collaboration with the state and civil society, and 4) establish reach by investing in infrastructure and distribution channel members. Findings suggest that market development strategies at the BOP draw non-users into growing categories, leading to category and brand growth.

Brand Communication and Gender Fluidity in 33 the Beauty and Fashion Industry Ria Wiid, Amar Bains University of Worcester Business School, Worcester, United Kingdom Traditionally advertising has played a significant role in promoting binary gender roles and ascribing sexual identity. However, increasingly stereotypes created in the media based on gender is being challenged, especially by millennials. Consumers under the age of 34 tend to be more receptive to brands that are LGBT-friendly. In the current socio-political landscape, the use of gender as a key segmentation variable may no longer be appropriate. This working paper explores the use of non-binary images in beauty and fashion brand communication. Because many ads rely solely on visual images to present the advertising message, such research is needed to enhance our understanding of consumer response to visual communication that invoke gender identity. A survey will be used to collect primary data related to participants self-concept clarity, perception of the images, attitude towards the advert and brand, and behavioural intentions. Participants for the study will be recruited from Millennial and Generation Z cohorts. As advertising representations influence cultural and individual conceptions of identities, this paper aims to provide academics and practitioners with insight into consumers’ perceptions of the use of gender-fluid advertising images.

Do Muslim Generation Cohorts Differ in 34 Purchase Intention: The case of Islamic Financial Products

Kim Shyan Fam1, Revti Raman Sharma1, Farhana Newaz2, Hiram Ting3 Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. 2Universiti Tun Abdul Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 3UCSI University, Sarawak, Malaysia 1

This study uses the Generational Cohort Theory (GCT) to examine each generation’s attitude towards IFPs (Islamic Financial Products) in a Muslim majority country. We compare three generational cohorts namely baby boomers, Generation X and millennium generation for four types of IFPs namely Islamic deposit, credit, capital market and insurance products. The study examines 954 responses from five major metropolitan cities in Bangladesh. The key findings suggest that significant generational differences exist for purchase intention of Islamic deposit and insurance products. For these products baby boomers are more likely to purchase them than GenX; and GenX are more likely to purchase them than Millennials. In other words, we find that each successive generation has less purchase intention for these products compared to preceding generations. However, a reverse nonsignificant trend is found for Islamic capital market products implying increasing purchase intention for each successive generation. No significant differences are found for credit market products, though GenX showed highest purchase intention and baby boomers showed lowest purchase inaction. The implications of our study are discussed in the discussion and conclusion sections.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Effect of Business Ethics and Etiquette on 35 Relationship Performance: Evidence from China Kim Shyan Fam1, Djavlonbek Kadirov 1, Ahmet Bardakcı2, Wenchao Liu3, Hiram Ting4 Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. 2Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey. 3Jilin University of Finance and Economics, Changchun, China. 4 UCSI University, Sarawak, Malaysia 1

This research focuses on the effect of business ethics and etiquette on relationship performance. Based on a survey from 583 business people from several major Chinese cities, this research finds that business ethics and etiquette significantly influence relationship performance success. Specially, the business ethics of fair-mindedness and reputation are found to be significantly associated with relationship performance at the growth and maintenance stages, respectively. The business etiquette of commitment/loyalty protocols are found to be important at all stages of business relationships. This study also finds that business orientation and being a quanxi adopter, and gender work in combination to define the nature of an effect of ethics/etiquette on relationship performance.

Unleashing the Dynamics of Product-Market 36 Ambidexterity for Seizing on International Opportunities among Emerging Economy Firms Bradley Barnes1, Lianxi Zhou2, Paul Whitla3 The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 2Brock University, Ontario, Canada. 3Lingnan University, Hong Kong, China 1

Extending the current debate surrounding ambidexterity, this study examines how emerging market firms pursue international opportunities by leveraging the dynamics of product-market ambidexterity. The investigation draws on longitudinal and multiple sources of data from four Chinese multinational firms. Two follow traditional or incremental internationalization pathways, whilst the other two pursue rapid or accelerated internationalization. The study offers a more dynamic perspective to help understand the evolving nature of strategic ambidexterity pertaining to capabilitybuilding processes. In particularly, the findings reveal that incremental internationalization is characterized by structural ambidexterity in product exploitation and market exploration at the initial stages, whereas accelerated internationalization is best explained by market exploration and exploitation when first entering foreign markets. Moreover, firms were found to maintain strategic priorities through structural and punctuated ambidexterity across product and market domains at later stages of internationalization.

How does the shared frontline experience 37 between tourist and tour leader affect tourist’s relationship sustaining and unplanned purchase behaviors: An emotional convergence perspective Wei-Bo Huang, Cindy Yunhsin Chou, Tseng-Lung Huang Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Drawing on shared frontline experience framework, this study examines the effect of tourists perceived tour leader’s attachment style and personality similarity perceived on tourists’ perception of shared frontline experience and their subsequent relationship sustaining intention and unplanned purchase behavior. A total 316 valid online responses are collected from people who participate in at least one group-package-tour (GPT) in the past six months and intends to attend the same tour leader’s GPT again. Analysis using SPSS 22.0 and Amos 20.0 show that the tourists perceived emotional convergence (i.e., attachment style and personality similarity) has significant effect on their shared frontline service experience, which affects their intention for sustaining relationship and unplanned purchase behavior. Tourist’s shared frontline service experience partially mediates the relationships between perceived attachment style, personality similarity and tourist’s relationship sustaining intention and unplanned purchase behavior. Customer perceived autonomy can moderate the effect of perceived attachment style and tourist frontline sharing experience, and between perceived personality similarity and tourist’s frontline shared experience. Finally, tourist-perceived specific asset moderates the relationships between tourist’s frontline shared experience and relationship sustaining intention, and unplanned purchase behavior. Implications for the management of tour leader training and recruitment are discussed.

Reassessing the influence of dispositional 38 guilt in the context of consumer behavior Ghadeer Kayal1, Nripendra Rana2, Antonis Simintiras3 University of Business and Technology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 2Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. 3 Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait, Kuwait 1

Psychologists have emphasized the importance of dispositional guilt (i.e., guilt proneness and guilt repair) as a predictor of unethical behavior. However, in the consumer context, the limited research available indicates that guilt proneness does not influence guilt. Despite this, recent progress in measuring dispositional guilt as well as empirical support for the influence of guilt proneness on both guilt and subsequent behavior, merit a reconsideration of this variable. Thus, this study evaluates the reliability of guilt proneness and guilt repair as predictors of consumer guilt. The results challenge previous research that disregards the influence of guilt proneness and provide empirical support for the impact of guilt repair on consumers’ feelings of guilt.

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Consumers’ responses to reactive CSR: 39 the role of CSR motives and domain on perceived corporate benevolence and negative word of mouth. Ilaria Baghi University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy Reactive strategy involves engaging in corporate social responsibility (CSR) to protect the image of the organization or to repair harms after some irresponsible action. Scholar suggests that reactive CSR leads to negative thoughts and reduces attitudes toward the company. We assume that perceived CSR motives that underpin a reactive CSR strategy after harmful misconducts and the CSR action domain (the same of the misconduct or another domain) may have a role in defying consumers’ affective and behavioral reactions. This research is a first attempt to examine how reactive CSR motives and CSR domain could reduce consumers’ negative word of mouth through the mediation of perceived corporate benevolence. The study consists of an experimental 2 (intrinsic motives vs extrinsic motives) x 2 (same-domain CSR vs otherdomain CSR) between subject design. Results propose a significant moderated mediation model. Findings provide a first empirical evidence that motives that underpinned reactive CSR and the domain of the CSR involvement are crucial factors in defining the consumer reaction to reactive CSR strategy.

The Need for a Sustainability Marketing 40 Model in the Fashion and Textile Industry: Case Studies in Brazil Jose Rodrigues Filho1, Jose Austerliano Rodrigues2 1

Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, Brazil. UNINASSAU, Campina Grande, Brazil

2

The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the need for integration of sustainability in marketing through a conceptualization of marketing oriented towards the development of a sustainability marketing model. Over the past fifty years, environmental problems were part of marketing studies, but issues of resource scarcity, overconsumption, inequality and social injustice were neglected. In marketing literature, stories about the integration of environmental initiatives with equity, social justice or with the redesign of economic institutions is unknown, except in the field of macromarketing. Progress on environmental issues in marketing has been limited focusing only on the greening of some areas, with very little influence on the role of people. This work explores a sustainability marketing model as a concept of corporate management and identifies its value through an expanded approach in the management of companies to validate or deny the concept of a sustainable marketing orientation, considering the economic, environmental, social, ecological citizenship and information technology (IT) dimensions. The value of the conceptual sustainability marketing model was empirically confirmed and evaluated in three companies in the fashion and textile industry in Brazil. This research applies the interpretative paradigm and qualitative content analysis.

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Are Branded Tweets Effective under the Conditions of Low Attention? Exploring the Effects of Brand familiarity and Product Type Irene Santoso1, Malcolm Wright2, Giang Trinh3, Mark Avis1 Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. 3University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia

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A crucial communication task for branded tweets is to exert an influence on choice despite the consumers’ lack of attention. We propose two important source factors as moderators of communication effectiveness in the situations of low attention. Specifically, we propose that brand familiarity and product type influence the effectiveness of branded tweets on consumers’ consideration set and brand choice. The results of the study suggest asymmetrical effects of low attention processing on consideration set and brand choice. When branded tweets were processed at low attention, we found that for a hedonic product, familiar brands were more likely to be included in the consideration set. Conversely, for a utilitarian product, we found that unfamiliar brands were more likely to be selected in a brand choice task. We contribute to existing research on low attention processing by describing more completely the mechanisms by which an increase in communication effectiveness can be obtained. In addition, the study provides practical insights into leveraging the effectiveness of marketing communications on social media.

Acquisition as a mode for servitisation: What 42 are the consequences? Christina Öberg The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden While the literature has brought extensive attention to how manufacturing extend their offerings into services, less is known about the consequences of the chosen mode to accomplish such endeavours. This paper describe and discuss marketing effects of acquisitions of B2B service organisations. The empirical part of the paper is based on two polarised case studies illustrating the marketing effects of acquisitions of service firms. Findings points to the gap in expectations between anticipated and actual integration among customers, and the acquirer’s difficulties to integrate a service logic, although service tasks may be integrated. The paper contributes to previous research through discussing the mode of servitisation and specifically pointing at effects of acquisitions as such a mode.

Creativity and International Marketing 43 Bruno Cignacco GSM London, London, United Kingdom The application of a creative approach in the international marketing strategy will give a company more freedom regarding the exploration of potentially useful options during the internationalization process, beyond the most ordinary and recognizable approaches. A creative international organization can analyze new options which enhance its competitiveness in international markets. The use of creative approaches during the internationalization process aims at developing a wider range of alternatives to solve problems and meet internationalization objectives. This multiplicity of options


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

needs be generated in a frame of spontaneity and suppression of any critical judgement. Companies which use a creative approach in their international marketing activities are usually characterized by their strong attitude of curiosity which help them develop innovative ideas.

Dismantling a Culture of Marketization? 48 Students’ Orientations within a New Government Reform of Tuition Fee Removal in Chilean Higher Education Patricio Sanchez-Campos

The Senses and Luxury: Product Haptic 45 Effects On Product Evaluation of Non-Luxury and Luxury Branded Products Sheena Karangi, Ben Lowe University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom This paper examines the effects of product touch on product evaluations of branded products. It advances knowledge by conceptualising previously unexplored relationships at the interface of different literature streams, namely product touch, brand familiarity and brand status (luxury brands). Consumers consider both product and brand name when making purchase decisions, yet despite repeated calls from researchers about the need to investigate the effects of brand on product touch, research in this area is scant. Through convenience sampling of a university student population across 2 studies that adopt a between subject’s design, experimental research findings show support for a brand contagion effect where a luxury branded product is concerned and suggest that this effect is activated through product touch. Research findings are of significance to both luxury and non-luxury retailers wishing to gain some insight on the possible effects of having online and offline retail presence, from a consumer perspective. The paper highlights the power that lies in touching luxury branded products by extending contagion theory to the brand literature, showing evidence of a brand contagion effect that is activated through product touch. It further extends brand literature to the emerging field of sensory marketing, specifically related to product touch.

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile The contribution of students to the costs of HE through tuition fees is a continuous debate among scholars because of the potential negative consequences on students’ behaviours. In a culture of marketization in HE, removing tuition is a unique countertrend phenomenon. This project is aimed to explore how students understand what it means to be a student when a new public policy brings back the state to finance some students. After 38 years of a highly marketized system, the Chilean government approved in 2016 a new HE reform, partially removing tuition fees for a group of economically less privileged students attending any public and some private HE institutions (HEIs) in an effort to bring back HE to its public place in society. This thesis will explore how HE is experienced when students choose an HEI and how students understand what is to be a student at the beginning of their HE journey and at the end while being a state-funded or a self-funded student in a public or a private HEI. Also, this research will explore if the students’ constructions in policy documents differ from the students’ self-reflections contributing to wider debates about if marketization can be eventually countered.

Marketing Capability Development: The Effect 49 of Market Information Resource in Small Firms Grace Carson1, Christina O’Connor2, Geoff Simmons1 1

Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom. Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland

2

Effective Teaching Tools for a Marketing 47 Module Bruno Cignacco GSM London, London, United Kingdom The PGCHEP course (Post Graduate Certificate in Higher Education Programme) taught me very valuable tools, for example, lesson planning, teaching for big and small groups and use of technological resources, among others. As a result of applying the tools not only did I observe that my teaching practice improved, but at the time I delivered the session with more aplomb and enthusiasm. At the same time, by applying these tools I also realised that student became more engaged and participative regarding the module activities. I also observed that with the application of this tool students learnt the topics in a much deeper manner (Biggs, 1999)

Following increased interest over past decades, the impact of various marketing capabilities on performance indicators has been widely demonstrated. However, it remains a gap in the literature as to how these marketing capabilities develop and their potential antecedents. Recent inquiry highlights the positive impact that market information resource can have on marketing capabilities, as it is thought to increase a firm’s ability to identify opportunities relative to customer requirements. However, there is a deficit in research exploring this phenomenon from a small firm perspective. Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm, this article attends to the outlined knowledge gaps by exploring the relationship between market information resource and small firm marketing capabilities, with reference to specialized marketing capabilities, architectural marketing capabilities and dynamic capabilities. This research concludes that small firms consistently cultivating and effectively utilizing a hierarchy of marketing capabilities, facilitated by market information resource, are thought to be significantly more capable of implementing successful marketing strategies and creating value for customers.

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The Effect of Market Information Resource on 52 Small Firm Marketing Capabilities Grace Carson1, Christina O’Connor2, Geoff Simmons1 1

Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom. Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland

2

Market information resource provides customer purchasing preferences, key performance metrics and competitor insights. Typically, extant literature implies that such information resources are more suitable for larger firms with formalized marketing approaches and personnel. SME literature, conversely, emphasizes a considerably more informal and haphazard approach to marketing in small firms, directed by intuition and experience, rather than explicit data resources. Given the volatility of the current economic climate, research indicates an increasing need for small firms to develop more effective responses to changing markets. The purpose of this paper is to consider the effect of market information resource on small firm market capabilities. However, leveraging data and fostering the changes that take place is not always easy. Indeed, the dedication required by small firms to respond to this transformation is great, considering small firm resource deficiencies. Using the resource-based perspective, this research explores whether an increase in the level of market information resource possessed by small firms can generate a development in effective marketing capabilities.

Contributing Forward - Identifying Ways 54 to Strengthen the Impact of Academic Contribution to the Marketing Practice of Non-profit Organisations. Sarah-Louise Mitchell Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom As the pace of change in marketing practice accelerates, so grows the need for academics to deliver insight and impact. The opportunity to provide theoretical lenses through which organisations can better understand their shifting world, enabling the transfer of best-practice know-how, and informing the development of, and crucially, the implementation of, strategy and tactics has never been greater. This paper builds on Kumar’s (2017) theory-practice-theory cycle and observes a weak link in the relationship between academic output and marketing practitioner decision-making in the nonprofit context. However, this also presents a significant opportunity for future academic contributions. The paper identifies three routes to ‘contributing forward’ and three conditions that need to be met to ensure the maximum possible impact on the nonprofit practitioner community.

Trust in sharing economy: perspectives of 55 hosts Carol, Xiaoyue Zhang1, Neve Isaeva2 1

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom. University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

2

The peer-to-peer accommodation business continues to grow significantly. While the sharing economy relies heavily on peer-to-peer transitions, the understanding of this new form of business from the host perspective is still in a developing

stage. This study focuses on understanding the trust dynamics from peer-to-peer accommodation hosts in China. To explore the trust dynamics of hosts in different sharing economy platforms in China, this qualitative paper will carry out indepth interviews to explore the types of trust involved and their impacts on hosts’ experience. A conceptual appraisal of the concept of trust in the Chinese context informs the empirical work. This working paper will contribute to the conceptualisation of trust dynamics in the sharing economy in China. In acknowledging the significance and dynamics of trust from a host perspective, this paper contributes to the efforts to understand trust dynamics in peer-to-peer business platforms.

Exploring the Attitudes and Behaviour of 56 Generation Z students towards Branded Mobile Applications Shana Axcell, Debbie Ellis University of kwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa With the increasing mobile activity of the Generation Z market (born after 1994), marketers’ interest in this social group is rising. This research attempts to uncover the relatively unknown attitudes and behaviour of the youth market in South Africa around branded mobile applications. The research problem focuses on the academic literature gap of the latest group of consumers: Generation Z. Previous studies on mobile marketing have focused on Generation X and Generation Y with a quantitative focus. This study is based on the theoretical framework of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model 2. The study employed a qualitative framework with stratified focus groups, aged between 18/21 years old at a private tertiary institution in South Africa. The findings indicate that the participants had more positive than negative attitudes towards mobile apps. In terms of behaviour, on average, participants had between 7-10 apps on their phone but only used 4-6 apps every day. As a recommendation, the issue of privacy and its effect on mobile app adoption is a factor to be researched in the future. The research also provides recommendations for marketers and app developers such as incorporating permission marketing into mobile applications.

Consequences of Customer Orientation in 57 Highly Relational Services Javier Morales Mediano1, José L. Ruiz-Alba2, Miguel Á. Rodríguez-Molina3 Universidad Pontificia Comillas, MADRID, Spain. 2University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. 3 Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain 1

The purpose of this research is to investigate the customer orientation of service employees (COSE) and its consequences in a highly relational service (HRS) context. To do so, a HRS is chosen and studied qualitatively. This working paper presents some preliminary results. A quantitative study will be completed in the following months. Front-line employees from private banking (PB) services were chosen for this study because their level of judgement and involvement during the service delivery identifies them as front-runners in HRS. New consequences of COSE were identified, namely: trust, loyalty, word of mouth and customer-oriented deviance, plus one specific for the PB – the increase of assets under management. This study proposed a new COSE model and presented five hypotheses. Then, a questionnaire for the quantitative study


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

is configured. This study offers original contributions for academics and practitioners in the service sector. The main academic contributions are: (1) the proposal of a new and more comprehensive model of CO, (2) the identification of new consequences, and (3) the development of a measurement instrument. This study can also be relevant for practitioners in order to gain a deeper understanding of the customer orientation of front-line employees in a HRS.

‘Working On A Dream’ – Is Experiential 58 Learning The Key To Graduate Employability? Helen Meek Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom This paper reviews graduate employability in light of the recent introduction of the teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) and discusses the strategies adopted by higher education institutions to improve their graduate employability. The paper explores the extent to which experiential learning can help build employability skills and prepare students for the transition to the workplace. A case study, based on experiential learning, of final year undergraduate marketing students at Lancaster University, is presented. The paper reveals that providing students with opportunities to gain employability skills, via experiential learning, is alone insufficient. The key to building effective employability skills and attributes is to not only embed them in modules, but to also provide students with the opportunity to build their self-confidence and reflect on their experiences.

Nonmarket Marketers: A New Way to Look At 59 Public Affairs Practitioners Sarah Bowman Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom This paper addresses two specific questions: how do public affairs practitioners view themselves and how does this conceptualisation relate to wider debates about what constitutes IMC. Scholarship suggests a shift from marketingcentred to organisational perspectives of IMC with a growing importance given to nonmarket stakeholders. Also, public affairs practitioners increasingly operate within a market context and against a changing notion of what constitutes professional work. By using the lens of identity, this paper enables insight into how individuals who help manage nonmarket relationships view themselves. The study is shaped by a critical realist worldview and draws on data from a mixed methods study of UK practitioners exploring public affairs capabilities. Findings suggest practitioners understand their core identity as predicated on social capital and political insight, but they recognise their role is evolving. This includes widening of skills to include media and digital techniques, a broader remit of stakeholders and greater integration into the organisation. In this they show tendencies towards marketing communications and a stakeholder orientation of IMC. Limitations relate to its scope, a small-scale UK qualitative study and further research is required amongst those who deliver market and nonmarket relationships and the value of integrating these together.

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Customer Experience Memorability: Effect of Customer Participation and Environmental Relationship Jorge Pablo Correa Gonzalez, James E Richard Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Customer experience has been defined as feelings, thoughts, and emotions that emerge from immediate services and products customer encounters. However, experience-based theories stress that the immediate encounter is simply the first step of a complex process that includes long-term memories and outcomes. Based on Pine and Gilmore’s (2016) customer experience conceptualisation, this study investigates the influence of customer experience memorability on the customer experience phenomenon. A customer experience memorability model was tested using an online self-report survey and PLS-SEM analysis. The results confirmed that customer experience memorability (CXM) is a significant salient factor influencing customer experience. The CXM model confirmed customer participation as a mediator between environmental relationship and customer experience memorability. In conclusion, customer experience memorability explains a significant amount of variance in the overall customer experience. Additionally, the level of involvement (e.g., flow) and participation (active or passive) of customers effects CX memorability. New scales for customer experience memorability, customer participation, and environmental relationship are tested and validated. Further research is suggested on the role of CX memorability on the customer experience.

Consumers in Emerging Markets: Subjective 62 Well-Being and Affective Consumption Choice Gregory Kivenzor University of Connecticut, Stamford, USA Over the last decades, emerging markets (EMs) continued to undergo a large-scale political, economic, social, and cultural transition affecting their citizens. Emotional stress stemming from this transition creates a psychological disequilibrium and affects consumer subjective well-being (SWB). The new consumption phenomena are somewhat puzzling because they require a deeper understanding of consumer attitudes and motivations when new preferences contradict old cultural traditions. We examined the dynamics of the intrapersonal and interpersonal psychology of social group members and connected them to their respective levels of consumption to explain the factors of compulsory and hedonic motivations affecting luxury consumption. The suggested conceptual framework bridges theory with managerial implications helping marketing managers develop more effective strategies promoting luxury and premium goods and services in EMs. The suggested conceptual framework bridges theory with managerial implications helping marketing managers develop more effective strategies promoting luxury and premium goods and services in EMs. Such strategies and associated tactics in advertising and positioning of luxuries should focus not only on the features and characteristics of products but rather on cultural norms of social groups and the aspirations of their members.

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GDPAaaarrggh! An Analysis of Email 66 Marketing Communications Informing Consumers of new EU Data Regulations David Hart , Craig Bradshaw , Hiba Koussaifi 1

1

2

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. 2Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon 1

As of 25 May 2018, The General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) requires organisations to follow a consistent set of guidelines on the handling and usage of consumer data in the European Union and European Economic Area. These regulations demand organisations to fundamentally rethink their approach to data privacy and represent a threat for organisations who wish to retain ongoing relationships with their database contacts, particularly via email. As such, throughout early 2018 millions of consumers received multiple emails from organisations sharing updated privacy policies and encouraging recipients to opt-in to future communications. This study aims to provide a thorough review of the email marketing communications sent by organisations in the run up to GDPR implementation, addressing factors such as message framing, personalisation and calls to action. Using content and template analysis on a sample of 222 emails, initial findings suggest around half of emails simply notified recipients of updated privacy policies, with the remainder more likely to use positively framed ‘opt-in’ as opposed to ‘opt-out’ messages. Surprisingly, the majority of emails were not personalised, and there was a contrast between the formal language used in email titles and more relational terminology used in email headers.

Consumer reactions to conflict management 68 in non-profit online communities Denitsa Dineva1, Jan Breitsohl2, Brian Garrod3, Phil Megicks4 Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom. 3 Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. 4 University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom 1

2

A recent investigation in online consumer environments has been the management of hostile consumer-to-consumer interactions (here referred to as ‘consumer-to-consumer (C2C) conflicts’) on organisation-hosted online communities. Few existing studies have so far exclusively focused on understanding what conflict management strategies online community hosts use. In contrast, the present study proposes to advance this knowledge by testing the effect of conflict management on the consumers participating in non-profit online communities. This is done following a two-step approach. In Study 1, we conducted a netnographic study of PETA’s online community on Facebook that revealed five conflict management strategies. In Study 2, we investigated consumer reactions to the identified conflict management strategies via an online experiment. The results showed that consumer attitudes and perceptions vary depending on the type of strategy adopted.

Augmented reality: Engaging consumers 69 Paul Harrison, James E Richard Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Gratitude within ASEAN Higher Education: an 67 exploratory study. Fiona Cownie1, Van Vu2, James Haft3, Natalia Sonata4, Monsak Chaiveeradech5 Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom. Academy of Journalism and Communication, Hanoi, Vietnam. 3Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 4 BINUS, Jakarta, Indonesia. 5Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand 1

2

Gratitude can be a powerful mediating variable within relational exchanges, with the potential to drive important relational outcomes. The cultural characteristics of countries within the ASEAN region, suggest that relational exchanges which focus on reciprocity and thus gratitude may have a particularly important role to play. This study seeks to examine evidence of gratitude within students’ and academics’ experiences within four HEIs within Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. It examines the impact of gratitude on an important relational outcome, word-of-mouth communication. An understanding of the nature and evidence of gratitude amongst students has the potential to inform the development of strategies aimed to enhance word-of-mouth from students about their experiences of university within the ASEAN region.

The current study investigates determinants of consumer engagement intention with augmented reality (AR) applications. Determinants were drawn from extant adoption model literature and contemporary augmented reality adoption studies. The seven determinants include: perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, brand attitude, subjective norms, attitude towards behaviour, perceived behavioural control, and technology familiarity. Augmented reality involvement was tested as a moderating variable. Participants (n = 120) were shown one of two videos demonstrating a high involvement or low involvement AR application, before completing a questionnaire. The findings revealed subjective norms, involvement, technology familiarity, attitude towards the behaviour, and perceived behavioural control are key determinants of AR engagement intention. Brand attitude influenced the intention to share an AR app. The study offers theoretical and practical implications and suggest that the determinants of AR technology adoption are likely to change over the course of the technology’s adoption.


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Provocative Advertising in Social Media – Congruence with Ad and Sharing Intentions Juha Munnukka, Silja Kyyrönen, Outi Uusitalo University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

This study examines provocative brand advertising in social media. The data was gathered by an online survey to test the conceptual model and hypotheses of provocative advertising effectiveness. The results show that the audience’s attitudes toward advertisement as well as perceived advertisement provocativeness have positive direct effects on sharing intentions of the advertisement in social media. The provocativeness, nonetheless, negatively affects the audience’s attitudes and thus indirectly affects sharing intentions. However, these negative effects are prevalent only among the consumers whose values are not congruent with the advertisement message.

Optimal Pricing Practices within the Context 73 of One Product, One Retailer, and Two Channels Majed Helmi, Dr. Sarah Xiao, Dr. Mike Nicholson Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom Advances in technologies and communication have influenced the retail sector across both online and offline channels. Many retailers have switched to multi-channel to meet consumers’ need. Multiple experiments have examined the price thresholds of different channels and conditions at different price levels. The results indicate a statistically significant difference between online and offline channels when applying the promotional price formats. Also, price sensitivity differs between online and offline channels for the same retailer.

Hate Is Such A Strong Word… Or Is It? 74 Asli Kuscu Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey Emotions, particularly strong ones play an important role in consumer-brand relationships, shaping majority of consumers’ choices and preferences. Yet, previous studies mostly concentrated on strong and positive ones and left the negatives aside. Brand hate is referred as one of the strongest negative emotions, consumers experience with brands and from both theoretical and practical reasons, brand hate needs further investigation. The current study building on the tenets of interpersonal relationships, focuses on the transformation of passion to active and passive hate in case of a brand misconduct leading the consumer perceive to be betrayed. Further the consequences of active and passive hate are also delineated. Consequently, the study aims to contribute to scarce negative consumer-brand relationship literature in two ways. First, the findings suggest that in any case of a brand misconduct (experiential/symbolic/moral), consumers’ perceived betrayal is an important factor turning passionate relationships to active and passive hate. Hence, results add to existing studies by showing that perceived betrayal can terminate positive feelings and turn them into negative. Second, active and passive hate have different consequences with active hate being more detrimental.

Viral Prediction for Online Video Channels: 75 Macro and Adaptive Methods Stephen L. France1, Mahyar Sharif Vaghefi2, Huimin Zhao3 Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA. The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA. 3 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA 1

2

Online video has provided opportunities for content creators to reach large audiences. Many amateur content creators obtain millions of viewers for their content channels on video platforms such as YouTube. These channels can provide exposure, advertising revenue, and brand building opportunities for content creators. In this workshop paper, we outline several empirical insights and tools for helping channel managers analyse the viewing statistics for their content. We describe methods of analysing viral growth patterns for online videos. These include overall ‘macro’ functional fitting models and adaptive time series forecasting methods. The functional fitting models give insight into overall viral video behaviour and can be used to classify viral videos. The adaptive forecasting methods, such as smoothing and ARIMA methods, can give accurate forecasting of video views. We give suggestions for future research and describe possible methods and tools that could be developed for video channels. In the associated workshop presentation, an emphasis will be given on visual tools and visual analytic approaches.

Reimagining the Marketing Mix for Political 77 Marketing Minita Sanghvi1, Phillip Frank2 1 Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, USA. 2Missouri Western State University, St. Joseph, USA

The 4 Ps Model representing Product, Price, Place and Promotion are often considered the ABC’s of Marketing by marketing educators. Building on the research initiated by Lloyd (2005) with regards to adapting the marketing mix and the 4 Ps model to political marketing, this research paper revisits the issue with a new formulation that uses Lauterborn’s 4 Cs model and its customer focus as a mode of contemplating a unique marketing mix that would work in research and practice of political marketing and that can be used in textbooks as building blocks on the discipline. The new 4 Cs marketing mix model for political marketing uses the following four Cs: Candidate, Campaign, Credibility and Constituency. In place of product/ consumer want there is a candidate, in place of promotion/ communication there is a campaign, in place of price/ cost is credibility and in place of place/ convenience there is constituency. The new model resolves some of the main issues presented in previous marketing mixes when applied to political marketing. Finally, it is an easy to comprehend teaching tool that can be used in classrooms across the country and builds off the 4P and 4C framework already in place.

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The psychological processes underlying 78 online buyers’ mobile purchasing ‘cognitive effort – resistance behaviour’

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A Strategic Approach to Amplifying an Experiential Event using Social Currency to Reach a Mass Audience

Jacques Nel1, Christo Boshoff2

Holly Barry, Rose Leahy, Pio Fenton

University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. 2 Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland

1

Although some consumers regularly use their mobile phones to conduct typical day-to-day shopping activities such as price comparisons, it seems that many online buyers (customers using a retailer’s website on a desktop computer or laptop to purchase products) remain reluctant to do mobile purchasing (that is, using their mobile phone to purchase products online) from those retailers. To understand this resistance behaviour, the influence of mobile purchasing cognitive effort perceptions on mobile purchasing resistance was investigated using a mediation analysis. Based on the literature reviewed, mediators were identified from status quo bias theory (online purchasing habit and inertia) and the push-pull-mooring framework (mobile purchasing alternative attractiveness). Data were collected from 466 online-only buyers of an online retailer that also offers a mobile shopping service that customers can access through the internet browser on their phone to purchase products. The hypotheses were empirically assessed using SmartPLS version 3.2.7. Online purchasing inertia and mobile purchasing alternative attractiveness perceptions in parallel and in serial mediated the influence of cognitive effort perceptions on mobile purchasing resistance. By contrast, online purchasing habit only mediated the mobile purchasing ‘cognitive effort – resistance’ relationship in serial with online purchasing inertia and/or mobile purchasing alternative attractiveness perceptions.

An Examination of Consumer Purchase 80 Intention and Effectiveness of Marketing Instruments in WeChat Lingxiao Mao1, Tao Chang2 1 Taihu University of Wuxi, Wuxi, China. 2University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom

Mobile social messenger has changed people’s lifestyle and decision-making due to their dependency on social media technologies. In China, where various mobile technologies bloom, Chinese largest mobile social messaging application, WeChat, has become one of the largest platforms for merchants to conduct their online marketing activities. The marketing activities derived from WeChat are now becoming the research focus of both academic and business worlds. How to increase the effectiveness of online marketing in WeChat has generated a heated discussion topic in online business field. However, there still lacks a systematic classification and analysis of WeChat marketing strategy in relation to marketing instruments. This research mainly focuses on consumer purchase intention and the effectiveness of different WeChat marketing instruments. This paper attempts to make recommendations for businesses to develop a more rational WeChat marketing strategy. The research found that high-quality communication and aggressive discounts are the most important vital influencing factor on consumers’ purchase intention. These should be emphasised in all marketing instruments. In addition, the effectiveness of WeChat mall is not as effective as other marketing instruments due to its low penetration rate.

Given the rise in popularity in the use of experiential marketing (Moderne Communications, 2014), it is timely to establish from the marketing practitioners’ perspective, the strategic approach necessary to amplify experiential events using social currency to reach a mass audience in the FMCG sector. By introducing the FMCG marketer’s perspective into the discussion on experiential event marketing, this research offers an insight into how brands are activating this marketing activity. Based on the analysis of interviews profiling fifty brands in the FMCG sector, preliminary findings suggest that the success of an amplification strategy for an experiential event in FMCG markets, is dependent on the application of a time phase approach, and the use of four critical success factors. Collectively, these findings contribute to the development of the Experiential Event Amplification Framework. This framework contributes to the gap in the literature on experiential event marketing in the FMCG sector. Given the perception that experiential event marketing is an expensive practice which can negatively impact ROI (Supovitz, 2013), this research contends that the Experiential Event Amplification Framework provides practitioners with a strategic approach, whereby the ROI of this marketing activity can become more efficient, reaching the mass audience globally.

Walking With Women on Hills: Exploring the 82 Contested Spaces of Their Serious Leisure David M Brown, Tom Mordue Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom This paper uses walking interviews to explore women hillwalkers’ relationships with place and space, the barriers they experience to participation in their serious leisure pastime, and the strategies which they use to overcome them. It examines the contested nature of spaces as places of women’s resistance to androcentric tourist structures, masculinised portrayals of adventure and leisure, societal expectations and demands, and everyday socio-economic constraints. Additionally, it assesses the suitability and advantages of using walking interviews to research people who are inextricably linked to their environments through movement, and some of the philosophical underpinnings which suggest that mobile techniques are required to facilitate conceptualisations of spaces which reflect their shifting and co-constructed nature. The research produces new and potentially counterintuitive findings on the role of intersectionality in dealing with these barriers, and of the moderating role played by counternarratives which were not necessarily promoted with the intention of challenging androcentric power structures or masculinised portrayals of places, landscapes and leisure, but nonetheless arm women with alternative contexts in which resistance to cultural hegemony and societal demands may be more achievable.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Investigating the Roles of Perceived Green 83 Value and Utilities in Impacting Green Purchase Intention Ruizhi Yuan1, Martin J. Liu2 Xi’an Jiaotong Liverpool University, Suzhou, China. Nottingham University Business School China, Ningbo, China

1

2

This research investigates the influences of green value on consumers’ intention to adopt green product with the decision making criteria derived from the perspective of utility theory. We first reconceptualise perceived green value as a multidimensional and multi-facet construct that included functional, symbolic and experiential attributes. We then examined the interacting effects of perceived green value, acquisition utility and transaction utility, and consumption intention. Using survey method, our results reveal that acquisition utility and transaction utility have positive impacts on consumers’ green consumption intention. Specifically, we found acquisition utility mediates the effect of perceived green value and consumers’ consumption intention and transaction utility moderates the relationship between acquisition utility and consumers’ consumption intension. The findings have implications for business practice in managing product green attributes, consumers’ perception in balancing perceived value and price.

NOT Reviewing the Movie, but Reviewing 85 Other Reviews: Effective Online Movie Reviews in Japan, a Country with High Uncertainty-Avoidance Behaviour Miyuki Morikawa Tokyo University of Technology, Tokyo, Japan In this era of the Internet, online user reviews are becoming increasingly important to consumers when they choose products to buy. It is a phenomenon experienced with not only goods and services but also entertainment products such as books, music, video games and movies. Not every user review is, however, considered influential among consumers. To describe the characteristics that distinguish ‘useful’ reviews from ‘useless’ reviews, this study focuses on online movie reviews posted on Yahoo! Japan Movies, one of Japan’s most popular movie websites which posts a usefulness counter with each review. This research demonstrates three principal characteristics are common to ‘useful’ reviews: a) a longer text; b) references of other reviews; and c) a high level of verbal expressiveness. From the perspective of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, it is reasonable that longer, informative texts with rich expressions are preferred by consumers from cultures with high uncertainty-avoidance scores such as in Japan. Japan’s potential moviegoers are, however, motivated by reviews reviewing other reviews, even if some comments are very negative to the movie. This study suggests consumers from cultures showing high uncertainty-avoidance sometimes have reverse preferences.

Managing Relationships on Social Media in 86 Business-To-Business Firms: The Case of Service Providers and Product Providers Severina Iankova1, Iain Davies2, Chris ArcherBrown3 University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom. 3Falmouth University, Falmouth, United Kingdom 1

2

Social media is a great source of market intelligence where ease and efficiency of interactions are improved, individual expressions of self and brand engagement are facilitated, and valuable source of information and customer insight can be found. Thus, through social media, interaction, collaboration, and networking have the potential to be improved, resulting in stronger relationships between actors within networks. With the immediacy of network formation, B2B organisations are seeing significant opportunities for relationship development on social media networks. However, despite these opportunities, research into B2B organisations usage of social media for relationship building remains in its infancy. Drawing on 12 case studies investigating social media usage in relation to acquiring relationships, building reputation online and engaging with relevant stakeholders, this research contextualises the Actor, Resources and Activities model as a theoretical lens, looking at how actor bonds, resource ties, and activity links are combined to deliver on four different strategic objectives for social media usage in B2B organisations.

Methodological Challenges when doing 87 Research in Refugee Communities– a Reflection Hounaida El Jurdi1, Linda Price2, Zeynep Baktir3 American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. 2University of Oregon, Oregon, USA. 3Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey 1

This research brings together an investigation of practices of hope with recent scholarship on the growing global archipelago of refugee encampments and spaces of longterm displacement with often ‘fragmented authority, uncertain sovereignty, provisional legality and underdetermined duration,’ (Feldman 2015, p. 244). We examine hope as a practice embedded in the socio-materiality of the everyday lives of Syrian women refugees sited in Lebanon, host to one of the largest Syrian refugee populations per capita in the world. Written in the form of a reflection, the paper explores the researcher’s own qualms and struggles in conducting research on vulnerable and marginalized communities.

The Use of Websites as a Digital Marketing 88 Communication Channel: A Case of B2B SMEs Dr Justina Setkute1, Dr Simone Kurtzke2 Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom. 2Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

1

The use digital marketing has grown significantly, therefore, companies have been forced to adopt digital communications as a part of their marketing practices with websites being the main channel. However, companies operating in the industrial sector have been slow to adopt these newer

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marketing practices. At the same time, there is a gap in the literature on SMEs marketing practices, which also argues that small companies do not use digital marketing to its full potential. Thus, little is known how small industrial companies communicate with their customers and which digital marketing channels they use to do so. This qualitative study contributes to the understanding of B2B SMEs marketing practices by investigating the use of a company website as a digital marketing channel. The findings suggest that, while companies seem to understand that their website should be their main digital channel and devote some resource to it, they have little expectations from their website to acquire or retain customers. The websites are primarily used for one-way information provision with little consideration of two-way communication. More broadly, the findings suggest that small firms have an adhoc approach towards their digital marketing channels with a lack of clear strategies to achieve marketing goals.

Exploring Football Fan Engagement: A Case 89 Study in Customer Experience Innovation Clare Keogh1, Philip J. Rosenberger III 2, Ameet Pandit3, Hartmut H. Holzmuller 4,3 Central Coast Business School, University of Newcastle, Central Coast, Australia. 2Central Coast Business School, University of Newcastle, Central Coast, Australia. 3Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia. 4TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany 1

Fan-engagement, critical to sports club sustainability, lacks literature on behavioural interactions in transaction and non-transaction exchanges leading to match attendance. Here, exploratory research addresses football low-involved fans conversion to highly-engaged club members, using innovative customer-engagement practices. A theoretical framework building on sports fan engagement (FE) literature and an activity, actor bond, resource (AAR) interaction model offers opportunities for fan innovation and co-creation of value in a service-experience sector. Adopting a qualitative, multi-level case study, stakeholder perspectives from two leading Australian and German professional sports (soccer) clubs uncover marketing innovations in fan engagement. Face-to-face in-depth stakeholder interviews are supported by club membership secondary data. Drawing on an AAR interaction lens to analyse innovation practices in fan engagement, data from in-depth interviews, supplemented by online surveys and membership data is analysed. Preliminary Australian findings identify innovative interaction behaviour by fan-engagement captains leads to positive membership outcomes despite poor sporting performance. The discussion highlights an array of stakeholder interactions by the case club to increase fan activity links and fan actor bonds. This research contributes to knowledge and understanding of innovative fan interaction behaviour, leading to successful customer engagement in sport experience and services, to guide both academic and marketing management practitioners.

Impact of Online Cross-Cutting Exposure 90 on Consumer Political Participation & Social Anxiety Maria Shahid1, Seong Jae Min2, Waseem Hassan1 NUST Business School (NBS), National University of Science & Technology, Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2 Dept. of Communication Studies, Pace University, 41 Park Row, New York, NY 10038, New York, USA 1

Given the instrumental role of social media in Pakistani politics, this paper investigates the effect of cross-cutting-exposureto-politically-disagreeable-news-on-Facebook on consumers’ political participation. It is also trying to assess if this crosscutting exposure to undesirable news triggers social anxiety especially when consumer’s conspicuous online political behavior makes him/her fearful of the negative evaluation by others.Politically disagreeable news and information coming from weak-ties generate social anxiety but also positively influence consumer’s political participation. When social media is acting as a moderator, both political participation and social anxiety were accentuated. This study found that a perception of consumer’s feeling of being an undesirable social-self due to conspicuous display of political opinion amplify social anxiety. However, when Facebook engagement with disagreement is acting as a moderator, the intensity of social anxiety is reduced. The study entailed pre-election data is limited by the generalizability of the context. The data mostly represented responses from young lot. Future researchers can incorporate other social media platforms, besides Facebook. News channels as well as political parties’ social media campaign managers can try to enhance their political campaigns on the findings of these results. Technologists can introduce apps to mobilize people.

The Influence of Product Design on Brand 92 Personality, Consumer Brand Engagement, and Brand Equity Nasser Alqahtani Rutgers Business School at Newark and New Brunswick, Newark, USA. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia This research investigates the role of product design in enhancing firms’ branding efforts. It demonstrates how product design can be used as an influential tool to develop a unique and appealing brand personality, enhance consumer brand engagement, and ultimately, grow and sustain brand equity. Current research also studies the moderating role of brand personality appeal to the relationships between brand personality, and brand equity. It enriches our understanding of product design as a process, rather than an outcome, that can be optimized to improve firms’ branding performance. Current research also contributes to the emerging theory of product design, brand personality appeal, and consumer brand engagement.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Technology Enabled Guest Centricity in 93 Hospitality Alessandro Inversini1, Manuela De Carlo2, Lorenzo Masiero3 Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, HES-SO // University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, HES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland. 2IULM, Milano, Italy. 3The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong 1

Customer centricity philosophy puts the customers and not the products at the center of the firms’ concerns. Companies needs to fully commit to customer centricity at all levels from leadership, organization structure, processes and actual performances. This research investigates customer centricity in a services field that is the one of hospitality. Hotels can actually create and in some case co-create value by putting guests at the center of their daily operations. This is possible thanks to the advent of advanced CRM technologies which enables extreme services personalization and superior guest satisfaction. Thanks to a multiple cases study approach this research investigates four properties where and advanced CRM technology (i.e. hoxell.com) was installed. The systems allowed a complete shift in the firm culture impacting on average guests rating and on guest topics discussed within online reviews.

The Role of Digital Orientation in SMEs: A 94 Study in the Chinese Context Xiya Zhang, Martin Liu University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China The explosive rise in the digital technology has revolutionized the way in the business strategy management and company manufacturing at which determines the company market performance. Especially in those small- and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the lack of resources has been found impact on business processes across the entire organization. The growth of digital technology in company study has been changed the entire SMEs market performance. As such, company strategy management are also benefits from digitalization, which allows SMEs with greater knowledge management, innovation capability and interorganizational collaboration, whilst also providing company lean manufacturing in the movement of market performance. While SMEs’ lean manufacturing is the key of component in the digitalization study, accounting for only a few of the overall research within this field. This research will mainly focus on study the changes of the company performance through adopting into digital oriented company strategy management.

The Performance Consequences of 96 E-Marketing Orientation Yue-Yang Chen1, Hui-Ling Huang2, Tsai-Pei Liu3 1 I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. 2Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan City, Taiwan. 3National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung City, Taiwan

Nowadays, electronic or Internet advanced tools are used to facilitate supporting services to firms’ customers and suppliers. For achieving a higher value in operating activities, firms must emphasis on technological development to integrate customer needs and develop the capabilities for searching and acquiring information via e-Business related tools. In this vein, electronic marketing (e-Marketing) is regarded as a strategic weapon for firms to accomplish it. It not only includes the deployment of marketing activities in the Internet, but also includes using technology to support services for customers. Therefore, in the context of electronic marketing orientation (EMO), business emphasizes the use of new Internet technologies in the implementation of strategic marketing decisions and tactics to achieve increasing customer value and gain sustainable competitive advantage. Thus, the purpose of this present research tries to examine the casual effects among EMO, business performance, and customer relationship performance (the consequences of e-Marketing orientation). According to the empirical data collected from top-ranked companies in Taiwan, yielding 140 valid samples. Performance implications of EMO are examined. The findings indicated that EMO demonstrated an important role in explaining customer relationship performance, as well as business performance. Finally, meaningful findings and conclusions will be proposed and discussed.

Internationalising Luxury Fashion Retailers’ 97 Direction of Post-Entry Expansion in Mainland China Huifeng Bai1, Julie McColl2, Louise McBride3 1 Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 2York St John University, York, United Kingdom. 3 Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Retailer post-entry internationalisation expansion is neglected. Therefore, from the perspective of international retailing, this empirical study attempts to contribute to the understanding of the direction of and the criteria to select local markets for post-entry expansion of internationalising retailers in the context of the Chinese luxury fashion market. Through a qualitative multiple case study research approach, this paper demonstrates how foreign luxury fashion retailers have achieved success in mainland China through selecting appropriate local markets for post-entry expansion. The findings of this study can suggest emerging luxury fashion retailers and/or those who have not entered into mainland China to achieve success in the market through selecting appropriate local markets. Relatively small sample size is challengeable, however the six participant luxury fashion retailers, across wide range of country of origin, retail formats and key products, and ownership structure, are varied enough to show the actual market.

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(Dis)Possession, (In) Convenience and 98 Recycling: Insights from Consumer Electronics Katherine Casey, Lisa O’Malley, Maria Lichrou, Colin Fitzpatrick University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Brand Personality, Customer Satisfaction and 100 Word Of Mouth: A Study of Three Important Financial Brands in India Brajesh Bolia K J Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research, Mumbai, India

Disposition is a process involving both the physical and psychological severance of an object from its possessor. Despite the plethora of work in the area, recycling behaviours have not attracted attention as an approach to disposition. In addressing this issue, we consider the context of disposition of consumer electronic goods. While the academic literature and policy frameworks tend to treat obsolete, inactive, or broken electronic equipment as waste, it seems that consumers do not necessarily behave as expected. Data were collected in two distinct phases. The first was an in-depth qualitative phase designed to appreciate the meaning of consumer electronics and consumer approaches to disposition, while the second phase was intended to explore the extent to which insights from phase 1 were relevant to the wider population. Findings reveal that disused electronics are either consciously kept by consumers or simply abandoned in the home. Peripherals, such as cables and chargers in particular, seem to consume drawers and shelves. Based on the initial findings we have started to map out a four-stage process through which electronics are kept, confronted and, eventually disposed of. This is further interrogated based on the survey data, which is not yet integrated into the framework.

The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of brand personality on customer satisfaction and subsequent word of mouth among customers of financial products. The study attempted a comparison between the brand personalities of three major financial brands and also attempted to explore the satisfaction among their customers. The study also attempted to explore how customers expressed their opinions about their brands. This study intended to test the mediation of customer satisfaction in the relationship between brand personality and word of mouth. A sample of 232 respondents was analyzed using CB-SEM to test the relationship between the variables as well as understanding the mediation of customer satisfaction between brand personality and word of mouth. Descriptive statistics was proposed to be used to understand the personality of the financial brands as perceived by customers. The model statistics showed indicators within desired limits, thus validating the conceptual model. Brand personality statistics revealed that respondents considered financial institutions brands more ‘competent’ and ‘sincere.’ Results indicated that respondents were satisfied with their financial institution brands.

Tearing the invisibility cloak- The hijab in 99 ads: a feminist post-colonial perspective of a stigmatized identity

Exploring Stakeholder Collaboration in 103 Place Branding Strategies: The Case of Northamptonshire

Hounaida El Jurdi1, Mona Moufahim2

Shalini Bisani, Marcella Daye, Kathleen Mortimer

American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. 2University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom

University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom

1

‘The Muslim Woman’ is usually absent in mainstream media, and when she is represented the portrayal is often as someone who is devoid of agency, submissive, oppressed, and backward. In response to calls for more inclusion and diversity, the past couple of year saw a number of leading brands like H&M, Vogue, and Nike, feature the hijab in their advertising. While such campaigns were celebrated as a sign of greater (and welcome) diversity and ethnic inclusion in marketing communications, the portrayal of Muslim women in commercial messages warrants further investigation. We critically examine this recent interest in Muslim women consumers by global brands using a post-colonial feminist lens to show that while these ad portrayals are a small step in the right direction, they still portray a homogenized (and often problematic) representations of the ‘other’.

A distinguishing feature of ‘place branding’ in comparison to the mainstream product or corporate branding is the complexity of managing diverse stakeholders of the place. While participatory place branding is being advocated as a preferred model for implementation and development, few normative model and guidelines are available. In accordance with participatory place branding, this research asserts that all stakeholders must at least have the opportunity to be involved in place branding. However, it appears that institutional stakeholders predominantly decide the extent and level of participation of community stakeholders. For their part, community stakeholders have their own motivations and also encounter barriers to participation. Thus, this study seeks to understand how stakeholders’ perceptions relate to collaboration in ‘region branding’. It focuses on region branding since regions are the least explicated scale in place branding even though regions are important for their development and governance context. A single case study strategy has been applied in this study by examining the county-region of Northamptonshire. Stakeholders from public sector agencies, private businesses and the local community of Northamptonshire will be engaged via semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions to investigate stakeholders’ perceptions towards collaboration in creating a regional place brand.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Evaluation of the theoretical development 104 of social marketing and its role in changing behaviours regarding safe sex M Bilal Akbar University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom The main aim of this research is to design a new social marketing framework to change behaviour regarding safe sex to control teenage unwanted pregnancies, STDs and STIs among young people in the UK. The review of the literature shows that numerous social marketing models have been developed with a greater emphasis on changing behaviour for social well-being, but all of them have a failure rate in terms of identifying, analysing and measuring the deeper consumers’ behaviour while developing a social campaign. Moreover, all previous social marketing models are based on push strategy for marketing communication, which may be replaced by a new social marketing model designed not only to change the behaviours but to develop sustainability of those desired behaviours. As a result, a new social marketing framework is developed which was used in a Delphi study with social marketing experts, leading to a refined version of the framework. The next step for the project is to analyse the data using thematic analysis and Nvivo techniques. The project will contribute to the literature on social marketing theory and to applications of that theory is social marketing practice.

Types of Sustainable Knowledge Used 105 To Uncover the Attitude and Behavioural Intention towards Microfibre Pollution from a Consumer Perspective Songyi Yan University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom There is increasing scientific and public concern over the presence of microfibre in the natural environment. Microfibres are threadlike plastic piece measuring less than 5mm in size. Not only are two-thirds of textile products today made from synthetic fibres, such as polyester, polyamide, and acrylic, but also a majority of athleisure wear, which has seen an increase in popularity of the past years. As such, it could be argued that the sportswear industry, and more specifically athleisure brands, contribute to microfibre pollution. Although microfibre has received increased attention in media outlets, there is a lack of research that investigates microfibre pollution and its associated sustainable knowledge from a consumer perspective. This research explores what types of sustainable knowledge exist on the consumer side that could also reduce consumer’s attitude behaviour gap addressing microplastic pollution. This research is exploratory in nature and utilises a qualitative research methodology in form of in-depth semistructured interviews. Initial research findings will be presented at the conference. This research contributes to an on-going debate of the attitude behaviour gap as well as categorising types of sustainable knowledge within a current area that lacks investigation.

A Not-for-Profit Sharing Platform in Political 110 Context Fiona Cheetham, John Lever University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom This paper responds to Askegaard and Linnet’s call for CCT researchers ‘to pay increased attention to the contexts that condition practices of consumption’(2011: 389). We do this by contextualising the early-stage development of a public sector not-for-profit sharing platform in the socio-political context conditioning the lived experiences of sharing between a metropolitan council and a voluntary community group. Adopting sensitising concepts from Katrini’s (2018) development of ‘sharing culture’ to evaluate sharing practices from the vantage point of political economy, rather than from the vantage point of sharing per se, our research shines light on a micro-politics of sharing nested within a socio-political and economic environment characterised by welfare state retrenchment. Our findings support the contention that by ignoring the lived experiences of sharing, current debates on the sharing economy present an unrealistic image of sharing that masks insurmountable tensions and difficulties. Since preliminary analysis reveals that political dynamics together with ‘cultural and social dynamics are legitimate points of analysis even if they are not immediately apparent’ in the ‘utterances and practices’ (Askegaard & Linnet, 2011: 394) of research participants, our research seeks to develop a CCT inspired critique of the sharing economy in all guises – not-forprofit and commercial.

Customer Insight: Understanding its Strategic 111 Role for Startups as a Catalyst for Innovation Antonietta Rosiello, Emanuel Said, Frank Bezzina University of Malta Faculty of Economics, Management and Accountancy, Msida, Malta Customer insight (CI) generation and use remain largely underexplored. Most studies assessing CI relevance in marketing decisions investigates established corporates while focus on start-ups’ capabilities and exploit of CI remain scarce. CI among start-ups is anticipated to take a critical strategic value as start-up firms struggle to create innovative products and services in a fast evolving market. Our study seeks to broaden the current understanding about CI investigating how start-ups employ CI to meet dynamic markets’ challenges. Considering the observed gaps in literature, we plan to use a phenomenological study employing qualitative interviews among a selection of start-ups that face demanding market scenarios. We aim to use our findings to offer a valid contribution relevant for researchers and practitioners alike, highlighting differences in the generation and use of CI between start-up and established firms, as well as the CI usage extent and processes among start-ups.

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Transforming Insight into Innovation. How 112 Start-ups Use Customer Insight To Create New Products And Services. Antonietta Rosiello, Emanuel Said, Frank Bezzina University of Malta, Faculty of Economics, Management and Accountancy, Msida, Malta The process of customer insight (CI) generation and use is scarcely investigated, with existing studies mainly assessing its relevance in marketing decisions made at established corporates level. Insufficient emphasis is placed on practices adopted by startups to generate and utilize this strategic knowledge while implementing innovative offerings. Considering the observed gaps in literature, we aim to widen our understanding of CI, investigating how startups strategically turn this knowledge into a key driver for innovation and global competitiveness, underlining differences in the generation and use of CI between start-up and established organizations.

The Marketplace and I: A Disability Arts 114 Methodology Leighanne Higgins Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster, United Kingdom This paper offers to consumer research with social impact insight into the value and potential challenges of adopting a disability arts methodology. A disability arts methodology recognizes that not all impairments are equal and permits subjectivity to be shared across embodied and expressive platforms, viewing the disabled as an active partner in the research process. Adoption of a disability arts methodology will offer to CRSI not only a new innovative methodology, but tackles core issues of researcher power and respondent representation. In a project entitled ‘The Marketplace and I’, disabled respondents are asked to create artworks that represent their interaction with the marketplace which will be displayed at a dissemination event with key stakeholders. Although bringing value to CRSI, this paper highlights two core challenges with this methodology; 1) the risk of ‘exoticising’ or ‘fetishizing’ disability and, 2) the unfavourable perception of an arts based methodology by top tier journals.

Faking a Supernatural Sales Identity: Making 115 Sense of the Plastic Shaman Andrew Dean University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom This ethnographic study examines the discursive sensegiving practices used by nine plastic shamans to support their fake supernatural identities within the delivery and sale of psychedelic ayahuasca tourism. Although traditional indigenous ayahuasca shamanism is a supernatural profession, non-indigenous plastic shamans have recently entered this spiritual marketplace, thriving in disguising their heretical atheistic beliefs and desires for power and wealth. Duplicitously positioning themselves as true spiritual masters, and feigning support from divine otherworldly beings, the plastic shaman seeks to dominate the spiritual marketplace, while stigmatising their indigenous competition as a demonic, mentally ill, and dangerous other. Unpacking the plastic

shaman identity, we see a novel but counterfeit form of identity work, leading to what is herein referred to as the Janus identity. Like the god Janus, the plastic shaman has two identity faces, including the atheist, and theistic supernatural seller, switched with apparent ease depending on the audience. The only concern for the plastic shaman is in being exposed as a bogus seller of phantasmagoria. This study contributes to our understanding of the plastic shaman as a phoney, but powerful quasi-priest identity, weaponising fake spiritual discourses to denigrate other supernatural sellers, while disguising their lack of otherworldly beliefs and conventional credentials.

Consumption in time: a spacetime perspective 116 on consumer behaviour Kai Zhu, Tony Woodall, Julie Rosborough Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham, United Kingdom Whilst the importance of understanding consumer behaviour on the time dimension has been recognised, no general theory yet exists in Marketing to explain how consumers’ information-processing behaviour influences their temporal experiences - or the relationship between those experiences and decision-making outcomes. To address both, we use three concepts of time to identify both a common frame of reference (a consumers’ objective time) and a personal frame of reference (a consumer’s subjective time) that together allow consideration of an important change that happens during decision-making; that is, the gradual depletion of a consumer’s information-processing capacity. Our thesis is theoretically derived from physics, and we co-opt Minkowski’s four-dimensional spacetime diagram to develop an analogous model for consumer research that demonstrates the relative relationship between consumers’ internal informationprocessing capacity and external time consumption. Given that external time can be accurately measured, this can be used as an indicator for optimising the design of a decision-making platform (e.g. e-tailing website). This paper further employs the concept of information overload to explain constraints on consumer decision-making. Our model provides a basis for understanding the relationship between purchasing platform design, consumer decision-making and time.

Willingness to pay and travel frequency. 117 Understanding customer habituation in the hospitality industry. Marta Nieto Garcia1, Pablo Antonio Muñoz Gallego2, Oscar Gonzalez Benito2 1

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom. Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

2

Customers’ willingness to pay (WTP) shapes the effectiveness of pricing strategies. In this domain, customer prior experience and reference price play a critical role. Drawing on behavioral price literature, this study addresses the interplay between travel frequency, internal reference price (IRP) and customer WTP. Specifically, the study proposes a mediating effect of IRP on the relationship between travel frequency and customers’ willingness to pay. The empirical validation is based on an online survey. The study presents a novel methodological approach introducing the concept of instantaneous indirect effect. Results offer support for an inverted U-shaped relationship between travel frequency and WTP, mediated by


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

the IRP. Travel frequency has a positive effect on WTP until a threshold, after which the relationship becomes negative. Customers who have traveled between 4 and 7 times in the past two-year period would be willing to accept higher prices. Operators in the hospitality industry should find strategies to integrate customers’ travel frequency into dynamic pricing models. Such integration would contribute to a better alignment of room rates with customers’ WTP.

Gender Differences in Responses to Sexual 118 and Violent Humour in Advertising Richard Freeman1, Matthew Gorton1, Robert Angell2 1 Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. 2University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

The use of humour in advertising can be effective but risky; particularly when involving sexual or violent content. Drawing on social conditioning and misattribution theories, this research considers gender as a potential moderator of advertising success involving humour. Findings suggest that for higherintensity sexual humour and violent humour advertisements, women (1) were more offended and (2) rated the content as less humorous than men, which led to more negative attitudes toward the advertisement and brand. Perceptions of advertising humour mediate the influence of offence on different measures of advertisement effectiveness, but disparities in tolerance between men and women are evident. As offence is damaging, the paper provides recommendations for advertisers interested in the use of sexual and violencebased humour. Increasing the intensity of sexual and violent humour in ads is counterproductive for women but can improve advertising outcomes amongst men. Findings identify that the more an ad is funny, the weaker the negative effect of offence on advertising outcomes.

Children Influence and Impulse Buying: The 119 Mediating Effect of Parental Self-Regulation Asheeabee Shaheen Hosany University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom The concept of children influence in marketing is attracting significant academic and practitioner attention. Increased exposure to technology and enhanced marketing stimuli in modern stores, intensifies brand visibility, which lead to on the spot product demands by children. Against this backdrop, it becomes vital for parents to step back, appraise the rationale behind product requests and make beneficial choices for, or against purchases. Whilst self-regulation, a theory borrowed from psychology, continues to trigger research interests amongst marketing scholars, most studies in this area focus on individual consumer behaviour. Surprisingly, no research examines self-regulation in the family consumption arena. Accordingly, this study addresses this lacuna by developing a conceptual model linking children influence and impulse buying with parental self-regulation as a mediator. This research draws on existing theories, for example, social power theory to explain children influence and social cognitive theory of self-regulation to theorise parental self-regulation. An experimental research design, using dyads of mothers and children as subjects, is adopted to test the proposed research objectives. Findings will have important implications for advancing theories and practice.

Decoding Digital Fashion Marketing Visual 120 Texts: Instagram, Fashion Photography & Target Audiences Mirsini Trigoni1,2, Dr. Natascha Radclyffe-Thomas1, Dr. Ana Roncha1 London College of Fashion, University of the Arts, London, United Kingdom. 2London Metropolitan, London, United Kingdom 1

This participatory research workshop creates connections between traditional marketing techniques, new media and visual text analysis using as a case study #TFWGucci (That Feeling When Gucci) Instagram campaign. The workshop will be delivered in two stages. Firstly, participants are invited to analyse specific posts/memes images according to their existing knowledge of marketing strategy. Researchers will observe which particular visual elements within the memes, participants pay attention to and how they interpret them (Barry & Graca, 2018; Kress & Van Leeuwen 2006). Researchers will explore what emotions are being generated and if (to what extent and how) participants feel the urge to react to these memes (Gloor, Krauss & Nann 2009). During the second part of the workshop, participants will be guided in applying Rose’s (2013) visual text analysis to thoroughly ‘look at’ and deconstruct visual texts. Participants will engage in a card sort activity, which will surface notions/concepts with the meme marketing campaign (Leiss et al 2005; Messaris 1997; Sturken & Cartwright 2001). At the end of the workshop, a plenary session will combine the findings in order to inform theory generation and develop measuring scales to support this emergent area of understanding the visual in marketing and consumer research.

Innovation in employability skills for 121 marketing: A new lease of life for Client/ agency role play and problem based learning Jacqueline Lynch University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom Developing employability skills is a key strategic aim for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). For marketing there are specific skills for marketing students in order to secure employment e.g. CIM Professional marketing competencies framework. Given this backdrop, marketing educators are under increasing pressure to embed employability skills within their modules and teaching practice. This workshop paper outlines an innovative and successful role play approach using problem based learning (PBL) for assessment with UG marketing students which embeds employability within the module. Key learning for students and educators is suggested.

Are Millennials Different from Non-Millennials 122 in their Recommendations? Rahul Chawdhary, Francesca Dall’ Olmo Riley Kingston University, London, United Kingdom Inter-generational differences between Millennials and nonMillennials have emerged as an important issue in generational marketing as evidenced by wide coverage in the mainstream electronic and print media and increasing interest in academic research. This study examines whether Millennials are distinct

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from non-Millennials in their engagement with word of mouth. Employing a self-reporting survey, data was collected across three product categories in USA and China. Data analysis is currently work in progress with findings/conclusions to be presented at the conference. Limitations and areas for future research are identified.

A systematic review of brand equity and its 123 antecedents in a B2B setting Shannon Elizabeth Jones, Nigel Coates Northumbria University, NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE, United Kingdom This paper aims to systematically review articles related to the study of antecedents of brand equity in a B2B setting and evaluate their theoretical evaluation of brand equity. There is a fracture within the B2B brand equity literature as to what dimensions of brand equity are applicable to various industries. Many apply different antecedents to Aaker’s brand equity model but not all use all dimensions, which ones are selected are also varying. Others do not break down brand equity into dimensions at all and look at it as a whole concept. Due to this variety, it has been possible to group the varying approaches to brand equity into five groupings. By doing so, it is possible to assess industries based on these groupings and better select an approach to brand equity building for companies within them. Further assessment of this literature will then hopefully shed light as to relevant antecedents to focus limited company resources on.

Tiring of Life: Value Destruction in 124 Multichannel Service Systems Ilaria Dalla Pozza1, Julie Robson2, Jillian Farquhar3,4 IPAG Business School, Paris, France. 2Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom. 3Gordon Institute of Business Science, Johannesburg, South Africa. 4 Solent University, Southampton, United Kingdom 1

Delivering services through multiple channels is an accepted strategy in services marketing with the aim of co-creating value between the customer and the firm. Nonetheless, it is recognised that there may be misalignments in multichannel service systems (MSS) which rather than create value destroy it and contribute to a tiring of life. These misalignments may come about owing to a failure of integrating resources in the multichannel systems, specifically between firm and customer. Pursuing a qualitative investigation based on interviews with insurance managers, this paper uncovers how value might be destroyed in multichannel service systems, principally through complexity and MSS structure. Although complexity is an enduring theme in the insurance sector, it poses less of a risk in terms of value destruction than MSS structure where legacy systems undermine resource integration. The paper concludes with managerial insights and suggestions for further research.

The Exorcist: Selling Demonic Identity Work 125 Andrew Dean University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom This four-year interpretive ethnographic study examines the identity work and discursive sensegiving practices used by twelve New Age exorcists. Exorcisms have been sold for thousands of years, as a means to extract malevolent phantasms from the body, and ward off future demonic infection. While often considered unreal, these supernatural practices are growing in prevalence throughout the West, due to magically minded consumers increasingly blaming all of life’s problems on dark spiritual forces. With exorcists viewing reality as a supernatural battle between good and evil, they are keen to sell supernatural weaponry including charms, prayers, potions and spells to provide consumers with spiritual protection. Using participant observation, interviews and conversations, exorcists are shown to be powerful sellers, discursively orientating their consumers into preferred sense about a demonically infested universe. For the exorcist, there is only one deadly consumer sin i.e. not buying the ‘right’ phantasmagorical products to stop demonic possession. Failing to consume as directed is a heretical act and unforgivable transgression against all that is good, inviting immediate ostracisation and damnation. However, should consumers subjugate themselves to their exorcists, an ongoing sales cycle is maintained, with each purchase being a step closer to ‘salvation’.

Consumer Readiness for Driverless Vehicles? 127 Deciphering the 3M Hierarchy of Motivation and Personality Fraser McLeay 1, Hongfei Liu2, Hossein Olya1, Chanaka Jayawardhena3 1 Sheffield University Management School, Sheffield, United Kingdom. 2University of Essex, Essex, United Kingdom. 3Hull University, Hull, United Kingdom

With ever-developing Artificial Intelligence technology and its increasing applications in our daily life, the ultimate autonomous vehicle (AV) is gradually approaching the consumer market. However, academic research on AVs has been left behind by the rapid technological development, especially from a marketing perspective. To support the businesses that commit themselves to the R&D of AVs and ensure the consumer-friendliness of future AVs, we investigate the personas of potential consumers who in the future may ride in AVs. Based on Mowen’s (2000) 3M model of motivation and personality, we explore the sufficient and necessary traits and combinations of trait sets that motivate the consumers’ adoption of totally autonomous vehicle pods. Based on a survey of 551 adults, we identified four necessary traits (e.g. self-identification expressiveness) among 7 traits and 5 combinations of traits that are sufficient to predict the adoption behaviour. Our study takes a futuristic perspective and expands AVs research to the marketing field by illustrating the necessary antecedents for adoption intention of AVPs.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Chicken or Egg? How to Make Innovation 128 Successful in the FMCG Industry. Empirical evidence from Spain. Belen Derqui, Nicoletta Occhiocupo IQS School of Management. Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain While scholars state that the future performance of the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGs) industry is closely related to successful innovation, it represents a truly difficult challenge for managers. In a context of increased channel power held by retailers, 50% of the innovations fail. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the features of successful innovation, analysing a Kantar Worldpanel database of breakthrough innovations launched in Spain during the period 2012-2016. There are three key findings emerging from the paper. First, data analysis support existing research on the negative trend in terms of the number of innovations. Second, breakthrough innovators in the FMCG market in Spain are mainly big incumbent firms, largely with a consistent and persistent strategy to innovate. Finally, availability to the consumer is a key success factor as successful innovations reach wider distribution. In terms of managerial implications, the paper suggests that FMCG companies in order to succeed need to achieve a virtuous circle of innovation by building a persistent strategy.

Relationship Marketing and Brand Equity: The 129 Case Study of GCB Emmanuel Arthur, George Amoako, Robert Dzogbenuku

The Impact of the General Data Protection 130 Regulation on the Design and Measurement of Marketing Activities: Introducing Permission Marketing and Tracking for Improved Marketing & CRM Compliance with Legal Requirements Victoria-Anne Schweigert, Andreas Geyer-Schulz Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany Purpose: It is important to design marketing and CRM campaigns in accordance with the customer’s requirements. A good way to collect information for the creation of a purposeful campaign is the usage of feedback and knowledge of previous campaigns. But the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR) in May 2018 makes the measurement of consumer behavior in a law-conforming way more challenging. Method & Results: This contribution discusses user behaviour measurement methods which are compatible with the GDPR. It illustrates the impact of the new regulation on user communication in the context of email campaigns and of social media marketing in Facebook. We show that the implementation of Godin’s permission marketing approach is a blueprint for GDPR compatible marketing communication activities (Godin, 1999). Next, we consider the possibilities to design advertising more valuable and anticipated by the customer by considering the new regulations. Conclusions: The contribution introduces important changes by the GDPR, especially the regulations on data permission, data access, and data focus, and shows which points are important for the development of marketing activities. Second, we demonstrate the complexity of the tracking since the introduction of the GDPR and introduces our lawful tracking system.

Central University, Accra, Ghana The present competitive landscape in Ghana’s banking industry has created the need for effective and efficient management of relationships rather than a transactional approach between the organization(s) and customer(s) to enhance customer retention. Brand Equity has also been established by firms as a key component of survival in a competitive environment. The paucity of studies of the effect of relationship marketing on brand equity particularly in Ghana’s banking sector provided a justification for this study. Out of the three hundred and fifteen (315) questionnaires given to customers conveniently selected from five branches of the bank in the Accra metropolis, two hundred and fifty (250) representing 79.4% were considered useable for analysis. The study established a positive relationship between relationship marketing and brand equity. This means that the elements of relationship marketing paradigm, which include trust, commitment, communication, bonding and conflict handling, jointly determine brand equity. Besides commitment all other dimensions of relationship marketing namely trust, communication, conflict handing and bonding do have a positive relationship with brand equity. Consequently the study concludes that customers remain loyal to the bank if there is a continual provision of satisfactory services which ultimately generates brand loyalty, brand equity and company profits.

How do ethics processes influence decision132 making in student research projects? Daniel Nunan1, Anne Dibley2 1

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom. Henley Business School, Reading, United Kingdom

2

Marketing students are often required to undertake independent projects that involve primary data collection, and therefore require institutional ethical approval. This paper seeks to understand how the ethical approval processes influences students’ approaches to such assessments, and consider how students can be better guided through these processes. We present an analysis of data from ethical approval processes over a four-year period, for 426 students. Findings suggest that ethical approval processes are approached by students as a form of risk management. This drives students to avoid topics that are perceived as ethically contentious, regardless of their personal interests, the value of the topic or the existence of underlying ethical issues. In the students’ role as practicing managers, approaching ethical approval as a risk avoidance activity has the potential to negatively impact upon engagement with ethically sensitive issues in context of their own management practice. We conclude by suggesting ways in which students can be supported through these research processes in order to mitigate these issues.

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Visualizing Consumer Culture: The 133 Application of Art and Visual Research Methods in Marketing Chloe Preece1, Pandora Kay2, Finola Kerrigan3 Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, United Kingdom. 2Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. 3 University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Maybe she’s born with it? Maybe it’s 135 oestrogen? A feminist intervention into modes of representational violence in marketing and consumer research Shona Bettany

1

While there has been significant research at the intersection of consumer research and visual methods and contexts, we argue that this research has yet to fully utilize artworks and artistic practices as sources of data. Yet these texts should be seen as scholarly resources in the same way that books and journal articles are routinely used in our research and theorizing. This paper therefore argues for a move from focusing on the marketing activities of creatives to examining the artwork itself as a research artifact. Doing so would provide us with a rich source of data which can shed light on the significance of the visual in marketing due to the key part it plays in our twenty-first century economy.

Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom This submission seeks to develop the disciplinary conversation around non-representational theory and marketing by presenting an artistic artifact that is used to stimulate a critique of representational violence in marketing discourse. Specifically, the work highlights a feminist critique of evolutionary psychology relating to sex-differences within marketing and consumer research. In doing so it invites lively and disruptive resonances, responses and debate.

Superhero brands and fantasy worlds: 136 an investigation into children’s brand relationships. Diliara Mingazova

Luxury Fashion and Hedonic Consumption 134 among Black African Women in the UK Christiana Emmanuel-Stephen1, Ayantunji Gbadamosi2 1 University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom. 2University of East London, London, United Kingdom

Although consumption is a universal phenomenon, it is characterized with considerable degree of diversity in relation to various factors such as culture, age, gender, ethnicity, and many others. Accordingly, more often than not, these factors underpin consumers’ reactions to different market offerings including luxury products. While a plethora of scholarship effort are evident in the extant literature in regards luxury consumption, there is dearth of studies around how this is linked hedonism and ethnic consumers. Hence, this paper fills a palpable gap in the literature by exploring the UK Black African women’s taste for luxury fashion consumption. The study is interpretive in nature with the use of twenty in-depth interviews conducted with these women through the use of snowballing and purposive sampling methods. The study shows that the respondents’ motivation for luxury consumption is driven by success and evolutionary motives, belongingness, societal pressures, cultural connection, anthropomorphism, and consumer brand relationship and hedonism. Apart from the theoretical implication of the study which revolves around extending the discourse of taste in consumption and ethnic consumer behaviour, the paper will be greatly beneficial for marketing practitioners especially in the area of segmentation, targeting, and positioning vis-à-vis the marketing of luxury products.

University of East London, London, United Kingdom Recent studies in consumer research involving children as consumers show an interesting shift away from the Piagetian cognitive-development model towards viewing them through the principles of a New Sociology of Childhood. This research follows this shift and identifies a child as an active participant of the social world and, as such, an important part of our scientific understanding of consumption and consumer culture. Therefore, their presence and practices are recognised, considered and investigated. The focus of this paper is on the role that children’s superhero brands play in their lives and how relationships with these brands help shape their identities. In keeping with the principles of New Sociology, thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with children of both genders, aged between 5 and 9 years old. Analysis of the findings revealed that superhero brands are important for their lives and self-construction. Children connect with these brands at an imaginative level where imagination is part of the fantasy which helps them to express their desired identities and create ‘fantasy’ worlds. Moreover, this research shows that brands can be seen as bridges between real and fantasy worlds in children’s lives.

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Inspired Employees Encourage eWOM Aisling Keenan Gaylard1, Ann Torres2 1

Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone, Ireland. National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, Ireland

2

This pilot examines whether employees in SMEs within the food and drinks sector promote their business through eWOM. Another consideration is whether employees adopt and use eWOM because they are motivated by their job and/ or because they are using Social Media in their personal life. The research avails of qualitative and quantitative methods and applied elements from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) model to a random sample of SMEs with the food and drinks sector. Data from 99 online questionnaires were analysed using partial least squares structural equations modelling (PLS-SEM) software Smart-PLS. This paper examines three constructs: employee motivation, employee habit and eWOM intention and use. The findings


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

confirm employees promote their business through eWOM because they are both encouraged by their employer and have a habit of using social media. Further results confirm that employee habit outweighs employee motivation to use eWOM for businesses.

The Moderating Roles of Consumers’ 139 Sense of Power and Self-construals on the Effect of Word-of-Mouth Valence on Brand Attachment—A Conceptual Paper Chanthika Pornpitakpan, Wei Yue University of Macau, Macau, China This conceptual paper discusses the effects of consumers’ sense of power, self-construals, and word of mouth (hereafter referred to as WOM) valence on brand attachment. According to sense of power, self-construals, and WOM literature, empirical evidence, and derivations, it is postulated that selfconstruals will interact with WOM valence and individuals’ sense of power, impacting the strength of brand attachment. Proposition 1: WOM valence will generally influence consumers’ brand attachment. Specifically, positive WOM will induce stronger consumers’ brand attachment than will negative WOM. Proposition 2: Self-construals will moderate the effects of WOM valence and consumers’ sense of power on brand attachment. As for theoretical contributions, this paper fills the gap that brand attachment has seldom been investigated as a dependent variable although it is an influential variable in marketing. The discussion of the linkages among brand attachment, consumers’ sense of power, and self-construals in WOM valence contexts can also enhance self-concept literature. As for practical/managerial contributions, investigating the factors influencing brand attachment in cross-cultural contexts can help marketers create, nurture, and leverage the brand–customer relationships for more-effective marketing strategies across different cultures.

An Examination of the Role of Social Media on 140 Contemporary Luxury Branding Dean Creevey, Joseph Coughlan, Christina O’Connor Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland Continuously increasing levels of adoption and usage of social media platforms pose interesting questions for luxury branding. Significant change has occurred not only in the format of marketing messages, but also in consumers’ capacity to generate, consume, and distribute marketing messages of their own. In parallel, the economic growth of the last century has aided the globalisation of luxury offerings, significantly altering perceptions of both luxury brands and luxury itself. The luxury industry has been particularly affected by this democratisation of information dissemination through social media. This paper synthesises the current conceptualisations of luxury brands while also positing the addition of one dimension, relationships, as a key component of luxury attribution. Fuelled by social media, consumers’ ability to participate in the creation of brand marketing messages has further altered the composition of luxury brands away from

being wholly dominated by the brand alone, in favour of a more collaborative effort. This paper examines social media’s role within each of the currently posited dimensions of luxury brands, positing relationships as a relevant and valuable additional dimension.

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Research on Emerging Markets: A ResourceAdvantage Theory Perspective Aniruddha Pangarkar MICA, Ahmedabad, India

Leveraging Resource-Advantage (R-A) Theory, this conceptual paper explains the growing importance of emerging markets, while describing the rationale of foreign firms for seeking access to these markets. Although the study of emerging markets has resulted in a sizeable stream of research, the addition of a strong theory that grounds and explicates the factors that encourage the success of firms in these markets contributes to both marketing theory and practice. The paper demonstrates that the five characteristics of emerging markets (Sheth 2011), along with the key tenets of R-A Theory, predict the ways in which entering firms achieve a superior competitive advantage. Specifically, the paper suggests that the vast potential of emerging markets can be leveraged through building relational resources, developing immobile resources such as skilled labor, and engaging in innovation to meet demand heterogeneity.

Enhancing the Wellbeing of Transformative 142 Consumer Researchers through Introspective Exercises Temitope Bodunrin University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom This paper aims to understand how the researcher’s introspective voice can be influential to understanding their identity within the research nexus and enhance their wellbeing. Utilising the theoretical framework of transformative consumer research, it attempts to construct a bridge between wellbeing and introspective practice in order to advance a more nuanced methodological understanding of TCR. Hence, introduces the use of introspective exercises among researchers as a method of enhancing their wellbeing. It articulates that researchers who introspect on issues that affect their lives will be better suited to comprehend the emotional lives of others in order to make a social impact.

The Impact of Social Media Influencers on 144 Collaborating Brands: Examining the Effects of Parasocial Interaction and Identification Dalal Aljafari, Tamer Elsharnouby Qatar University, Doha, Qatar This study examines the impact of parasocial interaction on identification with social media influencers along with the effect it carries towards the collaborating brand; in terms of advocacy, purchase intention and brand image. Antecedents of parasocial interaction with social media influencers have been investigated in terms of awareness, credibility, and physical attractiveness. Data were collected using an online questionnaire from 252

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respondents. The findings suggest that the three predictor variables; awareness, credibility physical attractiveness significantly influence parasocial interaction. Parasocial interaction affects identification which in turn exert significant impact on advocacy, purchase intention and perceived image. The findings have several managerial implications, as such most importantly it proves that identification with social media influencer has a different level of effect on collaborating brands, depending on the fore sought marketing outcome.

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The Effect of Common Grammatical Errors on Email Marketing Effectiveness Aodheen McCartan Ulster University, Jordanstown, United Kingdom

In the realm of marketing communications, while attention has been paid to the effect of various extrinsic attributes of the communication on the consumer, there has been comparatively little research into the effect of grammatical and/or punctuation errors (Habtay et al., 2013). Research that has investigated this has tended to take a broad-brush approach to the concept of errors and no research has sought to examine errors, which the author believes to be right, but rather has focused on errors that are regarded as the result of carelessness. This distinction is of significance in an era where more production of written marketing material is done in-house as opposed to an outsourced third party (Pawar, 2016). Indeed, in their study, Simkin et al. (2012) note that many students are dismissive of the importance of good writing skills to their careers and further, that many overestimate their own skills. This study seeks to explore if and to what extent common grammatical and punctuation errors contained within a marketing email, that escape detection by email software, are detrimental to the brand being promoted.

Towards a Model of Improved Digital 146 Marketing Communication in Small Firms: Striking the Right Balance Between In-house and Outsourcing Aodheen McCartan, Sandra Moffett Ulster University, Jordanstown, United Kingdom While there are many digital marketing communication educational resources available, none make it clear how a small organisation, with some digital marketing communication knowledge and resources, decide on what to conduct inhouse and what to outsource. Add to that, the nature of digital marketing communication being that almost any individual with some knowledge and resources can attempt it, combined with the perception that at least some formats, such as social media, are ‘free’ (Safko, 2012). This can lead to a situation where organisations, on one hand, may mistakenly believe they can undertake more than they can, or on the other hand, may automatically assume that recourse to external agencies is needed. This renders the application of existing outsourcing models difficult. Indeed, it is noted that small firms represent a special case with regards to outsourcing (Murphy et al., 2012). It is the contention of this project that decisions regarding what digital marketing communication is best to undertake inhouse versus to outsource are being taken sub-optimally. It is anticipated that a model of digital marketing communication in small firms will evolve which will aid small firms, and agencies who seek to service them, to better manage this process.

Getting Angry About Adverts-Advertising 147 Paratexts and Minor Literature Chris Hackley, Paul Haynes Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom This conceptual paper addresses the capacity advertising has for evoking strident emotional responses in consumers. The line of discussion is not about advertising poetics as such, which tends to focus on the narrative structure of advertisements, but, rather, concerns the capacity for certain types of ads to break and challenge genres and discourses and thereby confront and conventional ideologies and ways of thinking and being. The discussion draws on theories of the paratext, the text about the text, and also minor literature, highlighting parallels and discontinuities between the two in application to examples of advertisements. The aim overall is to re-theorise reader response to advertising in the light of the new, hybrid advertising forms and styles that are emerging in the contemporary, digitised, advertising landscape.

Exploring Value-Related Perspectives of 149 Students over Time: Describing a Linked Research Programme Comprising Four Studies Sheila Resnick, Tony Woodall, Linda W Lee, MMojtaba Poorrezaei, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom Despite steadily increasing tuition fees, higher education is still perceived as a positive experience. Research to date has focused on whether burgeoning costs influence the student application decision, but little research has focused on valuerelated perceptions of students already attending university; and nor how such perceptions might change over the lifecycle of an undergraduate degree course. This working paper summarises a research programme comprising four linked/ related research projects that focus on this specifically. One study is published, two are complete with writing up required, whilst the third is presently being planned. Iteratively, the first project addressed value perspectives of final year students generally; the second has focused on changing perceptions for final year students over a twelve-year period, covering three different fee regimes. The third study will address how value-related drivers might change over the duration of a conventional undergraduate degree course; whilst the fourth is purely conceptual and has caused us to consider how we name the value construct we are most interested in. Collectively we believe this research programme will contribute to a deep understanding of value-related concerns in higher education and, particularly, assess the impact of a newly marketised environment on these perceptions.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

‘No Marketer like an Old Marketer?’ A 150 Model of Effective Marketing Derived from Observing ‘Best Practice’ at the (182-YearsOld) Procter & Gamble Company Peter Young CSMP, Duxford, United Kingdom This paper is the third in a series of papers submitted to AMC (previous working papers were delivered in 2016 and 2017). All three follow the urging of King (1985) and Tynan (2001) that scholars closely observe practitioners in our search for ‘real’ marketing. We here present a basic model of effective marketing derived from observing marketing at Procter & Gamble (P&G), where brand-centric marketing has been practiced continuously since 1837. The model defines marketing as a toolkit for the building of a brand’s asset value – for ‘customers’ and consequently for brand owners. It is derived from studying P&G history and published mission statements supplemented with auto-ethnographical observation by a veteran marketer of P&G brand management in action. The centricity of brand management at this commercial organisation, where arguably modern marketing was invented, and the universal model derived from this phenomenon invite extensive long-term study. But a marketing effectiveness model of reduced complexity, in which the primary outcome is building value for brand owners, deserves the more immediate attention of teachers, students, practitioners and SME’s, who otherwise continue to face definitional discord, curriculum imbalance and scant textual guidance through the complex space of marketing theory and practice.

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Changing Behaviors from University: Professors as Advocates for ‘Degrowth Marketing’ Marlon Bruno Matos Paiva, Claudia Buhamra Abreu Romero Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil

This paper aims to discuss the role of university professors and how their influence can be applied into changing behavior of society to the establishment of marketing strategies related to voluntary reduction of production and consumption or ‘degrowth marketing’. We present Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical framework about the function of how beliefs influence the attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, molding intentions. Degrowth was presented as a path to be followed in the pursuit of social welfare, calling for an equitable downscaling of production and consumption that increases human well-being and enhances ecological conditions at the local and global level, in the short and long term. We proposed to raise awareness of university professors so they can be a role model in this path and advocates to degrowth discourse leading to new forms of consumption. To do so, it is needed to understand attitude, intention and behavior of this group in order to do the efforts that make degrowth happen in this population and spread in their faculty and student body. Professors can inspire students and provide an environment where students can examine, consider, and alter their beliefs, attitudes and behaviors towards a sustainable marketing path.

Put It On Your Bucket List: Repeated Blood 153 Donation and the USR Strategy. An Extended TPB Model Iuliana Raluca Gheorghe, Victor Lorin Purcărea, Consuela Mădălina Gheorghe Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania The ‘Carol Davila’ University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Bucharest addresses the issue of blood shortage by organizing twice a year a blood donation campaign, as part of the USR strategy. The purpose of this study is to assess an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model (TPB) for repeated blood donations among university students. The model encompassed a set of altruistic motivations (impure altruism, self-regarding altruism, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow), which would determine attitude, and, in its turn, attitude, subjective norm, moral norm and anticipated regret would shape a repeated intention for blood donation. The sample consisted of 155 students (53.3% males and 46.6% females), with an average age of 24.3. Findings revealed that the altruistic motivations which stand behind attitude are impure altruism and reluctant altruism, and, the repeated intention to donate blood is determined by attitude and moral norm. The practical implications of the study relate to the educational impact of the USR strategy. Specifically, USR strategies, materialized in lectures and workshops, should aim to encourage repeated blood donation by using impure and reluctant altruism as well as moral norm principles in order to reduce lapsing behavior and transform blood donations into habits.

Understanding The Scope of In-store C2C 154 Influence in Retailing Richard Nicholls, Alex Kay Worcester Business School, Worcester, United Kingdom The notion that customers interact with one other in retail settings is increasingly recognised, as is the potential impact of such customer-to-customer interaction (CCI) on the customer experience. This is a conceptual paper, based on an initial narrative literature review, which explores in-store C2C influence. This working paper looks back at several decades of C2C research and discusses contributions that have contained a retail perspective. Building on this selection of literature, the paper also looks forward and identifies several research directions for C2C which could build on this tradition. The paper represents the preliminary stage of a much larger piece of research which will conduct a comprehensive narrative literature review on this topic. Given that some research findings suggest that C2C influence contributes significantly to the customer experience, it seems important that retail managers develop a sound understanding of this issue and its managerial options.

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‘A Special Idea’ For Marketing Education: 156 Virtual Cooperative Learning across Cultures Natascha Radclyffe-Thomas1, Anne Peirson-Smith2 London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London, London, United Kingdom. 2City University Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong 1

Business schools in Australia, Europe and North America have a track record of attracting large numbers of ‘international’ students, yet there is limited evidence that many are creating truly international learning experiences (Gomaa & Raymond, 2016; Radclyffe-Thomas, 2015). The UK’s Higher Education Academy recognises internationalising higher education as a ‘transformative and continual process of sector-wide concern’ (HEA, 2015:2) and evidence from HEIs internationally points to a divide between aims and outcomes with regard to delivering just such a global education. Marketing is a global industry and discipline and our faculty and graduates require facility with intercultural communication. This workshop contribution evaluatesan award-winning longitudinal pedagogic research project using social media to facilitate ‘internationalising at home’ (Killick, 2014). It explores five years’ experience with over 700 students in London, Hong Kong, Singapore and Vietnam who engaged in cooperative virtual learning via a collaborative online international learning hosted on Facebook. It discusses our attempts to increase students’ cultural capital by creating an inclusive environment for home and international students to share learning experiences (Ryan & Hellmundt, 2005). In so doing we aim to raise awareness and discussion of the opportunities and challenges of designing virtual cross-cultural collaborations.

Loyal Consumers and their Brands: Rethinking 158 the Relationship Nora Alafaleg University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom Do loyal consumers make sacrifices for their brands? Sacrifice is a key element of loyalty. It has a crucial role in relationship stability. For example, research in interpersonal relationship has shown that loyal partners are willing to make sacrifices for the relationship’s continuation. However, brand loyalty theories overlook the sacrificial element of loyalty. Drawing on consumer-brand relationship theory, this research aims to expand the conceptualisation of brand loyalty to account for relational sacrifice. It seeks to introduce relational sacrifice, willingness to sacrifice, into brand loyalty and to explore this area of research. The review of the current theorization suggests that loyal consumers may be willing to engage in some activities that include sacrifice for the sake of a brand. Consumers may be willing to sacrifice time, energy, convenience for their favourite brand. This research will adopt qualitative methodology with in-depth interviews. The researcher plans to recruit loyal consumers as research informants to achieve the research objectives.

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The Psychology of Frustration: Appraisal Theory, Satisfaction and Loyalty Helena V. González-Gómez1, Sarah Hudson2, Aude Rychalski3 Neoma Business School, Mont Saint-Aignan, France. Rennes School of Business, Rennes, France. 3EM Normandie Business School, Métis Lab, Paris, France

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2

Across six experimental studies, we found evidence that consumers’ frustration is defined by the degree of goal blocking, uncertainty, control, perceived fairness and temporal distance in a service encounter, and that frustration mediates the impact of these appraisals on loyalty and satisfaction. We further found that low control, high uncertainty and perceptions of goal blocking are three appraisals (in order of strength) that have the strongest impact on frustration. Thus, contrary to common belief, we show that frustration is not simply the result of goal blocking, but rather a more complex combination of appraisals that define its arousal and attitudinal and behavioral consequences. Our mediation model thus disentangles the particularities embedded in the customer frustration experience in contact centers. Our results test appraisal theory in frustration, a frequently experienced but under-researched discrete emotion. Our findings also inform theory on customer emotions and have important implications for our understanding of service encounters in a contact center environment.

‘Me’ to ‘We’: Conflicts and Synergies in Doing 162 the Collective Meal Ratna Khanijou, Benedetta Cappellini, Sameer Hosany Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom Inspired by the practice turn, this study adopts an ethnographic approach to understand how a collective consumption practice is ‘born’ through the lens of multiple actors performing the same practice over time. Previous studies analysing ‘practices’ as units of analysis have mainly focused on the experience of single practitioners or on already-established practices that might have become disrupted. However, what happens when two or more people co-perform a new practice together? Especially in a new couple household, when two people attempt to do the shared meal, their existing elements within the practice interact in collectivity for the first time. The study consists of an 8-month participant observation and interviews with 13 newly cohabited couples residing in London. The ethnography entailed shopping and attending everyday evening meals with the participants. Findings reveal how the collective meal - as a set of practices (involving shopping, cooking, eating, disposing) - is the result of managing conflicts and synergies between the various ‘set of elements’ within the collective practice over time. Theoretically this paper contributes to understanding how a ‘new’ collective practice emerge from a collective perspective over time and also how elements are key in shaping practices from individual doers to collective doers.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Strategies of transformation from a historical 163 district into a tourist destination. Association and experiential Marketing. The case of Italia District, Santiago of Chile. Stefania Pareti Universidad AlcalĂĄ de Henares, Madrid, Spain Cultural heritage has begun to implement new strategies, due to the widespread international proliferation of urban tourism. That is why the need to understand how the historical, strategic services, tourism destinations, experience and free time and the best way to improve the lives of the local population, delivering greater competitiveness and economic and social sustainability. The current research explores and describes how the strengthening of associations and networks among those who make up the cultural, commercial and tourist offer of Italia District, Santiago of Chile is fundamental for their development and sustainability. On the basis of traditions and cultural heritage, small businesses with social collaboration, can transform urban spaces with direct impact on the performance of the organizations, creating a transformation on the space and identifying those districts, turning them into destination-districts. The results shows that brands achieve the identification of a territory/district as historic district, represent an expectation of resources to be found by potential consumers (resources related to history, art and traditional trade) and get a value of personalization.

Marketing Management Model of cultural and 164 historic tourism ecosystems. The case of Italia District, Santiago of Chile. Stefania Pareti1, Blanca GarcĂ­a Henche1, Erica Salvaj2 Universidad AlcalĂĄ de Henares, Madrid, Spain. 2 Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile 1

With the proliferation of urban tourism, the commercial and tourist offer of the cities become increasingly complex in terms of achieving differentiation. That is why the need for cities that have cultural heritage to reinforce themselves in working and establish their Marketing Management Model in a clear geographical delimitation, where the main stakeholders and the local community are included. Opening the space to the generation of synergies and benefits for all those who are part of the system. Creating a systematic methodology that manages cultural heritage with territorial and urban development. The main objective of the current research is to describe and delimit the Marketing Management Model at Italia District, Santiago of Chile along with its experience marketing and brand image strategies. The results show that establishing a Marketing Management Model with enhancing the brand image of the district through positive consumer experience and consumer loyalty tools, helps to the survival of the historic district with the conservation of stores that otherwise would disappear.

Challenges and Opportunities in the Ghanaian 165 Textile Industry: the Role of Corporate Heritage Identity and Corporate Heritage Identity Stewardship in Developing and Promoting the Heritage Identity in the Kente and Adinkra Cloths of Bonwire Sharon Nunoo University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom Corporate Heritage Identity and Corporate Heritage Identity Stewardship are that have been discussed in recent years in relation to the British Monarchy and corporate brands and organisations. It, however, has not been discussed how or what these terms may mean in relations to communities that produce textiles. The community of Bonwire hand weaves Kente and Adinkra cloths which are very significant textiles within Ghana. These clothes represent the identity of Ghanaians as the cloths hold culture, beliefs and traditions hand woven into them using specific symbols and colours that all have philosophical meanings within the community. These frameworks also focus on the corporate level of marketing in relation to organisations and institutions, but what may the levels of marketing be within a community that produces textiles? This study will use a qualitative approach to understand that these terms may mean within the community and how they are formed. It will also uncover the status of the community in regard to the kind of brand it may be and explore which levels of marketing function within Bonwire.

Gamification as an Engagement Marketing 168 Strategy Elaine Marie Grech, Marie Briguglio, Emanuel Said University of Malta, Msida, Malta Recognising that customers are owners of valuable resources, firms are strategically implementing engagement marketing to deliberately motivate and empower customers to actively and voluntarily contribute to the firm. Gamification, a wellestablished technique in Information Systems, is the process of enhancing a service offering by harnessing on the engaging power of game-thinking and concepts of game design. This paper contributes to the ongoing literature about gamification by conceptualising gamification as an engagement marketing strategy, whereby the restructuring of gameful experiences aim to facilitate emotional, cognitive, behavioural and/or social engagement. Gamification is examined in relation to the characteristics of engagement marketing and its potential effect on customer engagement. We propose that the effect of gamification needs to be assessed on an engagement continuum (considering various dimensions of customer engagement), ranging from positive to negative effects, and including the prospect of a neutral effect. Finally, we conclude by exploring future research avenues.

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A New Methodology for Segmenting 169 Customers via Unconscious Needs Sid Simmons1, Paul Baines2 1

Cranfield University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

2

This paper proposes a new methodology for understanding customers’ unconscious needs. This approach combines Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT) with Choice-Based Conjoint (CBC), to identify needs that segment members are either unaware of, or unable/unwilling to articulate. This methodological approach identified an additional market segment, distinct from those identified by a traditional customer segmentation approach. The study involves the segmentation of snack bar buyers, based on nutritional information importance displayed on packaging. Separate samples of buyers were recruited: one group as a control sample completing a traditional CBC exercise; a second group completing the same CBC exercise but asked to complete a UTT working memory distraction-task between each choice-task and responding to it. Segmentation analysis indicated that whilst both approaches generate four similar segments, the CBC/UTT approach revealed a fifth (hidden) segment, unidentified in the other sample. In addition, the nutritional preferences of four of the five segments produced via the CBC/UTT approach matched those demonstrated by the participants’ store card data in a manner unobserved for the traditional CBC approach. This paper makes a methodological contribution, demonstrating how understanding unconscious needs may provide additional customer insight and aid marketeers in developing new propositions and gaining market share.

How and When Alcohol Marketing Influences 171 drinking intentions Vania Filipova Technological University Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Many young people drink to intoxication in Western cultures and there is an increased consensus that hazardous alcohol consumption is associated with a broad range of social harm. Longitudinal evidence consistently shows that exposure to alcohol marketing is associated with earlier alcohol initiation, increased alcohol consumption and negative health consequences. Such data illustrate the potential harms of drinking to public health, particularly among young adults and although many factors may contribute to increased consumption, young adult’s drinking patterns are likely affected by advertising. Health warnings on alcohol products and advertising will be implemented in Ireland as a regulatory measure added to the already existing regulations. The strategy of including health warnings seek to minimise the promoting effects of alcohol advertising by communicating the health risks and raising awareness of greater drinking levels to consumers. Considerably too little is known about warnings in advertisements. This study will experimentally investigate whether and how alcohol advertising with health warnings influence drinking intentions and aim to address this complexity by investigating how factors such as type of advertising; health warning design characteristics (size, number, position and type of warnings) could affect perceptions in response to health warnings.

Focal Actors of Social Media Engagement: 174 Distinguishing Between Consumer and Customer Engagement. Elena Shevchenko1, Paul Hopkinson2, Kathryn Waite1 1

Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Heriot Watt University, Dubai, UAE

2

Despite the growing interest and a significal research progress, the constructs of consumer engagement, customer engagement, and other forms of engagement with brands in online context are still not fully defined. For instance, no clear distinction is made between consumer and customer engagement, and terms are often used interchangeably. This paper seeks to address the issue by making this distinction.

Do materialism and empowerment influence 175 slow fashion consumption? Evidence from Brazil Érica Sobreira1, Clayton Silva2, Claudia Buhamra1 Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Piauí, Piauí, Brazil

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Given that slow fashion is a movement that develops a comprehensive understanding of sustainable fashion and it is little explored in the Brazilian academic field, this study aims to analyze the influence of empowerment and materialism on slow fashion consumption. A survey was conducted, and we tested the research hypotheses on a sample of 306 clothing consumers from Fortaleza, the 5th largest Brazilian city and capital of the State of Ceará, which ranks fifth in the Brazilian Textile and Apparel Chain Billing Ranking. We used the techniques of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression. We found that, in general, empowerment has a positive influence on slow fashion consumption. On the other hand, materialism affects positively only the slow fashion orientation exclusivity. This study contributes to the construction of theoretical and empirical knowledge about slow fashion, from its association with constructs such as empowerment and materialism, resulting in the proposition of a conceptual model involving all relations found between the factors of the three constructs. The managerial implications relate to how strategies of empowerment can be incorporated by slow fashion companies into their marketing programs, such as more active consumer involvement in product co-creation processes.

Organizational identity construction of 177 Colombian brands of swimwear on social networking sites based on images Manuelita Arias Arango, Carlos Andrés Osorio Toro Universidad de Manizales, Manizales, Colombia In the last decade, the increase in social networking sites (SNS) usage has changed business communications quite dramatically between brands and their customers. Digital marketing has ceased to be perceived as a new element becoming a fundamental part of the marketing and advertising strategies of different brands. The most recent SNS that has made an impact on how companies relates with its customers is Instagram. This network has made companies to focus more about the image they project and the images they use to build their identity online.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Rebranding the Carmel Market in Tel Aviv: 178 From a Small Commercial Open-Air Market to a Trendy International Hot Spot Paulette Schuster AMILAT , Tel Aviv, Israel When the Carmel Market (Shuk HaCarmel) was first established in the city center of Tel Aviv nearly a hundred years ago, it was done so as a small, dingy open-air market. Now it is considered an intricate commercial web and trendy hot spot full of local delicacies and a dash of international flavors. How did this evolution happen?

Understanding Star Ratings on Product Review 179 Website Rajesh Rajaguru, Lin Yang University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia Consumers often judge the product/service based on the numeric ratings available on the review websites. The study supports and extends cue utilisation theory to understand the importance of various cues in the consumer process of evaluating and reviewing a product. The paper explores the product cues in customer reviews and reveals the differences in consumer star rating between attribute associated complex and simple products. Five product categories were selected, and reviews and star ratings were analysed. The finding suggests that consumers who intend to use the product reviews in their purchase decision need to be thoughtful and make decisions by looking at the complexity of product attributes and associated star rating. Further research may propose a conceptual model linking the effect of various dimension of product attributes to consumer evaluation and review of the product.

Employee Rhetorical Sensitivity as a Mediator 185 in the Relationship between Customer Orientation and Customer Retention Suraya Akmar Mokhtaruddin1, Che Aniza Che Wel2, Nor Rahimy Khalid1 1 Politeknik Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia. 2Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia

The travel industry is facing massive challenges with the new development in information technology. These developments are influencing customer attitude, behavior, and lifestyle in purchasing holiday and travel services. Advancement in information technology has created a new class of middleman called travel cybermediaries, and they are giving new challenges to the travel agency. Therefore, travel agency has to refine their strategy to focus more on customer orientation in the firm-customer relationship in order to retain customers. The impact of customer orientation on customer retention has been widely studied. However, there are very few studies that integrate it with employee rhetorical sensitivity. The current study proposes to fill in the gap in customer orientation literature by focusing on the relationship between customer orientation, employee rhetorical sensitivity and customer retention from the customer perspective. Academically, this study contributes to the literature of customer orientation and rhetorical sensitivity. Practically, it will lead to better understanding of customer orientation together with employee rhetorical sensitivity in enhancing the services in the travel agency sector.

The Influence of Personal and Product Factor 186 on Halal Cosmetics Purchase Intention Nor Rahimy Khalid1, Che Aniza Che Wel2, Suraya Akmar Mokhtaruddin1 1 Politeknik Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia. 2Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia

The objective of this study is to investigate customer purchase intention for Halal cosmetics products. Personal and product factor are identified as the two important elements that influence consumer behavior. Attitude and self-congruity are considered as personal factors while product safety and quality fall under product factors. Therefore, this current study aims to determine how personal and product factors impact the behavior displayed in consumer purchase intention. This study uses the cross-sectional study approach with convenience sampling of consumes who have experience purchasing Halal cosmetic products. A total of 225 consumers participated in the survey. The data were analysed using PLS-SEM. The findings shows that attitude, self-congruity and product quality influence customer purchase intention. Selfcongruity is the main factor that influences consumer purchase intention for Halal cosmetic product followed by attitude and product quality. Significantly, the study proves that personal factors (self-congruity and attitude) have greater influence on consumer purchase intention compared to product factor.

The ‘Clinical’ Perspective: An Alternative View 187 of Marketing Practice in a Hospice Fran Hyde University of Suffolk, Ipswich, United Kingdom How do those who work in non-profit organisations view marketing? Drawing on the sustained and continuing engagement with the marketing practice being undertaken in the difficult non-profit context of a hospice, this paper reveals some of the specific tensions and issues with the practice of marketing for those who do not work in marketing. Drawing on going work with St Angela’s hospice this paper includes discussions amongst the marketing team and an interview with a clinician. Considering marketing practice being undertaken at the hospices as both representational and constructive this paper offers a different perspective from which to consider marketing in the challenging non-profit sector.

Understanding the Role of Unique 188 Destinations in Travel Industries Purvendu Sharma Indian Institute Of Management, Indore, India Individuals seek distinct and unique places to differentiate themselves from the masses. Community platforms provide them avenues to identify information about such sites and locations. The potential traveler associate themselves with the closed groups to seek information about those places. The user-generated content and audio-video information exchange trigger repeated prominence in the minds of potential travelers. This results in engagement with the community groups to satisfy their quench for seeking information from fellow travelers. The study aims to identify the role of prominence and need for uniqueness in their association with the community groups. Thus, the engagement of individuals

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with these community groups helps in identifying distinct travel locations. A conceptual model is presented. The study anticipates significant implication areas of the research.

Pleasure, pride and guilt, how do they 191 interplay in sustainable luxury consumption? Zi Wang, Martin Liu, Maria Luo, Dandan Ye

Branded Entertainment in Film: The Fine Line 189 between Pleasure and Manipulation Katharina Stolley University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom Branded entertainment is a sophisticated implementation of product placement, where the brand is characterised as an intrinsic storyline component, starting with the intention of developing a story to promote a brand or product. One popular area of branded entertainment applications lies within films with examples coming from collaborations where the sponsoring brand funds the creative product and include films such as The Lego Movie (2014). Primarily, branded entertainment aims to strengthen consumers’ attention towards brands as media proliferation and audience fragmentation have made it increasingly difficult for brands to reach their consumers. However, in contrast to traditional advertising, branded entertainment enters the consumer’s mind in a more subconscious matter and the consumer may not recognise that the content is branded. Thus, overall ethical concerns of branded entertainment should be examined regarding the deceptive and unjust influence its content has over consumers. To address this, a qualitative research design is applied. Semi-structured interviews with consumers will be conducted which further incorporate screenings in form of short clips or trailers to examine consumers’ perceptions and understandings towards branded entertainment. The research aim is to evolve a conceptual framework, key theorisation and ethical implications to provide a greater understanding of branded entertainment.

The Edited Self: An Exploration of Body 190 Modification and Identity Katie Thompson University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom The aim of this project is to explore the connection between digital and physical body modification in relation to identity. The rising significance placed upon appearance in Western culture has driven the proliferation of both digital and physical body modification. Mirroring this movement, methods to modify the body have increase in popularity, accessibility, and availability. This project will explore anecdotal evidence which suggests that digitally modifying selfies for social media sites, may motivate individuals to physically modify the body using aesthetic cosmetic surgery. This trend has been dubbed ‘selfie dysmorphia’. At present, the relationship between social media and cosmetic surgery remains ambiguous in academic research. Netnography and depth interviews will be used to gain a deeper understanding of this emerging social phenomenon.

University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo, China Purpose- Sustainable luxury consumption (SLC) has attracted widespread attention from both academic researchers and practitioners. Relying on affection balance theory, this study investigates whether SLC evokes the tripartite emotion of pleasure, pride and guilt and whether each one influences consumers’ purchase intention.Originality-Even though previous research has focused on either positive or negative emotions on sustainable consumption (SC) or luxury consumption (LC), this paper fills the research gap by verifying whether pleasure, pride and guilt coexist and how they interplay in SLC and in turn influence purchase decisions. Implications/Limitations-This paper unravels the significant role of mixed emotions in SLC and potentially provides insights for marketers to integrate both compositions (SC and LC) and promote purchase intention of SLCs. Also, future research will explore the dynamics of mixed emotions in SLC in multicultural contexts.

Understanding how message framing and 193 companies’ trustworthiness determine the effectiveness of green marketing communications Giovanni Pino1, Alessandro Peluso2, Giampaolo Viglia1, Gianluigi Guido2 1

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom. Università del Salento, Lecce, Italy

2

Framing green marketing messages on the possible benefits (versus drawbacks) deriving from the implementation (or not) of a given behavior may significantly influence the effectiveness of this form of communication. Existing research investigated this issue focusing mainly on pro-environmental behaviors implementable by message receivers (e.g., recycling, saving energy). Instead, very little attention has been devoted to the role of message framing from the company side. Thus, it is unknown whether managers should inform consumers about companies’ pro-environmental behaviors using positively-, rather than negatively-framed, messages. The present research demonstrates that, compared to positively-framed messages, negatively-framed messages about a company’s environmental actions appear more likely to trigger positive responses due to an increase in the company perceived trustworthiness. This effect is stronger for environmentally conscious consumers.

The Impact of Self-disclosure by Social Media 194 Influencers on Consumer Behavior Sara AlRabiah, Ben Marder, David Marshall University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Today social media influencers (SMI) are key marketing agents, core to brands digital strategy. Current knowledge on personal self-disclosure by marketing agents assert that such disclosure is detrimental to brands and should be avoided. SMI challenge this status quo, as self-disclosure is known to be central to their success. The aim of the present research is to provide


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

the first understanding of the role of self-disclosure by SMI on consumer behavior. A between-subject experiment (n=454, 2x2x2) examined disclosure depth, breadth, and gender of Instagram travel influencers on purchase intention and EWOM. Findings, contrast existing knowledge, revealed that promoting greater self-disclosure leads to favorable consumer behavior, a relationship mediated by appropriateness, trust (cognitive and affective), and product attitude. Primarily this study extends knowledge of self-disclosure of marketing agents as well as highlights the importance of appropriateness. Implications for marketers are also provided.

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Tear gas, visual brands and opposition: an exploratory study on the use of visual branding techniques by the 2014 Hong Kong Umbrella Movement. Georgios Patsiaouras1, Anastasia Veneti2, William Green1 1

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom. Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

2

From the Indignados Movement to Tahrir Square and the Occupy Wall Street, we notice the rise in frequency and visibility of social movements over the last twenty years. However, we observe that marketing scholars have paid very limited attention to the tools, techniques and marketing technologies that social movements employ so as to promote their ideas and raise awareness on social issues. Following empirical research, we explore the promotional practices that occurred within the protest sites of the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement, so as to present and critically discuss how protesters employed aesthetics and visual branding techniques to mobilize audiences and strengthen social movement’s common identity. We highlight the importance for social movements to create a strong visual identity that reflects collective aims and we show how protesters used political colours, aesthetics, technological tools and symbolic language to promote their demands and induce social change. We conclude that marketing scholars can conduct further research on the collective creativity and spontaneous mobilization of social movements so as to inform both marketing theory and elements of visual branding.

Service innovation and public sector 196 performance: An employee perspective Iman Behmanesh, Philip J. Rosenberger III, David Cunneen, Ashish Malik University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia Escalating demand for services is putting intense pressure on public sector budgets. Administrators must look to another major resource, employees, to boost service levels. Service innovation is a major driver of improved service delivery and hence public sector performance. However, there is limited understanding of how to engage public sector employees in service innovation. This paper presents a conceptual framework to explore impacts of employee involvement and employee perceived value on service innovation and public sector performance. Propositions to guide future research are presented.

Investigating the Relationship between 197 Brand Engagement, Brand Community and Customer Engagement Value: The Moderating Role of Employee Brand Engagement. Mark Mills, Magnus Hultman, Aris Theotokis University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom How does brand engagement and brand community impact customer engagement value? What impact does employees’ brand engagement have upon brand engagement and brand community? Through an online survey of fans of professional basketball teams within the UK. This research has shown that a consumer’s direct brand engagement delivers a broad range of positive impacts upon the brand. However, this research shows that this impact is increased indirectly through brand community engagement. Therefore, the need to proactively embrace and develop associated brand communities is a necessity for marketers. This effect can also be increased through the development of employees who are also engaged with the brand and by communicating this employee engagement directly to consumers.

Signature Pedagogies in Marketing 200 Andrew Paddison1, Michael Harker1, Lucy GillSimmen2, Neil Kelley3 University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom. 3Leeds Beckett, Leeds, United Kingdom

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This paper reports on our ongoing project that is based on exploring Signature Pedagogies (SPs) within marketing. What are Signature Pedagogies? In brief, they are the teaching forms distinct to a discipline, which act as the means through which the text, thought and practice of the respective discipline is conveyed. Our project seeks to develop a clearer picture of the who, what and how of these within the domain of the teaching and learning of marketing at UK HEIs. More specifically the aim of the project is to explore through the theoretical lens of Signature Pedagogies the perceptions of marketing academics with regard to, firstly, the current forms, prevalence and relevance of SP, and, secondly, an exploration amongst marketing academics as to how the forms of SP could be best enabled and embedded in the future – matching this with a collation of information in respect of the attributes of educators – for example, the degree and category of professional experience they themselves possess.

The Role of Psychological Ownership in 202 Access-Based-Consumption: Insights from the Fashion Industry Bader Alkaffary Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom Psychological ownership has been used as a vital construct to predict individuals’ motives, attitudes, and behaviours in relation to objects whether they lead to positive or negative outcomes. However, previous research on psychological ownership has tended to assume full ownership of objects. Over the last decade, consumers have increasingly engaged in alternative consumption modes such as sharing, renting, and swapping goods. Alternative online platforms offer temporary access to

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goods rather than the traditional ownership. The clothing rental market has a large potential and could be the solution to a more sustainable fashion industry, however, fashion renting is still lacking behind in popularity and general acceptance. The purpose of this research is to explore the motives, antecedents and outcomes of psychological ownership in access-based fashion consumption. It adds to knowledge by addressing to what extent and how consumers experience feelings of ownership towards rented fashion objects, and how this might shape consumer-object relations. As a first step, semi-structured interviews and netnography will be undertaken to develop a conceptual model, which will then be tested with quantitative research. This research is at the qualitative data collection stage and findings will be presented at the conference.

Investigating Sustainability As A Firm-initiated 203 Initiative to Engage Customers in the Luxury Fashion Industry Shuchan Luo, Claudia Henninger, Marta Blázquez Cano University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom Sustainable fashion has become a key priority and links to increased global environmental concern; thus, luxury fashion retailers have engaged in new transformations through sustainability. The development of sustainability in the luxury industry is one of the firm-initiated factors in firms’ control to engage customers. However, there are still opening questions in the relationship of developing sustainability and the firm-initiated customer engagement. This study explores sustainability as one of the luxury firm-initiated factors to engage customers. The goal of this study is to investigate the strategies of sustainability in the luxury industry as the initiative to engage customers. In order to evaluate this concept, the data will firstly collect from interviewing luxury fashion practitioners to investigate the sustainable strategies of customer engagement. Subsequently, the second data collection will deeply investigate whether and how these strategies have been engaged from customer lens by interviewing with luxury consumers. Processed data from these interviews will provide insight into potential business development opportunities, as well as the feasibility of luxury retailing through sustainability as a firm-initiated factor to increase customer engagement and eventually improve profits.

Creating Customer Value in Health and Social 204 Care Services through Co-location Julie Boalch1, Antje Cockrill2 Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust, Cwmbran, United Kingdom. 2University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Swansea, United Kingdom

1

This paper explores a different way of delivering services to and creating value for vulnerable adults with complex health and social care needs. The societal complexities of today’s world are inextricably linked and cannot be unilaterally resolved by any one professional agency. This paper explores the additional value that co-located and integrated services across statutory, independent and voluntary organisations in health and social care could deliver. The ethical, political and structural issues for organisations and clients involved in such collaborative arrangements have been investigated. A qualitative paradigm based on in-depth expert interviews has been adopted. The chosen sample includes a heterogeneous,

cross sectional representation of organisations operating within the Health and Social Care sector. The data was analysed using a selective and axial coding approach. The study found that the desire and necessity for an integrated or co-located system for vulnerable adults exists. However, despite forty years of governmental legislation and incentives, ring fenced funding and policy making it is yet unclear if such arrangements genuinely add value; successful models of co-location and integration are not widespread. This is largely attributed to set off well documented issues that beset such partnerships and which have remained unchanged over time

Is Brand Love Blind? The Impact of Brand 207 Love on Customer Perceived Value. Anna Ivanova1, Stavros P Kalafatis 2, Lesley Ledden 1 1 Kingston University, London, United Kingdom. 2Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

Extending previous research on brand love construct, the authors question whether brand love can ‘blind’ perception of customer value in a similar vein as interpersonal love. Employing a survey experimental design, this study tests whether brand love fosters positive illusions on the value. Data were collected through a matched sample across three categories: fashion, automobile and supermarkets. Findings from the study support the hypothesis that brand love does ‘blind’ perception of customer perceived value, however, this differs across the categories. This is the first study which examines positive illusions in marketing; it also contributes to general brand love literature and offers new insights into the effect of brand love on customer perceived value.

Addressing the elephant in the room – 208 Graduate Teaching Assistance, Teaching Certificates, and Employability Claudia Henninger, Jennifer Slaughter, Thomas Rodgers University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceived usefulness of accredited teaching certifications (e.g. Associate/ Fellow of the Higher Education Academy) on employability for Graduate Teaching Assistance (GTAs). Past research predominantly focuses on curriculum development of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programs, yet there seems to be a lack of research addressing the ‘future’ of GTAs (Kanuka & Smith, 2019), who fall within the cracks of being classified as both research students and members of the academic faculty. The study is qualitative in nature and will present initial findings at the conference.


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Operationalization and Implementation of CSR practice among Indian Companies: A comprehensive review Ankur Jha Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, Lucknow, India

There are evidences of CSR being used as a marketing stimuli in extant literature, but the operationalization varies and could be segregated into three categories. Researchers who have considered it to be one-dimensional with one overall CSR measure, the other group of researchers have focused on one specific facet (Korschun et al, 2014) and the third group which has considered two or more facets of CSR (He & Li, 2010). The measure used by industry also varies as few organizations use GRI-G4 guideline whereas few follow United Nations development goal for the implementation of CSR practices. The study analyze the literature along with that of organization’s CSR disclosure to get idea of both the conceptualization and implementation. Multi-stage process to shortlist the article to reduce the redundancy. Consequently, to get the true representation from the practice, industry from multiple sectors and business were selected to improve the robustness of the study. The employees chosen for the survey were from the diverse sector with a minimum of 8 years of experience. The paper proposes the seven dimension to operationalize CSR. Further, the paper provides an amalgamation of operationalization in literature and focus of implementation by business firm along with employee perspective.

Exploring the value co-creation and 210 engagement process in China: the role of social media marketing Man Lai Cheung1, Guilherme D. Pires2, Philip J. Rosenberger III3, Mauro Jose De Oliveira4 1 Division of Business and Management, BNU-HKBU United International College, Zhu Hai, China. 2Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. 3Central Coast Business School, University of Newcastle – Central Coast, Ourimbah, Australia. 4The University Center of FEI, São Paulo, Brazil

Despite promising conceptual developments in the area of value co-creation and consumer-brand engagement (CBE) in these years, the scholarly attention surrounding the importance of social media marketing (SMM) in strengthening consumers’ intention on value co-creation and CBE is limited. Seeking to address this gap, this study examines the process of using SMM efforts in building value co-creation and CBE, by examining the impact of SMM on enduring involvement (EI) and on-going search behaviour (OSB), along with attitudinal outcomes of cocreation and consumer-brand engagement (CBE), as well as its business outcomes, including repurchase intention, brand value and commitment. Based on a survey of 208 smartphone users in China, we used partial least squares – structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to test the framework. The findings demonstrate the positive outcomes of SMM efforts, including the strengthening of EI, OSB, co-creation, CBE, repurchase intention, commitment and brand value.

Predicting consumers’ cheating behavior. 213 The role of mental representation of goods and psychological ownership. Vito Tassiello1, Laura Grazzini2, Giampaolo Viglia3, Sianne Gordon-Wilson3 Liverpool Business School, Liverpool, United Kingdom. University of Florence, Florence, Italy. 3University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

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2

This study examines the likelihood of cheating when consumers are offered with the option of using postponed payment plans after purchasing hedonic goods. It addresses how the nature of the good paired with payment timing affects its perceived psychological ownership, which in turn influences consumers’ cheating behavior. Three experimental studies indicate that when consumers mentally represent a hedonic (vs. utilitarian) good, they are more likely to cheat. This effect is greater with a postponed payment than with an immediate one. Findings also show that perceived psychological ownership is lower for hedonic goods and this explains different levels of cheating behavior depending on the nature of the product. The paper offers managerial guidance on how to increase perceived psychological ownership for hedonic goods, with the goal of reducing cheating behavior.

Charitable Donations, Home and Away: 214 Is it all political? Andrew Robson, David Hart Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom Whilst donor segmentation studies have considered various demographic, psychographic and behavioural variables, limited work has considered how political attitudes may influence charitable choice. Such attitudes may be especially relevant in the United Kingdom owing to changes in its political backdrop, the polarization of election voting and the growth of popularism. These changes may potentially impact on donor attitudes towards domestic and international charities. This study uses a survey to attain a nationally dispersed sample of potential donors. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicates four donor segments that are distinctive across charity perception, donation intention across domestic and international charities and political attitudes towards UK military action and immigration. Whilst one segment demonstrates preferences for domestic charities and is politically nationalistic (The UK Centrics), another has more diverse political views coupled with significant support for international alternatives (The Cosmopolitan Givers). Other segments appear more ambivalent towards political issues and charitable giving in general. The findings confirm the influence of an individual’s political viewpoint on charitable giving. This provides a steer to fundraisers who need to target empathetic donors efficiently and further stresses the importance of promoting positive perceptions of charitable donation and the importance of specific causes.

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Understanding how peripheral cues influence 215 the e-satisfaction-e-loyalty link in the emerging market context: A multilevel analysis

Ethnocentric Exploitative Perceptions of Firms 218 Activities and their Consumer Outcomes Ruby Appiah-Campbell, Kemefasu Ifie, John Cadogan, Nina Michaelidou

Neeru Malhotra1, Sunil Sahadev2, Peter Leeflang3, Keyoor Purani4

Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom. Salford University, Manchester, United Kingdom. 3Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom. 4IIM Kozhikode, Kerala, India

Ethnocentrism has been discussed as a key driver of consumer behaviour in the international marketing and management literature. However, much research focuses on consumer preferences for local over foreign products, thus very little empirical evidence exists for how other facets of ethnocentrism affect consumer reactions towards firms’ activities.The aim of the present study is to extend current knowledge of ethnocentrism, focusing particularly on its facet ‘exploitativeness’ and how it influences consumer evaluations and moral judgements of firms’ activities in international markets. In doing so, this work-in-progress draws on research on ethnocentrism, social identity, and customer behaviour to argue that a higher level of ethnocentric exploitative perception (EEP) reduces consumer sensitivity to potentially exploitative actions of firms in international markets. The authors also suggest that firms’ reputation management strategies moderate the impact of consumer judgements on their behaviour. Based on these some implications for theory and practice are provided.

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This study aims to develop a better understanding of the e-satisfaction-e-loyalty link in the Indian e-banking context. The moderating effects of two peripheral cues -structural assurance at the individual level and market share at the firm level - are analysed on the e-satisfaction – e-loyalty link applying a multilevel modeling framework. Data collected from customers along with archival data across 21 banks in India demonstrate that structural assurance significantly moderates the e-satisfaction-e-loyalty link at the consumer level and market share regulates the link at the bank level. Also, market share is found to moderate the relationships among e-satisfaction, structural assurance, and e-loyalty such that the interaction effect between e-satisfaction and structural assurance is found to be less pronounced when market share is high rather than low. This study advances our understanding of the conditional effects of e-satisfaction on e-loyalty by providing novel insights into the moderating effects of cues such as firm market share and structural assurance, and elucidates how different share banks may optimize customer loyalty in the Indian e-banking context.

Common Reasons for Adopting Sustainable 217 Consumption Behaviour and Digital Engagement: A Systematic Literature Review Nuzhat Nuery, Natalia Yannopoulou, Raffaele Filieri, Danae Manika Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom There has been growing consumers’ concern about sustainability issues, which do not result into sustainable consumption behaviour. Sometimes consumer do not adopt sustainable behaviour because they do not perceive it to be the conventional behaviour of that particular society. People’s consumption choice is shaped by contexts like society, education awareness etc. It appears that there is a complementary relationship between digital engagement and sustainable consumption. The Internet can be a possible way to promote sustainable consumption behaviour, since it has the capability to increase awareness and inspire the consumers to pursue greater social responsibility. In order to formulate any strategy, it is important to know whether digital media is suitable to promote sustainable consumption behaviour. Therefore, this paper attempts to summarise the influential variables of both bodies of literature- digital engagement and sustainable consumption, their effect on the respective behaviour and similarities among the variables.

Knowledge Transfer Intricacies between Firms 219 and their Subsidiaries in Emerging Markets: A Resource-Advantage Theory Approach Aniruddha Pangarkar MICA, Ahmedabad, India Increased globalization and the outsourcing boom have led to a surge in knowledge transfers between headquarters and subsidiaries of firms in global locations. However many times these organizational learning initiatives fail miserably due to lack of planning and understanding of key success factors that can facilitate effective knowledge transfer. Using absorptive capacity and Resource-Advantage Theory, this paper develops and identifies critical factors that determine knowledge transfer efficacy. The study has practical implications for managers and practitioners as the paper advocates that effectiveness of knowledge transfer between headquarters and subsidiaries of firms is dependent on the appropriate development of specific organizational capabilities.

The Effect of Social Media Communication on 220 Customer Brand Engagement in Open Higher Education of Thailand Anothai Ngamvichaikit Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Nonthaburi, Thailand Despite young consumers increasingly spend their time on social media; little empirical research is available defining the impact of social media communication on customer brand engagement in higher education. Especially in Open University, nationwide students who located far from campus


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

classroom need their educational communication from online media to foster university branding. This research studies the effect of social media communication toward customer brand engagement by using national Open University in Thailand as a study context. The study explored qualitative interviews with 13 stakeholders in communication and 13 bachelor students who highly used university’s social media. A survey of 400 students taking bachelor degree participated in the confirmatory quantitative study. The effect of social media communication from firm generated content and customer generated content was assessed on customer brand engagement with 7 point multi-item questionnaires. The multiple regression results shown that social media communication affected on customer brand engagement. Customer involvement also be another drive but has no interaction effect. This research provided concrete evidence that social medial can be used as a communication tool to help engage students with university brand and drive university marketers to be a more active and participative communicators toward social media.

Exploring New Frontiers through Higher 221 Education and Business Sector Collaboration in the UK: A Transactional - Relationship Marketing Management Approach Fred Yamoah1, Julie Trindade2, Malcolm Stewart2 1

Birkbeck-University of London, London, United Kingdom. University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom

2

Despite the growing interest in higher education and business community collaborations, there is limited understanding on how Knowledge Exchange and Commercialisation/ Business Development (KEC/BD) professionals manage such partnerships from a business partner’s expected level (depth) of engagement perspective. The paper seeks to address this deficit by examining collaborative practices between KEC/ BD professionals and their Business industry stakeholders using the integrated theoretical lenses of transactional and relationship marketing management. Based on quantitative and qualitative data analyses the results reveal a contribution that expected level (depth) of engagement from a business sector partner is a key determinant underpinning the choice of a relationship management approach for higher education and business community collaboration. The results indicate that transactional approach is best suited for low level of engagement and a relational approached for deeper alternative. The analysis further revealed that interaction and subsequent management of business relationships by universities is ad hoc and disjointed, and KEC/BD professionals are not being used to their full potential in supporting on-going relationships. This dual transactional-relational pathway underpinned by expected depth of engagement helps address conceptual limitations of existing relationship management models to advance understanding of how KEC/ BD professionals manage such complex partnerships.

The role of University Social Augmenters in 222 enhancing University Brand Preference and Student Actual Enrollment Ahmed Eldegwy 1, Tamer Elsharnouby2 October University for Modern Sciences and Arts, Giza, Egypt. 2Qatar University, Doha, Qatar 1

Drawing on need to belong theory together with ideas from consumer based brand equity (CBBE) model, the study examines the impact of prospective student delight with university social augmenter on social augmenter brand equity (SABE) along with the effect of the latter carries towards university brand preference and student actual enrollment. Data from a sample of 367 prospective university students were collected and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings reveal that social augmenter delight is a driver of SABE which enables both university brand preference and student actual enrollment. The findings suggest that universities can use social augmenters as a critical branding element in their student attraction endeavors.

Sustainable luxury or luxurious sustainability: 223 How luxury fashion brands communicate sustainability through social media engagement Rezwana Barsha University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom ‘Luxury and sustainability are incompatible’ or so seems to be the perception. Thoughtful luxury are two words that cannot be expected to be found sitting side by side, but together they present an important concept and propose an idea of ethical standards in a luxury landscape (Burns, 2012). This research aims to clarify how social media marketing activities work in the luxury fashion industry and how it can help the brands to interact effectively with customers and promote CSR initiatives via social media platforms. The thesis contributes to the literature by (1) critically examining the relationships between luxury and sustainability and (2) by extending the work of Kim and Ko (2012), investigating the expansion of the model to include sustainability and CSR related activities. The contribution of this thesis should offer insightful managerial implications to luxury fashion brands in relation to their sustainability and CSR efforts as well as their approach to social media marketing strategy. This research adopts Pragmatism as a research philosophy and employs a mixed method approach using both qualitative (interviews) and quantitative research (questionnaire) methods.

Positive Waiting: A Counter-Intuitive 224 Approach Gerard Ryan, Othmane Aride, Mireia Valverde Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Tarragona, Spain This working paper calls for a re-examination of the conventional wisdom that making consumers wait for service is necessarily negative. This is important because after three decades of research, consumers are still waiting, in an ever expanding range of service situations. Yet, as researchers, we are consistently revisiting the same research questions we have considered since the early 1990s. In order to advance our

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understanding of the challenges facing management, every so often researchers are called upon to question conventional wisdom, to re-examine the evidence and to re-evaluate the obvious solutions. The apparent impasse in research on waiting requires alternative approaches, to challenge accepted knowledge in order to stimulate new and innovative discussions around the topic. In order to move beyond the current status quo, we forward a set of research propositions advocating the positive effects of waiting and a corresponding series of studies to empirically examine each of these propositions. In contrast to established thinking, we propose that waiting can have positive effects by; attracting more consumers; increasing perceived value; providing information to facilitate consumer decision-making; improving customer evaluations; and encouraging positive anticipation. The propositions are supported theoretically by drawing on related disciplines. The studies are presented for consideration.

Attitudes towards Advertising: the views of 226 UK and US millennials Fred Beard1, Sally Laurie2, Kathleen Mortimer2 University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma, USA. 2University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom

1

Adopting an institutional theory perspective, this paper explores and compares the attitudes of late-Millennial University students toward advertising’s economic, social, and ethical features and consequences in the United Kingdom and the United States. Tracking and explaining such attitudes are important because Millennials are a large generational cohort, and today’s youngest, ‘Digital Native’ segment are the first to be targeted with digital advertising throughout their entire lives. Their views matter as studies indicate attitudes toward advertising are related to message processing, favourable brand attitudes, as well as attitudes toward specific ads and campaigns. More importantly, negative attitudes toward advertising can lead to problems for marketers in the form of support for more restrictive advertising regulations. Data collection took the form of an online survey of late-Millennial students at two universities, one in the UK and one in the US. Findings offer an update to the research literature on attitudes toward advertising, indicating that the most negative attitudes overall are towards its truthfulness. On the other hand, respondents substantially agree that advertising is essential to economic prosperity, and while attitudes are slightly more favourable toward more government regulation of advertising among UK Millennials, they are mainly neutral in both countries.

Resisting the Lure of Digital – Exploring the 227 Consequences of Digital Marketing on the Marketing Profession and Investigating the Relationship between these Negative Effects and Marketers’ Stage of Career. Tim Crowley, Dr Pio Fenton, Dr Gearoid O’Suilleabhain Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), Cork, Ireland Marketing has witnessed an unprecedented level of change in recent times. Digitalization is one of the most revolutionary changes society has seen (Kähler & Magnusson, 2018) and, according to Hill et al. (2018) there is much left to understand

about the digital marketing world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the negative effects associated with marketing in a digital world. In-depth, semi structured interviews were undertaken to gain an insight into the experiences of early and later career marketers. This paper focuses on the interaction between career stage and the consequences of digital marketing. The increased prominence of digital has led to problems (Hansen, 2017). Modern marketers are struggling to resist the lure of digital and are falling into a digital trap where they are overusing or misusing digital technologies. A symptom of this is an issue where marketers are forgetting the fundamentals of marketing due to their increased focus on digital. Career stage plays a pivotal role in how the consequences of digital marketing are witnessed. Both cohorts of marketers work within the same world, often side by side, however the disparate opinions expressed clearly highlight the contrasting views and mindsets of marketers based on career stage.

Customer Engagement Behaviours in Dialogic 228 Co-Creation Activities from a CustomerDominant Perspective: A Study of Chinese Fast Fashion Shoppers Xuefeng Huang, Liz Barnes, Patsy Perry University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom Chinese customers are considered as a distinctive and substantial consuming group in the global fashion market (Zhou et al., 2010). Compared to western customers, one of their distinctive shopping behaviour is that Chinese fashion customers prefer searching brand and product-related information from interacting and communicating with brands and the other users on social networking sites (SNSs), rather than gathering resources from the brand’s official websites (BCG, 2014). Chinese customers are taking on a new social role, which allows them to generate contents or co-create dialogues with brands and other customers simultaneously on social media. With the increasing number of empowered customers involved in marketing activities, the customer-centric logic that emphasises customer value is increasingly important in marketing studies, and represents a new and emerging marketing theme (Heinonen and Strandvik, 2015). It requires scholars to broaden our understanding of customer logic, customer activities and customer value that influence customer engagement behaviours. This conference paper will present the findings from a quantitative (questionnaire) study. A tested conceptual model will demonstrate a holistic understanding of customer logic, customer engagement in dialogic co-creation activities on a Chinese SNS and the consequences of such engagement from a customer perspective.

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Location-Based Mobile Games: What’s in it for Shopping Malls? Belem Barbosa1, Valentina Chkoniya2, Armando Mateus3, Hugo Almeida2 ISCA-UA and GOVCOPP, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal. 2University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal. 3 TouchPoint Consulting, Lisbon, Portugal 1

The use of geo-localization by mobile games have been attracting the attention of both practitioners and scholars in recent years, especially since the launch of Pokémon GO. Despite the growing literature on location-based mobile


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

games, the effects on consumer behavior and marketing outcomes are still disregarded by extant literature. This article aims to contribute to filling this gap, by studying Pokémon GO players’ consumer behavior regarding shopping malls. The article includes an exploratory quantitative study with 436 Portuguese Pokémon GO players. Results provide interesting cues for marketers working in the retail sector, namely shopping mall practitioners, as partnership with the game (e.g., featuring a PokéStop) is shown to (i) provide an enjoyable shopping experience to the customer, (ii) provide a unique, fun, and enjoyable feeling associated with the blend of real and virtual worlds, (iii) attract new customers, (iv) increase loyalty, and (v) generate sales. Moreover, these sales are not limited to impulsive buying. In fact, participants in this study frequently combine planned shopping activities with catching Pokémons, and prefer to go shopping to the mall that has connections to the game even when they are not playing.

From Social Marketing to Social Innovation in 230 a Transformational Economy Mike Saren1, Marta Gasparin1, William Green1, Martin Quinn1, Christophe Schinckus2 1

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom. Taylor’s University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2

The research setting for this study are the creative and cultural organizations in Vietnam, a transformational economy and society. Through an in-depth interpretivist methodology, which included observations, document analysis, visual ethnography and interviews, we investigated social marketing in the creative organizations in Vietnam. Contrary to our initial expectations, the dominant motivations of creative organizations were to tackle societal problems, challenge the status quo and develop sustainable and inclusive growth, and they used storytelling and social marketing to engage with the public. Creative organizations create products and services that contribute to the growth of Vietnamese society, innovations for challenging issues and for making society more inclusive, which we refer to as social innovation (SI). Based on our extensive fieldwork, we theorize diffusion of social innovations in a transformational economy, which are innovative products, processes and services that contribute to the development of the cultural basis, protect the community, and empower vulnerable and marginalized communities, happens through social marketing.

To Explore The Management Of Customer-To231 Customer Interaction (CCI) By The Front-Fine Employee (FLE) In The Supermarket Industry. Alex Kay University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom In the retail environment there are many forms of interactions and influences that occur before, during, and after the service exchange – all of which play a vital role in customer experience and patronage. Understanding the customer experience is a complex process and many models of service encounters have been produced to identify the varying factors (Bittner, 1990; Baker et al., 2002; Turley and Chebat, 2002). Research has identified music (Miiliman 1982); crowding (Hui and Bateson 1991); ‘store atmosphere’ (Donovan and Rossiter 1982) and ‘physical attractiveness of the store (Darden, Erdem, and

Darden 1983) as major influences on the consumer. However, Bitner (1990) identifies that social interactions are pivotal in shaping the consumer experience. These are classified as customer-to-employee (C2E) and customer-to-customer (C2C). Much research has been paid to the interaction between the employee and the customer (cf. Bitner, Booms, and Tetreault, 1990; Harris, Baron, and Parker, 2000; Harris and Reynolds, 2004). However, research on customer-to-customer interaction in the retail environment is seldom and needs to be further explored, especially from the viewpoint of the front-line employee. This paper aims to provide a review of the current literature around the customer experience, methodological underpinnings for the research and preliminary findings.

The Role of Moral Idealism, Consumer Ethics, 232 and Materialism on Consumer Well-being Tassanee Suanchimplee, Prathanporn Jhundra-indra Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham , Thailand This paper has attempted to explain new conceptual framework of the relationship between moral idealism, consumer ethics, and materialism, and how these relationships change consumer well-being. From the synthesis of a variety of literature on consumer behavior, there are three major assumptions. First, the author assumed that consumers who have moral idealism is high (low), consumer well-being will be high (low). Such assumption occurs since consumers think that desirable consequences result from the right action, always be universal moral rules, therefore resulting in consumer well-being and vice versa. Second, examine consumer ethics (actively benefiting from illegal activities, passively benefiting from questionable activities, actively benefiting from deceptive legal activities, and behaviors that are involved in ‘no harm/ no foul’) as the mediator of the association between moral idealism and consumer well-being. By assumed that who have more idealistic would be more likely to reject these questionable activities and lead to consumer well-being. Third, examine materialism as the moderator which if consumers have more materialism will come to change the outcome of all relationship. It caused consumers to accept questionable activities and result in a decreased consumer well-being. Finally, present to the theoretical and managerial implication and suggestion further study are provided.

Determinants of Social Media Marketing 233 Adoption in a Major Telecom Multinational Corporation in Greece. An Internal and External Perspective. Zoe M. Chroni, Pravin Balaraman University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom The adoption of social media (SM) as marketing tools is mainly focused in the B2C context while in the B2B context have received little attention in the literature. The primary aim of this research is to investigate the phenomena of social media marketing and its adoption in the B2B domain and to develop and test a relevant conceptual framework to explore the factors influencing the social media adoption by B2B firms. To assess this, a sequential exploratory mixed method approach will be used to investigate the phenomenon in greater depth.

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First, a case study will be conducted, with qualitative semistructured interviews based on the determinants, potential benefits and barriers identified through the literature review. Second, a quantitative online survey will be carried out building upon the interview results to try to validate and triangulate the qualitative findings. The research has a special focus on Business-to-Business organisations within Greece.

The Adult Fans of Lego and Their Online 234 Communities: Proposing a Brand Culture Typology Barry Ardley 1, Claire May 1, Eleanor McIntosh2, Marcus Langmaid3 University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom. Houghton International, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. 3 Marcon Consulting, Lincoln, United Kingdom 1

2

This study contributes to empirical research on brand communities in social media and to the theoretical enrichment of our concept of brand culture. The method adopted was a netnographic study of eight Lego brand communities on Facebook, involving the collection of data in the form of text and images. Over a period of several months, the actions and interactions between the adult fans of Lego (AFOLS) was examined and analysed. As an initial investigative framework, we utilise the three characteristics of brand communities established by Muniz and O’Guinn (2001), to direct our inquiry. On the basis of our research, we subsequently establish and develop a brand culture typology that assists in framing online brand communities and their culture, in terms of representation and reproduction. The nascent typology we propose, consists of four elements. These being, the symbolic representation of self, story iteration, brand curation and an expressive network solidarity. We argue that this brand typology facilitates further theoretical and empirical development into brand cultures and in particular, the online brand community phenomena.

Content Strategies for Celebrity Bloggers in 235 China: The Role of Self-presentation and SelfDisclosure strategy Jiayan Huang University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom Fashion blogger needs to generate effective social content to maintain relationship with audiences. Current studies on fashion blogging have limited research on content attributes and parasocial interaction that impact on the relationship between fashion bloggers and the audiences. This study to gain an insight into celebrity blogger’s content genres and the way they present themselves towards the online audiences. The qualitative study aims to shed light on selfpresentation and self-disclosure strategies mediate parasocial relationships and social presence between celebrity bloggers and audience, examining why celebrity bloggers influential and persuasive. A content analysis was employed in order to explore the contents genre from most popular bloggers in China, to analyse the relationships between content features, blogger’s expression attributes and influential. A stratified random sample was used to select ten top fashion bloggers in China. The study proposed that emotional selfdisclosure and positive self-presentation are most frequently used presentation strategies employed by celebrity fashion bloggers. Celebrity fashion bloggers show fashion taste,

inner feelings and desire self-images to maintain the close relationship with audiences. The study distilled celebrity blogger’s presentation strategies and content attributes in the social media marketing.

In search of Nirvana: An exploration of 236 cognitive value structures behind Buddhist pilgrims’ consumption of Dambadiva pilgrimage Dr Padmali Rodrigo, Dr Sarah Turnbull, Dr Mahsa Ghaffari University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom This study aims to investigate the cognitive value structures or value orientations associated with Buddhist pilgrims’ expectations and experience of consumption of the ‘Dambadiva Pilgrimage Journey’ in India. Integrating the means-end-chain theory (Gutman, 1982), the data for the study will be gathered via 30 semi-structured laddering interviews among Buddhist pilgrims who visited the Buddhist sacred sites in Indi to explore the personal value systems associated with Buddhist pilgrimage experience. The data gathered will be analysed using thematic analysis and the soft laddering data analysis procedure which involve content analysis, development of implication matrixes and hierarchical value maps (Reynolds and Gutman, 1988). It is expected that findings will contribute to the body of knowledge of tourist pilgrimage experience by identifying key pilgrim expectations and how these expectations are developed in relation to the personal value systems of pilgrims who undertake the pilgrimage. Moreover, the results of the laddering interviews will enable marketers to determine the hierarchical linkages between attributes, benefits, and values associated with Dambadiva pilgrimage will enable tour operators and policymakers to provide more tailored activities to pilgrims, introduce new tourism products in line with their expectations.

Using AR and VR to connect consumers to 237 hidden heritage and culture. Finola Kerrigan1, Evinc Dogan2, Andrew Pressey 1 1

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

2

Our workshop submission aims to share findings from our British Academy Newton Fund Project, A Tale of Two Cities. This project explores the potential for Augmented and Virtual Reality to connect consumers to hidden heritage and culture. The focus is on an ancient Lycian city in Turkey, Xanthos and the hidden film heritage in Birmingham in the UK. Mid project findings will be shared with workshop participants to progress thinking about the application of these technologies in connecting consumers to such significant, hidden heritage and culture.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Do Fashion Involvement, Innovativeness and 239 Opinion Leadership Affect Brand Sensitivity? A Multi-Group Analysis of Turkish and German Adolescents Tutku Eker İşcioğlu1, Serap Atakan2 Piri Reis University, Istanbul, Turkey. 2Istanbul Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey 1

Fashion brands play an important role for adolescents, who constitute an essential part of the apparel industry. Adolescents need to be better understood by both marketing academicians and practitioners to develop effective marketing strategies. To this end, this study aims to examine whether fashion involvement, fashion innovativeness and fashion opinion leadership are the determinants of brand sensitivity for Turkish and German adolescents. A multi-group analysis with PLS-SEM is applied to a sample of 256 adolescents, aged 1218. Findings reveal that none of the fashion related constructs influence brand sensitivity. Although, in the Turkish sample fashion innovativeness is found to be a significant determinant of brand sensitivity, the difference in effects between Turkish and German adolescents is not statistically significant. For both groups however, fashion involvement is found to be a determining factor of fashion innovativeness and opinion leadership, and fashion innovativeness is found to predict fashion opinion leadership. Among the control variables, only gender and mother’s brand sensitivity were found to have significant impact on brand sensitivity. Yet, the difference in the effect of these two variables did not differ between the Turks and Germans. Managerial and theoretical implications of the study are also suggested.

Using Narrative Methodology in Consumer 240 Research with Social Impact H.P. Samanthika Gallage1, Teresa Heath2, Caroline Tynan2 1

Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

2

This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of using a qualitative narrative methodology supported by online diaries for consumer research with a social impact. The research project was conducted to understand emotions and identity negotiations of former excessive drinkers in the UK when maintaining responsible drinking. The paper outlines how narrative method enabled researchers to collect context specific, rich data and also provides insights on challenges in collecting data in relatively sensitive research topics with a social impact.

The adoption of marketing strategies to 241 promote financial sustainability in social enterprises. Paul Dobson Staffordshire University, Staffordshire, United Kingdom. Manchester Met University, Cheshire, United Kingdom Research suggests that many social enterprises face financial sustainability issues. It has been identified that a marketing strategy is one of the most important tools for social enterprise survival. However, there is very limited research on marketing strategy within the extant literature of social enterprise. In particular, there is a void using resource-based theory (RBT) in this context. The aim is to critically appraise marketing in small to medium sized social enterprises, to identify factors which contribute to financial sustainability through an RBT lens. The proposed research question is: What is the relationship between the adoption of marketing strategies and financial sustainability in social enterprises? This question will be answered through in depth, qualitative empirical research with two social enterprises. This type of research lends itself to an ontological perspective critical realism, thus an ontological realist, epistemological relativism and judgemental rationalist perspective. Stage one will be to find a conceptual framework from the SME marketing literature that can be adapted to the context of social enterprises. Stage two will be to develop an analytical framework.

Mexicanising the Non-Mexican: Analysing 242 Food Consumption Practices of Mexican Immigrants to the UK. Cecilia Ibarra Cantu1,2, Fiona Cheetham1 University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom. Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Huajuapan de Leon, Oax., Mexico

1

2

This paper analyses the acculturation process of Mexican immigrants living in the UK by adopting practice theory as a theoretical lens to examine their food consumption practices. Data is collected using a combination of in-depth interviews, participant observation and short follow-up interviews. A thematic analysis of the data from the perspective of practice theory using NVivo indicates how Mexican immigrants prefer to adopt and adapt products from various non-Mexican cultures in order to be able to prepare what they perceive as being more authentic Mexican dishes in their everyday life so as to reflect their Mexican ethnicity. In so doing, these Mexican consumers are effectively rejecting many mainstream products and services that are currently marketed as being ‘Mexican’ in the UK. The preliminary findings of this research therefore challenges the role that marketing is said to play in the acculturation of consumers in previous studies of acculturation.

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From F.O.M.O. to Changxin: A Cross-cultural 246 Exploration of Consumer Response to Newness in the Fast-moving Consumer Goods Industry Carolyn Wilson1, Sarah Xiao2 University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom. 2Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom

1

The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry is subject to quick and impulsive decision making by consumers. As a result, new products on the market have an opportunity to be purchased but struggle to remain on the shelves. New products in EU markets are failing, whilst in emerging countries FMCG brand growth and new product success continues to increase. This paper extends the current literature on new product development, product design and line extensions to explore why newness is more attractive in emerging markets compared to EU markets. Data collected from focus groups in the UK, Brazil and China are analysed to develop four main themes for discussion. Hedonic consumption, utilitarian consumption, touchpoints and self-regulation are involved in the consumer purchasing of new FMCG products. An interesting hedonic consideration is the idea of F.O.M.O, (fear of missing out) or Changxin in China; when not purchasing a product would result in missing out on what others are using and a potentially better alternative to the present product. Finally, the identified themes demonstrate cultural differences between the subject countries and recognise why new products are more likely to be purchased in Brazil and China.

Revisiting Researcher Vulnerability: Towards a 247 Temporalised Understanding of Vulnerability in (Impactful) Research Projects Chloe Steadman Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom Drawing on two ethnographic research projects intersecting around the topic of death, this paper revisits the underexplored concept of researcher vulnerability. Despite academics long having considered potential risks to research participants, and a growing area of literature surrounding consumer vulnerability, the emotional and/or physical harm that researchers can experience as a result of undertaking research has largely been neglected. Addressing this lacuna, this paper contributes a more temporalised understanding of researcher vulnerability within consumer research. Through drawing upon illustrative fieldnotes and reflexive diaries, these temporal dimensions are unpacked in relation to recalling the past, shifting vulnerabilities in the present, and imagined futures. The paper in turn builds upon consumer research literature surrounding reflexive methodologies and researcher vulnerability.

A Grounded Theory of Customer Experience 248 Ozge Demir, Elif Karaosmanoglu Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Despite the surging interest in academic and practitioner circles, the link between customer experience and marketing outcomes is based on mainly qualitative studies and at times on anecdotal evidence due to the lack of a widely-adopted operationalisation of the customer experience construct. The scales that have been proposed thus far are developed either based on a selected context or focus on a type of experience, which results in a narrow conceptualisation and adaptability issues. Given the inconsistent manner in which customer experience has been conceptualised and the breadth of the concept itself, the necessity of redefining the domain of customer experience becomes essential. The present research aims to address this gap in customer experience theory through developing a grounded theory of customer experience, and it tries to define its domain in a contextindependent manner.

Using Bibliometrics to Evaluate the Brand 249 Experience Research: Possible Future Research Directions Dongmei Zha, TC Melewar, Pantea Foroudi, ZhongQi Jin Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom This study employs the use of bibliometrics to examine the intellectual structure of the brand experience literature, utilising co-citation data as an analytical metric. The bibliometric process covers a total of 136 articles published between 2002 and 2018, resulting in a database of 2,698 citations. From the multidimensional scaling analysis, nine research groups were identified, representing key and peripheral sources of influences. The key research groups are conceptualisation, operationalisation, experiential marketing and brand performance; while the peripheral research groups comprise consumption experience, customer experience and behaviour, the experience economy, service marketing and relationship marketing. Together with a supplement of qualitative reviews sourced from compendia of frequently cited papers, a matrix for future development is presented, enabling the reader to visualize the scope and breadth of potential brand experience research horizons. The four approaches listed in the matrix – interpretative, managerial, digital and embodiment – exemplify the thesis that to meet the challenge of these research horizons, the intellectual structure of the literature will be better served by the introduction of greater epistemological plurality into its current research norms and practices.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

‘Responsible drinking’: Mistrusted, Misused 250 and Misunderstood H.P Samanthika Gallage1, Caroline Tynan2, Teresa Heath2 1

Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

2

This study focuses on examining how young consumers perceive the term responsible drinking, especially when it is being communicated by both the alcohol industry and other agents that attempt to mitigate irresponsible drinking. The data was collected from 25 former excessive drinkers using a narrative interview method. The findings revealed that consumers perceive that the term responsible drinking is being misused by the alcohol industry. Participants also suggested that social marketers have not properly understood the context in which drinking happens and drinkers, which leads to conflicting messages. Thus, the responsible drinking message seems to be ineffective due to perceived lack of trustworthiness of the sender and the lack of overlaps between the frames of references between the sender and the receiver. Our participants perceive the term responsible drinking to be misused, and both mistrust and misunderstand it.

Collecting Customer Feedback on Destination 251 Image Formation: Facilitating Deep Thought Using a Group Interview Approach Chelsea Bailey 1, David Arnott2, Lloyd Harris1 1

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

2

This paper explores the value of the group interview method and details its use in a tourism service setting. Specifically, we explore the impact of utilising groups of acquainted individuals in a pre and post visit data collection approach, with the aim of facilitating deep thought and reflection. Incorporating participants social groupings into the data collection approach lead to very rich encounters with participants and resulted in data that would have been missed if the pre-existing social connections were not maximised. We argue that this approach offers the most appropriate method to understand the image formation process in tourism settings and explore specific changes in consumer’s preconceptions, attitudes and subsequent evaluations of service experiences.

An exploration into the use of the digital 252 platform Slack to support group assessments and feedback and the impact on engagement Julia Cook, Rachael Mabe, Dr Brian Harman De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom Assessment and feedback is consistently highlighted as an area where students feel Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) could improve and regularly scores lowest of the key criteria for student satisfaction (Grove, 2014). Furthermore, group assessment, where students not only need to learn assessment requirements, but also social skills required to work collaboratively (Reiser, 2017), can create additional challenges. The majority of university students have grown up as digital natives, with 81% of students reporting use of mobile devices whilst studying (Al-Emran, Elsherif & Shaalan,

2016). There is a requirement to consider more brave and innovative technological approaches to supporting students. This working paper explores whether adopting an industry tool Slack, a Computer-Mediated Communication platform, can be an effective tool in group assessments. More specifically, can Slack facilitate an innovative and collaborative group learning community for mediating and supporting group assessments amongst level 5 undergraduate marketing students and additionally develop graduate competencies. Proposing a programme of qualitative inquiry, using a multi-method case study approach, data will be collected through six focus groups of 8-10 students and two semi-structured individual interviews with members of the teaching team in order to evaluate the use of Slack in supporting and engaging students in group assessments.

Execution factors affecting product placement 254 effectiveness in hip hop videos Shree Maharaj, Debbie Ellis University of kwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa Product placement is described as an alternative to advertising. It involves the placement of a brand within another medium, often an entertainment medium such as films or videos. This research investigates the effectiveness of product placement and the execution factors that affect this using the context of hip hop videos. Both the product placement and hip hop industries are large and growing industries and yet there is limited research testing theoretical frameworks for product placement. The execution factors investigated included priming, modality and presence of the artists. An experimental design tested the effects of these factors on recall, response bias and purchase intention. Product placement was found to be effective in that recall, response bias and purchase intention were all found at least to some extent. Priming, which involves warning consumers before the video that product placement exists, was found to significantly affect the outcome variables. Dual-mode placements (audio and visual) were found to be more effective and presence of the artist had mixed effects. Implications for marketers are provided.

You say it best when you say nothing at 255 all: How relational aspects of visibility and representation embody the meaning of family in the marketplace Daniela Pirani1, Rohit Talwar2 1

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

2

This paper problematises how visibility in advertising is related to increased social recognition, a widespread assumption in marketing literature. Using empirical data, this research investigates how marketing efforts for more inclusive gender representations are applied to family portrayals and how consumers make sense of them. Findings reveal how consumers prefer ambiguous representations rather than explicit family models, where they feel misrepresented. It also shows how the cultural codes of visual marketing are impacting the interpretation of images, mediating them with national ideologies of family. Framing relatability within the notion of visibility as a social category (Brighenti, 2007), we bring the attention to the sites of power that govern visual

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consumption. We attempt to theorise these findings using the notion of relatability, meaning how the visible becomes alien to consumers if they cannot relate back to it. Thus, we argue that visibility and social recognition are not linearly connected, and that inclusivity is largely based in the interpretation process

Analysing the effects of cohort experiences 258 on luxury brand purchases by millennials through the application of generational cohort theory Rebecca Biggins, Ren Chen

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Customer Relationship Management Practices and Profitability in Ghana’s Mobile Telecommunications Industry. Emmanuel Arthur1, Ebenezer Effah Asare2, Nana Owusu-Frimpong3 Lancaster University Ghana, Accra, Ghana. 2Central University, Accra, Ghana. 3GIMPA , Accra, Ghana 1

This study comes against the background of increasing competition and globalization in Ghana’s mobile telecommunications industry. The increasingly competitive environment has precipitated the adoption of CRM practices by firms in the mobile telecommunications industry, necessitating the study to establish the CRM practices of the firms and the extent to which they are utilizing it to generate profitability. In collecting data, fifteen (15) respondents made of managers from three leading mobile telecommunications industry were purposively selected and a qualitative approach of in-depth interviews used on them. Thematic analysis was utilised in identifying and discussing mutually inclusive thematic issues of relevance to the research objectives. Findings of the study has clearly established that aided by appropriate softwares and hardwares various CRM practices are currently being employed by mobile telecommunications firms in Ghana to enhance their competitiveness and ostensibly to enhance their profitability. The study thus provides ample justification for the adoption of CRM practices by mobile telecommunication operators if they are to remain competitive and generate the desired profitability in an industry highly influenced by globalization and technological fluidity

Defining Brand Identity of Albania Based on 257 Kapferer’s Identity Prism Sonila Çela, Vusal Gambarov Epoka University, Tirana, Albania The purpose of this paper is to define the brand identity of Albania. Destination branding strategy has earned a significant importance in positioning the destinations due to the aggressive competitiveness in touristic markets. Despite, government’s tourism strategy objective ‘Branding Albania’ and some media corporations’ efforts to promote Albania as a destination, there is a lack of research on the promotion strategy grounded on the elements of identity. Albeit, prior to promotion, there is a need to identify the elements that differentiate Albania in order to create a strong image and positioning strategy. Kapferer’s brand identity prism (2008) is used as a model for measuring the brand identity of Albania. A qualitative analysis is developed using focus groups considering, field experts DMO and policy makers. Understanding Albania’s identity from internal stakeholders’ perspectives may help Albania to create unique promotion strategies to strengthen Albania’s position through the competitive market. Results from this research show a consensus of the fields experts regarding the identity elements of Albania based on the on the Kapferer’s Identity Prism. The brand identity of Albania elements; beautiful nature, for seasons’ colors, attractive, young and friendly where tourists can find authentic culture and great gastronomy

York Business School, York St John University, York, United Kingdom This working paper aims to examine a consumer segment, the young millennial, and its status and consumption tendencies in the luxury fashion market. The study analyses the young millennial generation and how they behave as a market segment due to the cataclysmic events that have occurred throughout their lives. Two focus groups and forty interviews have been conducted with both male and female participants. The focus groups identified significant events influencing their values; the most prominent included the 2008 Recession, 9/11 and the London tube attacks. The findings so far have indicated that UK millennials’ have been through uncertain political, economic and social times at a young age and this impacts their approach to money and value of goods. Specifically with luxury, the shifting priorities of the generation who live for today, mean that they are more willing than previous generations to spend high proportions of their income on luxury fashion. Much work has been done investigating millennial consumption of luxury fashion in the USA and Asia, however very little has been done focusing on the UK millennial, and this paper seeks to fill this gap in understanding through focusing on generational cohort theory and lived experiences of the cohort.

‘Hey, I saw this on Instagram!’ – How 259 Exposures to Products on Social Media, Engagement and Fear of Missing Out Affect Attitudes Dominik Neumann, Patricia Huddleston, Bridget Behe Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA Social media serves as a source of information about products and plays an essential role in contemporary marketing strategies. However, there are tremendous differences in how individuals perceive and process product related information. Social media takes on a different role for posters (users who are highly engaged and more actively use the platform) as compared to lurkers (users who use the platform more passively). Additionally, users’ fear of missing out (FOMO) might play an important role in their perceptions of products seen on social media. In this study, we used the MODE model to analyze social media advertising and consequent attitudes toward the product. From an online survey sample (N=833), we found that product attitudes vary tremendously for users who were exposed to social media advertising before shopping as compared to user who were not exposed to social media advertising. This relationship was dependent on whether users were lurkers versus posters in regard to their Instagram engagement and on their proneness to experience FOMO. Based on our findings, we suggest that advertising on Instagram contributes to more favorable product evaluations when posters have high FOMO. However, social media advertising is less efficient when the targets audience are lurkers.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

The Impact of Product and Brand Fit on 260 the Consumption Value: The Case of Brand Alliances.

A Comparison of UK and Finish Teenagers 263 Participation Styles in a Collective Service Environment

Ilia Protopapa

Janet Ward1,2, Johanna Gummerus2, Mitchell Ness3

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

1

University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United Kingdom. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland. 3 Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom 2

Brand alliances with high perceived brand/ product fit create favourable consumers’ evaluation. Positive evaluations are created because of the high perceived cohesiveness (brand fit) and/ or complementarity (product fit) between brands. Cohesiveness highlights hedonic attributes that create an affective rather than a cognitive impact. Complementarity emphasises the utilitarian attributes that create a cognitive rather than an affective impact on consumers. To investigate the affective and cognitive impact of the high brand/ product fit alliances, we examine consumption values in brand alliances. This research proposes that in brand alliances where the brand dominates the product fit, the hedonic attributes dominate the alliance and therefore, positively affect consumers’ affective dimensions of value towards the new co-branded product. It is proposed that higher product fit brand alliances, where utilitarian attributes are prominent, affect consumers’ cognitive dimensions of value towards the new co-branded product. This research applies an experimental research design to examine the effect of fit on consumers’ perceptions of value and employs PLS-SEM to analyse the collected data (n=335). The findings confirm the hypotheses that the impact of product fit (brand fit) on cognitive (affective) dimensions of perceived value is greater in brand alliances in which the product fit (brand fit) dominates.

Stereotype and counter stereotype in 262 children’s product and its role in parents purchase decision Dr Pallavi Singh1, Ping Hsuan Lu2 Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom. 2 The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom 1

Gender stereotyping in children products is a known and well researched area. In the recent wave of challenges from multiple stakeholders, many of the businesses and companies have adapted their marketing strategy with adopting counter gender stereotype products in children product category as well. However, it is still obvious to observe the existing of gender stereotype in children’s products market. Many researches have suggested that gender stereotypes influence children’s social competence, skills, abilities, behaviours and future careers. However there is scarcity of research in understanding the adaptability of counter stereotype products in children product category and among parents who are the major customers/ purchasers of those products. Therefore this research aims to understand how gender stereotype influence on the buying behaviour of parents in children markets and discuss the parents’ attitudes toward counter stereotype on children products.

Social media have both proliferated and grown in complexity in recent years. There have been calls for research to move ‘beyond the dyad’ (Chandler & Vargo, 2011). One response has been a growing interest in Collective Service Environments where customer to customer interaction is an integral part of the experience. Customer participation has enjoyed renewed interest recently (Aristeidou, Scanlon, and Sharples, 2017; Dong & Sivakumar, 2017; Mustak et al. 2013; Mustak et al 2016) studies on participation may reveal the ways in which customers contribute and interact with a service system as well as each other’s service experiences. This study focuses on both UK and Finnish young people using Habbo Hotel a social virtual world which first opened in 2001. Participant styles were identified during an extended period of participant observation and became questions within an online questionnaire circulated in-world. Factor analysis identifies eight factors in the Habbo.com hotel but ten within the Habbo. fi hotel demonstrating that customer participation can unlock participant goal-directed actions and tasks (Lipkin, 2015). Additional cluster analyses will be presented and discussed at conference. By comparing two communities a more robust understanding is achieved this has both academic and managerial implications which are discussed.

Service Recovery Performance: The Role of 264 Internal Market and Technology Orientations Samiha Mjahed1,2, Muslim Amin3, Hayam Almousa1 college of Business Administration-King Saud University, RIYADH, Saudi Arabia. 2The University of economic management and sciences, Tunisia, Tunisia. 3Taylor’s Business School-Taylor’s University, Malaysia, Malaysia 1

This article addresses the ways knowledge based intangible assets contribute to employee performance in service recovery encounter. An important theoretical contribution of the study is the finding that recovery capability is enhanced by internal orientation (IO) and not by technology orientation (TO). IO provides the necessary resources and social support impeding a complaint aversion culture, facilitating the processing of the complaints for restoring customer satisfaction and for learning from incidents and helping employees knowledge sharing, both with each other and with the customer. Service recovery capability is the mechanism by which IO impact employees’ satisfaction and loyalty. These findings underscore the need for managers to focus on management behaviours and actions that are related to employees’ well-being. Further, In line with Dixon (2018), Technology orientation is shown to influence employee loyalty, the attrition and absenteeism are reduced and the engagement is developed in service recovery context. Future research should set the mechanisms of such effect, as explored by Florian et al (2018) in IT self- services.

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Does Geographic Distance Strengthen the 265 Effects of Positive Psychological Capital Language and Quality Signals? Evidence from Crowdfunding Campaigns Mohammad Tajvarpour, Devashish Pujari McMaster University, DeGroote School of Business, Hamilton, Canada Studies on crowdfunding have investigated the role of signals on the likelihood of success of crowdfunding campaigns and also the association between geographic distance and crowdfunding transactions. However, no study has investigated the effect of geographic distance on importance of costly and costless signals. We address this gap, using a sample of 18,676 crowdfunding campaigns of 195 countries, and show that signals are more influential on the likelihood of success of crowdfunding campaigns that are collecting funds from more geographically distant backers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to investigate and show that costly signals are more influential for the success of campaigns that get their funds from more geographically remote backers. We also show that the same effect is true for costless signals such as positive psychological capital language, and its influence on success likelihood is reinforced as the distance between entrepreneur and backers increases.

Towards Public Customer Logic 266 Saila Saraniemi, Hanna Komulainen, Satu Nätti, Pauliina Ulkuniemi University of Oulu, Oulu Business School, Oulu, Finland The purpose of the present study is to develop the theory of customer oriented public services by laying a foundation for understanding how customer orientation emerges and evolves in public sector. Specifically, we aim at defining the concept of public customer logic. This aim is based on the notion that an in-depth understanding of customer-orientation in public organizations, its realization and development now and in the future, is still scarce: Research on customer orientation specifically in public sector has been limited. This is although it is suggested that there are no real inbuilt differences between public and private service organizations and no reasons why public services could be less customer-focused than private organizations. However, we want to emphasize that it is crucial to understand that premises of customer-orientation are different in public sector due to constant challenge of allocating scarce resources impactfully to create most value for society at large, for example. Because these underlying premises are different, it is important to create descriptions and definitions for public customer logic. For that purpose theories from services marketing and public management (with a focus on public health services) are employed, likewise qualitative research methods.

From ‘Ethical’ to ‘Political’: Expanding the 268 Theoretical Landscape of Responsible Consumption Katherine Casey, Lisa O’Malley, Maria Lichrou University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland The UN World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) highlighted that modern modes of production and consumption would have to undergo radical changes in order to achieve global sustainable development (Stolle & Micheletti, 2013, p. 163). A great deal of attention/effort has focused on engendering more responsible, ethical and sustainable consumption including within the media and academic communities. This has led to an increased awareness of the products which they purchase and of the politics behind them, this is evidenced by phenomena such as the growth of veganism (Doyle, 2016; Micheletti, 2003) and a steadily growing ethical market (2.5% in 2016-2017). However, there is still much work to be done, this paper offers an alternative conceptualisation of ‘ethical consumption’ and a different method to access sensitive insights.

The Shape of Value Co-Destruction to Come 269 Niklas Vallström, Janet Ward, Seema Bhate University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United Kingdom Value co-destruction is a theoretical area in marketing theory that demands further exploration. We have reviewed and critiqued this body of literature in an area that is undertheorised, by conducting a qualitative content analysis. Three themes have been used in this analysis; - the value concept used as the theoretical underpinning, value co-destruction process, and the empirical contexts that have been researched. The findings are that (1) value is described in interrelated terms of experiences, unrealised potential, well-being, economic, net benefits, and emotions, (2) value co-destruction is destroyed through resource integration, collaborative practices, and/or context-specific mechanisms, and (3) that value co-destruction has been researched in empirical contexts categorised as conceptual, business-to-consumer markets, business-tobusiness markets, online, and collective. Based on those findings, directions for future research have been developed. This paper thus contributes with a research agenda, informed by a literature review on the conceptualisation of value codestruction hitherto, which have the potential to shape the value co-destruction research to come.

Fluid Fandom: Reframing Post-Fan Identity 270 utilizing Play as a mode of Social Performance Dave Alton, Stephen O’Sullivan Cork University Business School, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Football has always been an important context in scholarly approaches to understanding consumer culture. It is through analyzing the serious social processes of song, dance, and play that the understanding of the lived-experience of football fans can be enhanced, understanding fandom as an expression of human existence. This ethnographic study makes a number of original contributions to football fandom literature by exploring the construction and development of fan identity, within the dynamic environment of what is


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

conceptualized as post-fandom. The performative-dimensions of football fandom allows fans to satisfy a number of identity goals and desires. Thus, it was found that fans construct and develop their individual and collective fan identity through engagement in a variety of play forms. The study also contributes to the understanding of the fluidity of postfandom, proposing a novel fan typology which incorporates a fluid relationship between liminal and liminoid forms of fandom. Liminoid fandom manifests as pure play, free from obligation. Conversely, liminal performance mimics those of religious rites and are considered dutiful acts. The study also reconceptualises the make-up of fan communities as they emerge within post-fandom literature, through the application of communitas as a mode of playful social performance.

Modeling e-learner Satisfaction: The Role of 271 Online Customer Experience. James Santa, Justin Pelletier, Neil Hair Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA This research explores graduate and undergraduate student perceptions of ideal e-learner satisfaction by drawing from the fields of online educational research and online customer experience. While much attention has been paid to ideal online customer experience research in retail environments, little has been done to categorize the features and benefits of ideal student e-learning experience. By understanding the features and benefits most commonly associated with a positive learning experience, universities will be better placed to take advantage of the online mode. This research study developed and empirically tested a model outlining the experience component of key features and benefits of an ideal online learning experience. The preliminary findings suggest that several previously unrelated factors describing e-learner satisfaction and online customer experience share statistical significance. The combination of items from the measurements across the e-learner and online customer experience domains suggest a more valid measure of student satisfaction in e-learning.

Different Shades of Green: An Exploration of 272 Identity and Conflict amongst Environmental Consumer Activists Ashleigh Blasbery University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom This study focuses on environmental consumer movements and their link to individual identity construction. It explores the idea of hierarchies within the environmental movement and how the ever-increasing trend of being green is driving conflict away from ideological adversaries and towards other movement affiliates. The aim of this study is to uncover the attitudes of varying levels of green activists regarding their green identity in comparison to other activists. The exploration of this aim is presented during a preliminary stage of the study and will encompass secondary data and early netnographic findings for elaboration. The research will, in its later stages, utilise participant observation and in-depth interviews to truly explore this contested realm.

HMS Hood: The genesis, life and death of an 273 imperial brand icon Robert Hamlin University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand This article examines the process by which political brands are developed around individual objects, and demonstrates the weaknesses and political dangers that they represent. While the process of political brand building around symbols, parties and individuals is well covered in the research literature, politically branded objects have received less attention, even though they have an influential presence within political history. The subject is examined via an individual case study: The career of the British battlecruiser HMS Hood between 1918 and 1941. HMS Hood appeared almost accidentally in 1918 as the World’s largest and best looking warship. Successful brands had been created around individual warships and fleets prior to the First World War, but the British took this process much further with HMS Hood, turning this single ship into the personification of the British Empire between 1923 and 1939. The Hood ‘brand’ delivered massive benefits over this period, but when she was destroyed by the German battleship Bismarck in 1941, the catastrophic loss of her brand equity pushed the British Empire to the verge of defeat. The lessons of HMS Hood have not been learnt, and the same type of dangerous brand/military object associations continue to be constructed today.

Consumers’ reaction to online brand hate 274 Marta Grybś-Kabocik University of Economics in Katowice, Katowice, Poland Social media development on one hand fostered the relationship between brands and consumers. On the other hand, social media facilitated anti-brand speeches but also creation of anti-brand communities. Such expression of online hate influence companies, but the community of consumers is also massively impacted by the phenomenon. It can be observed, that some consumers are not passive in reaction to it, but try to fight it. The aim of this paper is to get insight into consumers’ reactions to the exposure of online brand hate phenomenon. In the study a blog and buzz mining was adopted as methodology with analysing Google’s search terms as well as netnography of Facebook brand communities. The findings suggest that more and more consumers look for ways to minimize hate speeches.

An Exploration Of ‘Hs’: A Realtime, In-Lecture 275 Online, Student Engagement Tool Cristina Sambrook University of Birmingham, Birmingham Business School, Birmingham, United Kingdom Marketing educators are increasingly required to teach complex marketing theories and frameworks in lecture programmes of ever-increasing sizes and cultural complexities. Student number pressure had led educators to argue that an improvement in the ‘quality of student experience’ is required. While financial incentives are driving up student numbers and lucrative overseas students are increasingly attractive to UK universities, such students are frequently culturally and

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behaviourally different to solely-UK educated students. The aim of this study is to explore innovative ways in which student engagement – answering questions, active participation, feedback and formative assessment opportunities - by reluctant student cohorts can not only be encouraged, but can, more importantly, be gauged and measured in real time during large class lecture delivery programmes. Using a newly developed software that records students in-class participation and interaction, this research aims to generate a better measurement of students’ engagement, as well as gaining insight into what students find challenging in order further to develop the teaching materials. A concurrent contribution is to explicate insights into how the application of such a method could improve learning outcomes and contribute to improved programme and module development.

Virtual Community Participation and Purchase 276 Decisions: An Empirical Investigation Surat Teerakapibal1, Junyun Liao2 Thammasat Business School, Bangkok, Thailand. 2School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China 1

This study examines the impact of virtual community participation on purchase decisions using actual purchase and online community participation data. The data collected includes over 10,000 individuals. Variation in influence of two distinct types of participations (thread generations vs responding to existing thread) were investigated. Parameter estimates illustrate an association between both types of online community participation and the number of products purchased. Results also show that lurkers, although are passive in nature, on average purchase products from the brand as well. These findings reaffirm the potential of virtual communities in promoting product sales.

Myth, Community and Transformation 277 Katherine Casey, Maria Lichrou, Lisa O’Malley University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland A myth is motivated story, purposely designed to convey a particular message or set of meanings, successful myth meets the objectives for which it was designed. This research compares several renderings of the founding myth of an intentional community. A close analysis of the various renderings of this myth has revealed the depth of diversity in this community and, that regardless of what motivated their joining, their personal history or political persuasion, there is a common thread which binds this community. Every member emphasised the importance of ‘walking their talk’ – living the ideologies which they espouse. It is apparent that these are points of convergence around which this community dovetails. This is an important contribution in light of the current political and ecological situation – there are many lessons to be learned from a community which is skilfully creating solidarity where there could be polarity, commonality where there is ostensibly only difference.

Lads on Stags: Implications for Service 279 Providers Lisa O’Malley 1, Lloyd Harris2, Vicky Story3 1 University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. 2University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. 3 Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

The ‘stag do’ is positioned as an Anglo-Saxon rite of passage, in which the ‘soon to be married’ man celebrates the end of his ‘freedom’ with male friends. Although historically occurring on a single night and involving drinks at the local pub, stag ‘dos’ as they are colloquially know have expanded in recent years to include a weekend or tour. The Stag Party is not inconsequential to the economy with the market estimated at $1 billion a year. In the UK, Brighton, Bournemouth and Newcastle remain popular weekend destinations for Stag Parties, but increasingly stag parties travel abroad. Indeed, even by the mid-noughties the British Foreign Office estimated that 70 per cent of British stag and hen parties were held abroad. As such, the foreign stag ‘do’, has become a cultural norm for many young (and even older) men. This working paper considers the social construction of stag tourism, by place marketers, tour operators and service providers. The work is exploratory and qualitative with depth interviews anticipated with various service personnel in order to further refine and focus the research question.

Exploring the Profiles of Youth Entrepreneurial 280 Motivation Irene R. R. Lu, Louise Heslop, Francois Brouard, Ernest Kwan, Diane A. Isabelle Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada The objectives of this study are: (a) to identify the profiles of youth’s entrepreneurial motivation (to start a business) grounded in self-determination theory (SDT) by adopting a person-centered approach, (b) to link these profiles to antecedents that promote or hinder entrepreneurial motivations and predict the profile membership, and (c) to test the relations of these profiles with outcome variables (entrepreneurial intention and study interest in entrepreneurship). Our study represents a critical departure from the variable-centered studies commonly seen in the entrepreneurship literature to understand youth’s motivational profiles and their correlates. To our knowledge this study is the first to consider the full range of behavioural regulations under SDT in the estimation of entrepreneurial motivation profiles, as opposed to dichotomizing motivation into extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. We observed six distinct profiles of youth entrepreneurial motivation that vary quantitatively (in level) and qualitatively (in shape). We also identified some psychological traits (e.g., risk-taking) and situational factors (e.g., perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy) logically and differentially predict entrepreneurial motivation profile membership. Our results also show that in general the entrepreneurial motivation profiles differ in levels of youth’s entrepreneurial intention and study interest in entrepreneurship, supporting the predictive validity of the extracted latent profiles.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Interrogating ethical consumption in 281 community food growing Andreea Bocioaga University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom There is an increasing pressure on consumers to fundamentally change their consumption patterns as concerns about sustainability have reached a critical point. This study explores how consumers learning new and ethical food practices in a social and situated environment, reject or integrate these practices in everyday food consumption. Drawing on data from a small scale longitudinal qualitative study, I use the context of community gardens as communities of ethical consumption to explore how this learning is negotiated and articulated alongside consumers identities and pre-existing knowledge. This study proposes that in exploring community garden participation, an embodied practice learning approach can uncover whether participants reject or integrate new learning in their day-to-day consumption as conditioned by self-identity and pre-existing repertoires of ethical food consumption: knowledge of ethics and understanding and competencies of food.

The Nature and Evolution of County Image 282 Definition: An Analysis of Four Decades of Research Ernest Kwan, Irene R. R. Lu, Louise Heslop, Roland Thomas, Marzena Cedzynski Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada This study is to provide a comprehensive and systematic analysis on the diversity and nature of country image (CI) definitions in academic research. It is the first study to examine the evolution of CI definitions over the past four decades (1978 to 2017) and to do so quantitatively. We identify the key concepts that have been central to defining CI and the processes of CI formation. We also examine how the definitions have evolved over time. Accordingly, our study identifies emerging trends in CI definitions based on four decades of academic research. Our results will reveal directions of future research to further clarify and unify the definition of CI, thereby helping researchers develop one consistent definition of CI. A common definition of CI is essential for the synthesis and accumulation of knowledge obtained in CI research.

Media Strategy & Planning: What is going 283 wrong in Media Briefing? Beverly Barker Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom This research focuses on media strategy and planning. The media planning task has become more complex over the last decade due to the continued proliferation of media options, rapid evolution of digital technologies and changing media consumption patterns, which have created a turbulent planning environment. Within this Planners have expanded their remit through investment in research and technology solution to meet these conditions, but how has strategy formation been affected? This study focused on the initial client briefing stage

and the information exchanged between marketing managers and agency planners when briefing in a new campaigns. The literature indicates that ‘briefing’ should include all details from the marketing plan, the wider marketing environment, and current consumer insights, to enable the best strategic decisions to be made. The research offers revisions to the core data required for media planning, and indicates planners are not gaining access to the information they need and want, and that relevant metrics, analytics and insights are not always shared. This is a source of frustration for planners and suggests sub-optimal media strategy making. Further research is needed to explore why this is happening and identify potential solutions.

The Birkin Bag: Differing Value Perspectives 284 in an Online Brand Community Niklas Vallström, Janet Ward, Seema Bhate University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United Kingdom Brand communities create a subculture with its own myths, hierarchies, values, vocabulary, and rituals (Cova & Pace, 2006). Luxury brands such as Hermes demonstrate how the values of a traditional European brand are translated within online communities. To date, value creating practices within such communities have been seen predominantly in a positive light. We argue that there is a need for research that explores value destruction and the loss of value in online brand communities. A netnographic investigation of a Hermès online community over several months included participant observation, collection of posts, and interviews. Our findings identify the ritual involved in purchasing the coveted Birkin Bag. There is, however, also a stigma to owning a Birkin Bag. While the ritual may have been designed to create value our findings suggest it may also lead to loss of value in different ways. This means that luxury brands need a more nuanced understanding to creation of value by considering where loss of value may also occur.

The construction of responsible micro285 borrowing Pilar Rojas Gaviria1, Domen Bajde2 1 pontificia Universidad Catolica De Chile, Santiago De Chile, Chile. 2university of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

With the purpose of broadening our theoretical understanding of consumer responsibilization, this manuscript draws on an ongoing investigation in Peru, informed by interviews with microborrowers and employees from microfinance institutions. The manuscript illustrates how the construction of the responsible micro-borrower not only depends on neoliberal consumer responsibilization (Giesler & Veresiu, 2014), but also on parallel networks of collective caring and solidarity (Trnka & Trundle, 2014), and generative responsibility (Giaccardi & Magatti, 2014). The co-existence of generative responsibility, collective responsibility as well as self-responsibility (Giesler & Veresiu, 2014) recreates the necessary conditions for the performance of responsible micro-borrowing. The multiple approaches to responsibility, discuss in the manuscript, offer a more pluralistic social representation on the task of poverty alleviation.

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Nature and outcome of technology 286 adaptation: A study of Rohingya refugees’ use of smartphones in Bangladesh Bidit Dey , Mujahid Babu , Syed Muhammad 1

1

2

1

Brunel University London, London, United Kingdom. Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom

2

It is argued that information and communication technology such as smartphones can contribute to the socio-economic wellbeing of disadvantaged communities. However, there is limited research on the nature of their technology use and perceived outcome on their wellbeing in various non-standard contexts such as refugees in developing countries. Our paper addresses this research gap by identifying and categorising Rohingya refugees’ adaptation behaviour for smartphone use and resulting impact on their perceived wellbeing. By conducting a survey on 350 Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, this research finds that exploration of innovative ways lead to enhanced wellbeing. Exploitation of benefits, exploration to revert back to previous technology and avoidance of using technology are found to be less effective for achieving wellbeing.

A possible solution to issues related to 288 overtourism? Linking sustainable tourism practices to community well-being Carmela Bosangit1, Sheila Malone2 Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom 1

2

Considering the global concern with issues related to overtourism, it is important to pay attention to residents’ quest for a more relational and holistic approach to tourism that promotes greater community well-being. Empirical works linking sustainable tourism practices to community well-being is limited, and emphasis is placed more on the economic indicators such as GDP as measure of well-being in tourist destinations. Thus, this paper investigates the link between sustainable tourism practices and community well-being from a relational perspective. This perspective does not only facilitate a bottom-up approach but provides a more holistic view that considers the subjective, material and relational dimensions of community well-being. Data collected from 20 in-depth interviews with stakeholders in two UNESCO-declared geopark were analysed to explore how sustainable tourism practices can address issues related to overtourism and consequently contribute (or deteriorate) community well-being.

A crocodile on holiday – crafting tomorrows 289 ‘luxury’ materials Claudia Henninger1, Marta Blazquez Cano1, Celina Jones1, Olga Tsigkou1, Lucy Bosworth2 1

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

2

This research project is part of a wider investigation that brings together the fields of textile science and technology, chemistry and marketing management research. This specific article focuses on consumer perceptions of new material inventions (man-made fibres based on natural resources) and contributes to knowledge by exploring terminologies that best describe new material inventions, as well as gain insight into drivers and barriers of making more conscious purchase decisions.

Recent literature review on effectuation 291 Dafnis Coudounaris1, Henrik Arvidsson 2 1 University of Tartu, School of Economics and Business Administration, Tartu, Estonia. 2University of Tartu (External PhD candidate), Tartu, Estonia

The purpose of this study is to summarize the state of research in the theory of effectuation and to examine its strengths and weaknesses. In total 78 peer review articles are used in this study based on the effectuation which is a decisionmaking logic. Despite the fact the theory of effectuation was formulated in 2001, still to a large extent, it has not moved away from the realm of small entrepreneurial firms. The development of the effectuation logic has been accelerated in recent years, but still, the bulk of the research focuses on small entrepreneurial firms rather than towards the application of the theory on larger non-entrepreneurial firms. Furthermore, the effectuation theory would benefit from its evolution into the realm of psychology and sociology. The exponential growth of studies on effectuation during recent years i.e. 2017-2019 shows that researchers respond to the calls by leading authors that the effectuation theory is a field with great potential for further theoretical developments. Conclusion, implications, limitations and future research avenues are discussed.

Screencast Videography: Toward a Visual 292 Dynamic Understanding of Digital Experience Fatema Kawaf University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom This paper presents a novel research methodology, screencast videography (SCV), as an approach to studying interactions and experiences in the digital space. Screencasting is a method of digitally-recorded computer/mobile screen output, with or without audio narration. Focusing on the dynamic, highly visual digital environment in which many modern experiences such as eshopping take place, SCV can be used for videographic studies of digital experiences that are rarely captured by means of traditional videography owing to the private settings of such experiences. SCV is able to capture dynamic experiences in the digital space, opening up opportunities for a wealth of screencast-based research to enhance our understanding of digitally-occurring interactions, experiences and phenomena. This paper discusses the importance of the visual and dynamic understanding of digital experiences and how SCV enables it. In addition, the paper discusses the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of the method as experience is viewed as a ‘stream of consciousness’

Can online control be associated with 294 emotional consumer behaviour Annetta Paps-King, Athina Dilmperi, Charles Dennis Middlesex University, Hendon, United Kingdom The amount of control consumers has within the online environment affects how receptive they are to personalised marketing communications. This has led to interest in investigating privacy and what it signifies to consumer as well as its implications to marketing specialists. Using the 7-step model of analysing secondary research, the review showed


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

that consumers want to exercise their right to control their interactions and behaviours online. The privacy/control concept is affected by feelings of trust and security. The findings revealed that the online privacy concerns of consumers can be managed by their level of perceived control of their personal information. Marketers and companies cannot randomly collect consumer information for targeting intention and purposes without consent due to legal requirements and regulations. The level off perceived risk associated with an interaction is affected by the level of online trust and this is determined by consumers and the competency of the company initiating the interaction. It is suggested that the core relationship between personal control beliefs and how this affects marketing communications requires further investigation. Likewise, the relationship between target consumer groups, personal reference groups and how these affect control/privacy and security requires attention for Literature advancement.

Opportunity Versus Necessity driven 295 motivation for start-up business: In the case of Nepalese women entrepreneurs Anju Maharjan, Ahmed Beloucif University of the west of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom The purpose of this research is to investigate motivational drivers of ethnic women entrepreneurs in the UK. Ethnic minority-owned businesses are a significant and growing feature of the private sector, playing a significant economic and social role. This study highlights the increasing share of Nepalese women entrepreneurship in the UK. This study has used a systematic literature review to investigate motivational drivers of Nepalese women entrepreneurs in the UK. This study has adopted a qualitative method with 30 in-depth interviews and adopted thematic analysis. This study reveals some interesting factors motivational drivers that lead to establishing Nepalese women businesses. The findings show emerging factors includes ‘desire to contribute own country’ as the opportunity-driven; ‘negative inspiration’ as the necessitydriven factor. Besides that, the results show that desire to independence, previous experience, cultural, ethnic enclave, family related and job dissatisfaction are main entrepreneurial motivation. The study finds out that majority of Nepalese women are motivated by opportunity driven factors rather than necessity driven factors to set up own business. This research provides a better understanding of the fact of ethnic women entrepreneurs in the UK which will be beneficial for all ethnic women entrepreneurs, ethnic society to promote ethnic minority entrepreneurial activities.

Tackling Negative Publicity: Exploring 296 Consumers’ Emotions and Reactions after A Company Encounters Negative Publicity Christos Michael, Moira Clark, Georgiana Grigore Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom Prior research in regards to negative publicity has treated consumers as highly rational decision makers. Consumers’ emotions and actions have not been explored in the area of negative publicity. Thus, this research aims discover how consumers respond emotionally to negative publicity and from there on their reactions. The researcher will conduct

a qualitative study in order to acquire beneficial insights in regards to customers’ emotions and actions using interviews. This study aims to find out how consumers respond emotionally to negative publicity and their actions towards it also since research on these elements are very prominent in public relations related fields. The findings are expected to be extremely useful to managers as it will aid them better in understanding how customers behave in such circumstances and therefore help them further as to how to fix relationships (with their customers). Additionally, since emotions have not been applied in the context of marketing extensively, more insights are expected to emerge in relation to consumer emotions and branding.

We are Education: the Potential Impacts of 297 the Sharing Economy on the Future of Higher Education Aurelie Le Normand University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom This working paper conceptualises the idea of ‘We are Education’ manifesto. A manifesto is a declaration of a new vision, criticising a current state, often seen as ‘avant-garde’, leading the way to the future. Higher Education is in need of change. The University of The Underground (2017) and other alternative education movements have emerged as a protestation of the over saturated market of Higher Education. The next generation to enter Higher Education is generation Z. This generation’s attitudes and aspirations challenge the norms. They want to be entrepreneurs of their own future. Education and the workplace are facing new challenges on how to retain this generation. In other sectors such as automotive, tourism and fashion, consumers have found ways to hack the current economic system by being in control of their consumption through shared resources. The sharing economy is in growth and it will be a misconception not to investigate its future impact on education. The paper reviews both scholarly research and market insights on current state of Higher Education, Gen Z, the sharing economy, peer learning and open learning.

Marketers Never Tire of Improving Online 298 Customer Experiences - Digital Interventions by B2B Firms to Improve Conversion and Purchase Occurrences Lucill Curtis Norwich Business School, UEA, Norwich, United Kingdom. Footprint Digital, Colchester, United Kingdom The purpose of this research is to examine the online customer experience (OCE) and customer journeys’ process from the perspective of B2B marketers, in order to better understand the digital brand touchpoints, and where journeys stall, stop or cease in B2B website settings. In turn this provides opportunities to explore intervention approaches adopted by B2B marketers to rectify these dissatisfaction issues, whilst aiming to improve relational outcomes. Adopting a mixed methods research design, this study initially analyses [Google] analytics’ data over a two-year period (2016-2018) and qualitative interviews are underway with B2B marketers to further explore the challenges identified by the quantitative behavioural data. Considerably less is known about specific

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marketing orientated interventions during online OCE, as most existing studies focus on customer actions, behaviours and outcomes designed to stimulate organisational action i.e. (McLean, 2017; Martin et al, 2015; Rose et al 2012). Thus, identification of interventions from the B2B marketers’ perspective is required to build on limited existing data relating to influences upon OCE from the customer’s standpoint, such as ’website credibility and information quality cues’ (McLean, 2017: 657) but also to identify any related formatting, content and technical issues preventing conversion and purchase occurrences.

In particular, their success depends mostly on consumers’ adoption and use, revealing a gap in the literature. Thus, our research aims to understand consumers’ perception of smart green interactive devices and identify motives and barriers to their adoption. In an attempt to gain insights into this issue, a study based on 22 in-depth interviews with consumers was conducted in France. Results from a qualitative study revealed a rather positive attitude towards smart green interactive devices. However, several barriers related both to technology and environment are highlighted. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Hedonistic Sustainability: Upcycling and 300 Alternative Engagement with Sustainable Consumption

Job Stress in Front-Line Employees of 305 Professional Services Firms: The Case of the UK Law Firms

Grace O’Rourke1, Stephen O’Sullivan2 1

London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom. University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

2

This study seeks to identify hedonistic characteristics of alternative sustainable consumption practices. Previous consumer research on sustainable consumption has seen attention directed to sustainable practices requiring significant levels of sacrifice on the individuals’ part (e.g. recycling). However, alternative practices such as dumpster diving, freeganism and upcycling are emerging which embrace more fun and playful aspects of sustainability ideology. These practices, could hold the potential for more widespread sustainable consumption as they more closely align with consumerist goals. Due to the playful and creative nature of upcycling, and to offset the consumer research focus on sacrifice, hedonism was adopted as the lens with which to conduct this study. Ethnography provided the necessary access to explore the interactive and hands-on nature of upcycling, consisting of traditional researcher immersion, netnography, presence, and visual ethnography, which all contributed to the holistic understanding of the practice. Although complete data analysis has yet to be completed, initial findings suggest that hedonistic characteristics such as fantasy and emotion are key characteristics of the upcycling experience. This study suggests that it is possible for sustainable consumption, even if it is high-involvement, to be attractive to consumers.

Smart Technology for Sustainability: 303 Understanding Consumer Response to Smart Green Interactive Devices Ines Kolli, Gilles N’Goala University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France The increasing concentration of people in the city is at the origin of numerous environmental crises which can significantly affect our societies (air pollution, waste production, increasing energy and water consumption). National policies are therefore aimed at making cities more sustainable and reduce their negative environmental impacts. In this context, smart green interactive devices are increasingly seen as innovative solutions which can provide to individuals a feedback on both their behaviors (waste, gas emission, etc.) and their surrounding environmental conditions (pollution, etc.), thus aiming at enhancing more responsible and pro-environmental behaviors. Nevertheless, the emergence of those smart green devices gives rise to a number of important issues.

Arash Valipour1, Ghasem Zaefarian1, Matthew Robson1,2, Zhaleh Najafi Tavani1 1 Leeds University Business School, Leeds, United Kingdom. 2Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

The aim of the present study is to investigate how different job demands (i.e. challenge and hindrance) and different aspects of client participation (i.e. frequency and quality) drive job stress of front-line employees in professional services firms. We also examine how different resources (i.e. job and personal resources) can buffer the negative effects of stressors. Drawing on a sample of 232 B2B senior solicitors, the results of this study indicate that time pressure and administrative hassles drive job stress. The results also reveal that frequency of client participation impacts on job stress positively, while quality of client participation attenuates job stress in solicitors. Furthermore, the results show that job autonomy moderates the relationship between time pressure and job stress. Emotional intelligence was also found to have a moderating role on the effect of frequency of participation and quality of participation on job stress.

Marketing Students’ Perceptions of 306 Developing Employability Skills: A Case Study Based on The Business Clinic Katie Gray, Julie Crumbley, Nigel Coates Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom Graduate employability is an increasingly important topic within higher education today with employers now expecting graduates to be fully equipped with the necessary skills and behaviours required for the job. In response to these concerns, HEIs need to understand and address key challenges and barriers faced when trying to develop relevant and meaningful employability skills. This paper aims to understand the marketing students’ perceptions of their employability skills as they undergo a ‘live case’ experiential learning module, exploring the students’ perceptions of their skills development. Key findings suggest students are aware of the importance of employability skills and often rate themselves very highly, but subsequently find it difficult to articulate these skill and evidence their development suggesting a lack of selfawareness which can be very problematic when entering the labour market.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

The Social Justice of Visual Culture? 307 Hilary Downey Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom A small number of current academic studies address the voices of women prisoners (Brown, 2010; Nash, 2005; Rowe, 2004; Willingham, 2011). This study investigates the media reporting (documentaries) of the incarceration experiences of African American women prisoners. Visual incarceration experiences of African American female prisoners demonstrates the importance of this production to generate ‘talk’, engage the community, heighten interest in the phenomenon, and more importantly the visual culture of reporting of incarceration experiences evidenced at these websites, offers opportunities to influence societal understanding. Attending the TCR agenda, propagated by Mick et al. (2011); this study explores African American female prisoners lived experiences and ability for access to social justice and wellbeing through visual culture. Thus, this study directly aims to address the discounted, but highly significant concept of systemic restricted choice, through a gendered/ racial visual lens, in the total control institution (Hill et al., 2015, p. 157). This study aims to explore what narratives of AfricanAmerican women prisoners’ are being authorized (Dwyer, 2000, 661) via YouTube websites. The documentaries will be discussed under the following three themes; Distancing of Self: Positive or Negative Coping; Silenced Bodies; and, The Masculinization of Women.

Towards a cross-cultural understanding of the 308 determinants of sustainable consumption: A systemic perspective in the case of the Sultanate of Oman. Helena H Knight, SR Farhad Nikhashemi College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman The paper outlines the conceptualisation and proposed methodology for examining sustainable consumption by Omani consumers. By moving away from the conceptions that sustainable consumption is a linear, information-processing activity, and choice by sovereign actors, the study answers calls in extant literature to move towards considering the broader external socio-cultural and structural elements in society as facilitators or impediments to sustainable consumption. The study will provide cross-cultural insights to a body of knowledge that is currently conceived narrowly of Western, developed markets-based context. The study employs a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods to examine the determinants of sustainable consumption by Omani consumers and to construct a framework of drivers and barriers of sustainable consumption in emerging markets. The study proposes that cross-cultural insights are necessary to develop a balanced body of knowledge. The distinctive socio-cultural environment in the Middle-Eastern countries is likely to mediate the role of consumption in the lives of Omani people. Likewise, the macroenvironmental trends and market structures that influence consumer behaviour differ. Considering the contextual differences may address the potential threat of alienating consumers from engaging in sustainable consumption if market development strategies and policies are informed by frameworks derived solely from incompatible contexts.

How Destination Brands Tell Stories? An 309 analysis of Destination Commercials using the Joseph Campbell’s The Hero’s Journey S M A Moin1, Sameer Hosany2, Justin O’Brien2 Coventry University London, London, United Kingdom. Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom

1

2

A rich body of research establishes the merits of storytelling in marketing and tourism. Prior studies mainly focus on tourists’ stories in understanding travel experiences. However, little is understood about how destination commercials embed different forms of storytelling. The purpose of this research is to investigate the use of Joseph Campbell’s hero’s journey storytelling in destination advertising, by analysing several iconic commercials. The Hero’s Journey provides a framework to deconstruct destination brand commercials. Findings have important implications for destination marketers in terms of how commercials connect with their target audiences via storytelling.

An effectual approach to online social 310 networking in entrepreneurial marketing: an empirical research from small hospitality firms Emily Ngan Luong, Ayesha Owusu-Barnaby London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom Literature in entrepreneurial marketing (EM) indicates that entrepreneurs use networking as an element of their EM strategy. With the advance of information communication technologies, firms are embedded in online social networks that have a significant impact on their marketing activities. While EM literature has explore entrepreneurial networking activities from off-line perspective, further research on online networking activities could help enhance the EM field. As such, this paper aims to examine how entrepreneurs in small firms utilise social media to facilitate their entrepreneurial marketing. Specifically, by looking at online social networking activities from an effectual approach, we contribute to EM literature by providing an insightful knowledge on the online networking process used by entrepreneurs in small firms.

Examining the Relationship between 311 Endorsed Ads on Social Networks and Customers’ Need for Uniqueness Ibrahim Abosag1, Zahy Ramadan2 1

SOAS University of London, London, United Kingdom. Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon

2

Social media advertising featuring endorsed brands has significantly grown in the past few years. Companies and social networking sites (SNSs) are hailing such types of advertising as being more credible to users as they feature their friends’ indirect endorsements; however, the impact of ad value and ad relevance combined with customer need for uniqueness on satisfaction with SNS has not been examined. Taking a customer-centric approach and based on the similarity with friends, brand similarity, and trust on the perceived value of advertising on Facebook and its impact customer perceived need for uniqueness. To examine this, the paper tested the conceptual model which integrates brand related variables,

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SNS related variables and the value of social ads as well as customers’ NFU. The conceptual model was tested using data from 341 consumers in the U.S. The findings show that the antecedents of social ads are friend liking, brand similarity and SNS (Facebook) trust. The results showed that the value of socially endorsed ads enhances customers’ NFU. The structural model has good fit indices: X2= 307.506(129), CFI = 0.988; IFI = 0.988; GFI = 0.909; RMSEA = .0638. Implications for online brand communities and SNSs (Facebook) are discussed.

Pre-owned versus brand-new: why consumers 313 (de)value shared goods? Examining the role of self-perception theory Nicole Koenig-Lewis1, Carmela Bosangit2 Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. 2Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

1

Recent reports emphasizing the need to urgently address the impact of climate change has renewed interest in nudging consumers to be less resource intensive in their consumption. Whilst the sharing economy has been viewed as an alternative mode to consumption over buying new goods for single person use, however choice processes of potentially shared and pre-owned goods can be complex. Although there is evidence of an emerging new generation of consumers for who ownership of goods has become less central to their identities, yet for some the stigma remains and may drive purchase decision towards brand-new products. Moreover, consumers’ willingness to share or use pre-owned goods vary across different consumption contexts. Drawing on the self-perception theory and self-signalling theory, we argue that this might be rooted in how individuals perceive themselves and how certain pre-owned or shared products can signal desirable or undesirable personal attributes and attitudes. The research aims to explore which product categories are sensitive to self-perception and self-signalling and to what extent can they encourage or hinder use of preowned goods.

baking. Since knowing the fact high religious Muslim people will choose Islamic bank, Islamic bankers now should focus on providing higher levels of service quality, followed by convenience bank location.

Social Media Marketing: The Impact of Gender 315 in the Experience of Muslim Entrepreneurs in the UK Food Industry. Mudassar Sohail, Pravin Balaraman, Nicholas Telford University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom Social media an utmost prominence within few years of its presence. Historically, it is a marketing medium to socialise and several are impressed by the innovative advancement of communications developments specifically among food businesses by the social media channels. Social media has now become the necessity of every single firm and like the internet; it has advanced the buying and selling procedure of both supplier and customer. The paper explores Muslim entrepreneurs’ perspectives and considers the interconnected and overlapping factors of gender on the use of social media marketing for their businesses in the UK. Opportunitybased theory of entrepreneurship is reviewed to provide the conceptual framework for this research paper. This study selected a mixed-method approach and followed exploratory sequential research design to conduct the research. Data collection is in process through in-depth interviews with 20-25 Muslim male and female entrepreneurs. Additionally, an online survey aims to obtain responses from at least 200 Muslim entrepreneurs running businesses in the UK. Data analysis, preliminary findings and conclusions are not presented yet, as it is working research paper.

Multiple perspectives on Financial Wellbeing: 317 an eco-system approach Hillary Jephat Musarurwa

Consumer Motives and Adoption of Islamic 314 Banks in a non-Muslim country: Evidence from the United Kingdom Ahmed Beloucif1, Tahmina Ahmed2 University of the West of Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 2University if the West of Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom 1

This paper gives an overview of the consumers’ motives to choose an Islamic bank in the United Kingdom. The purpose of the research is to analyse the factors that influence Muslim people to select Islamic banks over conventional banks. This research took place in the context of Muslim consumers’ view towards Islamic banking. A survey instrument was employed using a structured questionnaire on 333 respondents from the UK and data were analysed by using SPSS (25.0). Factor analysis followed by regression analysis was conducted to identify the factors which influence most in choosing Islamic bank among Muslim consumers. This study found three most crucial factor: religious obligation, quality related issue, convenience have a significant relationship with the adoption of Islamic banking products and services in the UK, whereas third-party influences and competitive pricing facilities do not have a statistically significant relationship in adopting Islamic

Heriot-Watt, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Financial wellbeing (FWB) is having control over one’s finances day-to-day and month-to-month and having the capacity to absorb financial shocks. This paper presents a nuanced definition of FWB as perceived by actors within a university services eco-system. FWB is determined by financial literacy, financial capability, financial behaviour and an individual’s attitude towards money. In a services ecosystems view (a) service is the basis of exchange, (b) value is always cocreated, (c) all actors are resource integrators and (d) value is always uniquely and phenomenologically determined by the beneficiary. These perspectives vary across the multiple levels of the ecosystem and therefore understanding them in context is critical in service co-creation. I took a deductive approach to a qualitative research that gathered insights to be used designing an intervention to address the FWB challenges faced by students. Data was collected through interviews that I carried out with participants (n=11) from Heriot-Watt University. FWB was defined differently across the levels as: being confidence to meet everyday finances, having a plan and being secure to go through a semester without needing support, having good spending patterns and the ability to pay for and finish school without incurring a debt for fees.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Entrepreneurship, Marketing and the 318 Multicultural: The Case of a European Union Erasmus+ Project in Medias Race Nicholas Telford, Veronika Gustafsson University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom In late 2016, the authors embarked upon a three-year EU Erasmus+ project with six other EU HEIs in order to develop both entrepreneurial capacity in students and the ability to work in multicultural teams. Despite much multicultural working the authors find themselves nearing the end wishing they had never begun. This paper describes the journey of the authors’ experience, the student experience (including preliminary findings from feedback and research undertaken) and attempts to salvage some value for project, themselves, and the wider academic community to avoid future pitfalls and make.

Reviewing engagement and touch points in 320 Higher Education course selection decision making. Angela Hall Towers Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom The paper explores engagement and touch points postgraduate students use as part of their course selection decision making in a digital era. The exploratory study consisted of seven postgraduate student focus groups, and nine interviews, with UK, EU and International students. Three higher education specific touch point categories were developed: brand owned, partner, social/external.

An investigation of the effect of product and 321 individual based motivations on consumers’ willingness to adopt a vegan diet and vegan lifestyle Mahsa Ghaffari, Padmali Rodrigo, Yuksel Ekinci, Giovanni Pino University of Portsmouth, PORTSMOUTH, United Kingdom This study aims to investigate the extent to which consumer attitudes and willingness to adopt a vegan diet and lifestyle are influenced by the product and individual based motivations. Building on an exploratory study, the key factors influencing consumers’ willingness to be vegan were identified to be: product based factors (hedonic and utilitarian), and Individual based factors (Compassion toward animals and action accountability). To further validate the findings of the qualitative study as well as to explain the relation between these factors and consumers’ attitudes and willingness to adopt a vegan diet and vegan lifestyle, a survey will be carried out among 300 consumers. This study intend to contribute to our knowledge about the key drivers shaping veganism by identifying different categories of motivations and the extent to which they impact consumers attitude toward vegan diet and lifestyle and in turn their intention to adopt such behaviours.

Places of Consumer Activism: The 322 Affordances of Everyday Service Systems Josephine Go Jefferies1, Simon Bishop2, Sally Hibbert2 1 Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. 2Nottingham University Business School, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Contrary to the notions of consumer activism in public consciousness envisaging purposeful actions of morally or politically motivated groups, we consider everyday service consumption acts as boundary work to disrupt institutionalised practices and challenge expansion of professional authority and monopoly over critical resources. Our empirical paper considers the use of technology-mediated healthcare services at the fringes of a healthcare organisation and the effects of its use in the context of patient lifeworlds. We draw on findings from a qualitative study of 27 chronic disease patients using telehealth at home in a large English city. We contribute to service theory an explanation of how space and place are fugacious, (be) coming and going, through the overlay of digital spaces. We add to understanding of the role of multichannel services to afford patient value co-creation, and suggest prospects for emancipation from practices that govern key resources.

From a Marketing Communication Perspective 325 to Identify Fashion Opinion Leaders’ Narrative Strategies to Create eWOM: A Theoretical and Methodological Contribution Shuang Zhou, Marta Blázquez Cano, Helen McCormick, Liz Barnes The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom Opinion leaders now have achieved and demonstrated the ability to influence consumers and represented a new and significant marketing communication channel. They have been recognised by both researchers and practitioners as a significant factor in raising awareness of products and in facilitating consumers’ purchase intention in eWOM marketing campaigns. However, an exploration of opinion leaders’ narrative strategies is still needed so as to understand how they structure language and symbols to connect brands and products in order to create eWOM messages. This research explored fashion opinion leaders’ narrative strategies for creating eWOM messages by taking a marketing communication perspective and adopting a combination of semiotic and rhetorical analysis. By conducting a netnographic study, this research identified six distinct narrative strategies used by fashion opinion leaders to create eWOM on social media and developed a theoretical model of the structure of opinion leaders’ narrative strategies. This research extends the understanding in eWOM marketing models and has theoretical and methodological contributions to the advancement of knowledge regarding opinion leaders’ narrative strategies and practical implications for marketers and bloggers about how to effectively tailor eWOM messages to engage and persuade consumers and achieve impacts on consumers’ attitudes and behaviours.

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Legitimation Networks of Incentivized Wellness 326 Cecilia Ruvalcaba1, Duygu Akdevelioglu2 University of the Pacific, Stockton, USA. 2Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

1

This paper examines the legitimation network of incentivized wellness culture in the context of corporate wellness programs. Through a discourse analysis, this work examines the network of corporate wellness stakeholders, which include employers, corporate wellness companies (consultants, wearable providers, program management), retailers, health care providers, health insurance companies, the government, and consumers, in an effort to evaluate how this network contributes to the legitimation of the incentivized wellness culture. Preliminary results highlight the role of network ties in the evolution and legitimation of corporate wellness programs.

A dynamic capabilities perspective to 327 CSR practices of SMEs: Their impact on reputational advantage and performance Pantelitsa Eteokleous, Leonidas Leonidou, Maria Georgiou, Artemis Papazachariou, Andria Zevedeou University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus Despite heightened attention that large companies have received over the years for their socially responsible conduct, there is still insufficient evidence of the driving forces and resulting outcomes of SMEs adoption of CSR practices. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature, by developing a conceptual model grounded on the Dynamic Capabilities theory. A number of research propositions are developed to investigate a set of dynamic capabilities identifiable in SMEs (i.e., market sensing, strategic flexibility, entrepreneurial orientation, adaptiveness) as driving forces of the firm’s internal and external CSR strategy. Regulatory intensity and social public concern are proposed to mediate the relationship between the aforementioned capabilities and CSR, and the same is also true with regard to organizational resource constrains and decision maker’s personal values. The implementation of an effective CSR strategy is proposed to create a reputational advantage, which will ultimately improve social, market, and financial performance. Several theoretical and managerial implications are derived from the study, and future research directions are provided.

Linking people with mobile apps: A case study 328 in Jordan Faten Jaber1, Muneer Abbad2 1

Regent’s University London, London, United Kingdom. Community College of Qatar, Doha, Qatar

2

Mobile devices have become a ubiquitous part of society as they intervene with everyday life. This is a global phenomenon that has affected every region of the world. The Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) is one of the fastest growing and most economic regions. With the new wave of app development emerging in the Arab world, this research aims at providing in-depth insights of users’ motivations to use mobile apps. This study focusses on users in Jordan because of the country’s groaning economic situation, latent technology development, and pivotal role in hosting refugees from

neighbour countries. To dive beneath the surface and unravel user’ motivations to use and engage with mobile apps, this study will combine motivation and engagement theories with diaries and individual interview. Thus, this research will change the mindset from analysing the usage of mobile apps features to a deeper user/customer mindset.

Ethical Considerations of Branded 329 Entertainment and Immersive Technologies Katharina Stolley University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom Transmedia storytelling is a technique that utilises various media platforms in order to tell a narrative. Media properties as well as brands have to engage in transmedia storytelling in order to remain prominent among consumers. Consequently, both make use of novel forms of media usage which creates a terrain for innovative adaptation. Applications can be seen within branded entertainment that may incorporate immersive technologies such as virtual, augmented and mixed reality, which are increasingly integrated in entertainment contexts. Particularly brands see a great opportunity in these applications as they are able to tell brand narratives, create value and engage consumers. However, branded entertainment as well as immersive technologies enter the consumer’s mind in a more subconscious matter and the consumer may not recognise that the content is in fact branded. Thus, overall ethical concerns of branded entertainment, immersive technologies as well as the influence of transmedia storytelling should be examined regarding the deceptive and unjust influence its content has over consumers. In doing so, it is suggested that qualitative research methods should be employed in order to examine consumers’ perceptions and understandings towards branded entertainment as well as virtual, augmented and mixed reality.

Choice Overload: Explaining the 330 Discrepancies of Existing Observations with a Machine Learning Based Meta-Analysis Nan Zhang, Heng Xu American University, Washington, DC, USA The growing literature on choice overload has demonstrated that having too many choices may be counterproductive. A few studies have suggested an inverted-U-shaped function between the number of choices and satisfaction: as the number of choices increased, satisfaction would initially increase and then decrease. Using a machine-learning based meta-analysis, we identify an important gap in the literature: the incompatibility between the inverted-U-shaped function and the bi-level experimental design on the size of choices in existing studies (i.e., comparing only two sizes, one small and one large). This research represents a first step toward identifying the inflection point at which the effects of choices become less positive and turn negative. Our results have both research and practical implications on the future understanding of choice overload.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Understanding Customer Switching 331 Behaviour in the Retail Banking Sector: Direction for Further Studies. Kareem Sani, Ayantunji Gbadamosi, Rula AlAbdulrazak

Will I See You Again? Nation Branding and 333 Revisit Intentions: The Role of Nation Brand Image, Destination Competitiveness and Destination Fascination Kofi Aning Jnr

University of East London, London, United Kingdom

University of Ghana Business School, Accra, Ghana

A plethora of studies in the extant literature has addressed customer switching behaviour over the years. Essentially, this discourse is anchored on customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the services offered by providers as the primary influence behind the phenomenon. Among the specific factors identified as responsible for the behaviour are low quality services, low value, low trust, high price perception, and low commitment. Meanwhile, increasing evidence indicate a growing prospect of financial services sector in developing countries, but despite the superfluity of studies on customer switching behaviour, there is dearth of research around customer switching behaviour in the retail banking sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. Accordingly, while this conceptual paper explores the ongoing discourse on the bank customer switching behaviour, it specifically directs attention to areas of future studies on how the current knowledge could be extended to this seemingly taken-for-granted but potentially fertile area of scholarship. The implication of the paper relates to the issues of customer retention, customer relationship management which are broadly and inextricably linked to value-creation and value delivery for sustainable business.

Nation branding has come to the fore as an important practice shaping the destiny of nations. Many countries have invested in this practice in a bid to create a brand image that appeals to tourists and investors on the international market. The objectives of this thesis are to identify the components of nation branding, to determine the impact of nation branding on revisit intentions and also on nation brand image and destination competitiveness. The thesis also seeks to examine the role of destination fascination as a moderating variable that strengthens the relationship between destination fascination and revisit intentions. A quantitative research approach shall be adopted, with a causal research design embraced to test the relationships proposed in the study. Primary data will be collected through the development of a structured questionnaire designed with Likert scales. The purposive sampling technique will be used to select five hundred (500) visitors to Ghana. The data collected via survey will be analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis will be used in examining the data whilst a path analysis will be used to test the key relationships proposed in the study.

Antecedents and Outcomes of Value Co332 Creation: A Conceptual Framework

The Effects of Prior Brand Attitude, 335 Emotion and Interest in the Content on the Effectiveness of Viral Video Advertisement

Faten Jaber1, Muneer Abbad2 1

Regent’s University London, London, United Kingdom. Community College of Qatar, Doha, Qatar

2

The potential of big data for value co-creation is an underinvestigated topic. Building on the Service-Dominant (S-D) logic, we consider he variety of collaborators (internal and external) involved with big data, this study aims to build a conceptual model of value co-creation antecedents and outcomes. A wide range of academic and practical sources is reviewed. Based on the reviewed sources, we propose that value co-creation is a result of collaboration between big data creators (customers) and users (companies). Enhancing this partnership will lead to positive outcomes (benefits) for both players. This paper conceptualizes value co-creation as a construct that capitalizes on big data creator and user. The model proposed in this study is ready to be empirically tested by collecting data in different contexts to validate the model and test the hypotheses that proposed in the model.

Aycin Demir University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom Viral videos include branded video contents that may be shared voluntarily by consumers. Because of this, viral marketing has been of considerable interest to marketing researchers since the early 2000s. However, they have not focused on the effect of prior brand attitude on sharing intention. It is known from the advertising literature that brand attitude can strengthen or inhibit purchase intention and will affect customers’ opinion of the ad. That is why it was expected that prior brand attitude would affect sharing intention and attitude towards the ad for viral videos as well. This thesis examines if and how prior brand attitude impacts the attitude towards viral ads and associated sharing intention through two quantitative experiments. Results of the initial exploratory experiment indicate that, surprisingly, the prior brand attitude has no effect on viral marketing results. The researcher will conduct further experiments with different brands and then implement the emerging theory of prior brand attitude with the other factors of emotion and interest in the content to add to the knowledge of how prior brand attitude impacts the effectiveness of viral marketing communication.

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The Contribution of Sustainable Technology 336 to the Relationship between Sustainability Market Orientation and Hotel Performance Ibn Abdul-Hamid University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana The relationship between sustainability market orientation (SMO) and hotel performance seems to have received scholarly attention although very few investigations are available. These investigations argue that firms who adopt sustainability market orientation will enhance their performance. These studies seem not to have considered factors that could mediate the relationship between sustainability market orientation and firm performance. This study is an attempt at examining the relationship between sustainability market orientation and hotel performance in Ghana. In addition, the study investigates the mediation role of sustainable technology on the relationship between sustainability market orientation and hotel performance in Ghana. A survey of star-rated hotels in the Greater Accra region of Ghana is executed as this region has the highest number of star-rated hotels and possess the few 5-star hotels in Ghana. Previous scales are adapted from the extant literature for development of study instrument. Accordingly, structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis will be conducted to examine the hypothesized relationships.

Mobile Consumers’ Shopping Journey Types: 337 Eye Tracking Digital User Behaviour Patterns in Fashion m-Retail Zofija Tupikovskaja-Omovie, David J Tyler Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom Despite the rapid adoption of smartphones among digital fashion consumers, their attitude to retailers’ mobile apps and websites is one of increasing dissatisfaction. This suggests that understanding how mobile consumers use smartphones for fashion shopping is important in developing digital shopping platforms that fulfil consumer’ expectations. For this research, mobile eye tracking technology was employed in order to develop unique shopping journeys for 14 consumers documenting their differences and similarities in behaviour. Based on scan path visualizations and observed shopping experiences, three distinct mobile shopping journeys and shopper types were identified, namely ‘directed by retailer’s website’, ‘efficient self-selected journey’ and ‘challenging shopper’. This research argues that mobile consumers can be segmented based on their activities and behaviours on the mobile website. The findings of this research can be used in developing personalised shopping experiences on smartphones by feeding these shopper types into retailers’ digital marketing strategy and Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems.

The impact of ethical textile labels on 338 unprompted consumer choice Robert Hamlin 1, Elizabeth Geddes2 University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. 2University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

1

This article examines the impact of the New Zealand Tearfund’s ethical label on consumers’ unprompted stated intention to purchase cotton T shirts. The ethical issues of textile consumption have been well covered in the literature, but there are few studies that examine if consumers’ stated indications that they will buy ethical garments align with their unprompted evaluations of products that carry ethical labels. This research was undertaken in late 2018, and involved a replicated Latin Square design in which four ethical label treatments were affixed to four branded T shirts. The dependent variable was intent to purchase, and the sample was 400 young female consumers between the ages of 18 and 22. The results showed a large and significant impact on consumer choice that could be attributed to the two versions of the Tearfund label that were used. The impact of the organic mark was not significant.

What the Immersive Storytelling Marketing 339 Campaign Looks Like? — A Case Study of the Recent Business Practices Xiaojun Liu, Natalia Yannopoulou, Ana Javornik Newcastle University Business School, NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE, United Kingdom The purpose of this study is to investigate the real-life cases of immersive storytelling marketing campaign to gain a descriptive understanding of the common trends and unique features. Through the keyword search on Google and YouTube, and filter criteria, 21 cases that deliver a clear story and employ the immersive technology remained. Except for the limitation of sampling, the results indicate that the application of immersive storytelling to marketing campaigns is at the infant stage and the collaboration of storytelling elements and immersion features is not satisfactory in most cases. Nevertheless, some descriptive trends are identified. Practitioners should first focus on the story development, then the immersion could have more places to play. Finally, with more appropriate sampling and data further research could gain more insights into how storytelling elements influence immersion, and how immersive storytelling affects marketing activities.

Alternatives to Marine Spatial Planning and 342 impact on Marketing Strategies: the case of Greater Houston Port Bureau Joan Mileski, Cassia Galvao Texas A&M University, Galveston, USA In the US, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is adopted at the state level, is voluntary and has yet to be embraced by all coastal states. The problem of planning for the efficient and effective stewardship of the marine environment is a ‘wicked problem,’ one that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize; including, voluntary participation of all stakeholders associated with port activities, shipping lanes, commercial fishing, recreational fishing and other uses of the


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

water or extraction of natural resources. This paper addresses how ‘convergence of goals of all stakeholders’ approach can be used to mitigate the ‘wicked problem’ of MSP and how that impacts the marketing strategies of ports. We examine the case of Port of Houston and its NGO, the Greater Houston Port Bureau, to address the wicked problem of port growth and resiliency. This dynamic process shows that voluntary involvement by stakeholders can mitigate at least some aspects of the wicked problem of MSP and achieve efficiency, effectiveness and impact marketing strategies in the port region. We look at the mechanism of consensus administration through the lenses of the marketing mix components (product, price, place, promotion).

Identifying Hidden Agreements in Value Co343 Creation Process in marketing Alliances Ediz Akcay 1, Kaouther Kooli2, Elvira Bolat3 1 Faculty of Media and Communication, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom. 2Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom. 3Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

This research focuses on the value co-creation process between partner brands in marketing alliances and aims to analyse the role of marketing ethics during the value cocreation process. Building on the service dominant logic for marketing, resource-based view and marketing ethics theories, semi-structured interviews are conducted with the marketing managers of the brands in alliances and they were analysed by the support of QSR NVivo software. Findings emphasise that partner brands have differing value definitions, goals and evaluation criteria for the alliance outcome even if they are in the same cross-category brand alliance. Brands in the alliance utilise implicit agreements with the partner brands, rival brands or other stakeholders to achieve their goals of the alliance. However, the implicit agreements violate the main principles of marketing ethics such as preserving the conditions of an acceptable exchange and the perfect competition ideal. The results of the study might help companies to understand the importance of marketing ethics during the brand alliances and take the role of marketing ethics into consideration for their future alliances. This research contributes to the literature with a focus on the ethical issues in the brand alliances with practical examples from different brand alliances in varying sectors.

SNS consumption among Gen Z and 344 Millennials in BRIC countries Jessica Lichy 1, Tatiana Khvatova2, Mauro Jose De Oliveira3 Idrac Lyon, Lyon, France. 2Peter the Great St Petersburg Polytechnic University, St Petersburg, Russian Federation. 3 University Center of FEI, São Paulo, Brazil 1

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have restructured human interaction and communication, transforming the ways that information is exchanged, stored and retrieved. As Internet usage reaches maturity across the Western world, the so-called ‘transition economies’ (aka the BRICs: Brazil, Russia, India and China) have emerged as a source of dynamic change in digital consumption, equalling or exceeding the economies of developed countries. The

context for this study is ICT usage among young adults, particularly social networking sites (SNS), for undertaking everyday activities. Much of our current knowledge of digital usage is understood through an Anglo-Euro-centric lens, often framed by a somewhat biased political, legal and cultural framework. For this reason, the present study sets out to provide a snapshot of digital usage in a BRIC setting. The present study contributes to the literature on individual Internet user behaviour in Brazil, Russia, India and China – up till now dominated by a business perspective. It explores an under-researched area: an individual’s behaviour (i.e. nature of engagement) with SNS in a BRIC environment. The results of the data analysis suggest both emerging commonality and persisting disparity in SNS usage in BRIC countries.

Factors Influencing Selecting Cox’s Bazar as a 345 Destination Choice: Destination Marketing VS. User-Generated Content Mohammad Tipu Sultan, Farzana Sharmin Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China Cox’s Bazar, the tourist capital of Bangladesh. This travel destination is the most attractive tourist spot not only for Bangladesh, but it’s also the 120 kilometers longest sea beach in the world. This paper aims to analyze the destination marketing organization (DMO) promotion and user-generated content (UGC) influence through social media on consumers’ travel decision. To gain new in-depth insights of consumers’ behavioral intention of the destination choice decision process, we propose an extended theoretical model of the Theory of planned behavior (TPB). Two hundred and twentyfive self-administered questionnaires were collected through an online survey from Bangladeshi social media users who travel to Cox’s Bazar. Statistical analysis was applied to the examination of the influences of DMO promotion and UGC on attitudes towards visiting Cox’s Bazar, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and travel intention. Findings indicate that social media UGC, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention have a significant impact on attitudes toward visiting Cox’s Bazar. The paper suggests that DMO Managers should consider various UGC facets and try to motivate tourists by digital marketing mix promotion and build online travel communities.

The Impact of Social Media on Tourism 346 Marketing: Analyzing Young Consumers’ Travel Behavior Farzana Sharmin, Mohammad Tipu Sultan Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China Tourism marketing and promotional strategies are changing from the last few decades. Consumers’ have a more dynamic relationship with social media technology, which is tapping into new tourism marketing dimensions. This study examines the role of social media technology as a utilization trait in shaping young consumers’ travel behavior based on the theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). This research has largely focused on social media acceptance and usage performance of consumers’ during the travel planning phase. The convenience random sample method used to collect data from prime tourist places of Shanghai (China) and instrument developed support on previous research to test hypotheses. The results of

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structural analyses revealed that respondents’ attitude towards the use of social media affected by technology self-efficiency. In addition, perceived behavioral control has a partial influence towards the attitude of respondents’. Thus the respondents’ mostly prefer social media in pre-travel phase and during travel. Finally, the managerial implications for tourism marketers are presented with a focus on how to improve the effectiveness of social media marketing in targeting groups.

The application of XHAE* at the MEI 350 *xenoheteroglossic auto ethnography Jonathan Deacon, Elizabeth Lloyd-Parkes University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom The following working paper outlines an innovative, dare we say; ‘entrepreneurial’ methodological approach that of xenoheteroglossic auto ethnography, which we have taken to exploring the linked concepts of country of origin (COO) perception and consumer behaviour research within the context of developing economies. The study presented is done so to assist fellow scholars researching phenomena at the Marketing, Entrepreneurship Interface (MEI) and offers an approach consistent with the development of methodological insight at the interface (Hansen and Eggers 2010).

‘Removing Bricks from the Wall?’ Harnessing 351 Students’ Creativity and Criticality through the Arts Teresa Heath Nottingham University Business School, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom While marketing practice and the arts are deeply entwined, and scholars have intermittently debated if the discipline is best viewed as an art or a science (often with a strong investment in showing that it is ‘scientific’), marketing education seems far removed from marketing’s artistic influences. Perhaps as a result of its scientific pretensions, mainstream education often focuses on models, processes and formulae that leave little room for imagination. Against a background that challenges businesses to be more creative and reflective, this paper proposes the use of an art-based approach to teaching and learning in marketing. Using literature from management, marketing and the arts, we make the case that such an approach has the potential to harness students’ imagination and critical thinking. The paper outlines the contours of such an intervention for a postgraduate module on Critical Marketing at a Russell-Group UK university, and discusses methods to implement and observe its outcomes.

Has Digital Changed Approaches to Media 352 Strategy Making Beverly Barker Bournemouth University, Poole, United Kingdom Purpose – This research explores concepts and processes within strategy making in general, and by media planning professionals in particular. The field of strategy making is dominated by the theory of strategic choice and characterised by an objectivist ontology. However, many believe this

does not reflect strategy formulation in today’s complex and turbulent environment (Stacey & Mowles, 2015; Volberda, 2004). Design methodology – The research focused on digital media strategy and planning, an area suffering a high degree of turbulence and complexity, to identify if alternative strategy making processes are being used. The author developed a conceptual approach based on a comprehensive review of strategy making literature alongside primary research amongst UK senior Media Directors. Findings – This research identifies a more emergent and iterative process than is described through the literature. This resonates with the Learning School and differs markedly from the more deductive and prescriptive Planning School approach that have previously dominated the industry. Practical implications – Data driven media planning is now more inductive, with the final plan emerging from multiple closely related iterations and optimisation. This approach is differentiated from short termism and tactics by identifying longer term, hierarchically linked business and marketing goals to guide the media planning.

Exploring the growth challenges of social 353 enterprises: Identifying staffing, earningsgeneration and communications as critical success factors. Simon O’Leary 1, Rebecca Fakoussa2, Adeseye Lawal-Solarin 3 Regent’s University London, London, United Kingdom. University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom. 3Young & Giving, London, United Kingdom

1

2

How best to support the sustainability and growth of social enterprises is important to multiple stakeholders (Cavusgil & Knight, 2015; Thompson, Mawson & Martin, 2017). Evidence highlights that social enterprises struggle to scale-up, as reflected by a majority of UK-based social enterprises failing to breakeven. This research studies over one hundred social enterprises to explore the reasons for ineffective scaling and to identify where the priorities and challenges lie in achieving success. Recent literature and the Bloom & Smith (2010) SCALERS model (Staffing; Communicating; Alliance-building; Lobbying; Earnings-generation; Replicating; and Stimulating market forces) are used to determine key issues. The findings indicate that the effective scaling and impact (Kim, 2015) of social enterprises is reliant on three critical success factors: Staffing; Earnings generation; and Communications. Social enterprises need to optimise the recruitment and deployment of employees and volunteers, bearing in mind that they are essential for the replication of successes and in building alliances with networks of stakeholders (Stam, Arzalanian & Elfring, 2014). A robust earnings-generation model is essential and may require the development of innovative income streams. Effective staff and robust finances helping establish strong coalitions, joint-ventures and partnerships across the stakeholder spectrum.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Impact of Political Ideology on Consumer 357 Buying Behavior: Scale Development Maria Shahid NUST Business School, National University of Science & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan Consumers consider the product when all aspects of a brand/ product seem congruent and in line with his/her binding or individualizing moral foundations, mental representational state as well as their meta-cognitive experiences. When product is compatible with the consumer’s beliefs, values and opinions, this ease of comprehension will generate a ‘feels right’ experience. It is observed that consumer decisions are used as instrument in political campaigns across the globe — from calling them to buy or not-to-buy a certain product to boycott organizations that employ children or that do not respect labor laws or shows gender and/or ethnic discrimination. Yet, there is no scale to gauge and assess political ideology’s effects on consumer behavior. The aim is to develop a scale for measuring the effects of Political Ideology on buying decision making and post purchase behavior in different consumption situations. Methodology will comprise of scale development stages to ensure scale reliability and validity. Then the developed scale will be used to study and test BPM empirically. BPM studies external and individual factors simultaneously and has not been studied from the perspective of political ideology, yet.

A Historic View of Gift-Giving in Consumer 358 Culture Theory (CCT) Hesamoddin Dehghan Nayeri Essex Business School, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom The present study aims to investigate gift-giving in the field of consumer culture theory to understand the complex dynamics of gift consumption amongst ethnic consumers. This review demonstrates that while recent studies in CCT have widely adopted anthropological & sociological perspectives to highlight the symbolic, subjective & imaginary aspects of gift-giving, in many ways they have ignored its practices and the embodied forms of knowledge necessitated by this form of consumption. Therefore, further research is required to explore the complexity of this phenomenon with subjectivity, intelligibility and materiality in its socio-cultural context. In conclusion, this study suggests Practice Theory as a complementary lens to provide a deeper understanding of the Iranian ethnic community’s gift-giving dynamics in the UK through considering the nexus of doing, embedded meaning, and materiality of gift’s consumption.

Advances in the Use of Social Media for 361 Customer Relationship Management: Research Themes and Future Directions Aishwarya Singhal1, Rodrigo Perez Vega2, Paul Hopkinson1 Heriot Watt University, Dubai, UAE. 2Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom 1

In the last decade Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has been the new strategic approach for most businesses in supervision of customer behaviour underpinned by the Relationship Marketing theory. CRM as concept first emerged in the mid 1990’s to acquire cognizance of business-consumer connections whilst promoting loyalty and commitment to those customers. With advancements in communication technologies CRM has evolved through several generations transforming the traditional practices of CRM, which have been especially impacted by the emergence of social media. The surge in use of Internet and particularly social networking platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat amongst other has brought in various opportunities and challenges for Digital Marketers seeking to manage customer relationships. This workshop paper aims to introduce the main themes that have emerged in the social CRM literature by conducting a systematic literature review in the field following the Ngai et al. (2009) approach from period of 2001 to 2018, employing the formative components of the ‘CRM house’ for classification and categorisation of selected articles. The workshop will identify the areas that have been more prolific during this period of time, and will also identify areas that remain understudied empirically.

The Negative Effect of Effort in Interactive 363 Value Formation and Customer Loyalty Thuy Luyen1, Haseeb Shabbir1, Dianne Dean2 1 University of Hull, North Humberside, United Kingdom. 2 Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Based on the research voids from interactive value formation (IVF) whose outcomes include value co-creation and value co-destruction, this study aims to provide insight into how customers’ perceived input in IVF process affects resource integration and the outcomes of this process (value cocreation, value co-destruction or value no-creation) and consequently investigate whether there is a link between the outcomes of IVF and loyalty through four loyalty conditions in the context of prolonged, complex, technology based-self services (i.e., wellness apps) within the customer sphere to address the lack of research on indirect interaction. Several contributions emerge. First, it is the first attempt to investigate how IVF intensity affects process affects resource integration and the outcomes of this process and consequently customer loyalty. Second, the findings extend McColl-Kennedy et al., 2012 work on a list of customer value co-creation activities and interactions by identifying resource integration activities. Last, the research extends Haumann et al. (2015) conceptualization of the coproduction intensity, which is to explore its effect on customer satisfaction in co-production context, by conceptualising IVF intensity as customers’ subjective perception of the extent of effort and time invested in IVF process in the context of IVF including value co-creation and value co-destruction.

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Relationship Building in Social Enterprise: 364 Social Value Creation and Financial Sustainability Madeline Powell University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom Social enterprises within the UK policy landscape are major providers of public services. They are often described as being more innovative and efficient in responding to the needs of citizens. However, a more critical literature is emerging questioning their ability in managing the dynamic tension of their hybridity, bringing together social and business missions. This project will explore the marketing activities of twelve social enterprises delivering public services. It aims to answer the following research questions: 1.) Are social enterprises building positive relationships with key communities? And 2.) How do they create different kinds of value for these different communities? Twelve case studies will be sampled across England in the following public service industries –, sports and leisure (N=4), transport services (N=4) and recycling (N=4). The project will explore and evaluate: ■

the marketing approaches of SEs providing public services

the specific contribution of relationship marketing to their strategic and operational management

the financial viability of these SEs and map it against their marketing activity

if and how SEs manage the social and business tensions inherent in their nature, and what role, if any, marketing plays in this process.

Self-Gifting on Religious Occasions: The Case 366 of the Religious Festivals of Ramadan & Eid Caroline Tynan1, Mona Moufahim2, Teresa Heath1, Rana Al-Yafai3 University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom. University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom. 3Shell Oman Marketing Company SAOG, Mina Al Fahal, Oman 1

2

This paper enhances understanding of self-gifting behaviours on religious occasions. In Western societies, self-gifting is a common form of symbolic consumption which is prevalent at festival times and on religious occasions. Following emphasis on Christian festivals in the extant literature, this paper focuses on accounts of the behaviour by followers of Islam during the important festivals of Ramadan and Eid. This addresses gaps in our understanding of self-gifting during ritual and religious contexts in collectivist cultures. Adopting an interpretivist approach, data has been collected by in-depth interviews in the predominantly Muslim country of Oman from a diverse group of 21 individuals. The preliminary findings suggest a marked difference in accounts of SGCB among the Muslim participants. They only recognised their engagement in the behaviour after consideration, the gifts recounted were frequently religious artefacts, which differ from the traditionally more materialistic self-gifts reported in Western cultures, and finally there is strong evidence of self-gifts that involved others in acts of charity and sharing.

Pricing in the digital platform 367 Jonathan Liu1, Gabor Rekettye2

You seem distant? Informal caring for elderly 365 family members and the impact on the self Rachel Trees1, Dianne Dean2 Hull University Business School, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom. 2Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom 1

This paper seeks to build an understanding of the relationship between the informal carer and their identities as they cope with caring for a family member. Using a phenomenological research method, this paper reveals the manifestations of emotional distance and shows how this transforms the identity of the informal carer and how it impacts upon their relationship with the cared for. The stress carers’ experience, which emanates from the lack of emotional distance affects levels of perceived control over their lives and has a detrimental effect on the identity of the informal carer, leading on some occasions to affect their mental health. This is a crucial issue in society today. A model is presented that illustrates the transition from independent individual to informal carer and shows how products, rituals and artifacts can be utilized to increase emotional distance helping to maintain their identity or reduce emotional distance illustrating the loss of their former identify. While this adds to the body of consumer research literature on identity and self, it also has practical implications for health and social policy.

1

Regent’s University London, London, United Kingdom. Pecs University, Pecs, Hungary

2

How do companies price their digital products? How do they establish the price and identify the factors that influence pricing setting? Do they do this by trial and error as it was reported that Apple did in the launching of its iPhone? What strategies are adopted for products and how do they differ from service based offerings, or where the product is digital? These are some of the questions that marketers are faced with in determining the brand positioning of their offerings in a digital landscape. Is pricing an art form or pure science? Where non-physical products and services are offered on digital platforms, what methods and techniques are used and which are proving to be more useful than others? What is the impact of the use of social media in the determination of a pricing strategy? What about the new era of marketing in a digital environment? The notion that getting the price right has become more important today than in times of the past and this paper explores the setting and establishment of pricing in ever changing and challenging digital landscapes.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Performance Management and Marketing the 368 National Lottery Jonathan Liu1, Mouhamed Thiam2, Thanasis Spyriadis3 Regent’s University, London, United Kingdom. 2University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester, United Kingdom. 3 Leicester University, Leicester, United Kingdom 1

This paper focuses on the work of the Heritage Lottery Fund with social enterprises in the UK. Despite the strong growth in the number of social enterprises following the recent crisis, and the increasing amount of money the Heritage Lottery Fund contributes in our society, very little is known about the way the Heritage Lottery Fund successfully measure the performance of enterprises that do not seek profit maximisation, and how it manages the differences in performance measures applied in the different organisation they grant money. In this paper, the authors introduce a research project that will, on one hand, seek to investigate the challenges faced by the Heritage Lottery Fund’s approach towards funding public services, and on the other, seek to explore the methodologies and measures used to determine if the outcomes of the funds allocated by the National Lottery is appropriate. Is this just a simple case of branding or is it much more? This study will provide advances in the field of performance measurement for social enterprises, an area of the literature that has had little academic attention. More importantly the paper seeks to establish the use of advertising in an area of critical debate and controversies.

A firms’ Digital Transformation and its Digital 369 Marketing Performance: A connection or causation Eleonora Cattaneo, Bhavini Desai Regents University London, London, United Kingdom This study aims to provide some insights into the relationship between the organisation of digital marketing activities and digital marketing performance. The organisational variables were chosen based on a literature review of Digital marketing performance is based on the Gartner L2 Ranking. L2 specialises in digital performance benchmarking, specifically, it measures the digital performance of a brand, considering over 1250 data points across four different areas: site and e-commerce, digital marketing, social media and mobile. It then positions a brand in a category based on the outcome. The study focused on three variables namely ‘organisational structure’, ‘structure’s digital maturity’, ‘digital skills’ and ‘digital culture’. 46 brands out of 532 targeted (chosen based on their participation to the Digital IQ Ranking by L2) participated in the survey. The results show that three hypotheses are supported: companies that excel in terms of digital performance tend to have fully integrated digital structures, skill based marketing teams organised by customer segment rather than channel are more successful in terms of digital performance and greater integration signals a more digitally mature company. It can be concluded that the stronger the organisational structure, and better and mature the digital skills, the higher is digital performance ranking.

The Influences of Aesthetic Responses and 370 Product Involvement on 3C Product Attitudes and Purchase Intentions: Evidence from China Chih-Huang Lin Feng Chia University, Taichung City, Taiwan This study examines the influence of aesthetic responses and product involvement on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions towards the 3C products. Quantitative results from experiment in China are presented. This research found that consumers with low product involvement generate lower product attitude than high-involved consumers under ugly aesthetic responses, and they also report higher attitudes than high-involved ones under beautiful responses. Interestingly, the interaction effect on purchase intentions, the trend of purchase intention change is the same as that of attitude change, yet the results turn out to be insignificant. Furthermore, the effects of product appearance on aesthetic responses and on attitudes and purchase intentions are proved to support hypothesis, whereas aesthetic responses difference due to either interaction show null results, but the trends of responses changes are consistent with hypothesis. Managerial implications and limitations are presented as well.

Nonprofits Are Not Tired of Marketing 372 Roger Bennett Kingston University, London, United Kingdom This paper refutes the proposition that nonprofits are tired of marketing. Rather, the marketing activities of nonprofit organisations lie at the cutting edge of advertising, branding, content marketing, regulation, street and door to door marketing, and other relevant marketing tasks. Nonprofits regularly win national and international awards for advertising and marketing excellence, and recruit some of the best marketing talent in the world. The paper argues that nonprofit marketing offers good value for money and enables nonprofits to raise the funds necessary to serve beneficiaries in the best possible ways. Eighty per cent of the funds acquired via marketing go directly to beneficiaries. The paper also offers a robust defence of nonprofit relationship marketing. Indeed, many commercial organisations look up to nonprofits as exemplars of good practice in the relationship marketing field, especially where customer (donor) deselection is required. Street and door to door marketing is another area in which nonprofits excel and where nonprofit fundraising methods are being copied by commercial firms. In summary, it can safely be asserted that, far from being tired of marketing, nonprofit organisations continue to develop marketing skills expertly and comprehensively, and that nonprofit organisations have become leading players in the marketing field.

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Family Business Brands and the Ethical 375 Consumer: Leveraging Category-Based Beliefs to Enhance the Credibility of CauseRelated Claims Nicole Koenig-Lewis, Kerry Hudson, Carmela Bosangit Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom Extant research in entrepreneurship suggests that family business brands are associated with positive categorybased beliefs in the minds of consumers, particularly in terms of trustworthiness and social responsibility. However, empirical examination of how these perceptions interact with other attributes of products or brands has been scarce to date. We posit that family business branding, through category-based association with trustworthiness and social responsibility, may enhance the credibility of cause-related product claims and encourage ethical and sustainable consumption behaviours. We test this premise in the context of food and beverage purchases through three studies. Exploratory focus groups confirm expectations of greater levels of trust in family businesses than corporate brands and suggest that family business branding lends credibility to product claims by conveying authenticity. A survey of UK consumers corroborates this, showing strong associations with authenticity and trustworthiness and suggesting that family business branding may have a greater influence on product consideration than cause-related claims. Study 3 entails an online experimental study which tests mock-up food packaging relating to family business branding and social responsibility claims.

Improving access to hospice and palliative 376 care: how can marketing play a role? Philippa Hunter-Jones, Lynn Sudbury-Riley, Ahmed Al-Abdin

Methodology for Theorising with Social 377 Impact Stakeholder Agnes Nairn School of Management, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom Conducting consumer research that is both effective in making positive social impact and also theoretically rigorous and novel is an enormous challenge. Previous work has looked at ways of overcoming the barriers that can impede academics from creating and maintaining effective relationships with social impact stakeholders. This paper considers how to take these relationships forward in the tricky endeavour of theorising with social impact stakeholders. Drawing on previous research on working with commercial marketing practitioners, two issues are discussed. Firstly it is suggested that the use of abduction as a method of inference may be more suitable for the pragmatic task of working with social impact organisations than deduction or induction. Secondly a framework to aid methodological decision-making on co-produced theorising projects is proposed for further discussion at the workshop.

Building a Strong Charity Brand 378 Walter Wymer University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada This paper discusses the relevance and importance of brand management as a strategic pathway for helping a charity to become a strong brand in order to better attract and retain support.

Methodological Challenges when Conducting 379 Consumer Research with Social Impact (CRSI) Hilary Downey

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

We are a team of service researchers who, since 2015, have been working with multiple hospices around England (n=5) and a hospital based Academic Palliative Care Unit examining service user[1] experiences, scoping end-oflife care and talking to non-users. Through this work we have discovered that access to such care is complicated, multiple factors playing a role. Particular barriers to access identified by service/non-service users in our research include: misperceptions e.g. ‘The death house’ (Day patient); misunderstandings regarding the term palliative care; lack of knowledge regarding services available; lack of knowledge that services such as pain management, medicine management and symptom management are provided; misperceptions that hospice care has to be paid for; confusion over the referral process: lack of understanding of what it is; criteria applied; what is/is not appropriate to be referred for. Such is the scale of the problem that it is currently the subject of an All Party Parliamentary Inquiry, the outcome of which is pending. Fundamentally these barriers are really about communication issues. This paper explores how as marketers how we respond to this need.

Consumer research with social impact initiates from a position beyond thinking the end of the journey culminates in the journal article. Research seeking change recognizes from the outset of the research journey that those whose mindset you hope to influence, should be embedded in terms of your end audience and how your findings are going to be disseminated in a way that speaks to a diverse set of audiences, key to making that change happen to transform lives. Work of this nature is usually as a result of long term immersion in the field. ‘Being in the field’ has offered me new means of capturing lived experiences (videography, living diaries, photography, and poetry) of very different forms of vulnerability. This has complimented/supported the ‘in-depth’ or conversation interviewing method. The tool of poetry has been an extremely sensitive and empathetic tool to highlight sensitive issues and to capture vulnerable population voices. It has offered the researcher a channel to reflect, time and time again on micro practices and episodes that the researcher found challenging and traumatic. A space to air tensions for those in receipt of disconnected/disinterested, service delivery.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Ask Not What Marketing Practice Can Do For 380 NPOs; Ask What NPOs Can Do For Marketing Practice Helen O’Sullivan, Maria Musarskaya, Julia Hibbert Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom There are subtleties and differences which make the NonProfit Organisation (NPO) sector truly unique – but are our universities doing enough to ensure graduates leave with an understanding of what makes an NPO different, and how to play a successful leadership role in one? Through providing students with an understanding of the bespoke requirements of NPO marketing efforts, Bournemouth University is developing graduates who leave with a solid understanding of the sector. This will not only help those who choose to enter the NPO sector, but also builds an understanding of the importance of the pillars that NPOs are built on – the importance of a mission and values, collaboration and the ability to deal with multiple stakeholders. In providing them with direct hands-on experience of working on a case study that focuses on an NPO which features all of these challenges, our graduates are also prepared to enter the world of work with an understanding of how to work alongside NPOs. Crucially, they are equipped with the skills to see how those cornerstones of NPOs can help to develop the brand, identity and marketing of any organisation, where appropriate, and embedding a mission and principles into the heartbeat of an organisation.

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Academy of Marketing Research Fund / Abstracts Relationship Building in Social Enterprise: Social Value Creation and Financial Sustainability Madeline Powel Social enterprises (SEs) within the UK policy landscape are a major provider of public services. Because of their innovative approaches to public service delivery, the Government takes the position that organisations such as SEs are better equipped to deliver public services. However, a more critical literature is emerging which questions their ability in managing the dynamic tension of their hybrid nature. Previous research (Powell and Osborne, 2015; Powell and Osborne, 2018) found their use of marketing was grounded within a productdominant approach which has been found to be a key barrier to their financial sustainability. Their need to both develop and manage relationships with their stakeholder groups has been identified as a key strategy which enables them to manage their hybrid nature (Powell et al., 2018). This paper proposes to further explore marketing within different public service settings to further extend, and strengthen this contribution. Therefore, the following research questions are posed: 1.) Are SEs building positive relationships with key communities? 2.) How do they create different kinds of value for these different communities? A multiple case study approach has been adopted and multiple interviews have been conducted with managers and key stakeholders in each case study organisation.

Investigating the boomerang effect of recipient’s reaction to sender’s recommendation on the sender’s own firm and self-related outcomes: moderating effect of narcissism and involvement Rahul Chawdhary This word of mouth (WOM) research investigates the underresearched ‘boomerang effect’ of WOM recipient’s reaction to the recommendation received on the WOM sender’s firm (willingness to pay price premium; future WOM intentions) and self-related (self-enhancement; self-affirmation and intention to help others) outcomes under both positive and negative WOM conditions. The recipient’s reaction is the recommendation outcome i.e. acceptance or rejection of the recommendation received. Furthermore, we examine the moderating effect of Narcissism and Involvement. Consideration of these moderators is important as there is little insight in the WOM literature on how the effect of social rejection and acceptance of the recommendation given is dependent on the sender’s own personality and involvement with the recommended product/service. Scenario-based experiments are employed to test the conceptual framework. Research context of this study are Mobile Phone services and Tourism services due to their enhanced familiarity amongst the consumers. Data is being collected via a UK based commercial panel. Online consumer panels are extensively used in the extant WOM literature to collect data as they represent an efficient way to reach appropriate target consumers. Data will be analysed using PLS-SEM and initial findings will be presented in the Academy of Marketing conference in July, 2019.

Life Under a Cloud of Nuclear Decommissioning: Community Stories, Tensions and Envisaged Futures Emma Banister, Helen Bruce, Stephanie Jones and Emma Long This study focuses on a rural Welsh community. The area faces uncertain social and economic prospects due to a lack of clarity around the future of a nuclear power plant, currently being decommissioned. While the local area faces challenges in common with other parts of rural Wales - such as a reliance on a rural economy, an aging population and high levels of poverty - the combination of uncertainty around the nuclear plant, associated controversies, and impacts of ‘outsiders’ (including site employees, politicians, and activists) creates an interesting context within which to explore the experiences of this potentially liminal community. We use a storytelling approach to understand the challenges and opportunities from community members’ perspectives. Preliminary findings highlight a range of prevailing narratives associated with participants’ various envisaged futures for the community. These focus on the area’s cultural heritage, its ‘young’, as well as different potential paths to economic development and tensions and contradictions therein. We seek to develop notions of Transformative Value within this liminal context, exploring and developing understanding of the potentially conflicting ways in which community members make sense of their past, present and potential futures.

‘It takes a village’: Exploring Collective Craftwork in Informal Economies of Exchange Stephanie Anderson and Amy Goode Craft has become increasingly prevalent in the marketplace (Luckman, 2015). Consumer research reveals craft enables authenticity (Hartmann and Ostberg, 2013), consumer identity expression (Moisio, Arnould and Gentry, 2013), subcultural belonging (Seregina and Weijo, 2016) and a means of maintaining inalienable wealth (Türe and Ger, 2016). This body of work sheds light on the “work done in consumption” (Wood and Ball, 2013: p.54) and reveals the various costs of such committed labours. Responding to calls for “continued questioning of community as a unit of analysis” (Moufahim, Wells and Canniford, 2016), this research explores how collective craftwork manifests within informal economies of exchange. Our insights are developed through a visual ethnography (Pink, 2013) of an annual 120-year-old community festival and draws upon theories of craftwork (Bell et al., 2018; Sennet, 2008) and community exchange (Scaraboto, 2015). This research reveals the forms of exchange that manifest in informal economies which are underpinned by moral and market logics. We explore the role community plays in craftwork and seek to offer a richer understanding of collective consumer work.


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Exploring Signature Pedagogies in Marketing Andrew Paddison Through the theoretical lens of signature pedagogies in-depth interviews have been conducted with marketing academics at UK universities. The interviews have spanned a range of pre-92 and post-92 institutions. Underpinning the theory of signature pedagogy is the focus on how the teaching and knowledge relates to the skills together with the values of professional education. Sequentially, this was framed through three stages: surface structures of ‘thinking’, deep structures that centre on ‘skills’ and implicit structures centring on ‘values’. From an initial analysis, there are identifiable qualitative phenomena. Within the realm of surface structures, the rationale for inculcating marketing students as to how a disciplinary understanding needs to be accompanied by a general appreciation of commercial issues was recurrent. The need to avoid silos and, in contrast, promote interdisciplinary understandings was evident. Secondly, the deep structures that were unpacked stressed how the development and furtherance of skills should emphasise the importance of giving students the ability to apply these in realistic and accountable, rather than abstract, practical settings. This allowed for a realisation of how their actions and reasoning impacted on business performance. Finally, the implicit structures section uncovered how the teaching of the discipline should recognise the positive values that should be engendered with this being in a context where decisions are made in situations of uncertainty rather than absolute clarity.

Narratives of Vulnerability: Disrupted Consumption Lives of Ex-offenders Martina Hutton and Francesca Crangle-Sim Adopting a narrative inquiry approach, we examine the consumer lives of ex-offenders to identify the disruptive and unequal contexts of vulnerability participants encounter in the marketplace post release. Identifying new forms of consumer restriction experienced by ex-offenders, we interrogate the notion of disruption, as a new theoretical metaphor within the insecure context of consumer vulnerability and analyse the interplay between participants’ life circumstances and the marketplace to identify experienced inequalities and micro-aggressions. Through active community engagement with local and national charities working on ex-offender rehabilitation, this study offers a new theorisation of how disruption in vulnerable marketplace contexts is operationalised and experienced. It makes a further contribution to the nascent literature on prisoner/ex-prisoner experiences of severe consumer constraint, consumption inadequacy and impoverishment.

Developing socially conscious students: Can social consciousness be embedded through teaching? Mazia Yassim and Ewa Krolikowska-Adamczyk The introduction of tuition fees and increased competition among the UK’s Higher Education institutions have led to the prioritisation of performance criteria set out by the league tables. One key indicator of success is graduate employability. This, combined with meeting the knowledge and skills demand from industries and employers, has meant that the focus of education has become economically centred (Abbott, 2007). However as businesses are now expected to contribute positively to their community and develop strategies for sustainable development, researchers (e.g. Iverson and James, 2010; Rountree and Koernig, 2015, etc.) have proposed various pedagogic theories to embed social consciousness in students, as future leaders. This project investigates the effectiveness of using a combination of service learning and problem-based learning approaches to teaching and assessment for developing and embedding social consciousness in two groups of students (from a Level 5 and Level 6 module). Eyler and Giles’ (1999) typology of citizenship is used to measure the development of social consciousness among students via a pre-test/post-test survey design in addition to qualitative data obtained through module evaluations and one-to-one student interviews. The results will indicate whether Eyler and Giles’ measurement tool may be applied in the context of marketing education and which methods may be effective in embedding social consciousness among students.

Does online chatter matter? The effect of usergenerated content and company response on consumers’ perceptions of corporate social responsibility communication. Katie Dunn Social media is increasingly adopted to communicate corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. When organisations communicate via this channel, social media users can comment on the company’s message, signalling public approval or disapproval, through user-generated content. Such individual judgements can impact consumers’ perceived legitimacy of an organisation and their response to the CSR initiative. Set in the context of the UK supermarket industry, and drawing upon legitimacy theory, this study investigates the extent to which companies can influence consumers’ perceived legitimacy and responses to their CSR by responding to user-generated content. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study’s initial quantitative phase examines whether the presence, versus absence, of an organisational response to user-generated content shapes consumers’ perceived legitimacy. The subsequent qualitative phase explores how and why consumers’ perceived legitimacy is shaped by usergenerated content and related company responses. The findings suggest that responding to user-generated content about CSR may convince consumers of the organisation’s sincere motives, leading to enhanced perceptions of legitimacy, whereas no response can engender scepticism towards the organisation and its CSR. The study offers implications for academics and practitioners, providing new empirical insights into interactive CSR communication and how managers can minimise negative implications of user-generated content.

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

‘Going Agile’: An exploratory study of the use of project management tools in fostering psychological safety in marketing group work Ben Marder, Pauline Ferguson, Caroline Marchant, Shona Black, Caroline Hedler, Marco Rossi, Rona Doig and Mary Brennan Psychological safety is as an important element effecting student group functioning, though in marketing education little attention has been paid to this phenomenon. This emphasises a crucial gap, given group-work within Marketing is both rife and topic of contention. Here we provide the first exploration of an intervention to increase psychological safety in group work for marketing students. Specifically, adopting a twophase mixed methods approach (pre/post surveys and focus groups, student diary) we examine the implementation of Agile project management values in one PG and one UG course (total n = 131). Our data show, that this intervention increased psychological safety which predicted increases in teamperformance, group learning, creativity, and interpersonal communication whilst lessening the free-rider problem. This heightening of psychological safety anteceded by the need for a supporting facilitator role and requirements of an understood value system. Implications are provided for theorist and practitioners concerned with psychological safety in marketing educators


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

AUTHOR LIST First name

Surname

University

Muneer

Abbad

Community College of Qatar, Doha, Qatar

Ibn

Abdul-Hamid

University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana

Morteza

Abolhasani

The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom

Ibrahim

Abosag

SOAS University of London, London, United Kingdom

Anna-Lena

Ackfeldt

Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Muhammad Azeem

Ahmad

Barani Institute of Sciences, Sahiwal, Pakistan

Tahmina

Ahmed

University of the West of Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom

M Bilal

Akbar

University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom

Ediz

Akcay

Faculty of Media and Communication, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Duygu

Akdevelioglu

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

Murat

Akkaya

Yeditepe University, İstanbul, Turkey

Saba Moyad

Al Tatanchi

University of West London, London, United Kingdom

Ahmed

Al-Abdin

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Rula

Al-Abdulrazak

University of East London, London, United Kingdom

Rana

Al-Yafai

Shell Oman Marketing Company SAOG, Mina Al Fahal, Oman

Nora

Alafaleg

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Dalal

Aljafari

Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Bader

Alkaffary

Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Hugo

Almeida

University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Hayam

Almousa

College of Business Administration-King Saud University, RIYADH, Saudi Arabia

Alqahtani

Rutgers Business School at Newark and New Brunswick, Newark, USA / King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

Nasser Sara

AlRabiah

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Ahmad Said Ibrahim

Alshuaibi

Institute of Management Technology, Dubai, UAE.

Mohammad Said

Alshuaibi

Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia

Dave

Alton

Cork University Business School, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Sharifah Faridah Syed

Alwi

Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom

Muslim

Amin

Taylor’s Business School-Taylor’s University, Malaysia, Malaysia

George

Amoako

Central University, Accra, Ghana

Stephanie

Anderson

University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

Robert

Angell

University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

Sajjad

Anwar

The University of Lahore, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Ruby

Appiah-Campbell

Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

Manuelita Arias

Arango

Universidad de Manizales, Manizales, Colombia

Chris

Archer-Brown

Falmouth University, Falmouth, United Kingdom

Barry

Ardley

University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom

Othmane

Aride

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Tarragona, Spain

David

Arnott

University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

Emmanuel

Arthur

Central University, Accra, Ghana

Emmanuel

Arthur

Lancaster University Ghana, Accra, Ghana

Henrik

Arvidsson

University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Ebenezer Effah

Asare

Central University, Accra, Ghana

Serap

Atakan

Istanbul Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey

Mark

Avis

Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Shana

Axcell

University of kwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

Muhammad Qamar

Aziz

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia.

Mujahid

Babu

Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom

Ilaria

Baghi

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy

Huifeng

Bai

Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Chelsea

Bailey

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Paul

Baines

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Amar

Bains

University of Worcester Business School, Worcester, United Kingdom

Domen

Bajde

University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

Zeynep

Baktir

Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

Pravin

Balaraman

University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom

Emma

Banister

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Belem

Surname Barbosa

University ISCA-UA and GOVCOPP, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

Ahmet

BardakcÄą

Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

Beverly

Barker

Bournemouth University, Poole, United Kingdom

Bradley

Barnes

The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Liz

Barnes

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Holly

Barry

Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland

Rezwana

Barsha

University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom

Fred

Beard

University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma, USA

Bridget

Behe

Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA

Iman

Behmanesh

University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia

Ahmed

Beloucif

University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom

Oscar Gonzalez

Benito

Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

Roger

Bennett

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

Dag

Bennett

London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

Shona

Bettany

Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Frank

Bezzina

University of Malta Faculty of Economics, Management and Accountancy, Msida, Malta

Kumkum

Bharti

Indian Institute of Management, Kashipur, India

Seema

Bhate

University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United Kingdom

Rebecca

Biggins

York Business School, York St John University, York, United Kingdom

Shalini

Bisani

University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom

Simon

Bishop

Nottingham University Business School, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Shona

Black

University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Ashleigh

Blasbery

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Julie

Boalch

Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust, Cwmbran, United Kingdom

Andreea

Bocioaga

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Temitope

Bodunrin

University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Elvira

Bolat

Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Brajesh

Bolia

K J Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research, Mumbai, India

Carmela

Bosangit

Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Christo

Boshoff

Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Lucy

Bosworth

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Sarah

Bowman

Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom

Craig

Bradshaw

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Jan

Breitsohl

University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom

Mary

Brennan

University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Jo

Brewis

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Marie

Briguglio

University of Malta, Msida, Malta

Francois

Brouard

Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

David M

Brown

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Helen

Bruce

Lancaster University, United Kingdom

Claudia

Buhamra

Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil

John

Cadogan

Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

Marta Blazquez

Cano

The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Cecilia Ibarra

Cantu

University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom

Benedetta

Cappellini

Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom

Manuela De

Carlo

IULM, Milano, Italy

Grace

Carson

Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Katherine

Casey

University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Eleonora

Cattaneo

Regents University London, London, United Kingdom

Marzena

Cedzynski

Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Sonila

Cela

Epoka University, Tirana, Albania

Monsak

Chaiveeradech

Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand

Samit

Chakravorti

Western Illinois University, Macomb, USA

Kathryn

Chalmers

Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

Tao

Chang

University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom

Rahul

Chawdhary

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

Fiona

Cheetham

University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom

Yue-Yang

Chen

I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Ren

Surname Chen

University York Business School, York St John University, York, United Kingdom

Man Lai

Cheung

Division of Business and Management, BNU-HKBU United International College, Zhu Hai, China.

Valentina

Chkoniya

University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Cindy Yunhsin

Chou

Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Zoe M.

Chroni

University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom

Bruno

Cignacco

GSM London, London, United Kingdom

Moira

Clark

Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

Nigel

Coates

Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom

Antje

Cockrill

University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Swansea, United Kingdom

Julia

Cook

De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom

Dafnis

Coudounaris

University of Tartu, School of Economics and Business Administration, Tartu, Estonia

Joseph

Coughlan

Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland

Fiona

Cownie

Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Francesca

Crangle-Sim

University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom

Dean

Creevey

Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland

Tim

Crowley

Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), Cork, Ireland

Julie

Crumbley

Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom

David

Cunneen

University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia

Curtis

Norwich Business School, UEA, Norwich / Footprint Digital, Colchester, United Kingdom

Lucill Iain

Davies

University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom

Marcella

Daye

University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom

Mauro Jose

De Oliveira

University Center of FEI, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Jonathan

Deacon

University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom

Andrew

Dean

University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom

Dianne

Dean

Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Ozge

Demir

Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Aycin

Demir

University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

Charles

Dennis

Middlesex University, Hendon, United Kingdom

Belen

Derqui

IQS School of Management. Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain

Bhavini

Desai

Regents University London, London, United Kingdom

Bidit

Dey

Brunel University London, London, United Kingdom

Anne

Dibley

Henley Business School, Reading, United Kingdom

Athina

Dilmperi

Middlesex University, Hendon, United Kingdom

Denitsa

Dineva

Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Paul

Dobson

Staffordshire University, Staffordshire / Manchester Met University, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Evinc

Dogan

Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

Rona

Doig

University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Hilary

Downey

Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Katie

Dunn

Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Robert

Dzogbenuku

Central University, Accra, Ghana

Yuksel

Ekinci

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Ahmed

Eldegwy

October University for Modern Sciences and Arts, Giza, Egypt

Debbie

Ellis

University of kwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

Tamer

Elsharnouby

Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Christiana

Emmanuel-Stephen

University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom

Pantelitsa

Eteokleous

University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Rebecca

Fakoussa

University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom

Kim Shyan

Fam

Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

Farquhar

Gordon Institute of Business Science, Johannesburg, South Africa / Solent University, Southampton, United Kingdom

Jillian Pio

Fenton

Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), Cork, Ireland

Pauline

Ferguson

University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Jose Rodrigues

Filho

Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, Brazil

Raffaele

Filieri

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Vania

Filipova

Technological University Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Colin

Fitzpatrick

University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Pantea

Foroudi

Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom

Stephen

France

Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Phillip

Surname Frank

University Missouri Western State University, St. Joseph, USA

Richard

Freeman

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

H.P Samanthika

Gallage

Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom

Pablo Antonio Munoz

Gallego

Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

Cassia

Galvao

Texas A&M University, Galveston, USA

Vusal

Gambarov

Epoka University, Tirana, Albania

Marta Nieto

Garcia

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Brian

Garrod

Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

Marta

Gasparin

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Pilar Rojas

Gaviria

Pontificia Universidad Catolica De Chile, Santiago De Chile, Chile

Aisling Keenan

Gaylard

Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone, Ireland

Ayantunji

Gbadamosi

University of East London, London, United Kingdom

Elizabeth

Geddes

University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Maria

Georgiou

University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Andreas

Geyer-Schulz

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany

Mahsa

Ghaffari

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Iuliana Raluca

Gheorghe

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Consuela Mădălina

Gheorghe

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Arezou

Ghiassaleh

University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Lucy

Gill-Simmen

Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Jorge Pablo Correa

Gonzalez

Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Helena V.

Gonzalez-Gomez

Neoma Business School, Mont Saint-Aignan, France

Amy

Goode

University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom

Sianne

Gordon-Wilson

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Matthew

Gorton

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Charles

Graham

London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

Katie

Gray

Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom

Laura

Grazzini

University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Elaine Marie

Grech

University of Malta, Msida, Malta

William

Green

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Georgiana

Grigore

Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

Marta

Grybś-Kabocik

University of Economics in Katowice, Katowice, Poland

Gianluigi

Guido

Universita del Salento, Lecce, Italy

Johanna

Gummerus

Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland

Veronika

Gustafsson

University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom

Chris

Hackley

Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom

James

Haft

Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Neil

Hair

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

Robert

Hamlin

University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Michael

Harker

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Brian

Harman

De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom

Lloyd

Harris

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Paul

Harrison

Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

Paul

Harrison

Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

David

Hart

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Waseem

Hassan

NUST Business School (NBS), National University of Science & Technology, Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan

Paul

Haynes

Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom

Teresa

Heath

Nottingham University Business School, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Caroline

Hedler

University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Majed

Helmi

Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom

Blanca Garcia

Henche

Universidad Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain

Claudia

Henninger

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Louise

Heslop

Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Sally

Hibbert

Nottingham University Business School, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Julia

Hibbert

Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Leighanne

Higgins

Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster, United Kingdom

Laura

Hill

Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

Christian

Hoerger

University of Gloucestershire, Munich, Germany


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Hartmut H.

Surname Holzmuller

University TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany

Paul

Hopkinson

Heriot Watt University, Dubai, UAE

Asheeabee Shaheen

Hosany

University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

Sameer

Hosany

Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom

Sara H.

Hsieh

Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan

Wei-Bo

Huang

Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Tseng-Lung

Huang

Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Hui-Ling

Huang

Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan City, Taiwan

Xuefeng

Huang

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Jiayan

Huang

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Patricia

Huddleston

Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA

Sarah

Hudson

Rennes School of Business, Rennes, France

Kerry

Hudson

Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Magnus

Hultman

University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Philippa

Hunter-Jones

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Martina

Hutton

University of Winchester

Fran

Hyde

University of Suffolk, Ipswich, United Kingdom

Severina

Iankova

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Kemefasu

Ifie

Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

Philip J. Rosenberger

III

Central Coast Business School, University of Newcastle, Central Coast, Australia

Muhammad Awais

Ilyas

The University of Lahore, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Alessandro

Inversini

Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne, HES-SO // University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, HES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland

Diane A.

Isabelle

Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Neve

Isaeva

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Tutku Eker

İşcioğlu

Piri Reis University, Istanbul, Turkey

Anna

Ivanova

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

Faten

Jaber

Regent’s University London, London, United Kingdom

Elham

Javaherizadeh

University of West London, London, United Kingdom

Ana

Javornik

Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Chanaka

Jayawardhena

Hull University, Hull, United Kingdom

Josephine Go

Jefferies

Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Ankur

Jha

Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, Lucknow, India

Prathanporn

Jhundra-indra

Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham , Thailand

ZhongQi

Jin

Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom

Kofi Aning

Jnr

University of Ghana Business School, Accra, Ghana

Shannon Elizabeth

Jones

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Celina

Jones

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Stephanie

Jones

Bango University, United Kingdom

Hounaida El

Jurdi

American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Djavlonbek

Kadirov

Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Krista

Kajewski

Educated Change Ltd., Minneapolis, USA

Stavros P

Kalafatis

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

Sheena

Karangi

University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom

Elif

Karaosmanoglu

Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Fatema

Kawaf

University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom

Pandora

Kay

Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

Alex

Kay

University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom

Ghadeer

Kayal

University of Business and Technology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Neil

Kelley

Leeds Beckett, Leeds, United Kingdom

Clare

Keogh

Central Coast Business School, University of Newcastle, Central Coast, Australia

Abdelhamid

Kerkadi

Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Finola

Kerrigan

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Nor Rahimy

Khalid

Politeknik Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia

Ratna

Khanijou

Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom

Tatiana

Khvatova

Peter the Great St Petersburg Polytechnic University, St Petersburg, Russian Federation

Gregory

Kivenzor

University of Connecticut, Stamford, USA

Helena H

Knight

College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman

Bruno

Kocher

University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

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ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Nicole

Surname Koenig-Lewis

University Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Ines

Kolli

University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France

Hanna

Komulainen

University of Oulu, Oulu Business School, Oulu, Finland

Kaouther

Kooli

Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Rita

Kottasz

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon

Hiba

Koussaifi

Ewa

Krolikowska-Adamczyk

University of Greenwich

Simone

Kurtzke

Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Asli

Kuscu

Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey

Ernest

Kwan

Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Silja

Kyyronen

University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland

Marcus

Langmaid

Marcon Consulting, Lincoln, United Kingdom

Sally

Laurie

University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom

Adeseye

Lawal-Solarin

Young & Giving, London, United Kingdom

Aurelie

Le Normand

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Rose

Leahy

Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland

Lesley

Ledden

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

Crystal T.

Lee

Wenzhou Business College, Wenzhou, China

Linda W

Lee

Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Peter

Leeflang

Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Leonidas

Leonidou

University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

John

Lever

University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom

Junyun

Liao

School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China

Maria

Lichrou

University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Jessica

Lichy

IDRAC Business School, Lyon, France

Chih-Huang

Lin

Feng Chia University, Taichung City, Taiwan

Wenchao

Liu

Jilin University of Finance and Economics, Changchun, China

Martin J.

Liu

Nottingham University Business School China, Ningbo, China

Tsai-Pei

Liu

National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung City, Taiwan

Hongfei

Liu

University of Essex, Essex, United Kingdom

Xiaojun

Liu

Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Jonathan

Liu

Regent’s University London, London, United Kingdom

Elizabeth

Lloyd-Parkes

University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom

Emma

Long

Lancaster University, United Kingdom

Ben

Lowe

University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom

Ping Hsuan

Lu

The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Irene R. R.

Lu

Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Maria

Luo

University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo, China

Shuchan

Luo

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Emily Ngan

Luong

London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

Thuy

Luyen

University of Hull, North Humberside, United Kingdom

Jacqueline

Lynch

University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom

Rachael

Mabe

De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom

Amy

Maddison

Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

Shree

Maharaj

University of kwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

Anju

Maharjan

University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom

Neeru

Malhotra

University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom

Ashish

Malik

University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia

Sheila

Malone

Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom

Danae

Manika

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Lingxiao

Mao

Taihu University of Wuxi, Wuxi, China

Caroline

Marchant

University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Ben

Marder

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

David

Marshall

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Lorenzo

Masiero

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Armando

Mateus

TouchPoint Consulting, Lisbon, Portugal

Claire

May

University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom

Louise

McBride

Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Aodheen

Surname McCartan

University Ulster University, Jordanstown, United Kingdom

Julie

McColl

York St John University, York, United Kingdom

Helen

McCormick

The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Eleanor

McIntosh

Houghton International, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Fraser

McLeay

Sheffield University Management School, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Javier Morales

Mediano

Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid, Spain

Helen

Meek

Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom

Phil

Megicks

University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom

TC

Melewar

Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom

Christos

Michael

Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

Nina

Michaelidou

Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

Joan

Mileski

Texas A&M University, Galveston, USA

Mark

Mills

University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Seong Jae

Min

Dept. of Communication Studies, Pace University, 41 Park Row, New York, NY 10038, New York, USA

Diliara

Mingazova

University of East London, London, United Kingdom

Katie

Mitchell

Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Sarah-Louise

Mitchell

Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom

Samiha

Mjahed

College of Business Administration-King Saud University, RIYADH, Saudi Arabia

Sandra

Moffett

Ulster University, Jordanstown, United Kingdom

SMA

Moin

Coventry University London, London, United Kingdom

Suraya Akmar

Mokhtaruddin

Politeknik Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia

Tom

Mordue

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Miyuki

Morikawa

Tokyo University of Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Kathleen

Mortimer

University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom

Mona

Moufahim

University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom

Syed

Muhammad

Brunel University London, London, United Kingdom

Juha

Munnukka

University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland

Maria

Musarskaya

Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Hillary Jephat

Musarurwa

Heriot-Watt, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Rozeia

Mustafa

The University of Lahore, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Gilles

N’Goala

University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France

May

Nagy

The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt

Agnes

Nairn

School of Management, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Satu

Natti

University of Oulu, Oulu Business School, Oulu, Finland

Yehia Sabri

Nawar

University of West London, London, United Kingdom

Hesamoddin Dehghan

Nayeri

Essex Business School, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom

Jacques

Nel

University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Mitchell

Ness

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Dominik

Neumann

Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA

Farhana

Newaz

Universiti Tun Abdul Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Anothai

Ngamvichaikit

Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Nonthaburi, Thailand

Richard

Nicholls

Worcester Business School, Worcester, United Kingdom

Mike

Nicholson

Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom

SR Farhad

Nikhashemi

College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman

Basilio

Noris

Pomelo Sarl, Renens, Switzerland

Nuzhat

Nuery

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Daniel

Nunan

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Sharon

Nunoo

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Justin

O’Brien

Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom

Christina

O’Connor

Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland

Simon

O’Leary

Regent’s University London, London, United Kingdom

Lisa

O’Malley

University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Grace

O’Rourke

London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

Gearoid

O’Suilleabhain

Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), Cork, Ireland

Stephen

O’Sullivan

Cork University Business School, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Helen

O’Sullivan

Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Steve

Oakes

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Helen

Oakes

Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom

97


98

ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Christina

Surname Oberg

University The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

Nicoletta

Occhiocupo

IQS School of Management. Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain

Mauro Jose De

Oliveira

The University Center of FEI, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Hossein

Olya

Sheffield University Management School, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Ayesha

Owusu-Barnaby

London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

Nana

Owusu-Frimpong

GIMPA , Accra, Ghana

Andrew

Paddison

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Marlon Bruno Matos

Paiva

Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil

Ameet

Pandit

Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

Aniruddha

Pangarkar

MICA, Ahmedabad, India

Vinai

Panjakajornsak

King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand

Artemis

Papazachariou

University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Annetta

Paps-King

Middlesex University, Hendon, United Kingdom

Stefania

Pareti

Universidad Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain

Georgios

Patsiaouras

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Anne

Peirson-Smith

City University Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Justin

Pelletier

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

Alessandro

Peluso

Universita del Salento, Lecce, Italy

Patsy

Perry

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Giovanni

Pino

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Daniela

Pirani

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Guilherme D.

Pires

Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

MMojtaba

Poorrezaei

Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Chanthika

Pornpitakpan

University of Macau, Macau, China

Madeline

Powell

University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Ilaria Dalla

Pozza

IPAG Business School, Paris, France

Chloe

Preece

Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, United Kingdom

Andrew

Pressey

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Linda

Price

University of Oregon, Oregon, USA

Ilia

Protopapa

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

Devashish

Pujari

McMaster University, DeGroote School of Business, Hamilton, Canada

Khanyapuss

Punjaisri

College of Management Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Keyoor

Purani

IIM Kozhikode, Kerala, India

Victor Lorin

Purcărea

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Martin

Quinn

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Natascha

Radclyffe-Thomas

London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London, London, United Kingdom

Rajesh

Rajaguru

University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia

Zahy

Ramadan

Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon

Nripendra

Rana

Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

Mohsin

Raza

Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia

Gabor

Rekettye

Pecs University, Pecs, Hungary

Sheila

Resnick

Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom

James E

Richard

Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Francesca Dall’ Olmo

Riley

Kingston University, London, United Kingdom

Julie

Robson

Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Andrew

Robson

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Matthew

Robson

Leeds University Business School, Leeds, United Kingdom

Thomas

Rodgers

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Padmali

Rodrigo

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Jose Austerliano

Rodrigues

UNINASSAU, Campina Grande, Brazil

Miguel A. Claudia Buhamra Abreu

Rodriguez-Molina Romero

Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil

Ana

Roncha

London College of Fashion, University of the Arts, London, United Kingdom

Julie

Rosborough

Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Philip J.

Rosenberger III

University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia

Antonietta

Rosiello

University of Malta Faculty of Economics, Management and Accountancy, Msida, Malta

Raffaello

Rossi

University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Marco

Rossi

University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Jose L.

Surname Ruiz-Alba

University University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom

Cecilia

Ruvalcaba

University of the Pacific, Stockton, USA

Gerard

Ryan

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Tarragona, Spain

Aude

Rychalski

EM Normandie Business School, Metis Lab, Paris, France

Sunil

Sahadev

Salford University, Manchester, United Kingdom

Emanuel

Said

University of Malta Faculty of Economics, Management and Accountancy, Msida, Malta

Laura

Salciuviene

Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom

Salniza Md.

Salleh

Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia

Erica

Salvaj

Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile

Cristina

Sambrook

University of Birmingham, Birmingham Business School, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Patricio

Sanchez-Campos

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile

Minita

Sanghvi

Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, USA

Kareem

Sani

University of East London, London, United Kingdom

James

Santa

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

Irene

Santoso

Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Saila

Saraniemi

University of Oulu, Oulu Business School, Oulu, Finland

Mike

Saren

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Christophe

Schinckus

Taylor’s University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Paulette

Schuster

AMILAT , Tel Aviv, Israel

Victoria-Anne

Schweigert

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany

Justina

Setkute

Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom

Hasnizam

Shaari

Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia

Haseeb

Shabbir

University of Hull, North Humberside, United Kingdom

Maria

Shahid

NUST Business School, National University of Science & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Khurram

Sharif

Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Revti Raman

Sharma

Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Purvendu

Sharma

Indian Institute Of Management, Indore, India

Farzana

Sharmin

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Elena

Shevchenko

Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Clayton

Silva

Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, Piaui, Brazil

Antonis

Simintiras

Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait, Kuwait

Geoff

Simmons

Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Sid

Simmons

Cranfield University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom

Pallavi

Singh

Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Aishwarya

Singhal

Heriot Watt University, Dubai, UAE

Jennifer

Slaughter

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Erica

Sobreira

Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil

Mudassar

Sohail

University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom

Natalia

Sonata

BINUS, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Thanasis

Spyriadis

Leicester University, Leicester, United Kingdom

Chloe

Steadman

Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom

Malcolm

Stewart

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom

Katharina

Stolley

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Vicky

Story

Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

Nikolaos

Stylos

University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Tassanee

Suanchimplee

Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham , Thailand

Lynn

Sudbury-Riley

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Mohammad Tipu

Sultan

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Mohammad

Tajvarpour

McMaster University, DeGroote School of Business, Hamilton, Canada

Rohit

Talwar

London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom

Vito

Tassiello

Liverpool Business School, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Zhaleh Najafi

Tavani

Leeds University Business School, Leeds, United Kingdom

Surat

Teerakapibal

Thammasat Business School, Bangkok, Thailand

Nicholas

Telford

University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom

Aris

Theotokis

University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Mouhamed

Thiam

University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester, United Kingdom

Roland

Thomas

Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Katie

Thompson

University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

99


100

ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

First name Hiram

Surname Ting

University UCSI University, Sarawak, Malaysia

Carlos Andres Osorio

Toro

Universidad de Manizales, Manizales, Colombia

Ann

Torres

National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, Ireland

Angela

Towers Hall

Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom

Rachel

Trees

Hull University Business School, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom

Mirsini

Trigoni

London College of Fashion, University of the Arts, London, United Kingdom

Julie

Trindade

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom

Giang

Trinh

University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia

Timmy H.

Tseng

Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, Taiwan

Olga

Tsigkou

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Zofija

Tupikovskaja-Omovie

Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom

Sarah

Turnbull

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

David J

Tyler

Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom

Caroline

Tynan

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Pauliina

Ulkuniemi

University of Oulu, Oulu Business School, Oulu, Finland

Outi

Uusitalo

University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland

Mahyar Sharif

Vaghefi

The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA

Arash

Valipour

Leeds University Business School, Leeds, United Kingdom

Niklas

Vallstrom

University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United Kingdom

Mireia

Valverde

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Tarragona, Spain

Rodrigo Perez

Vega

Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

Anastasia

Veneti

Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Giampaolo

Viglia

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom. Universita del Salento, Lecce, Italy

Rohini

Vijaygopal

Open University, London, United Kingdom

Van

Vu

Academy of Journalism and Communication, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Kathryn

Waite

Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Zi

Wang

University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo, China

Janet

Ward

University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United Kingdom

Che Aniza Che

Wel

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia

Paul

Whitla

Lingnan University, Hong Kong, China

Ria

Wiid

University of Worcester Business School, Worcester, United Kingdom

Carolyn

Wilson

University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom

Tony

Woodall

Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Malcolm

Wright

Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

Walter

Wymer

University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada

Sarah

Xiao

Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom

Fred

Yamoah

Birkbeck-University of London, London, United Kingdom

Songyi

Yan

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Lin

Yang

University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia

Natalia

Yannopoulou

Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Mazia

Yassim

University of Greenwich

Dandan

Ye

University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo, China

Peter

Young

CSMP, Duxford, United Kingdom

Ruizhi

Yuan

Xi’an Jiaotong Liverpool University, Suzhou, China

Wei

Yue

University of Macau, Macau, China

Ghasem

Zaefarian

Leeds University Business School, Leeds, United Kingdom

Andria

Zeved

University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Dongmei

Zha

Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom

Carol Xiaoyue

Zhang

University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Xiya

Zhang

University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China

Nan

Zhang

American University, Washington, DC, USA

Huimin

Zhao

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Lianxi

Zhou

Brock University, Ontario, Canada

Shuang

Zhou

The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Kai

Zhu

Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham, United Kingdom


ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 2019 52nd Annual Conference Proceedings

Conference team

Professor John Egan

Professor Ibrahim Sirkeci

Dr Anne Foy

Conference Chair

Chair of Doctoral Colloquium

Academy of Marketing

Dr Zeynep Kacmaz Milne

Catherine Fawaz

Conference Coordinator

Assistant Coordinator

101


20/20 Vision

ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE 7-9 JULY 2020 Edge Hill University - WWW.AMCONFERENCE.ORG

Conference Theme The 53rd Academy of Marketing Conference is calling for cutting edge research in Marketing. We want to capture the exciting ideas being developed by those currently within the discipline as well as those working on the most outer points of interest. The conference will consider the unnerving and shifting tides of change with regard to emergent intradisciplinary paradigms; innovation, decline and rejuvenation. We will encourage research which contests dominant and forgotten or hidden thoughts, feelings, logic and reason. This is an opportunity to present and call into question hard economic, sociocultural and environmental assumptions which underpin marketing decision making feelings, logic and reason. Seeing the Future In 2020 it is our contention that perfect vision is needed to understand marketing. We need 20/20 vision with new, different perspectives to enable us to respond and adapt to our fast changing environment. For this theme we welcome papers that look back into the past of marketing, but we also want to encourage a focus on the future. Research on issues such as sustainability and responsibility as well as

those exploring the digital and virtual world are increasingly valued and important concepts within marketing which need to be refined and interrogated with insights from other disciplines. In short, we welcome all that is deemed visionary, from the norms to the obscure and unorthodox. About Edge Hill University Edge Hill University (edgehill.ac.uk) is one of the most successful new Universities in the UK. It achieved TEF Gold in 2017, was named the Times Higher Education University of the Year in 2014 and was described as ‘the biggest improver’ in The Times tables based on a strong performance in REF 2014. Edge Hill University boasts a vibrant campus community located in 160 stunning acres near Ormskirk (ehu.ac.uk/beautiful). Its location on the northern edge of the Merseyside conurbation close to the resort town of Southport is also convenient for Greater Manchester. We look forward to welcoming you to Edge Hill University in 2020.

CONFERENCE CHAIR: PROFESSOR HELEN WOODRUFFE-BURTON

Profile for Regent's University London

Academy of Marketing Conference Proceedings  

Welcome to the 52nd Academy of Marketing Conference hosted by Regent’s University London in Regent’s Park, at the centre of the most excitin...

Academy of Marketing Conference Proceedings  

Welcome to the 52nd Academy of Marketing Conference hosted by Regent’s University London in Regent’s Park, at the centre of the most excitin...