Right to education

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IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION IN BANGLADESH: Education Defined: Education is the natural, harmonious and progressive development of man's innate powers. It is the development of all these capacities in the individual, which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possible. Education brings all round and harmonious development of the personality of an individual such as physical, intellectual aesthetic, social, economic, religious, cultural, spiritual and through such development individual and social needs can be realized. Education is a dynamic process, which in its totality changes with the changing situations and developing circumstances. To put it more clearly, education is an attempt to develop man. It is a modification of behavior because it leads us from indistinctive behavior to human behavior, i.e., instead of acting impulsively, education enables-A man to act rationally. It prepares the child for adult life where he will be in a position to fulfill has responsibility of adult life. Education directs the child capacities, attitudes, interests, targets, and needs - into the most desirable channels. It stimulates correct responses and to check anti-social impulse. Threats, coercion, intimidation, fear are overcome. Since education is a life long process, society remains dynamic and appropriate reconstruction is effected. It helps to preserve the glorious past and the outgrown to discard. It is emancipation from ignorance. Hence in the words of lodge "life is education and education is life." Edward Thring has remarked that education is the transmission of life, by the living to the living. What Is Right to Education? The article contains a right to education, which is enjoyed primarily by the student. In many cases, however, these will be children and the right is likely to be exercised on their behalf by their parents. But a specific right for parents, who are entitled to respect for their religious and philosophical convictions in the delivery of education and teaching of their children.2 Right to education among the convention rights proved to be controversial and complicated; no person shall be dividing the right to education. In the exercise of any functions which, it assumes in relation to education and teaching. The state shall respect the right of parents to ensure such education and teaching in conformity with their own religious and philosophical concoctions.3 In the Belgium Linguistic Case, the court defined the scope of the right to education in the following terms: The first sentence of article 2 of the first protocol consequently guarantees, in the first place, a right of access to educational institutions existing at a given time, but such a access constitutes only a part of the right to education, for the right to education to be effective, it is further necessary that, inter alias, the individual who is the beneficiary should have the possibility of drawing profit from the education received, that is to say, the right to obtain in conformity with the rules in force in each state, and in one form or another official recognition of the studies which he has completed.4 2 A.M. Robcrtson, 'The European Convention on Human Rights- Recent Development (1951), p. 321 3 The Judgment under the heading 'B% Interpretation adopted by the court p. 322


The European Convcnlion on Human Rights by Jacobs and While, third edition. Oxford University Press. 2002 Education for Development: Education is critical for economic and social development. It is crucial for building human capabilities and for opening opportunities. It is the true essence of human development. Without education, development can be neither broad neither based nor sustained. Unfortunately, this is a lesson which south Asian development planners have still to learn. This chapter focuses on the broader economic and social returns to a society from an investment in education. In terms of human development objectives, education is an end in itself, not just a means to an end. Education is a basic human right. It is also the key, which opens many economic, social and political doors for people. It increases access to income and employment opportunities. The Importance of education for development is not a new discovery. It was fully recognized by classical economists such as Adam Smith, John Stuart Mills, Karl Mark and Alfred Marshall. The potential of human capital: Education is the passport to accelerated economic growth^ particularly in the context of a rapidly globalizing world economy. Human capital is defined as the stock of useful, valuable and relevant knowledge built up in the process of education and training. Education not on/y increases the productivity of the educated worker, it may also raise the productivity of neighboring labors by providing an important role mode). Education is the key to building human capital and human capital is the vital ingredient in building a nation.5 5 Human Development in South Asia, 1998 - by Mahbub-ul Haq, Khadija Haq, The University Press Limited, p.p. 24, 25 Purpose of Education Education is necessary to equip a person to raise her/his self as befitting a human being, and manage the hazards faced and take proper advantages of the opportunities available or emerging, on the basis of knowledge and understanding. The dormant faculties of the people are activated and enhanced by education but broadly these can be categorized two-ways. Which are imparting of social and human values and rising of human capability. 6 Social and Human Values: A basic board purpose of education is to impart social and human values to or energize the dormant instincts in those respects in people. These values include righteousness, pursuit of truth, respect of human rights, fellow feeling, secular values, love for the country, respect for timeliness and socially-agreed rules of business and so on. These are among the values, which differentiate a dignified human being from those who are social deviants. Education is necessary to imbue the people with such values but it is certainly not sufficient, hence there must be rules, laws, and institutional mechanisms to control human behavior, which violates the basic social and human values or encroaches upon the human rights of others. It is also the purpose of education to equip the people to contribute to the formulation or modification of those rules/laws/institutions and to inculcate in them the urge \o respect those already in place.7 6

APJED 2004: Asia pacific journal on Environment and Development (APJED)


BBS 1998, Household Expenditure Survey 1995/96, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Govt. of Bangladesh (GOB), Dhaka, April 1998 Human Capability: The second broad purpose of education is raise human capability to enable them to purpose their chosen vocations efficiently. It is not practical that every body will rise to the highest level of training and capability in their respective vacations. The idea is to equip the students at each stage of education with certain skills so that if one decided or obliged to stop at one stage or another one could still be able to pursue a vocation at their level for earning a respectable living. Linkage in education: Obviously, uneducated people in generally are liable to exploit by others because they (uneducated) may not be aware of their right and of how redress can be sought when others subject them to oppression one way or another. It is also cede that give their low levels of capability, the uneducated are often unable to find worthwhile jobs, and even when find employment. Their wages/salaries as well as their productivity are low. They need education and training for skill development to raise their productivity and income. Education is also necessary if the people are to absorb and employ improved technologies and methods of organization and management to contribute towards accelerating economic growth, while enhancing their own incomes. The Bangladesh Case: Status and Prospects Educational status8: There seems to be total confusion relating to-the literacy rate and related aspects of education in Bangladesh, as the numbers provided by different sources vary widely. I have assembled one set of data on literacy and related aspects of education in the country, shown in table. It is clear that there has been significant progress in enrollment, literacy rate, and girl's education. The latest year for which the current status data shown in the table refer to is 2002. Although there has been surely some improvement since then, the implications derived from the data used here continue to remain valid, Table Base year (%) Current (%) Net primary enrollment



Secondary enrollment



Proportion of pupils starting class 1 who reach class 42.5 5 Adult (J5 + years) literacy rate 35.0

80.6 49.6

Ratio of girls to boys: Primary









Literacy rate among females of age 20-24 years



Literacy rate among males of ages 20-24 years



Source: PRSP 2004, P-l 73; MDGs 2005 8

CAMPE 2001: Overview, education watch 2000: A question of quality state of primary education in Bangladesh, Campaign for popular education (CAMPE), Dhaka. '•*pa T-ij Note: base year is the latest year between 1990-1995 depending on data availability, similarly, current status relates to the latest year between 2000-2002 depending on data availability) The net enrolment at the primary level is 87 percent. While that of the secondary level is about 53 percent. The proportion of pupil starting class-f who reach class -v has also increased to 81 percent. The adult literacy rate is just under 50%. While literacy rates among girls and boys of age 20-24 years are respectively 55 percent and 71 percent. There are now more girls' studding at the secondary level relative to boys. The ratio being 52:48 at the primary level, though girls are still lagging behind 48:52 and the tertiary level, girls are still way behind boys (36:62)9. Education and Literacy: Education is essential for acquiring knowledge, skill and human capital and for raising the level of awareness of the masses about their environment. It also contributes much towards the use of Modern technology and input in farming, formation of and participation to co-operation of and participation to cooperatives, family planning etc.10 9

CAMPE 2005: OVER view, Education watch 2003/04 a question of quality -state of primary education in Bangladesh (CAMPE), Dhaka. 10 Poverty Issues in Rural Bangladesh by - PK. Md. Motiur Rahman, University Priss Limited, p. 119 Table: major causes of school dropout in rural area Major causes Financial hardship Help of parents No interest Failure in examination Parents no interested Due to marriage Others

Rural % of boys 39 25 25 ** ** ** 9

Rural % of girls 38 10 18 8 ** 15 11

The education system and functions of primary education: The base of the structure is the primary school lasting for 5 years, which takes children aged 6-10. After this comes the secondary level. Divided between two types of schools. Junior High Schools take students in class 6-8, a few specialized secondary schools offer agricultural and technical courses. Thomas Rabington Meclay, former Chairman of Company Education Committee in his policy the famous minute (2 Feb. 1835) had said that, "a class of persons Indian in blood and color but English in taste, m opinions, in morals and intellect.13 11

Country paper 'Bangladesh' - Sub. Regional Seminar on wastage in Education, Dhaka, November 1986,

quoted in Bangladesh Educational statistics, 1987, BANBEIS, p. 123 1 Universal primary education in Bangladesh - by Ellen Sattar. - University Press Limited, Bangladesh 1982, p. 13 13 Amader Shikkha Kon Pathey (Our Education Search for Diraction) Published in September 1996 by the University Press Limited, p. 6 The literacy rate of all age man and woman of Bangladesh: 1961-91

Source: Bangladesh Statistics Bruea, Adamsumari Report 1991, Part-1, Dhaka, 1994 University Act 1973: University act 1973 is not absolutely fresh Complain with present Act; it's reality14 1. A lot of election 2. Inter conflict to the teachers 3. Use of students for the interest of (he teachers 4. To involvement with teachers politics 5. Power of V.C 6. Election of senate 7. Various election 8. Departmental chairman & dean 14

University Act 1973: Thinking of Teachers (An Edited Book, Interview Bassed), Tareque Bin Fazal. The objective of the university act is hamper want of the environment of sound politics.15 The Democratic environment of the University will hamper, if the procedure of the Election of the senator is not change.16 Strategic Plan for Higher Education in Bangladesh 2026, by University Grant Commission17: We know that, higher education people lead an important role for high morality, culture. And exercise about science and technology. Notional development and advancement is directly impact with it. To select the students according to the job market, in strategic plan, offer that. All public universities will be directed through once policy. They called it umbrella legislation.'8 15

See: Professor Moudud Elahi, 'The Daily Millat1, 23 October, 1989, p. 13


Professor Shirajul Islam Oiawdhury, ^The Daily Millat' 25 October 1989. See- 20 years strategic plan, future of Higher Education of UGC, Seminar, 26 June. 2006, Library Auditorium, Socialist Student Front, Cbittagong University Branch. 18 Ibid, Chapter – Three National Policy on Education 17

Formulation & Implementation # Country Bangladesh Objective: To design a comprehensive policy framework for the developmental of education up to framework for the development of education up to 2015 in light of the objectives and strategies set out in the millennium development goals. Emphasis is to be laid on quality improvement. A planned more equitable expansion of educational facilities and the need-to focus on female education.'9 Stakeholders: The key stakeholders as identified by the team can be divided into two categories: 1. Stakeholders involved in policy formulation. 2. Stakeholders involved in policy implementation Stakeholders involved in policy formulation:  Cabinet  Politicians  Legislators  Civil servants  Civil society Monthly Vanguard, June 2006, p.p. 8- 5.    

Academicians/educationists NGO'S International Development Agencies Teachers

Stakeholders involved in policy implementation:  Ministry of education  Ministry of women and children affairs  Ministry of labor  Departments  Electronic and print media  NGO'S  International development agencies  Publisher and book sellers It needs to be mentioned here that the two groups who are the ultimate beneficiaries of the policy, students and guardians play an implicit role in the entire process. Strategy: Although there is an overlapping of most stakeholders in both the stages, there will be a clear difference in the level of involvement of each of these players. A two-pronged approach will be followed in the process-bottom up and top down. At the formulation stage, it is central govt. that will play the primary role as strategic national planner with inputs from the others.

This will be a bottom up process. At the implementation stage, the govt. will step back and take up the role of facilitators, supporter and evaiuator. This will be a top down process. Appropriate devolution of resources is must at this stage. Fig. National Education Policy National Education Policy

Policy Formulation A central commission comprising representatives from the key stakeholders in the two categories will spearhead this. The prime representatives will be• Academicians/educationists • Civil society members • Civil servants • NGO'S This commission will play the key role in policy formulation, since this will be a bottom up approach, the commission will proceed after evaluation of the proposals/inputs provided by the committees working at grassroots level. Ways of ensuring participation at this stage can be divided into two: 1. Micro level participation 2. Macro level participation Micro level participation: i. Board based participation of stakeholders can be ensured by organizing seminars, workshops & consultation meetings. ii. Participation will be initiated at the Upazila level followed by district and divisional level. The final output of these meetings will be submitted to the central committee. Cross sectional participation at these seminars rieeds be ensure

Fig: Bottom up approach in policy formulation ............. Macro level participation: i. Questionnaire technique: This method will be followed to incorporate mass participation. Appropriate questionnaire will be circulated through national policies with television and radios support inviting views and opinions from cross sections of people. ii. National seminars: A seminar will be organized centrally with the participation of academicians, to civil servants, writers, intellectuals, journalists, entrepreneurs eliciting their views and vision on the advancement of education. Policy implementation: Once a realistic policy is formulated, implementation is crucial. For any implementation process to be successful a vital factor is ownership as participation is spontaneous when the feeling of ownership is high. These involvements of the stakeholders from the formulation stage ensure a basic some of the methods by which stake holder’s participation can be ensured at policy implementation level. Motivation for the players at micro level:

To ensure maximum participation of the players at the grassroots level, various effective programs can be taken up, such as• Foods for education program build on past achievements. • Stipend for the poor and meritorious discourages dropouts. • Female scholarships focus on woman's advancement. • Appropriate recognition for high performing students encourage and create precedence for evaluation • Target setting and performance linked pay • Role of mothers: Mothers with appropriate motivation and awareness can play a pioneering role in the education of their children especially daughters. They thus need to be adequately trained and exposed to the returns of educating-their children. Women organizations and Jocai national NGOs need to be harnessed as training resources. • Technical and vocational Training • Awareness creation through mass media • Door to door awareness building campaign • Long term vision • Freedom from political pressure • Involvement of the business community and the affluent section. Conclusion: A participatory model in policy formulation pre- supposes a particularly level of development of a nation in terms of literacy and awareness of its people, its physical infrastructure, resource mobilization, governance, transparency and strong agencies for implementation of policies. Thus the path towards the introduction of a participatory model of policy formulation in Bangladesh needs to be treading with caution. Primary Education MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education: "We believe in immediate result, if i send my children to land he will brings us cash, but I arn not sure how i will benefit if i send him to the school instead."21 Situation Analysis12: In the primary education sub-sector (including mainstream schools, Ebtadayee Madrassas, NGOs, NFE-Centers and KG Schools) the country aims to attain net enrolment rate of 100% by the year 2.015. The percent net enrolment rate is 82.7%. It is slightly higher for the girls; the universal primary education completers (UPC) rate those enrolled is around 67% by the GOB-UNDP report (February 2005). According to the MDG progress report (2004) UPC rate for eligible children (of age 6-10) is around 56%. Therefore, a business as usual approach will not be able to take the country to achieve the goal 100 percent universal completion by 2015 Bulbul islam, Lakhirchar, Jamalpur report.


Sec; Based mainly on education Walch background

Challenges identified by the people: For further improving the situation the people identified several challenges. These included: • Lack of teachers (lots of vacant posts) • Infrastructure problem • Lack of books • Lack of awareness among parents • High droop out rate

• • • • • • • •

Lack of stipend/stipends are not available for all (only for bottom 40%) Lack of school Natural calamity Poverty Poor community system »r Unskilled teachers Lower salary structure for teachers Criteria for getting stipend are difficult to maintain, Inefficient managing committee (political bias)

Education for all and MDG's24 'For any kind of economic development primary education is important matter.125 23

See: II people's progress report on Bangladesh MDG 2005: an overview (sep 2005) in association with 'Manusher Jonno', campaign for popular education, social watch Bangladesh, and Urnayan Shamannay. 24 Dr. Atiur Rahman 25 Amyarto Sen's speech to education at "Naya Delhi, 2 January 1999, Royters. Responsibility and promise of the state: Art-17 of the constitution of the Bangladesh has declared that the state is responsible for the basic education system of the citizens. Right to education: Education is basic human right of a child. National child policy 1994 has says that1. To ensure free school and compulsory primary education 2. To ensure up to class eight free school and compulsory primary education 3. Child development, child education another acts. National woman development policy 1997:'26 • To increase education rate of woman's • To emphasis on education of woman child and try to remove illiteracy from the country • To establish least one primary school at every village in the country. • Up to degree free school for the girls. Innovation in Primary Education in Bangladesh: In view of the large number of children and adults who remain uncovered by present educational programmes. It is felt that some innovations are needed in primary education to provide quality education at low cost, which would ensure high attendance and retention as well as a high rate of success. Several innovative programmes, have been Chairman, Unnayan Samannay, e-mail: atiur@sdnlxl.org initiated in primary education by both governmental agencies to achieve these aims. Generally, the major characteristics of an innovative programme are that it should (a) be based on direct experience and practice; (b) be cost effective (c) show easily verifiable results; (d) have interdependence within its subsystems. Some of the more prominent and successfully innovative programmers in the field of primary education in Bangladesh are as follows:

1. BRAC- non-formal primary education programmed: the Bangladesh rural advancement committee has developed these programmers. This caters to children 810 years of age who could not get admission in formal primary schools. The programmers cover grades 1-3. 2. GSS primary education programme: this programme has been initiated by the Gono Shahajjo Shangstha (GSS). Children who could not getadmission in formal primary school are enrolled in these schools. 3. CMES Technology school 4. Government satefiite school programme 5. Dhaka Ahsania mission alternative Primary School Programme 6. UCEP school 7. Terre Des Hommes (TDH) street children programme The probfem was solved in (he following way:  A systematic minute by minute time table for the teachers  A focused curriculum so that the number of tasks is restricted  Adequate provision of low cost materials and resources to permit and support individual and group work.  On the job training for six months so that new teachers are carefully inducted into the role they have to play and into the philosophy that lies behind it.  Overall, it may be said that the public sector agencies should benefit from successful NGO- introduced innovative programmes. NGOs moreover, will need sustained government cooperation and support to make their efforts a greater success through to the end. 50 pc pry children drop our:27 Almost half of the children drop out without completing primary education revealed a report launched at BRAC Centre auditorium in the city yesterday. The report titled 'access to education in Bangladesh: country analytic review of primary and secondary education is an inception phase output of the international consortium for research on educational access, transitions and equity (CREATE), of which BRAC University Institute of Educational Development (BUIED) Is a partner institution. The report however assesses that without a reliable benchmark for this important indicator like drop out or completion rate, any kind of planning or setting targets for millennium development goals (MDG) OR education for all would be faulty. Reveals Report "flic Daily Star', March 7, 2007, p. 2 “Virtual or silent exclusion from engagement in learning of those who continue to be enrolled nominally is as serious a problem as open exclusion”, finds the report, adding that this phenomenon remains largely un-investigated and un-qualified. “Poverty has to be addressed to achieve educational goals,” said Elizabeth Carriere, acting head of DFID, while addressing the launching ceremony of the report. “Poverty is the most serious barrier to achieving the educational goals”, said Elizabeth, stressing the need for poverty eradication.

However DFID would continue its cooperation in education sector of Bangladesh, he added. “Government must ensure quality education for all,” said Resheda said, “education is a public good and also a right. Education is not like a commodity.” Dr. Wahiduddin Mahmud in his speech said, “Number of enrolled students in primary level is increasing in Bangladesh, compared to other neighhoring countries.” Education Watch 2003/4: Education watch 2003/4 focuses on quality with equity in primary education. In doing so, it attempts to probe deeper into inter connected. Effects of factors bearing on school and children in specific location in ten Uparilas and attempts to present a summative perspective with regard to policy and action implications. a. Primary Education Provisions: 1. According to the Upazilla education office data derived from their own child education survey, 75.3 % of the children in the eligible age group were enrolled in primary school. However, the household survey conducted in school catchments areas in the Upazitas conducted under the present study showed an enrolment rate 90.4 %. 2. UEO data show 57% of students are in GPS, 24 % in RNGPs. 9% in all types of Madrasas, 2.5 percent in kindergartens and 1.1 % in NFE School. 3. National net enrolment data in recent years since l')98 indicate a steady rise from year to year from in 1998 to 85% in 2002. From the present Upazila data collected from a non-random sample, no national estimate can be derived. The status and Trend at the national level merit proper study. Education watch 2003/04, Quality with Equity: The F rimary Education Agenda Campaign for Popular Education Bangladesh. 4. There were 6.830 teachers in 1.605 GPs and RNGPs. Ratio of female teachers was 39 %. There was no reliable source of data for teachers of other types of institutions. b. Policy and Action Implications: The micro and mesa view of primary education provided by the information from the Upazilas points to major challenges and potentials in primary education. We have a better understanding of how the large picture of deprivation is formed with elements provided by each deprived child in his or her home, school, community and Upazila. As cautioned by UNESCO's latest EFA monitoring report, Bangladesh will not search its EFA goals for 2015 with a business as usual approach, ambitious goals have been set for PEDP 1}, the umbrella development programme of the govt. in primary education for the period 2003/4 to 2008/9 on which much hope is pinned. Conclusion: It is thus obvious that the NGO's in Bangladesh have been playing a leading role in introducing innovative non-formal education programmes. There are some obvious limitations in the present non-formal education programmes. These re/ate mostly to the issue of replicability of the programmes. In most of the organization there are no middle level

staffs between the coordinator and the field supervisor. As such, the project head has to give considerable attention to field level supervisors. 29

Ahmed M. Nath SR and Ahmcd KS (2003), Literacy in Bangladesh - need for a new vision, Dhaka: Campaign for Popular Education. 30 Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2003), Population Cases 2001, National Report (Provisional), Dhaka Secondary Education Education Watch 2005 The state of secondary education Overview: The sixth education watch report is the first one on the state of secondary education in Bangladesh. Its aim is to construct a base line of basic indicators on how the sub-sector functions. Especially in respect of provisions for services and their internal efficiency. Education watch reports in the past have focused on primary education and literacy. The specific objectives of education watch 2005 are as follows:  Estimate gross and net enrolment rates at the secondary level and indicate Variations in these rates by gender, region and socio economic states.  Provide information about the basic infrastructure and educational facilities and teachers itt the secondary level educational institutions,  Estimate student's attendance, promotion, retention, survival and completion rates: as their differences by school type and genders; assess the performance of students and institutions based on SSC examination results.  Estimates the household expenditure for secondary schooling and explore aspects of school budgets and the stipend programme for girls in secondary schools.  Examine institution level management especially the profile and role of the schoolmanaging committees.  Consider policy and strategy implications of the findings. 31

Education Watch 2005, The State of Secondary Education Progress and Challenges. (Overview), Published by - Campaign for Popular Education (CAMPE), Bangladesh. Growth and Quality in Conflict Secondary education enrolment in Bangladesh has more than tripled and the number of institutions has more than doubled since 1980. The growth of girls enrolment spurred by social mobilization and incentives, such as stipends and tuition waivers for rural girls, has been spectacular. Girls now outnumber boys in secondary schools. High rates of dropout out and failure in public examinations indicate serious deficiencies in quality of education. Poor achievement of students and how quality in secondary education can be attributed to well known causes as shown in this study- deficiencies in teachers skills and capability, inadequate facilities and learning materials, poor enforcement of rules and criteria for approval of govt. subvention and poor governance and management of schools. Participation in secondary education: The Enrolment of girls has surged ahead of boys by 11 % points at 50.6 % compared to 39.6% for boys on a net basis. This has been a broad-based progress across geographical areas and socio economic strata.

Of those enrolled in secondary level, over three quarters went to nongovernmental secondary school. The next popular category is the Madrasa, with 14% of enrolment in governmentassisted Madrasas and another two % in non-graded Quomi Madrasas. 32

Strategic Plan, future of Higher Education of UGC, Seminar, 26 June, 2006, Library Auditorium, Socialist Student Front, Chittagong University Branch. Only 15 % of the institutions had a library with a collection of books that could be regarded as adequate judged by modest standards. Nearly 60% institutions had electricity connections but two thirds of classrooms and half of teachers' rooms had no electricity. Less than a fifth of the secondary teachers were women, eighty four % of the teachers received government salary. Internal efficiency of institutions Of children enrolment in class six about half reached class ten, 40% passed in the test prior to public examinations and only 20% passed the public examinations and thus successfully completed the secondary cycle.33 Policy Implications:  Expanding opportunities  Growth with quality and equity **  School level action targeted at the disadvantaged.  Protecting and consolidating gender again.  Improving teacher's capabilities and performance  Preparing the ground for a unified system.  Strategies to serve key objectives by combining private and public resources.  Re thinking stipends  Gender balance in managing committees 33

Education watch 2005 the state of secondary education progress and challenges. Published ty Campaign for Popular Education (CAMPE) Bangladesh  Making managing committees responsive and accountable  Satrategy to promote greater authority with accountability at school level. Source: Education watch 2005 the state of secondary education progress and challenges. Published by Campaign for Popular Education (CAMPE) Bangladesh.

Structure of the system of education and training

Higher Education introduction Higher education is no longer deemed to have lower social benefits compared to the social benefits of primary and secondary education. The notion of higher private benefits rather than the social ones that virtually negated the importance of higher education in the developing countries in the early 1990s. Has now undergone changes and swing to a different direction. Higher education is now considered as a means of faster development of the economy. Level and institution of higher education: Level of higher education: like many other countries of the world, the level and institutions of higher education in Bangladesh are diversified. After 12 years of schooling, the students get enrolled in the institutions of higher education and pass out after 4 years on completion of their education in the university. The University of our Country Offer Higher Degrees such as two years passes degree, honors and master's degree. A part from the technical universities, the higher degree such as four year Bachelor degree in engineering is also offered by four institutes of technology (BIT) which are regulated by the council of Bangladesh institute of Technology (CBIT). The three-year honors course is now converted into four-year honors

and the semester system has been in operation in almost all the teaching university of the country.35 A Scenario of Higher Education in Bangladesh - by Prof. Dr. ATM Zahurul Huq, Chairman, University Grants Commission of Bangladesh. (Bangladesh University Grants Commission, yearly seminar 2001) 15-16 April 2001, LGED Bhaban. Institutions of higher education: At present as many as 80 universities (26 public and 54 private) have been performing the responsibility of higher education in the country. Present status and conditions of the Universities: The present status and conditions of the universities in terms faculty, teaching staff, student and courses offered have been described below: The Public University: Distribution of student by discipline and sex: As mentioned above there are 26 public universities now functioning in the country? These universities have been conducting higher education through a lot of faculties and departments. It is interesting to note that students studying in the five technical universities constituted about 40% of the total number of students enrolled in the public universities. The rest 60% belonged to general universities studying general science and liberal arts. The female students in the public universities constituted nearly 24% of the total enrollment in 2000. The male students from the overwhelming majority of those who are studying science and technology. Compared of this situation, the proportion of female students in other subjects was higher in zoo. Courses offered in the private universities: The courses offered in the public universities are quite diversified. Almost all the major subjects of arts, social science, pure science and biological science are offered in the public universities of the country. In contrast, the private universities are to a large extent selective. The courses offered in the private universities are market demand based and the main courses such as business administration, computer, science, economics, engineering, sociology and anthropology are more common in these universities. Conclusion and recommendation: In the backdrop of the prevailing situation in the institutions of higher education, outlining of realistic approach to resolve their existing and emerging issues has become obligatory. In this consideration the following recommendations have been attempted for careful consideration of all concerned: I. The financial constraints of the public universities should be necessary steps have to be taken for removing session jam as early as possible. II. Emphasis should be put on the subjects which cater to the need Of the market economy and the existing mismatch between Demand. For and supply of graduates has to be dispelled through Assessment of existing conditions in the job market III. Int. standard for assurance of quality of higher education

needs to be explored in universities IV. Higher training and research for the teachers should be given priority in the budget of the public universities V. The multifaceted problems of the affiliated colleges under National university have to be resolved for assuring standard and Quality of teaching in those colleges. VI. The problems of full time teachers in the private universities should be mitigated on priority basis. VII. The libraries and laboratories of the private universities should be enriched by all means. VIII. In order to attract students and increase enrollment in the private universities, the issues of exorbitant fees and charges should be seriously thought upon. IX Maintenance of standard and quality of higher education in the private universities has to be ensured. Strategic plan for higher education in Bangladesh 2006-2026 Conspire of higher education ruin: None can deny that it is quite impossible to establish a modern state without an educated nation. Standard and easily obtainable education is very important for real advance of the state. In Bangladesh at present a little more than 4% of the 17-23-age cohort receives higher education. The equivalent percentage in 11.9 in India, 29.3 in Malaysia and 37.3% in Thailand public universities as of 2004 could accommodate only 112,430 students out of the 734,308 eligible students leaving the secondary sector. There are also problems of capacity. In 2005 the projected enrollment was 116,648. But the campuses of public universities can only accommodate 96.592 students. The universities are thus saddled with an extra burden of 20,256 students. Total higher education enrollment is projected to increase from 1,033,049 in 2005 to between 1.38 million to 3.5 million in 2026 depending on the growth scenarios. Last ten years 1995-2005 above six-million students are eagerly increasing for higher education. But the seat is increase only 14,877 in 20 public university in the country36. Grand commission offers that Some modalities of cost recovery may include increase in tuition fees, increase in fees for boarding and meals for the residential students, increased access to students loans. Participation of private sector business entities and social orgpniVution in supporting higher education through endowments, consultancy project establishment of academic chairs and other physical facilities37. View: Bangladesh in 2020 Bangladesh has recorded outstanding progress in education perhaps the greatest strength of education in Bangladesh is the consistent high-level national commitment and consensus on the priority of primary education. As a result of this commitment and the programs it spawned, Bangladesh has achieved one of the largest centralized systems of primary education in the world.38 36

The Daily Shamakal", 07 May, 2006 "Ovimaf, May 2006, Topkhana Road, Dhaka 1000 38 Volume-I, Socio-Economic Development and its implications for Education. 37

Yet, Bangladesh has a long way to go in the 21st century in develop9ing its people, its economy and its education system. Bangladesh is still one of the poorest countries in the world. Nearly 35% of the population live in hard-core poverty, 8.5 of new born die at birth, 67% of children under five are under weight and only 15% of the population has access to electricity39. Human development requires sustained progress in education: The education of girls is particularly crucial for the achievement of targets in population reeducation, health and poverty reduction. Woman with primary education have fewer children than mothers with no education and this is especially true for women with secondary education.

The world Bank and Bangladesh centre for Advanced studies, 1998, Bangladesh 2020: A long run persopective study, The University Press Limited, Dhaka,pp. 33-34. Adopted from Santosh Mehrotra and Rechard Jolly, Development with a Humal face, Clarandon Press, Oxford, 1997. Vision for education and training in 2020 The Vision: A clear vision for education and training in 2020 flows from this overall vision for Bangladesh in thirteen years. By 2020 there will be over 5 million fewer children in the primary and lower secondary school (6-13) age group than in 1998. Only in the higher

education (18-22) age group will increases be seen (of about 3 million). By 2020 basic education will have been extended to incorporate classes 6-8. Lower secondary education will have become a compulsory part of basic education and will provide the majority of students their terminal education before entry into the labor force.41 Strengthen, Widen and Deepen Basic Education: The challenge to^trengthen basic education involves three separate objectives to (a) raise the quality of learning achievement in basic education, (b) close the gap in the population without basic education, and (c) eventually to extend basic education from five to eight years. Each objective is presented in serious below: 41

The world bank and Bangladesh center for advanced studies, 1998, Bangladesh 2020: A long run perspective study the University Press Limited, Dhaka, p.p. 33-34 Stronger Basic Education: Raise sharply the quality of learning achievements.42 The number one problem in Bangladesh education today is low learning achievement in basic education. The biggest tragedy today is that students who complete five years of education leave school without the minimum literacy and life skills. In sufficient information exists on students1 achievement. However the few available studies paint a picture of appallingly low achievement. An assessment of basic learning skills using test data from 1992. Reorient and Equalize the Provision of Secondary Education The secondary overall priority after basic education is to reorient secondary education and equalize access, to it.43 The system of secondary education has many strengths and achievements to its credit. These provide a solid foundation on which to build. Text book arc readily available for purchase by parents and provide an excellent basis for diversification of titles and revision of content over the next decade. . Expanded female enrollments promise substantial benefits in terms of lower fertility rates and better health and nutrition of the next generation. Volume 11, Primary and Pre-primary Education. 43 Vincent Gurcancy, Shahidur R Khandker and Mahmudul Alam, Bangladesh: Assessing Basic Learning Skills The World Bank, Dhaka, University Press, 1999, pp. 16-20 Transfer Vocational Skill Training to the Private Sector: The public sectors, in most countries find it extremely difficult to provide quality skill training that is linked closely to the job market In the long run the public sector in Bangladesh should concentrate on formal education and transfer vocational skill training to employers and nongovernmental training institutions.44 Four-overlapping issues standout as the most important problems in TVET. I. Lack of linkages to the job market . II. Lack of impact on poverty reduction III. Ineffectiveness of training support and delivery IV. Under financing Principles:

 Most skill training should be provided outside the school system. In other terms, the school system should not aim to provide occupational ski/Is to students  The best hope for a vibrant skill training system in the long run is to turn it over to the private sector. The public sector in most countries finds it difficult to provide relevant, quality vocational training related to current needs in the labor market and Bangladesh is no exception.  Privatization should be undertaken gradually but deliberately  An alternative to privatization perhaps second best and an interim measure would be to decentralize authority to the management of existing public training institutions and hold them accountable for results. See: Volume II, Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Education Strategies International Affairs UNICEF activities during education and to reduce drop out rates and gender disparities all major mid decade stepping-stones towards the year 200 goals of universal access to, and completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children who control.45  Non-formal education is an important UNICEF strategy for improving the status of girls.  A member of countries, including Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal and Pakistan in Asia. Namibia, Rwanda in Sub-Saharan Africa. Established the reduction of gender disparity in primary school enrolment and completion as a medicate goal. Monitoring The effective universalization of basic education will depend on each country's ability to monitor learning achievement. In 1993 UNESCO and UNICEF implemented a monitoring project in China, Jordan. The importance of preschool education was assessed in several countries. Entrance to higher education as a mediating process: Before asking what are the relevant data, which are largely extrinsic to the pedagogical aspects of equivalences, it is necessary to consider the general. UNICEF - Annual Report (1994) Hypothetical table of equialences explicit or implicit based on information received.

Note: Some eases are hypostatical inasmuch as foreign applicants from are country may not have applied else where, Key: A = would be admitted on strength of learning certificate. U = would be Usually admitted on strength of learning certificate, but with some reservations. O = would be only admitted after study in higher education in own country. _ = No information available. International equivalences in access to higher education-by W.D. Halls. A Theory of Fundamental Education A term fundamental education enjoyed an all too brief currency, ft was first brought in to use in 1947 by UNESCO connoting basic education. It is not surprising that fundamental education became increasing identified with adult education; in deed by 1952 UNESCO had added the words adult education. To it's publications dealing with fundamental education. Primary schooling as fundamental education: Among the nebulous goals of primary education is that of providing its recipients with a set of fundamental skills and know ledge. Indeed primary schooling is usually considered the backbone of fundamental education. Community development as fundamental education: Community development programs are in general, defined as programs or process by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the economics social and cultural conditions of communities into the life of the nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress.47 Community fundamental Education - David Harman The Education System: Prior to the 1950s, only a tiny minority of Nepal's population had access to any form of education. In the past 35 years and particularly since the early 1970s great progress has been

made, a network of schools now exists within reach of virtually every village in the Kingdom, by 1988, nearly 19000 school had been established, including over 13000 primary schools, unfortunately, improvement in the quality and relevance of education have failed to keep pace with the quantities expansion of the system. Although three are nearly 60000 teachers currently employed at the primary level, only 35% are trained and only 10% to these are woman. The ministries of education reports that 86% of the countries children aged six to ten years are enrolled in primary school. The national literacy rate is only 35 % and among women, it is no higher than 18 percent. The govt. in confronting these problems, is hampered by formidable funding constraints in what is of the poorest countries in the world.48 Education Policy Issues: As a strategy to promote educational opportunities for children in rural areas, the policy of the department of general education, which is spelled out in the sixth national economic and social development plan BE 2530-2534 (1987-1991)49 48

Innovation in primary school construction: Community participation in Seti Zone, Nepal. A Case study by - H.R. Tamangand Dhacirom, K..C Educational Building report 20, Bangkok, chapter I, pp. 1-2' 49 Innovation in construction of small secondary schools in Thailand. Educational Building report 19, Bangkok, Thailand. 42To determine a suitable total school building size based on the optimal areas for class rooms and specialized rooms as determined by a study of the required area per student I terms of space, air ventilation, natural lighting, acoustics, durability of the building and safety.50 Extension and Continuing Education Center: To enhance the knowledge and skills of home health care, ECEC offered a five-day course on Basic nursing skills caring for loved ones in May. It was conducted by two inter experts. The course focused on the acquisition of skills by the participant to deal with health related emergencies and to ensure better health care for ailing members of the family. 51 50 51

ibid, Annual Report 2001, Independent University, Bangladesh, p. 41

Education Commissions Qudrat-e-khuda Education Commission 1972: Qudrat-a-khuda education commission subrr,: ted its report to the govt. in May 1974. The report was formulated and is based on the socio-economic and political state and cultural heritage of the country. The perspectives and this scenario of the education system of the contemporary world were also taken into consideration. In fact Qudrat-e-khuda commission report reflected the fundamentals of the newly framed constitution of Bangladesh, in the light of the recommendations of this commissions a committee for developing national curricular & syllabi was formed in 1976. The NCSC (national curriculum syllabus committee) submitted it report to the govt. in 07 volumes in 1976, 1977 and 1978. Qudrat-a-khuda commission suggested some major changes in the primary, secondary and higher secontary stages of education.

According the commission report primary education will be of 8 years (class I to class viii) and secondary education will be of 4 years duration (class x to class xii). In the field of higher education a combine degree course of fciar years and one-year master's will be offered in the universities. Regarding curriculum syllabus and textbooks, the commission suggested a uniform curriculum for primary level based on competence. The commission gave special emphasis on improve assessment system and s iggested letter grading in the assessment of student performance in all stages of education.52 52 http://www moedu.gov.bd/edu system edu commission 1972.htm, (Last see- 01-17-2006) Mofiz Uddin Education Commission 1988: After the publication of the Qudrat-a-khuda education commission report, some of the recommendations were implemented. In 1979 the govt. felt the necessity of reviewing the report, adversaryy council of national education styled interim education policy. Recommendations were published and the reports of the Mofiz Uddin commission were brought to light in February 1988.53 Shamsul Haque Education Committee 1997: Shamsul haque education committee has made all out efforts for developing an education policy in order to introduce a pragmatic education system suit able for the country. The report of this commission was placed in the cabinet and to review this report a cabinet was formed. The report of this committee was sent to national assembly. Dr. M A Bari Education Commission 2002: An expert committee headed by dr. m a Bari was formed in 2002 to identify immediate implantable reforms of education sector. The committee suggested several interventions in the sector, which were considered later by the education commission 2003.54 53 2005-06 Ministry of Education, govt. of the people's republic of Bangladesh. 54 ibid, Conclusion: There are some obvious limitations in the present non-formal education programmes. In most of the organizations there are no middle-level staffs between the coordinator and the field supervisor. The teaching method calls for a teacher with long experience and it is difficult for a new comer to attain mastery over teaching skills. At last we can say that, the Research can only be effective if participation of both the rural people and extension educators in ensured within the programmes implementation 110 without any imposition. It ought to be linked in all steps of the program on continuous basis for social change. For this reason, the strategy of education and operation is a must.

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