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AN ANALYSIS OF SERVICE QUALITY GAP MODEL OF GRAMEENPHONE LTD Company Profile 1.1: The Organization: (Overview)Grameenphone: Before Grameenphone’s inception, the phone was for a selected urbanized few. The cell phone was a luxury: a flouting accessory for the select elite. The mass could not contemplate mobile telephony as being part of their lives. Grameenphone started its journey with the Village Phone program: a pioneering initiative to empower rural women of Bangladesh. The name Grameenphone translates to “Rural phone”. Starting its operations on March 26, 1997, the Independence Day of Bangladesh, Grameenphone has come a long way. Grameenphone pioneered the then breakthrough initiative of mobile to mobile telephony and became the first and only operator to cover 98% of the country’s people with network Since its inception, Grameenphone has built the largest cellular network in the country with over 13,000 base stations in more than 7000 locations. Presently, nearly 98 percent of the country's population is within the coverage area of the Grameenphone network. Grameenphone has always been a pioneer in introducing new products and services in the local market. GP was the first company to introduce GSM technology in Bangladesh when it launched its services in March 1997. Grameenphone was also the first operator to introduce the pre-paid service in September 1999. It established the first 24-hour Call Center, introduced value-added services such as VMS, SMS, fax and data transmission services, international roaming service, WAP, SMS-based push-pull services, EDGE, personal ring back tone and many other products and services. The entire Grameenphone network is also EDGE/GPRS enabled, allowing access to high-speed Internet and data services from anywhere within the coverage area. There are currently nearly 2.6 million EDGE/GPRS users in the Grameenphone network. Today, Grameenphone is the leading telecommunications service provider in Bangladesh with more than 33 million subscribers as of May 2011. Mission Leading the industry and exceed customer expectations by providing the best wireless services, making life and business easier.


Vision We exist to help our customers get the full benefit of communications services in their daily lives. We want to make it easy for customers to get what they want, when they want it. We're here to help. Values Make IT EASY- Everything we produce should be easy to understand and use. We should always remember that we try to make customers’ lives easier. KEEP PROMISES- Everything we do should work perfectly. If it doesn’t, we’re there to put things right. We’re about delivery, not over-promising. We’re about actions, not words. BE INSPIRING- We’re creative; we bring energy & imagination to our work. Everything we produce should look fresh & modern. BE RESPECTFUL- We acknowledge and respect local cultures. We want to be a part of local communities wherever we operate. We want to help customers with their specific needs in a way that suits way of their life best. 1.2: Corporate governance: In the fast-paced world of telecommunications, vibrant and dynamic Corporate Governance practices are an essential ingredient to success. Grameenphone believes in the continued improvement of corporate governance. This in turn has led the Company to commit considerable resources and implement internationally accepted Corporate Standards in its day-to-day operations. Being a public limited company, the Board of Directors of Grameenphone have a pivotal role to play in meeting all stakeholders’ interests. The Board of Directors and the Management Team of Grameenphone are committed to maintaining effective Corporate Governance through a culture of accountability, transparency, well-understood policies and procedures. 1.3: Ownership structure The shareholders of Grameenphone contribute their unique, in-depth experience in both telecommunications and development. It is a joint venture enterprise between Telenor (55.8%), the largest telecommunications service provider in Norway with mobile phone operations in 12 other countries, and Grameen Telecom Corporation (34.2% ), a non-profit sister concern of the internationally acclaimed micro-credit pioneer Grameen Bank. The other 10% shares belong to general retail and institutional investors.


1.4: Board Committees

1.5: Shareholders: Telenor Overview: Telenor is emerging as one of the fastest growing providers of mobile communications services worldwide with ownership interests in 12 mobile operators across Europe and Asia. Telenor is organised into three business areas; Mobile operations covering 12 countries, and Fixed-line and Broadcast services covering the Nordic region. Telenor holds 55.8 per cent of Grameenphone, with Grameen Telecom Corporation owning the remaining 34.2 per cent. The rest of the shares belong to general retail and institutional investors. Telenor has played a pioneering role in development of cellular communications in Bangladesh. Grameen Telecom overview: Grameen Telecom Corporation, which owns 34.2% of the shares of GrameenPhone, is a not-for-profit company and works in close collaboration with Grameen Bank.The internationally reputed bank for the poor, has the most extensive rural banking network and expertise in microfinance. It understands the economic needs of the rural population, in particular the women from the poorest households.


1.6: Products and offers: Mobile Telephony: Grameenphone was the 1st operator to introduce the prepain mobile phone service in Bangladesh in September, 1999. It offers the pre-paid subscription under the name Easy Prepaid which is later known as smile prepaid and recently turns into three extended package called Apon, Bandhu and Shohoj. Besides Smile grameenphone offers a youth based mobile to mobile connectivity within Bangladesh named Djuice. Explore postpaid is the name of the postpaid service. Grameenphone also offers some other prepaid and post paid mobile services for segmented niche market and for business subscriber named Ekota, GPPP, Village phone, BS postpaid and BS prepaid. Other Services: Internet: grameenphone provides internet service within its coverage area. As it has GPRS/EDGE enables network, any subscriber can access to internet through this network. Grameenphone was the 1st internet provider in Bangladesh. Billpay: a service to enable users to pay their utility bills(electricity,gas etc)through mobile. Cellbazar: a service to enable users to sell or buy products through mobile or internet. Various other services like stock information, instant messaging, sms based alert, voice based services, downloads, cricket, music services, game portal, and mobile backup etc. 1.7: Corporate Social Responsibility: At Grameenphone, we live by the statement "Development is a journey, not a destination." Our work is not just about ensuring connectivity; it is about connecting with people and building relationships, based on trust, with our subscribers, business partners, employees, shareholders, as well as the wider community. We have always believed that good development is good business. While we maintain our business focus, taking the nation forward remains our top priority. Thus our relationship with Bangladesh is built on a partnership which strives to achieve common economic and social goals. CRvision: To be recognised as the most socially responsible mobile operator in Bangladesh and in the corporate sector. 1.8 Awards: • •

"GSM in the Community" Award by GSMA in 2000 "Commonwealth Innovation Award" in 2003


• • • • • •

"Best Use of Mobile for Social & Economic Development" category in 3GSMA Global Mobile Award, 2007 "Best Brand Award" by Brand Forum in 2007 First "Telecom Asia Awards" 2008 "Asian Telecom Innovation of the year". "3GSMA Global Mobile Award", 2008 in the category of "Best Use of mobile for social and economic development" Grameenphone and Huawei for "Building a Greener Mobile Network" "Best Brand Communication for 2009

Introduction 2.0: Introduction of the Study: 2.1: Purpose of the Research: The basic purpose of the research study is to understand and identify the gap model of service quality and propose potential marketing strategy to overcome customer and provider gap of grameenphone ltd. 2.2: Background of the Study: GP is the largest mobile operator in Bangladesh. Service quality gap model is very important to examine all the factors that influence service quality, so here in this report focused the gap model of GP. There are basically two types of gap such as customer gap and provider gap. The gap can be created by the both parties; customer gap arises from the difference between expectations and perceptions where as provider gap is created within the organization. 2.3: Objectives: 1) Broad Objective: • Identify customer gap. • Identify provider gap. 2) Specific Objective: • To evaluate customer expectations. • To evaluate relation between the company (GP) and the customer. • To evaluate physical evidence and servicescape. • To evaluate Customer knowledge and responsibility. • To evaluate Service intermediary’s conflict. • To evaluate Conflict of over promotional objectives and promises. 2.4: Methodology: Primary data: Survey conduct based on non-probability sampling method from customer and also from provider or concern personnel of Grameenphone ltd. Secondary data:


• •

Internal and external webpage of Grameenphone ltd. Annual report of 2009-grameenphone ltd.

2.5: Research Design: This survey mainly conducted between two groups of respondent, the customer of Grameenphone and concern personnel of Grameenphone. Two set of questionnaire designed: most of the questionnaires include attitude scales as like Likert scale, satisfaction measure, importance scales etc. The Gap Model-A Frame work 3.0 Theory of the Gaps Model (Literature Review): The gap model (also known as the "5 gaps model") of service quality is an important customer-satisfaction framework. In "A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research" (The Journal of Marketing, 1985), A. Parasuraman, VA Zeitham and LL Berry identify five major gaps that face organizations seeking to meet customer's expectations of the customer experience

The five gaps that organizations should measure manage and minimize:


• •

Gap 1 is the distance between what customers expect and what managers think they expect - Clearly survey research is a key way to narrow this gap. Gap 2 is between management perception and the actual specification of the customer experience - Managers need to make sure the organization is defining the level of service they believe is needed.

Gap 3 is from the experience specification to the delivery of the experience Managers need to audit the customer experience that their organization currently delivers in order to make sure it lives up to the spec.

Gap 4 is the gap between the delivery of the customer experience and what is communicated to customers - All too often organizations exaggerate what will be provided to customers, or discuss the best case rather than the likely case, raising customer expectations and harming customer perceptions. Finally, Gap 5 is the gap between a customer's perception of the experience and the customer's expectation of the service - Customers' expectations have been shaped by word of mouth, their personal needs and their own past experiences. Routine transactional surveys after delivering the customer experience are important for an organization to measure customer perceptions of service.

3.1 The Customer Gap: The Gap between Customer Expectations and Customer Perceptions The customer gap is the difference between customer expectations and customer perceptions. Customer expectation is what the customer expects according to available resources and is influenced by cultural background, family lifestyle, personality, demographics, advertising, experience with similar products and information available online. Customer perception is totally subjective and is based on the customer’s interaction with the product or service. Perception is derived from the customer’s satisfaction of the specific product or service and the quality of service delivery. The customer gap is the most important gap and in an ideal world the customer’s expectation would be almost identical to the customer’s perception. 3.2 Provider Gap: The Knowledge Gap: The Gap between Consumer Expectation and Management Perception The knowledge gap is the difference between the customer’s expectations of the service provided and the company’s provision of the service. In this case, managers are not aware or have not correctly interpreted the customer’s expectation in relation to the company’s services or products. If a knowledge gap exists, it may mean companies are trying to meet wrong or non-existing consumer needs. In a customer-orientated business, it is important to have a clear understanding of the consumer’s need for service. To close the gap between the consumer’s expectations for service and management’s perception of service delivery will require comprehensive market research. 3.3 The Policy Gap:


The Gap between Management Perception and Service Quality Specification According to Kasper et al, this gap reflects management’s incorrect translation of the service policy into rules and guidelines for employees. Some companies experience difficulties translating consumer expectation into specific service quality delivery. This can include poor service design, failure to maintain and continually update their provision of good customer service or simply a lack of standardisation. This gap may see consumers seek a similar product with better service elsewhere. 3.4: The Delivery Gap: The Gap between Service Quality Specification and Service Delivery This gap exposes the weakness in employee performance. Organisations with a Delivery Gap may specify the service required to support consumers but have subsequently failed to train their employees, put good processes and guidelines in action. As a result, employees are ill equipped to manage consumer’s needs. Some of the problems experienced if there is a delivery gap are: • • •

Employees lack of product knowledge and have difficulty managing customer questions and issues Organisations have poor human resource policies Lack of cohesive teams and the inability to deliver

3.5: The Communication Gap: The Gap between Service Delivery and External Communications In some cases, promises made by companies through advertising media and communication raise customer expectations. When over-promising in advertising does not match the actual service delivery, it creates a communication gap. Consumers are disappointed because the promised service does not match the expected service and consequently may seek alternative product sources Analysis and Interpretation of Data 4.0 Analysis: Demographic Data Analysis Total number of Respondents was 100. 50 respondents were the Consumer of Grameenphone and remaining 50 respondents were the Employee of Grameenphone from the Consumer Part, among 50 respondents there were 28 male and 22 Female respondents who are using Grameenphone for more than 3 years in average. We tried to collect information from the Employees who are working at GP for more than 1 year. Age: 36% of the respondent’s age was in between 17-23 years, 26% was in between 24-30, 24% was in between 30 and above, 10% was in between 16 or less and 4% were others


Income Level: We tried to collect data from different income level of respondents where 60% were from middle income group, 20% were from upper middle class and remaining from other levels of income. Education level: In this survey most of the respondents were from Undergraduate level of education. 20% were from graduate level, 16% Post Graduates, 10% from HSC level and 14% SSC and other levels of education Profession: 50% of the Respondents were students, 20% were Service holder, and 20% Businessman and 6% respondents were housewives and 4% from other profession. Descriptive Statistics and Frequencies: Here descriptive Statistics and frequencies represent gap between Customer Satisfaction and Customer Service. 1. Customer GAP: The gap between Customer Expectation and Perception A) Quality Improvement: Consumer End Expectation: Grameenphone should Improve its quality of service (network Availability, offers etc) Descriptive Statistics N

Minimum Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Quality Improvement

50

2.00

3.8200

.91896

Valid N (listwise)

50

5.00

Grameenphone should Improve its quality of service (network Availability, offers etc)


Valid

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Valid Percent Percent

14

28.0

28.0

28.0

16

32.0

32.0

60.0

Neither Agree nor Disagree 17

34.0

34.0

94.0

3

6.0

6.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

Strongly Agree Agree

Dis Agree Total Consumer end

Consumer Perception: We are using Grameenphone because it is providing best network coverage. Descriptive Statistics

Quality Improvement Valid N (listwise)

N 50 50

Minimum Maximum 2.00 5.00

Mean 3.9200

Std. Deviation .89989

We are using Grameenphone because it is providing best network coverage

Valid

Strongly Agree Agree

Frequency Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

15

30.0

30.0

30.0

19

38.0

38.0

68.0

26.0

26.0

94.0

6.0 100.0

6.0 100.0

100.0

Neither Agree nor 13 Disagree Disagree Total

3 50

Fig : Customer GAP 1


Interpretation: Service gap represents the difference between customer expectation and customer Perception. From Consumer end, the mean is 3.82 and standard deviation is .91896 for the expectation of Quality Improvement. On the Other hand, From Consumer end the mean is 3.92 and standard deviation is 0.89989 for the perception of Quality Improvement. Majority of the respondents were agreed for improvement of quality from both side. The difference is shown in the graph. 1. B) Tariff Consumer End Expectation: Grameenphone should reduces its tariff Descriptive Statistics

tariff Valid N (listwise)

N 50 50

Minimum 2.00

Maximum 5.00

Mean 4.0600

Tariff

Valid Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

19

38.0

38.0

38.0

17

34.0

34.0

72.0

12

24.0

24.0

96.0

2 50

4.0 100.0

4.0 100.0

100.0

Consumer Perception: We are using Grameenphone because of its tariff plan Descriptive Statistics

Tariff Valid (listwise)

N 50 N

50

Minimu m 1.00

Maximu m 4.00

Mean 2.2800

Std. Deviation .80913

Std. Deviation .89008


Tariff

Valid

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

2

4.0

4.0

4.0

Neither Agree nor Disagree 19

38.0

38.0

42.0

Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

40.0 18.0 100.0

40.0 18.0 100.0

82.0 100.0

Agree

20 9 50

Fig : Customer GAP 2 Interpretation: Service gap represents the difference between customer expectation and customer Perception. From Consumer end, the mean is 4.06 and standard deviation is .89008for the expectation of Tariff. It means Most of the consumer expects to reduce the tariff. On the Other hand, From Consumer end the mean is 2.28 and standard deviation is .80913 for the perception of consumer on Tariff. Majority of the Respondents want reduction in Tariff. Most of them disagreed that they are using GP SIM because of its Tariff. 2. A) Quality Improvement Consumer End Quality Improvement: Expectation: Grameenphone should Improve its quality of service (network Availability, offers etc) Descriptive Statistics

Quality Improvement Valid N (listwise)

N 50 50

Minimum 2.00

Maximum 5.00

Mean 3.8200

Std. Deviation .91896

Grameenphone should Improve its quality of service (network Availability, offers etc) Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative


Percent Valid

Strongly Agree

14

28.0

28.0

28.0

Agree

16

32.0

32.0

60.0

Neither Agree nor Disagree 17

34.0

34.0

94.0

6.0 100.0

6.0 100.0

100.0

Dis Agree Total Employee End

3 50

Management Perception: People use Grameenphone because it is providing best network coverage Descriptive Statistics N 50

VAR00001 Valid N 50 (listwise)

Minimu m 1.00

Maximu m 5.00

Mean 4.1200

Std. Deviation .96129

People use Grameenphone because it is providing best network coverage

Valid

Strongly Agree

Frequency 20

Percent 40.0

Valid Percent 40.0

Cumulative Percent 40.0


Agree

21

42.0

42.0

82.0

5

10.0

10.0

92.0

3

6.0

6.0

98.0

Strongly Agree

1

2.0

2.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree

Fig: Knowledge Gap 1 Interpretation: From Consumer end, the mean is 3.82 and standard deviation is .91896the expectation of Customer Service. It means Most of the consumer expects to improve Service Quality (network, Airtime Quality). On the Other hand, from Employee end the mean is 4.12 and standard deviation is .96129 for the Perception from employee end. It means majority of them also agreed for quality improvement. The difference is shown in the graph 2. B) Customer Service: Customer- End Experience: GP hotline (customer Service) is very helpful in meeting my queries and other needs Descriptive Statistics

Customer Service Valid N (listwise)

N 50 50

Minimum 1.00

Maximum 5.00

Mean 3.1400

Std. Deviation .85738

Employee End: Experience GP hotline is very helpful in meeting queries and other needs of consumers Descriptive Statistics


N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Customer Service

50

1.00

5.00

3.8000

1.24540

Valid N (listwise)

50

GP hotline is very helpful in meeting queries and other needs of consumers

Valid

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

20

40.0

40.0

40.0

11

22.0

22.0

62.0

22.0

22.0

84.0

5

10.0

10.0

94.0

Strongly Agree

3

6.0

6.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Strongly Agree Agree

Neither Agree nor 11 Disagree Disagree

Fig : Delivery Gap3 Interpretation From Consumer end, the mean is 3.14 and standard deviation is .85738 the experience of Customer Service. It means Most of the consumer have experienced better customer Service. On the Other hand, from employee end the mean is 3.80 and standard deviation is 1.24540 for the experience of Customer Service from the employee perspective. It means majority of employees have agreed for better customer Service. The difference is shown in the graph. POLICY GAP: The Gap between Management Perception and Service Quality Specification Employee End:


Quality Improvement Experience: Consumers are satisfied with the service (quality of airtime and network availability) of GP. Descriptive Statistics

Quality Improvement Valid N (listwise)

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

50

1.00

5.00

3.6800

.91339

50

Consumers are satisfied with the service (quality of airtime and network availability) of GP.

Valid

Strongly agree

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

6 28

12.0 56.0

12.0 56.0

12.0 68.0

26.0

26.0

94.0 100.0

Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree 13 Strongly Disagree

3

6.0

6.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Perception: People use Grameenphone because it is providing best network coverage Descriptive Statistics

Quality Improvement Valid N (listwise)

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

50

1.00

5.00

4.1200

.96129

50

People use Grameenphone because it is providing best network coverage Valid Strongly Agree

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

20

40.0

40.0

40.0


Agree

21

42.0

42.0

82.0

10.0

10.0

92.0

3

6.0

6.0

98.0

1

2.0

2.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

Neither Agree nor Disagree 5 Disagree Strongly Agree Total

Fig : Policy Gap 1 Interpretation: From Employee end, the mean is 3.68 and standard deviation is .91339 for the experience of Quality of service (network, features, etc). It means most of the employees were agreed on this issue. Again, from Employee end the mean is 4.12 and standard deviation is .96129 according to their perception regarding quality of service Majority of the respondents have positive view on network. The difference is shown in the graph. Findings of the Study 5.1: Findings of the study: In the growing telecom industry there is still the most problematic challenge is how to deal with service quality. Quality is one of the most expected by customer aspect of almost all service products. High and unique quality is a way to win customers and make them loyal for a long time. In this report I tried to find out the customer gap and provider gap of GP by survey through non-probability sampling method from both customer end and provide end. I have already done data coding and analyses, now its time to conclude the findings of this research study: Customer gap and provider gap can be summarized:


The customer gap is the difference between customer expectations and customer perceptions. Customer expectation influenced by cultural background, family lifestyle personality, demographics, advertising, experience with other operator’s similar products and service. Perception is derived from the customer’s satisfaction of the specific product or service and the quality of service delivery. Gap1: Inadequate market research orientation Gp always accomplish extensive marketing research but during my survey, found that the major number of respondent think that those surveys are not enough for a company like grameenphone and also a number of respondent think that research data are not properly utilize by the side of decision making. Lack of upward communication In the question of barrier into upward communication opinions are divided almost equally, portions of respondent think there is no barrier and on other hand a number of respondent think though in bird’s eye view gp internal environment very friendly but there is too many layers between employee and the management.


GAP 2: Unsystematic new service development process: During the survey a general complains found about unsystematic new service development process, from customer end they describe it as getting delayed service and from the provider end the respondent mention it as a major problem to give service. For example, CS agents point out some very common software such as CRM, CRBT, CCAPS, BSCS and so on, recent days almost all the execution or to deliver any service greatly depends on this software. Sometimes when these important tools get down or slow, then its turn into huge trouble for CS agent to handle customer and at the end it creates customer dissatisfaction.

GAP-3 Lack of empowerment and perceived control: From the provider end a major number of respondents complain about lack of empowerment and perceived control, like there is unique structure to provide service and although during service according to specific scenario an agent may need some flexibility but due to the overrate of uniqueness of service, sometimes employee experience lack of empowerment problem.


GAP-4: Over promising: From the research its found that both from customer and the provider, respondent think GP promotional offers are too complex to understand and on this subsequent people get confuse, also another opinion came from provider end that due to the sales target sometimes CS agent or sales team convince the customer in a ways that later customer assume it as over promise or think GP giving over promise that not match in the reality.

Suggestions/Recommendations 6.1 Suggestions/recommendations: On the bases of my research and working experience with GP I concluder here some recommendations to close the customer and provider gap: • Grameenphone should have to do extensive and core level marketing research to understand customer needs, wants and expectations. • Research data and information should have to use properly at decision making. • Upward communication should have to be more flexible and accessible. • GP need to give more focus on existing customer in terms of offer and promotion. • There must have some appropriate service recovery mechanism in place of any service failures or complain.


By no chance, no way to server down during real-time interaction with customer. New software, service process, promotional offer should have to be developed in a systematic way and the concern employee need more time and proper training to associate with those. • Employees need more empowerment, perceived control and some flexibility in their work and during the time interaction with the customer. • Customer knowledge is a big problem and it’s not possible to overcome over a night but from provider-end offers and promotion must have to be more simple and complex free. • GP should have to work more internal horizontal communication between different departments to improve the service quality and implement right customer expected offer and service. • Service intermediaries and third party content providers VAS is also a major problem. Lots of customers are distressed with activation, deactivation or service quality of these contents but at the end customer must blame and dissatisfied with GP, so they have must full control on those services. • Over promise is a curse. In advertisement, promotional offer or during selling by no chance, no way to say anything or mention that mislead or confuse customer, everything should have to mention clearly and simple figure. Conclusion 7.0: Conclusion: Grameenphone ltd is the leading telecommunications service provider in Bangladesh. With more than 23 million subscribers, GP is the largest cellular operator in the country and the best network quality and coverage. This is the first operator to introduce the prepaid service in September 1999. It established the first 24 hour call-centre and introduced different type of VAS along with basic telecommunications. Wih big power comes big responsibility. Just like all other large corporation, gp also have some weakness and have to face some challenges. In the present highly competitive telecommunication market in Bangladesh, there is no way to overlook a simple fraction of problem. In this report I tried to identify the reason behind service quality gap and also at end comprise some suggestion to minimize the gap between customer expectation and customer perception and way to close the provider gap at Grameenphone Ltd. If Grameenphone not concern about it now, then in near future these may creat bigger problem and threat for GP. Research show that major number of subscriber are not loyal towards the company, clearly if they get a better option in terms of low call rate or bonus offer they will not hasitate to switch. Therefore, for the GO now biggest challenge is to keep the existing customer loyal and grab the new market share.If right now Grameenphone start work on these complian and challenges its not going to be tough to triumph over or minimize the service quality gap and hold the leading position for a long years.


grameen phone  

AN ANALYSIS OF SERVICE QUALITY GAP MODEL OF GRAMEENPHONE LTD

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