Greenhouse geoengineering

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REFLECTIVE PLANET (Climatic Geo-engineering Solutions S.L.)

Greenhouse Geo-engineering:

South Spain success story

November 2009

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Climate facts It is likely that global warming will exceed 2°C this century, up to 6ºC in worst scenarios… … unless global greenhouse gas emissions are cut by at least … … 50% of 1990 levels by 2050, and by more thereafter.

PLAN B MIGHT BE UNAVOIDABLE: CLIMATE GEO-ENGINEERING November 2009

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Climate Geo-engineering: 2 main strategies CDR - Carbon dioxide removal techniques They address the root cause of climate change by removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere SRM - Solar radiation management Techniques attempt to offset the effects of increased GHGs concentrations by reducing the net solar radiation absorbed by the Earth MAKING THE EARTH MORE REFLECTIVE

November 2009

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Climate Geo-engineering: overview EARTH’S GLOBAL ENERGY BUDGET and THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

SRM

Net Incoming Radiation 235 Wm2

CDR

+2,3 W/m2

15% Albedo

198

30% Planetary albedo

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Climate Geo-engineering: overview Current geoengineering proposals

November 2009

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering: feasible strategy Main 2 advantages over other SRM: AlmerĂ­a pilot-scale trial: empiric observations of a unique 30yr geoengineering experiment in the widest greehouses land cover in the world All other SRM do nothing to capture CO2: GREENHOUSE GEO-ENGINEERING = SRM + CDR

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering: feasible strategy Other advantages: easier acceptability determined by social, legal and political issues as well as by scientific and technical factors. Small scale intervention: local and regional climate effects Suitable for extra protection of highly vulnerable farmland Technology is fully formed: feasible and ready to be put into operation Minor uncertainties regarding its effectiveness, costs, and environmental impacts (compared to other SRM) Ecological and sustainability issues well know: OPTIMIZATION of the South Spain model Quickly deployed over existing farmland: no land use conflict Fairly quick and easy deployment (1 yr) and rapidly effective: short term targeted cooling on sensitive human settlements (few years) Easy and profitable implementation, maintenance through agricultural income: ZERO EXTRA COST PER YEAR AND UNIT OF CO2 OFFSET November 2009

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering: profitable strategy South Spain miracle: the success of a model Prior to 70s: the poorest province in Spain 30,000 has of newly irrigated crops in semi-desert land 3 millions tons of horticultural products >2 â‚Ź billion worth of crops for EU markets 30,000 local farmers 30 million wages attract inmigrants from 200 nationalities Development of innovative auxiliary agroindustry November 2009

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering Advantages over CDR: Carbon capture by biomass growth: 10TCO2/ha yr Potential for Biomass Energy Plants Important contribution to mitigating global climate change Farmland maintained: no conflict with land use, food production or local income No reduction of crop yield compared to conventional mitigation

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering – tested efficacy “Surface air temperature cooling trend and negative radiative forcing due to land use change towards greenhouse farming in southeastern Spain” Campra et al. UNIVERSITY OF ALMERIA (SPAIN)

Journal of Geophysical Research, 113. 2008 Peer reviewed by the AGU (American Geophysical Union)

November 2009

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering – proved effects

PAL MOJ

200 Km

5 Km

INM Control stations in SE Spain

Agroclimatic stations in Campo de Dalias Almeria

MALAGA (MA) GRANADA (GR) MURCIA (MU) ALMERIA (AL) November 2009

LAS PALMERILLAS (PAL) MOJONERA (MOJ) ReflectivePlanet

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BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY

Greenhouses Geo-engineering – proved effects Surface Temperature series

Average in control stations (SE Spain): +0.5 ºC/ decade warming trend Average in GH stations: -0.3 ºC/ decade cooling trend November 2009

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering – proved effects Annual evolution of albedo Terra Satelite MODIS data 0.40

Greenhouse (GH) Pasture (P)

0.35

diffeence GH-P

0.30

Albedo

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

+10 % difference in reflectivity 30/12 09/01 19/01 29/01 08/02 18/02 28/02 10/03 20/03 30/03 09/04 19/04 29/04 09/05 19/05 29/05 08/06 18/06 28/06 08/07 18/07 28/07 07/08 17/08 27/08 06/09 16/09 26/09 06/10 16/10 26/10 05/11 15/11 25/11 05/12 15/12 25/12 04/01

0.00

day

November 2009

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering – proved effects SURFACE ENERGY BUDGET Mean annual incoming and reflected solar UV-visible radiation (in watts/ hectare)

1,9 millions

1,9 millions

580.000

380.000

WITHOUT GH SURFACE

GREENHOUSE SURFACE

NET REDUCTION IN -200,000 Watts/ ha yr OF SOLAR INCOMING ENERGY IN GREENHOUSES AREA November 2009

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering: Summary A feasible, cost effective technology for delaying warming impact in human settlements: urban and farmland Supported by 30 years of the unique experimental evidence of greenhouse farming in southeastern Spain Effective cooling at local or regional scales Carbon dioxide removal by biomass growth With limited, affordable and well known impacts on the environment

November 2009

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Main goal: save time to achieve carbon removal Global surface albedo Geo-engineering could delay expected climate change damage for 60 years, Long enough for: CO2 emissions abatement through mitigation measures local adaptative countermeasures to be developed KEY ISSUE: Post-Kyoto agreements to allow for THERMAL CREDITS based on CO2 offset equivalence of surface albedo enhancement can then be proposed along with financing mechanisms November 2009

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Greenhouses Geo-engineering media impact

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