STUDIO AIR 2017, SEMESTER 1, JACK REECE CUTAJAR
Table of Contents INTRODUCTION PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION 1 A1 DESIGN FUTURING 2 A2 DESIGN COMPUTATION 3 A3 COMPOSITION/ GENERATION 4 A4 CONCLUTION 5 A5 LEARNING OUTCOMES 6 A6 APPENDIX - ALGROITHMIC SKETCHES 6.1
6.2 BLUE BANDED BEE REASURCH
6.3 MORTAR MATERIAL REASURCH
Iâ€™m Reece, a third-year environments student studying architecture at the university of Melbourne. Before architecture I studied building design at RMIT, at RMIT I learned programs like AutoCAD and Revit, I feel I have a great understanding of the workings of these programs. I have also begun to learn about Rhino in my second of the Environments Corse at Melbourne, though I am still a beginner at using this program. I have had a quick introductory into grasshopper and didnâ€™t understand what was going on, though it was more of a show and tell.
Last year I completed a subject where the idea of digital design became a focal point of the digital design and fabrication subject, in this course we were tasked to create something that can go around the body and provide some private space, weather that was visual, setback or something else. During the semester we were assigned reading tasks where we looked at different digital techniques and 3d printing techniques to produce these designs. The focus was on the digital fabrication side and how we can use these tools to create new and creative designs.
PART a: CONCEPTUALISATION
A.1 DESIGN FUTURING
FIG.1 THE MONTREAL BIASPHERE
FIG.2 THE LIVING HI-FI
FIG.3 DOLPHAN EMASSY SKETCH
FIG.4 DOLPHAN EMBASSY PLAN
The Montreal biosphere was designed by Buckminister fuller in 1966. The dome was constructed in Montreal, Canada, to mixed opinions and may many environmental flaws. The intention of the architect was to design a dome that could use a 1/5 of the materials normally used in architecture design. Buckminster fuller wanted the structural design of the dome to be self-supporting and constructed with materials that are environmentally friendly in the hope that this dome can create a micro climate.
The similarity between Bucky fuller Montreal biosphere and David Benjamin who designed the living by HY-FI, is how these designers view architecture, similar they both view the use environmentally friendly building with the supported with the use sustainable materials, whilst designing efficient and comprehensive paradigm systems in close contact between nature and mankind. The bio organic material technology David used for the living structure, produces close to 0 emissions during its life period and after its life span the bio organic material can be returned into the environment where it came from.
The idea of a dolphin embassy was the inspiration by a small company called ant farm. The vision of a dolphin embassy was to create building around water that will allow for the of the research of the second smartest species, dolphins. The original concept for this to be an underwater building, this would have place the researchers in the same environment as the animal to better research them in a there home but, due to the financial costs of a structure like this, the concepts was reimagined to an above water facility. The original concept plans of the facility, has multiple water areas for the dolphins surrounded by research centres forming a triangle shaped multi- story facility, as shown in the image above.
the dolphin embassy was not the last concept to be designing to float on water, a pavilion in Rotterdam, Neverlands was constructed to float on the water. With climate change and the rise in water as the polar ice caps melt, a Dutch architect envisions future architectural city will be designed to float on water. This concept of a research facility that sits above water is a concept that looking in the future, if water level rises, floating architecture will be a necessity. The effect this will have animals on land, we use to research, farm or keep as pets. There will need to be consideration for the environment we are creating so too allow for these animals to survive, when the inevitability of our relocation onto water.
The problems Buckminister fuller didnâ€™t account for were the uncontrollable indoor temperatures due to the lack of ventilation and fragility of the facade covering the dome. The noise levels internally became unbearable with a lack of acoustic design. At the end of the day the sphere was not suitable for any urban environments due to the limited extendibility and due to the circulation of the structure they require fire prevention insulation and excellent ventilation systems that cannot be achieved with this design.
The importance of these projects are the new inspiration and technologyâ€™s that have been developed, through the design process with the revolutionary self-supporting structure fuller has being developing over the years and for David the new bio organic materials that can be incorporated into the environment after its use. The bio sphere later on became a cultural centre focusing on the understanding of St Lawrence river and the ecosystems, this building has building has become a tribute to fully who has been recognized as brining the widespread use of sustainability to architecture.
What this facility would have achieved if it was built, is unknown. The research of human and dolphin communication to this day would have ground-breaking, the relationship between humans and animals is a strange one where we as humans have been the alpha male in many respects, this is shown with the coverage of humans on this planet, also shown with the foods we eat but, there are animals we allow to live with use like cats and dogs where we treat them with respect and there are others that we would kill without a seconds hesitation. Most research facilities these days are used to experiment on animal for medical cures or makeup products or even killing animals for researching for anatomy research. CONCEPTUALISATION 7
A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION
The design process for an architect would be to research the property they are working with to find everything about the site, then would use this information to influence the design outcome with the parameter they have been giving by the client and the site by hand. The invention of the computer has been a massive timesaver for architects for the last couple of decades with the use of programs like AutoCAD and Revit with their ability to change layouts in a short time. But how has this influenced the design process? With programs like rhino and grasshopper, architects have more freedom to create unique complex geometries with tools that can give us immediate performance evaluations with a click of a button.
This technology has improved the design process for architects with the limitless possibility that can be create with the use of an algorithm, that algorithm can then be used to determine the best design option for a parametric structure and how it reacts to its environment, with immediate design adjustment. The technology that architects now have with computer allow for the most average designer the ability of a super pen that allow them to design the most unique structure with the use of an algorithm. Technology is evolving faster then ever before, the use of computation has evolved the design process further then, what was ever possible.
FIG.5 GRASSHOPPER TUTORIAL
FIG.6 CONCRETE MOULD
A.2.1 PRECEDENCE STUDY
FIG.7 CONCRETE MOULD TOP VIEW
The Ai Concrete framework is constructed using custom 3d printing moulds. These 3d printed geometric walls become the supporting structure for the concrete. As show in figure ??, the parametric form of this mould is transferred into the concrete wall. These moulds produce zero waste and reduces the amount of labour intensive work with due to the programmed machinery. The advantage of using 3d melding allows for greater design flexibility of concrete walls. Most commercial concrete walls are produce with standard paten and liner finish. The influence of computation provides a flexibility that can redefine the parametric design of the mould, this will create more diverse concrete walls systems. The construction industry is always evolving, with the benefits of prefabrication, builders can construct houses faster than ever before.
The Amalgama a 3d printed object from Wonderlab shown in fg.???. the fabrication of the Amalagama is a standard 3d print but, the object itself is what is unique, the amalagama was 3d printed with different materials, each of these materials have a different role to play depending on its properties. This is quite unique with all 3d printed objects focusing on the one material type. The use of computing provides data for generating Bezier curves inside the octree voxels, that will intern combine to print the structure. On a larger scale the combination of different materials and 3d printing, can impact how we conceive these geometries, for example the performance of the materials used will allow for a longer durability and will expand the environments these structures can be placed.
FIG.9 CONCRETE MOULD SECTION
FIG.11 3D PRINTING MACHINE
FIG.8 CONCRETE MOULD SIDE VIEW
FIG.10 CONCRETE FINISH PRODUCT
FIG.12 3D PRINTING FINISH
A.3 COMPOSITION/ GENERATION
SILK PAVILION The silk pavilion is a 3d cocoon made from a 1km single silk thread, this thread wrapped around the 26-polygon panel structure using a algorithm. The threat is a multi-property silk threat, that allows for the structure to create different levels of density with the overlapping threads. Silkworms were added to the pavilion as a biological printer where they were able to reinforce patches of the pavilion. Research shows that silkworms prefer the darker, more dense areas of the silk pavilion due lack of light and the wormer temperatures.
This bottom up designed pavilion uses silkworms to manipulate the environment its surrounded by into a home with the use of it biological body. I think this case works for a bottom up design process, it allows the insects to manipulate its environment to suit its needs. The addition of using a material (silk thread) that the insect responds to will attract these animals to the structure. The relation ship between digital and biological fabrication for this project is well executed, I liked how they ‘design’ their own environment using the silk thread., I would of like to have seen the durability of this pavilion over time to see if it breaks down or dose the silkworms maintain the structure forever?
FIG.13 SILKWORM MONTAGE
FIG.14 SILKWORM INTERNAL
FIG.15 SILKWORM CLOSE UP
FIG.16 PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SILK PAVILION
FIG.17 CLOSE UP VIEW OF PAVILION SILK
FIG.18 COSE UP VIEW OF PAVILION STRUCTURE
Design Futuring section looked at the future of architecture, the future of sustainability and environmentally friendly materials. The case study for design Futuring, the Montreal biosphere and the living explored the technologies that were developed over the last couple of decades that can be important going forward for future architecture. This impact was shown in the Live with the innovative bio organic material that after is life span the material can be incorporated back into the environment with 0 emissions. The bio sphere was unique for it idea of creating a self-supporting structure that is being used today. Design computation investigated the innovative use of digital modelling and unique fabrication process. The case study examination the AI concrete framework produced by wonder lab. The parametric moulds for concrete structures, that are created using computation and 3d printing is an innovation for the unique geometries that can be created with concrete. Composition and Generation investigated the silk pavilion that was create and reinforced with silkworms. The facade of the pavilion was made form a single silk thread. The thread was interwoven over the polygon framing with the use of a robot arm. This project was very inspiring to see how an animal can manipulate the thread over time to create dense patches to lay eggs in the pavilion. I liked that we saw how these silkworms have their own unique designs when manipulating the silk thread.
My intended approach for the design moving forward will be to focus on the environmental manipulation of my researched material, to create a home for the blue banded bee to manipulate to suit its life style just as we do for our homes. I will also consider the sustainability and environmental impact of this structure, and how it effects the future generations of bees. this concept might not be ground breaking but, I feel more thought needs to be considers about the long-term effects of the structures we build and how this embassy can allow for bees and humans to coincide as most people are scared of bees. The benefit of a relationship between bees and humans is we provide more homes for animals that have being forced out due to the construction of residential and commercial homes us humans.
FIG.20 BLUE BANDED BEE HOME
FIG.19 CLOSE UP VIEW OF BEE
A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES
I HAD A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF ARCHITECTURAL COMPUTING BEFORE THE SEMESTER STARTED, WITH THE PROJECTS IN DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION. I HAVE FOUND IT INTERESTING DELVING DEEPER INTO THE WORLD COMPUTATION WITH THE LEARNINGS OF GRASSHOPPER. I CAN’T SAY IT’S BEING SMOOTH SAILING BUT, THIS EXPERIENCE HAS BROUGHT NEW A DIFFERENT INTERPRETATION OF THE USE OF ALGORITHM IN DESIGN. THE KNOWLEDGE OF GRASSHOPPER WOULD HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVE IN THE SUBJECT, DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION AS IT WOULD ALLOW US TO EXPERIMENT WITH THE BONE STRUCTURE TO CREATE SOMETHING THAT IS MORE DYNAMIC AND STABLE. THESE PAST THREE WEEKS I HAVE COME TO UNDERSTAND HOW COMPUTING CAN BE IMPORTANT TO THE DESIGN PROCESS AND THE BENEFITS OF PROGRAMS LIKE GRASSHOPPER CAN HAVE ON THE FABRICATION AND STRUCTURE OF CONCEPT DESIGN.
REFERENCES BIO SPHERE ARCHEYES 2016, MONTREAL-BIOSPHERE VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018, HTTP://ARCHEYES.COM/MONTREAL-BIOSPHERE-1967-BUCKMINSTER-FULLER/ DAVID LANGDON 2014, MONTREAL BIOSPHERE VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018, HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY. COM/572135/AD-CLASSICS-MONTREAL-BIOSPHERE-BUCKMINSTER-FULLER KRIS GRAVES, 2018, BIODEGRADABLE HY-FI VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018, HTTPS://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/ARCHITECTURE/ HY-FI-THE-LIVING-DAVID-BENJAMIN-MOMA-PS1-YOUNG-ARCHITECTS-PROGRAM-2014-07-01-2014/ HILIP STEVENS 2014, HY-FI VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018, HTTPS://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/ARCHITECTURE/ HY-FI-BY-THE-LIVING-WINS-MOMA-PS1-YOUNG-ARCHITECTS-PROGRAM-02-06-2014/ FRAC NCENTRE 2018, ANT FARM VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018,HTTP://WWW.FRAC-CENTRE.FR/_EN/ART-ANDARCHITECTURE-COLLECTION/ANT-FARM/DOLPHIN-EMBASSY-317.HTML?AUTHID=8&ENSEMBLEID=463 JACOBINE DAS GUPTA 2010, ANT FARM VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018,HTTPS://THEGREENTAKE.WORDPRESS.COM/2010/10/18/ROTTERDAM/ GREG 2010, CUE THE DOLPHIN EMBASSY VIEWED 15TH MARCH 2018, HTTP://GREG.ORG/ARCHIVE/2010/06/01/CUE-THE-DOLPHIN-EMBASSY.HTML AI BUILD 2017, CONCRETE FORMWORKVIEWED 15TH MARCH 2018,HTTP://AI-BUILD.COM/CONCRETEFORMWORK.HTML MIT LAB 2013, CONCRETE FORMWORKVIEWED 15TH MARCH 2018,HTTP://MATTER.MEDIA.MIT.EDU/ENVIRONMENTS/DETAILS/SILK-PAVILLION#PRETTYPHOTO MIT LAB 2013, CONCRETE FORMWORKVIEWED 15TH MARCH 2018,HTTP://ARANDALASCH.COM/WORKS/20-BRIDGES-FOR-CENTRAL-PARK/
IMAGES FIG1: DAVID LANGDON, 2014, THE MONTREAL BIASPHERE, PHOTOGRAPH, VIEWED 6 MARCH 2018, HTTPS://WWW. ARCHDAILY.COM/572135/AD-CLASSICS-MONTREAL-BIOSPHERE-BUCKMINSTER-FULLER FIG2: KRIS GRAVES, 2014, THE LIVING HI-FI, PHOTOGRAPH, VIEWED 6 MARCH 2018, HTTPS://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/ ARCHITECTURE/HY-FI-THE-LIVING-DAVID-BENJAMIN-MOMA-PS1-YOUNG-ARCHITECTS-PROGRAM-2014-07-01-2014/ FIG3: FRAC, 2014, DOLPHAN EMASSY SKETCH, VIEWED 6 MARCH 2018, HTTP://WWW.FRAC-CENTRE.FR/_EN/ART-ANDARCHITECTURE-COLLECTION/ANT-FARM/DOLPHIN-EMBASSY-317.HTML?AUTHID=8&ENSEMBLEID=463 FIG4: FRAC, 2014, DOLPHAN EMBASSY PLAN, VIEWED 6 MARCH 2018, HTTP://WWW.FRAC-CENTRE.FR/_EN/ART-ANDARCHITECTURE-COLLECTION/ANT-FARM/DOLPHIN-EMBASSY-317.HTML?AUTHID=8&ENSEMBLEID=463 FIG5: ADMIN, 2017, RHINO GRASSHOPPER WORKSHOP, PHOTOGRAPH, VIEWED 15 MARCH 2018, HTTP:// WWW.STUDIOROLA.COM/COURSE/RHINO-GRASSHOPPER-WORKSHOP-2/ FIG7: AI BUILD, 2017, CONCRETE MOULD TOP VIEW VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP://AI-BUILD.COM/CONCRETEFORMWORK.HTML FIG8 AI BUILD, 2017, CONCRETE MOULD SIDE VIEW, VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP://AI-BUILD.COM/CONCRETEFORMWORK.HTML FIG 9 AI BUILD, 2017, CONCRETE MOULD SECTION, VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP://AI-BUILD.COM/CONCRETEFORMWORK.HTML FIG10 AI BUILD, 2017, CONCRETE FINISH PRODUCT, VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP://AI-BUILD.COM/CONCRETEFORMWORK.HTML FIG11: WONDER LAB, 2017, 3D PRINTING MACHINE , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP://WWW.W-O-N-D-E-R-L-A-B.COM/PORTFOLIO/AMALGAMA/ FIG12: WONDER LAB, 2017, 3D PRINTING FINISH , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP://WWW.W-O-N-D-E-R-L-A-B.COM/PORTFOLIO/AMALGAMA/ FIG13: MATTER MEDIA 2013SILKWORM MONTAGE , VIEWED 15 MARCH 2018, HTTP://MATTER.MEDIA.MIT.EDU/ENVIRONMENTS/DETAILS/SILK-PAVILLION#PRETTYPHOTO FIG 14MATTER MEDIA 2013 SILKWORM INTERNAL , VIEWED 15 MARCH 2018, HTTP://MATTER.MEDIA.MIT.EDU/ENVIRONMENTS/DETAILS/SILK-PAVILLION#PRETTYPHOTO FIG 15MATTER MEDIA 2013 SILKWORM CLOSE UP , VIEWED 15 MARCH 2018, HTTP://MATTER.MEDIA.MIT.EDU/ENVIRONMENTS/DETAILS/SILK-PAVILLION#PRETTYPHOTO FIG 16MATTER MEDIA 2013 PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SILK PAVILION , VIEWED 15 MARCH 2018, HTTP://MATTER. MEDIA.MIT.EDU/ENVIRONMENTS/DETAILS/SILK-PAVILLION#PRETTYPHOTO FIG 17MATTER MEDIA 2013 CLOSE UP VIEW OF PAVILION SILK , VIEWED 15 MARCH 2018, HTTP://MATTER. MEDIA.MIT.EDU/ENVIRONMENTS/DETAILS/SILK-PAVILLION#PRETTYPHOTO FIG 18MATTER MEDIA 2013 COSE UP VIEW OF PAVILION STRUCTURE , VIEWED 15 MARCH 2018, HTTP:// MATTER.MEDIA.MIT.EDU/ENVIRONMENTS/DETAILS/SILK-PAVILLION#PRETTYPHOTO FIG 19: MAGDELINE LUM, 2013, FLOWER AND BLUE BANDED BEE , VIEWED 5 MARCH 2018, HTTPS://AUSTRALIANMUSEUM.NET.AU/IMAGE/AUSTRALIAN-BLUE-BANDED-BEE FIG:20 NATIVE BEES, 2011, BEE HABITAT , VIEWED 18 MARCH 2018, HTTP://WWW.NATIVEBEES.COM.AU/SOLITARY-BEES
A.6 APPENDIX - ALGRITHMIC SKETCHES
A.6 APPENDIX - LOFTING SHELL
DRAW A SWIRL
DIVIDE ALONG THE CURVE
DRAW A REFERENCE ARC
ARRAY IT AROUND THE SWIRL
LOFT THE ARCS TO FINISH THE SHELL
4 CURVILINEAR 1 PRIMITIVE COMPONENT
1 CURVILINEAR, 1 RECTILINEAR
1 CURVILINEAR, 1 RECTILINEAR
A.6 APPENDIX - FAMILIES AND ITERATIONS
A.6 APPENDIX - 2D VORONOI/ DELAUNY
DRAW A SWIRL
DRAW A REFERENCE ARC
ARRAY IT AROUND THE SWIRL
A.6 APPENDIX - 3D VORONOI/ DELAUNY
A.6 APPENDIX - 3D VORONOI/ DELAUNY
A.6 APPENDIX - PRIMITIVE TOOLS
SOFT DARK SOLITARY ERODED PIMPLED BULBOUS SHELL SHORT DRY HEAT ROOST
SOFT CONCEPTUALISATION 33
A.6 APPENDIX - OCTAGONAL MODIFICATION
BOX MORPH DESWIGNS
A.6 APPENDIX - BOX MORPH GENERATE GEOMETRY
DIVIDE AND DIVIDE DOMAIN
BOX MORPH WITH GEOMETRY
SET BASE PLANE
CONTOUR, X AXIS
CONSTRUCT PLANE, DISTANCE
BOUNDS AND REMAP
THE BLUE BANDED BEE
A.6 THE BLUE BANDED BEE RESEARCH
FIG.21 BLUE BANDED BEE EATING
The blue banded bee is 11-12 mm big Male has 5 bands and female has 4 Flower Preferences Tomatoes Sweet Basil Perennial Basil Abelia Verbena Lavender Flax lily Myrtle Mona Lavender Blue-bell creeper Hibbertia Senna Mountain devil or Honey flower Spider-flower grevillea Scarlet sage Salvia Duranta Rosemary Lemon Balm & Passion Fruit flowers Prefer soft mortar with no concrete Like to live above ground Life cycle of 40 days, eggs hatch around the summer time. Attracted to Mudbrick, with 25-30mm deep holes
Mortar Posable finishes
A.6 MORTAR RESEARCH Suppliers name location Costs Fabrication methods
Bunnings Throughout Melbourne/ Vic Closest to city, Collingwood
Boral Throughout Melbourne/ Vic Closest to city, North Melbourne $8 - $60 ? With the mix of sand cement and water the mortar is generally used to bind masonry blocks together and act as a fill and seal between the masonry. Mortars can be mixed used for a variety of uses like concrete blocks, masonry, floor finishes (between tiles), there is also a waterproof sika mortar.
Mortar is generally made from a mixture of sand, binder and water, the mix of mortar is very important as it defines the grade of the mortar, adding too much water can make the mix watery and very difficult to deal with and adding to little water can make the bonding of the materials that make up the mortar not connect. The grade of mortar ranges from M1-M4. M1 being the weakest. Tests have been done on mortar in different environments like extreme marine exposure and the results shows any significant deterioration. The different levels of mortar grade benefit different environments. M1 is mainly used for general use. M2 generally used for mild conditions and interior use. M3 used for wet and dry areas. M4 used below DPC in aggressive soil and severe marine environments
Mortar is a â€˜glueâ€™ that is formed with the mixture of Portland cement, lime and sand, mixed with water.
Cheap to repair, act as a fill to reduce water entry, good bonding agent, can add colours using oxide.
Durability, consistency if mixed poorly, can be very messy, can use machinery to model complex designs and need to make exoskeleton mould to fill and set the mortar to obtain ideal shape, limited surface finishes (rough), crack,
With the mix of Portland cement, it can take on a new set of SWOT performance, can be added to other materials as an acting bonding glue, using different mortar can used as fast setting time for modelling and shaping.
Ground movements can cause mortar to crack under pressure. Other treats include using the wrong grade mortar in for a specific situation
FIG.22 MORTAR MIX
Texture The texture of mortar added to masonry are finished with a rough surface, with the use of masonry mortar can have a flush joint, parget finish, clean rolled finish, line parget finish.
Colour Mortars can have oxide added a finished colour with the use of LanXess. Sandstone and Marigold oxide. The general colour mortar comes in is grey.
A.6 MORTAR PRECEDENCE tjettgtggt
FIG.23 MORTAR INTERNAL
FIG.24 MORTAR LION STATUE SAN MARINO, LOS CALIFORNIA, USA
DRIOS, SOUTH PAROS. GIANNIS THALASSINOS ARCHITECTS MORTAR WAS USE TO SCUP THE WALL AND JOINARY FINISHES. ALL THE FINISHES HAVE ROUNDED EDGES
MORTAR WAS USED TO FIX AND REPARE THE STATUE
FIG.25 MORTAR STATUE WOMAN
FIG.29 MORTAR WALL ART
FIG.30 MORTAR STATUE
SAN MARINO, LOS CALIFORNIA, USA
ARTIST ALEXANDRE FARTO
SEPIK - PAPUA NEW GUINEA
MORTAR WAS USED TO FIX AND REPARE THE STATUE
20TH CENTRY STATUE THAT WAS SCULPCHERED WITH MORTAR
FIG.26 MORTAR BOWEL
FIG.27 MORTAR WBEE HOME
VENTILATED MORTAR FAÇADE, STUCANET SYSTEM
MORTAR BASE CURVED INTO A BOWEL. WITH A SMOOTH GLOSS FINISH
THIS BLOCK IS FILLED WITH SOFT MORTAR AND DRILLED WITH HOLES RANGING FROM 2MM DIAMETER TO 10MM. ALL BUT THE 2MM HOLES HAVE BEEN USED BY RED MASON BEES. ONE 2MM HOLE HAS BEEN USED BY A PASSALOECUS APHID-HUNTING WASP. THE MORTAR HOLES HAVE ALSO BEEN POPULAR WITH SEVERAL SPECIES OF SOLITARY BEE AND WASP FOR ROOSTING OVERNIGHT.
WATER-RESISTANT MORTAR IS PROJECTED ONTO THIS PANEL IN TWO LAYERS, WITH A TOTAL THICKNESS OF 20 MM. THE RESULT IS A SHEET OF HIGH- RESISTANCE REINFORCED MORTAR. THE FAÇADE IS IMPERMEABLE AND VENTILATED IN ALL DIRECTIONS.
THE USE OF MORTAR OVER A OLD MASONARY WALL CONVERTED INTO A IMAGE
FIG.28 MORTAR WALL
FIG.31 MORTAR BRICK WALL
FIG.32 MORTAR ARCHITECTURE
SLOPPY MORTAR, PI KAPPA ALPHA FRATERNITY HOUSE. 1931, BOULDER ARCHITECT GLEN H. HUNGINTON
ABU SIMBEL TEMPLES, NUBIA, EGYPT
SOMETIMES, HOWEVER, SLOPPY MORTAR WAS AN INTENTIONAL CHOICE OF THE ARCHITECT.
WHEN THE TEMPLES WERE RELOCATED, THE STATUES WERE DIVIDED INTO PIECES, AND A MIXTURE OF MORTAR, CEMENT AND DESERT STAND WAS USED TO SEAMLESSLY JOIN THEM BACK TOGETHER.
REFERENCES IMAGES FIG21: SALLY WILSON, 2014, BLUE BANDED BEE EATING , VIEWED 15MARCH 2018, HTTP://THEPLANTHUNTER.COM.AU/UNCATEGORIZED/BEE-HOTEL/ FIG22: CANNABRIC, 2009, MORTAR MIX , VIEWED 14 MARCH 2018, HTTP://WWW.CANNABRIC.COM/CATALOGO/ MORTERO_DE_CAL_HIDRAULICA_NATURAL_NHL5_CONSOLIDACION_BASE_GRUESA_/?LEN=EN FIG23: THE LASSINOS, 2018, MORTAR INTERNAL HOUSE , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP://WWW.THALASSINOS.NET/PROJECT/DRIOS/ FIG24 ACTION CATAWIKI, 2018, MORTAR LION STATUE , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTPS://AUCTION. CATAWIKI.COM/KAVELS/7630513-MORTAR-FOR-BETEL-NUTS-SEPIK-PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA FIG25 ACTION CATAWIKI, 2018, MORTAR STATUE WOMAN , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTPS://AUCTION. CATAWIKI.COM/KAVELS/7630513-MORTAR-FOR-BETEL-NUTS-SEPIK-PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA FIG26: HEIBERG, 2018, MORTAR BOWEL , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP:// WWW.HEIBERG-ID.COM/LEGNOART_MORTAR.HTM FIG27: ED PHILLIPS, 2014, MORTAR BEE HOME , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018,HTTP:// WWW.EDPHILLIPSWILDLIFE.COM/NEWS83285.HTML FIG28: ALEXANDRE FARTO, 2018, MORTAR WALL ART , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTPS://WWW. TELEGRAPH.CO.UK/CULTURE/CULTUREPICTUREGALLERIES/8361849/PORTUGUESE-ARTIST-ALEXANDREFARTO-CREATES-PORTRAITS-IN-THE-BRICKS-AND-MORTAR-OF-BUILDINGS.HTML?IMAGE=4 FIG29: ALEXANDRE FARTO, 2018, MORTAR WALL ART , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTPS://WWW. TELEGRAPH.CO.UK/CULTURE/CULTUREPICTUREGALLERIES/8361849/PORTUGUESE-ARTIST-ALEXANDREFARTO-CREATES-PORTRAITS-IN-THE-BRICKS-AND-MORTAR-OF-BUILDINGS.HTML?IMAGE=4 FIG 30: ACTION CATAWIKI, 2018, MORTAR STATUE , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTPS://AUCTION. CATAWIKI.COM/KAVELS/7630513-MORTAR-FOR-BETEL-NUTS-SEPIK-PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA FIG31: LETOAN, 2018, MORTAR BRICK WALL , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018, HTTP://LETOAN.CO/ COLORING-MORTAR-JOINTS.HTMLHTTP://WWW.TECTONICA-ONLINE.COM/PRODUCTS/1310/ STUCANET_MORTAR_FACADE_VENTILATED_TABUENCA_POUTRAFIL_FERNANDO/ FIG32: WORLDHISTORYLEVERETT, 2017, MORTAR STRUCTURE , VIEWED 10 MARCH 2018,HTTPS://WORLDHISTORYLEVERETT.WORDPRESS.COM/PAGE/6/
HTTPS://WWW.BUNNINGS.COM.AU/COMPARE?PRODUCTS=0761529,0760516,0760433,0760246,0760435, BUNNINGS 2018, MORTAR VIEWED 12TH MARCH 2018, HTTPS://WWW.BUNNINGS.COM. AU/COMPARE?PRODUCTS=0761529,0760516,0760433,0760246,0760435,
AUSSIE BEE 2018, MONTREAL-BIOSPHERE VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018, HTTP:// WWW.AUSSIEBEE.COM.AU/BLUE-BANDED-BEE-INFORMATION.HTML BEC CREW 2014, MONTREAL-BIOSPHERE VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018, HTTP://WWW.AUSTRALIANGEOGRAPHIC. COM.AU/BLOGS/CREATURA-BLOG/2014/09/BLUE-BANDED-BEE-A-NATIVE-BEAUTY AMEGILLA CINGULATA 2018, MONTREAL-BIOSPHERE VIEWED 10TH MARCH 2018, HTTP://BLUEBANDEDBEES.COM/
Published on Mar 7, 2018