Page 1

Chemical Restraint of the Nile Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) in Captivity Author(s): Edward C. Ramsay, Michael R. Loomis, Kay G. Mehren, Wayne S. J. Boardman, Jim Jensen, Dennis Geiser Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 45-49 Published by: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095715 Accessed: 19/07/2009 22:22 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=aazv. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

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Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29(1): 45-49, 1998 Copyright 1998 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

CHEMICAL RESTRAINT OF THE NILE HIPPOPOTAMUS (HIPPOPOTAMUS AMPHIBIUS) IN CAPTIVITY C.

Edward

S.

Wayne

R.

Michael

D.V.M.,

Ramsay, J. Boardman,

B.VetJVIed.,

Loomis,

D.V.M.,

M.S., Jim

M.R.C.V.S.,

G. Mehren,

Kay

Jensen,

and

D.V.M.,

D.V.M.,

Dennis

D.V.M.

Geiser,

on nine adult captive Nile hippopotamus 16 immobilizations performed retrospective study describes = were intramuscular alone immobilized Animals (1.0-5.0 9) or etorphine |Jig/kg; n using amphibius). = = n n or animals Exact for the with xylazine (20 1). 6) (67-83 |xg/kg; weights acepromazine |JLg/kg; so drug dosages were in good health or had Seven animals either were unknown based on estimated weights. one or localized medical and animal castration induction, undergoing xylazine Following etorphine problems. This

Abstract:

{Hippopotamus in combination were minor was

tube. Ten occurred in oxygen delivered without with immobilizations anesthetized isoflurane by endotracheal were and eight of those procedures rated as good or excellent. Complications, including bradypnea, complications, One animal died following and apnea, occurred apnea, and the necropsy prolonged during six immobilizations. cyanosis, = were cause of death. reversed with diprenorphine to find a specific failed Immobilizations alone (4.4-10.0 |xg/kg; n = = time 1), or naltrexone 2). Mean (14.6 (146-180 13), diprenorphine (2.9 fxg/kg) and naloxone |xk/kg; n |JLg/kg; n to reversal of immobilization alone and reversed with diprenorphine alone was 21.6 for those animals given etorphine = was 4 min. No renarcotizations to reversal for the two immobilizations reversed with only naltrexone min 5). Time {n to surgical were observed. in calm anesthesia sedation Total doses of 2.0-6.0 i.m. should produce mg etorphine heavy adult Key zine.

with

Insufflation captive Nile hippopotamuses. words: Hippopotamus Hippopotamus,

oxygen

amphibius,

INTRODUCTION

The

and

those

Early focused

shape present

in or

animals

mobilization zoos

create

fat

have

near

and

of hippopotamuses been limited generally

im

challenges distribution

for

size

ro

large

and

of

popotamuses.

field

dations

capture of im

to descriptions

of

Nine

77843,

Zoological Australia

with

Co.,

of

Nile

captive hip and administration

regimen

are reported reported by field recommen and

parks

zoological information

are

presented.

either

of ponent 4 to >30 Four

U.K.)

xylazine

Immobilon?). yr, with

individuals

four

were

(M99?,

18960,

Leyland, in combina

or

alone

Shawnee, (as

acepromazine Animals ages animals

immobilized

USA;

Canada;

4Y5,

(Haver/Mobay, or

USA)

and were

gardens etorphine

Pharmaceuticals,

Grampian PR5 3QN,

66201,

four males

Pennsylvania Ontario M2J

Willowdale,

tion with Kansas

intramuscular

Sellersville,

Immobilon?,

of Veterinary Animal Medicine, College Large Texas A&M University, Station, Texas College Perth Present USA address (Jensen). (Boardman): South

ani been

summary

of

hippopotamuses, in five zoological

held

Lancashire

Toronto

Road,

Nile

females,

Cyanamid,

Carolina

Labouchere Gardens, 6151, Australia.

adult

Lemon

the Metro USA 27203-9416, (Loomis); 361A Old Finch Avenue, Scarbor Zoo, the Auckland (Mehren); ough, Ontario M IB 5K7, Canada Park, Private 2, Lynn, Auckland Zoological Bag, Grey of Veter New Zealand and the Department (Boardman); inary

a

presents

complications immobilization

chemical

immobilized

the Departments of Comparative Medicine (Ram Clinical Sciences (Geiser), College say) and Large Animal of Tennessee, of Veterinary The University Medicine, the North Car Tennessee Knoxville, 37901-1071, USA; 4401 olina Zoological Zoo Park, Asheboro, Parkway,

Medicine,

two have

CASE REPORTS

From

politan

for

Reports in North American

five

North

Dosage from five

techniques with and compared workers. Potential

immobilization with

or

hippopotamuses

Europe.349 This retrospective study on immobilization information

and positioning

logistical

water.1561114

to

captive

one

of in Europe; however, descriptions have been in conference procedures published are not widely and available outside proceedings

dermis

dense

thick,

immobilization. during on hippopotamus reports on problems associated

problems

of

a

agents immobilizing The hippopotamus's

agents.

tund body

of

presence

Many

on

procedures

xyla

these

few med

difficult

of

numbers

immobilization,

immobilized

In

animal.

have

generally considered

subcutaneous

copious of injection

zoo

kept

commonly

hippopotamuses captivity, are but ical problems

amphi

{Hippopotamus

hippopotamus

is a popular,

mobilize.89

small

warranted.

naltrexone,

etorphine,

mals.21213

The Nile bius)

seems

immobilization

during

diprenorphine,

a com from

ranged unknown

of

more

than

age. once

(Table 1). Seven minor

Perth, West

animals or

localized

immobilization.

45

either medical These

were

in good problems

hippopotamuses

or had

health at

the

time

were

of in


46

JOURNAL

Table

1.

of adult Nile

Summary

OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE

immobilization

hippopotamus

MEDICINE

regimen.

Agents Anesthesia Animal no.

Estimated Sex

weight

(kg)

Etorphine (mg)

Diprenorphine (mg)

Xylazine (mg)

Other

Level3

Rating0

M

1,500

6.0

100

12.0

F

1,300

5.0

100

10.0

F

1,500

3.0e

100

8.0

G

4.0e

100

12.0

G

100

14.0

G

100

10.0

Gce

150 mg 130 mg mg

6.0e

f

1,000

5.5

F

1,000

5.0

10.0

22 mg i.m.

M

1,600

5.0

14.0

400 mg

5.0

16.0

5.0

13.0

l,044h

5.0

12.0

1,364

2.0

F M

2.5

Fc

acetylpromazine i.m.

doxapram

Gc E Ec

200 mg 2.0

p.d

200 i.m.

doxapram

M

G

yohimbine yohimbine,

naltrexone

only 4.0 and 20 mg oxone 250 mg

190 mg 3.0 mg

nal

100 mg

naltrexone

i.m., at-

doxapram

ropine S04j 3.0 mg atropine

E

i.m.

S04

atropine

pc.i

i.m.

doxapram

i.m.

S04

3

E

3

E

only F

4.0 8.0

1,800

4.0

8.0

a2 = = = surgical anesthesia. heavy sedation; 3 light anesthesia; 4 bE = = = = excellent; G fair; P poor. good; F c Bradypnea, apnea, cyanosis, or nondefined complications. d R?gurgitation. e i.m. after original dose of 1.0 mg etorphine administered Supplemental fFull dose not delivered. 8Anesthesia tube. supplemented with isoflurane via endotracheal hActual weight. 1 Death. jDose

of

were

these

fasted

less

than

animals

experienced of the remainder

The

plications.

24

hr and

nei com

anesthetic

of

4

restraint.

chemical

and

Hippopotamuses to a crush to immobili prior in the crush zation and held drug injections. during were i.m. by administered agents Immobilizing and dart Chemical Co., (Palmer capture Equipment acclimatized

Douglasville, inject,

E

dose.

Saugus,

were 14 immobilizations, animals During a 37.5-64.0-mm with needle in the neck. injected a stylette was to A with used 100-mm, 14-g needle rear administer i.m. in the and injections glu legs teal muscles of hippopotamuses in a crush held (an

imals 4 and 5). The exact body weight

Georgia California

30133, USA), 91350,

USA),

blowdart or hand

(Tel in

one

only

animal

were dosages Initial total to

hippopotamuses

were fasted 24 to >48 hr prior to immobilization. All animals were isolated in a holding pen at the 5 were

E

S04j

jection.

for

condition. body Two animals

time

S04j

atropine

and route unknown.

for elective immo condition. Reasons body good or enclea bilization included (castration surgery = of contraceptive tion; n 2), placement implants = = and dental ocular examination {n 2), 2), {n = nos. 7 6). Two {n procedures hippopotamuses, in poor and 8, had serious teeth problems and were

ther

atropine

6.0

therefore doses

mg/animal,

range phine dosage In six immobilizations with with

etorphine, the initial

timated weight.

(no.

7),

which

based of

on

etorphine in

resulting of 1.0-5.0

where

100 mg

xylazine

etorphine

dose,

of xylazine dosage One animal received

zine (22 |xg/kg) i.m. with Atropine mobilizations.

sulfate

was

died.

is known All

estimated

an

ranged estimated

drug

weights. from 2.0 etor

body weight. was used xylazine was delivered i.m. jxg/kg

in an es resulting 67-83 body u>g/kg 22 mg acetylproma

the initial etorphine dose.

administered

during

four

im


ET AL.?HIPPOPOTAMUS

RAMSAY

The mean effect

time from injection

(?SD)

(ataxia, hypermetia, was 12.1 ? 6.3 min

droop) to sternal = min {n

or

lateral

14). The

sitting, =

{n

head time

?

13.5

recum

sternal

phine restraint

each

during each

During nasal insufflation

immobilization

dotracheal

were

with

tubes

tube was

endotracheal

airway following 10 L/min oxygen mm endotracheal

on

tained

3%

animal

anesthesia

the

of

reservoir

Some

were peratures rates of Heart on

animals

for

these

Heart

and

1 and

a

30

rates one

for

and

phine

(Cyanamid).

clusive; esthesia

related.

female

of 4-10

of

(Biox

Colorado

isville,

tex, Helsinki,

(Wildlife

Oscar

by Lou

Corp., TM 11, Da

cheal

for

animal

the

was

frenulum,

intubation

and

to 95-96%

improved

4, measured

supplementation an increase

following

but in ox

ygen flow from 5 to 15 L/min and the use of IPPV. Ten

immobilizations

cations,

and

as

or

good ing six

bradypnea,

of eight excellent.

immobilizations. cyanosis,

occurred

without

procedures

were

compli rated

Complications Four animals

occurred

dur

those

or

apnea

and

(4.4-10.0

time

for

Two |xg/kg with naltrexone

diprenorphine to reversal

were

of

|xg/kg). (time

reversal

was

4 min.

Two

animals

were also etorphine St. Louis, Chemical Co.,

(Sigma

times

(146-180

immobilization

and

0.1

USA;

at

administered

alone,

of

i.m., in

to standing) for agent alone and reversed etorphine ? was 21.6 min alone {n 5). for both that re hippopotamuses

of injection animals given

himbine

(Wild 80524,

i.m.).

dose

reversal

the

those with

|xg/kg) dose ad

but i.m.), mg/kg for theses animals.

noted

were

renarcotization

re

that

yo given Missouri

no

recovery

No

episodes

observed.

DISCUSSION

a clip trans using 73% endotra despite

oxygen

with

i.v and 10 mg

the etorphine

for hippopotamus

1was 55-79% prior to insufflation but improved to >85% following insufflation with oxygen. The ini tial Sp02 on ducer

the

Cyanamid;

total

Pharmaceuticals)

100 times

xylazine

Sp02

to water

and

to the diprenorphine (2.9 were immobilizations reversed

naltrexone

USA;

one

in

13 animals

Co.

varied the

14.6 |xg/kg), 10 mg

ceived

The

in

Lemon

addition

ceived

measured

an

to be

etorphine was animal naloxone given Fort Collins, Colorado

One

ministered.

ani

was (Sp02) Ohmeda 3700,

access

reversed

diprenorphine 2.0-3.2 times

were recorded temperatures 1 and 2, respective animals

80027, Finland).

was

of

Dosages but were

63178, saturation

were

presumed occurred

Pharmaceuticals, Leyland, Grampian PR5 alone administered U.K.) 3QN, = i.m. of the dose divided 9) or with {n portions and delivered i.m. and i.v {n = 3) or s.c {n = 1). were not to locate. veins easy Peripheral always

Time

ly. Hemoglobin a pulse oximeter

diprenor not con

Revivon,

from

breaths/min

immobilization

pro

of

restraint.

(M5050,

diprenorphine

died following results

R?gurgitation allowed

inadvertantly to chemical prior

night Immobilization

(182

administration

was

the

throughout to doxapram

respond

Necropsy the death

however,

Mean

rates Respiratory and 3 breaths/min,

8, respectively. were 18-30

37.2?C

the

thermometer. rectal by were beats/min measured

measured 61

from

not

despite

life Pharmaceuticals,

compression

respiratory and by stethoscope Tem respectively.

excursions,

animals

and

to this animal

collected

color

membrane

did

apnea,

USA; were

data

respectively. Respiratory were measured during mal 6. The only body 34.4?C

pressure

bag.

thoracic

watching

large Penn

a 15-L res

positive

mucous and

Lancashire

Kent,

Telford,

by manual

hippopotamuses. measured using

were

rates

Labs,

equipped with Intermittent

physiological

immobilized

main

rebreathing

(Drager,

5 breaths/min

4. This

was

Abbot A

the

approximately the tube. A 26

(IPPV) was administered

ventilation at a rate

used.

cuffed

in animal

(Forane,

machine

was

bag

into

oxygen.

18969, USA)

sylvania ervoir

blindly and

and poor

longed

two

mg/kg

rate in all but respiration improved animal head and body developed in the immobilization. nystagmus early

|xg/kg i.m.). This hippopotamus 8,

Cherry

0.07-0.25

USA;

Doxapram 7. This animal

procedure

En

to protect

castration,

isoflurane L/min

a 30-mm

2,

placed

underwent

in 5-15

U.K.)

no.

placed

tube was

1 and

animals

Laboratories,

Jersey 08003,

i.m.).

It had

3.

performed. in animals during

r?gurgitation, was sufflated

which

animal,

of

animal

was

oxygen

placed In female

immobilizations.

of

immobilization

doxapram

tremors

was of reversal 34 min agent injection n = etor 1-50 min; 11). Supplemental was to attain (1 mg i.m.) satisfactory given

(range

Dodge

Hill, New

31.0

from

(Fort

with

or

10). Mean was

recumbency time median

47

to initial

to =

bency

of

dog

IMMOBILIZATION

experienced were treated

Early muses wide

of

reports in Africa of

variety

drug combination

a

including

analogue), and cinylcholine

on

of

isfactory

water.14 mals min.

Initial could

not

hyoscine when effects be

a combination and

the

animal

occurred handled

(a mor

hyoscine.1 used "without

HC1,

until

chlorpromazine is out of

at 30 min, approximately

a

used,

and

were gallamine and ultimately

morphine was recommended

hippopota and

capture, have been

thiambutene

phencyclidine

HC1,

field

combinations

phine

results,"

of

immobilizations

focused

but

Suc sat of

the ani 90


of

because

neous cardiac collapse" and the use of ported dine (0.35-0.55 mg/kg (0.11-0.24

in

popotamuses netting it onto

locating

water.11

the

animal A

was

acetylpromazine

This in

and

also

mended, not

do

of

4-5

become

cumbent

land.11 Atropine the block reportedly

He animal

rate

mortality

mg

300-400

50 mg) i.m. the narcotic

and

popotamuses.6 similar port,

of

to

that

of

Immobilization of

advantages to separate ability some exert control the

Two

captive over the

repeatedly was difference an

of

excitement

initial

the

animal

used

dose

animal of

in

during

inves

of

75-mm

the procedure.

A

a

for

on

the

calm, "very

15 mg

total

excited"). and

of

doses

captive hippopotamus animal died but the other hippopotamus and

Compromised

fought

re stren cardiac

the

folds.

frequent skin. For to use

a ini

of

Other

agents. needles of

the breaking the

are

prefer administration

for

large-bore

it is caudal

immediately between skin

KGM)

immobilization

potential with plugging at the hub of

syringes to the

can syringe re are not Barbed darts breakage. a non the thick skin easily retains needle

Taping

the

rates,

proved

While

the

low flow in

Sp02

well,

can trimming) sedation. good

and

the

in a dog-sitting and

in one

Sp02 rate

position,

frequently use The

the head may cross-tying a more noxious procedure, comes recumbent. fully saturation Hemoglobin two animals. Attempts

only

and

pro

with

oxy and

hippopotamus, IPPV instituting

other

minor

animal,

Insufflation

anesthesia.

during the the

the

ventilation/ produce to that seen in domes

probably similar

mismatch,

increasing

of

weight

recumbency

assisted

breathe

ace

reflect

procedures

com to be the most distress appears Respiratory mon immobiliza of and complication dangerous Low in recumbent animals. tion, respi especially

gen of

ani

although

a "prod pole" after entering

system

include

perfusion tic horses

degree

the

tough,

neck

just us (ECR,

of

dart

and

in

of

also

may of

creases

the

to or

needle.

etor

the

number

doses

is very the

with

used

propelled of tial doses

in

slight Amer

differences

limited

of most

on in

two

or are

with

immobilized.

and

reason,

ratory

"se

hip

that

report, or in excitement

reflect

lower

skin

to

dramatic

needed

supplemental

a period That of apnea. following a total of 10 mg ceived etorphine uously

ears

prevent because quired barbed needle.

immobi

phencyclidine

by two

did well,

was

animals

C02

the

conditions.

alone.12

depending dose when

followed was

field,

use

the

successfully

etorphine in total

combination

tylpromazine,

the

dermis,

recommended, the

environmental

of

total same

the

problems

did

In

contraceptive implant trimming, that underwent (cas surgeries the largest of received doses

enucleation)

of

longed

animal

(6 mg

when

etorphine, es.13 One

noted

tration,

ani

has hippopotamuses field capture, primarily from water and animal

were with

lized

(tooth

help

In

The

Animals

needles Long bent ly prior

hip re

etorphine, most

appeared of captive

in previous North The in range

report or the

nature

placement).

this

mg

hippopotamuses

agree

may

temperament immobilized.

performed

to

of

the

combination

were

doses

hippopotamuses

dation"

with

in this

doses

Hippopotamus thinner and softer

a 32.4%

the dose

half

contact

upon

drugs.10 adjunctive recommend routinely

number

immo

7-12

of

in Europe.9 resulted

studies.21013

nonnoxious

any

= 25 (total adult dose

the

tigators needles.610

An

(total

administration

etorphine

be

free-ranging a total adult = 2.5 |xg/kg) = dose adult

(dosage

azaperone

cir not

had 37

the

doses higher nine Nile hip

the

acetylpromazine, to one review

etorphine

or African

mals

"re

of in a limited number mortality recent African In a more South

prevent

without

etorphine

antagonist of fentanyl

Addition

and with

workers

and hyoscine

mg)

animals

approached

Other

with

recom

the

immobilized" be

immobilizing recommended They

in combination

estimated

doses

the present report generally used than those ly lower ican

the

effects.

phine animal

was that

when

hippopotamuses. of 1.5-2.0 dose

dose

for

in

suggested etorphine water before reach

can

is attained.

bilization

not

also

an

to fa

of

for

The doses used for the Nile

on

etorphine

"completely should

animals

cumspection."5 if the used

mal.6

mg

minimal

used

Total with

according immobilized

popotamus lower doses

of

hippopotamuses free-ranging the author cautioned but

1,360-kg

re

and

recommend

than were

successful

combination

drugs the hippopotamus, leading are contraindicated thus and '' immobilization.

veterinarians

etorphine

popotamuses.3489 in combination

hip

to be

concluded

death.

European of

and etorphine without recommended,

parasympatholytic reflex of sweating tal hyperthermia,

hippopotamus A dose

re

of

was

to anesthesia

due

cause

phencycli

the water

mixture

for hippopotamuses

elaboration,

was

MEDICINE

function

the morphine of sponta

and i.m.) acetylpromazine was for recommended

the

land.

cases

"several

and "drownings" a combination of

i.m.)

mg/kg

permitted

with

dissatisfaction

Subsequently, combination

OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE

JOURNAL

48

animal

im

monitored.

hippos

to

appear

(e.g., procedures be accomplished of local anesthetics

tooth under and

to begin workers permit an animal be before

data were

was made

available to monitor

for


saturation hemoglobin could liable readings were

levels large Given

on

one

not

be

other

with compatible immobilized

ungulates the low

Sp02

bilized hippopotamuses,

observed

with

potent

apnea

in the the

the tongue out as far

a problem some animals

be

visualized.

was

in

useful

distress. ear

the

locate;

common

site for venipuncture. of the foreleg may aspect In hippos this in lateral recumbency, on the found easily nondependent

the medial

is most

vessel leg. Overall, well.

because

however, were

tions

similar with

used

animal

in the

losses

may

saturation

help

and

explain

future.

hippopotamuses 1. Secure

the

If possible, or closure

2. Withold for

4.

crush

prior

for 5.

adult

gen

the

crease

i.m.

and

6. Have

to

immobilization.

water

hr, and withold

skin needles

folds, will

Longer in the rear legs. injections recumbent hippopotamuses

be

to intubate

prepared

emergency

the narcotic

pro in

drugs,

antagonist,

including readily

i.m.

deep

the ear, if possible

between

Zoot.

Ber. Erkg. 5. Harthoorn, Animals. Balliere Verh.

24:

125-130.

of The Chemical Capture Tindall, London, England. Pp. 206-208. 6. Henwood, R. R., and M. E. Keep. 1989. The cap ture and translocation of of hippopotamus by means 40: 30-38. immobilization. chemical Lammergeyer A. M.

1976.

of the narcotic A-3080 effects in impala {Ae physiologie Med. 24: 11-18. J. Zoo Wildl. pyceros melampus). 8. Jarofke, D. 1993. Hippopotamidae (Hippopotamus). In: Fowler, M. E. (ed.). Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Current 3. W B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Therapy

G?rten. T.

Verh.

1993.

Ber. Erkg.

Chemical

Support

and The

Services

Zoot.

heart

rate,

respiratory

25: 389-403.

of the hippo capture In: McKenzie, A. A. Decision

Wildlife

South African

Veterinary 571-575.

Foun

South Africa. dation, Pretoria, Pp. 11. Pienaar, U. D. V. immobilization 1967. The field and capture of hippopotamus {Hippopotamus amphibius in the aquatic environment. Koedoe 10: 149? Linnaeus)

in the

where be

required

with

if apnea

the

oxy occurs.

and doxapram available during

12. Reed, G. T 1978. adult hippo {Hippopotamus Zoo Vet. 1978: 150-153.

of

two

Proc.

Am.

Immobilization amphibius).

rate,

hemoglobin

captive Assoc.

M. K, 13. Stoskopf, and L. Bishop. Immobili 1978. am of two captive adult Nile hippo {Hippopotamus J. Zoo Anim. Med. 9: 103-107. phibius). zation

14. Van Adaptations marking National

Niekerk,

J. W,

and U.

de V. Pienaar.

of

the immobilizing technique and translocation of game animals Park. Koedoe 5: 1-7.

immobilization. 7. Monitor

Immo Berlin.

157. agent(s)

immobilizing

36: 333-335. Verh. Ber. Erkg. Zoot. 4. G?ltenboth, 1982. Die R., and H.-G. Kl?s. von Zootieren im Zoo und Narkose bilization

potamus Hippopotamus amphibius. and Care Manual. (ed.). The Capture

en

hippopotamuses.

is thinner.

Insufflate

pool to a small

i.m. should etorphine to surgical anesthesia

mg sedation

in the neck behind natural

any

the animal

75:

mus.

Zoologischen 10. Maritz,

or moat.

hr.

Administer

skin

from

away

2.0-6.0

heavy calm

most

animal

Nile

of

follows.

food for 24-48 of

duce

as

acclimatize

12-24

3. Doses

immobilization

for are

im

mixture for the thiambutene/phencyclidine/hysocine of topi and hippopotamus. Vet. Rec. mobilization 630-633.

Pennsylvania. Pp. 523-524. 9. Jarofke, D., and H.-G. Kl?s. 1983. Immobilisierung am von Flusspferden und Krankenheiten {Hippopotamus bei mehr als 100 einer Umfrage Auswertung phibius)

CONCLUSIONS Recommendations

P. Keen, D. The use of

J. P. Raath, S. W Me Janssen, D. L., G. E. Swan, V. de Vos, K. E. Williams, J. M. An J. L. Allen, and and T. H. Stanley. 1993. Immobilization derson,

gathering

hemoglobin

particularly hippopotamuses, and electrocardiography, avoid

The

CITED

1. Buck, N., P. Fry, C. Green, R. Gwynn, and H. Suddes. 1963. Pout, D. Presslard,

lanies,

data on all immobilized

of additional physiological

patterns

7.

is disconcerting, doses and precau

drug the animals.

all

went

immobilizations

hippopotamus loss of the one

The

and electrocardiographic immobilization.

in 2. Chaffee, P. S., and T. B. Eville. 1962. Dystocia a hippopotamus. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 140: 350. 3. Erken, A., P. Klaver, and M. T. Frankenhuis. 1994. and sterilization of an adult male Castration hippopota

was

obstruction

respiratory to difficult

experiencing were veins

on

vessel

following

that airway suggesting in this animal. Doxapram

Peripheral vein was the most A

ob prevented that developed endotracheal

animal

well

breathing

began

intubation,

One

wise.

49

LITERATURE

immo

Sp02 in future

animal

recumbent

airway.

throughout

narcotics.7

seems

One

saturation,

Sp02 in other

in the

monitoring

author (MRL) felt that pulling as possible struction of

The

those

immobilizations

hippopotamus

re

but

animal,

obtained.

measured

levels

IMMOBILIZATION

ET AL?HIPPOPOTAMUS

RAMSAY

Received

for

publication

24 May

1966.

1962.

to the capture, in the Kruger


Chemical Restraint  

Tests about stuff, i like tests

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