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FOOTBALL FOR BETTER HEALTH MANUAL FOR COACHES AND INSTRUCTORS HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND BASIC HYGIENE


JUNE 2018 EDITION ‘Football for Better Health’ has been developed and published by Fundación Red Deporte y Cooperación C/ Carlos Picabea, 1. 28250 Torrelodones, Madrid rdc@redeporte.org www.redeporte.org Compiled and written by Carlos de Cárcer With the support of Educational content: Yvan Bikambo, Nyam Zakari, Joachim Hervé, Josianne Nanga, Jakob Eric and Désire Bememe Physical training: Lorena Arellano Biomedical content: Irene Iniesta, Taiomara Fernández, Elías Puga, Carolina Andrade, Francisco Santos, Ana Lima, Noelia López and Sonia Rodríguez Global Health Data: Nikol Sarusova Illustrations: Elena Brunete, Zaloa García and Iván Bikambo Photographs: Red Deporte Design: Patricia Velilla Diez

This manual has been published with the support of FIFA Football For Hope

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.


PROLOGUE BY ANDRÉS INIESTA A WORLD CHAMPION IN AFRICA

“What I remember most about our arrival in South

Africa during the World Cup, was the warm welcome from the people. In Potchefstroom, where we had our base and trained, people rallied around us: they came out to the street with flags, singing to welcome us, and the hotel employees were very kind to us. Due to the discipline required of us, our time was very structured, and we did not have time for anything other than thorough preparation. We were only able to go out one day, for a safari, and little else. That was the second opportunity I had to be in Africa. A few years earlier, I was in Johannesburg for a friendly match. After the game, we were welcomed by Nelson Mandela and I remember it as a very nice, very special day. Being in the football World Cup in South Africa was also a great opportunity to meet teams from African countries. Their players have so much quality and are bringing tactics and strategies to the game that we ought to appreciate more in European clubs. On both occasions, I loved being in a continent I didn’t know. During the World Cup my sister, my brother-in-law, and my girlfriend visited. They were able to enjoy more of the very interesting places they visited in South Africa. That experience also helped me to reconnect with myself. Sport has been my passion since I was very young. I started playing football for Albacete at the age of eight, and for Barcelona at 12. Sport is my life and I realise that it is a very beautiful and special tool, which can take one everywhere and from which many rewards can be reaped. For this reason, I sincerely hope that the football World Cup has served Africa well. As footballers, we must always remember that first and foremost we are people, and that we must set a good example in everything, due to the social recognition that we enjoy. We have the power to reach many people, and we have to make the most of this, to convey a sense of normality in all that we do. I hope that this manual will help many coaches and instructors to use football to improve the health of the young, who have so much need of our help. And that it helps all sports lovers to discover more about the African continent, which is so welcoming to those who arrive at its borders and from which there are so many values we need to learn.” Andrés Iniesta

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HEALTH IN RED DEPORTE “At Red Deporte, we started work 20 years ago, guided by a vision: sport brings happiness, and this is a very interesting starting point to create opportunities.

At that time, sport had a barely visible presence in the development field. As we moved forward, we witnessed the enormous versatility of sport as a tool to improve education, health, integration or gender equality. However, this same versatility posed some dilemmas. For popular wisdom, health comes first, but in the development field, education is widely accepted as the key factor to prosperity. So, what should be our focus? Since both are essential, why not link them? And, what would be the most effective way to do this? Part of the answer is contained in this manual, since, in the case of young people, football is the perfect amalgam to combine health and education. In countries where 35% of young people are living with HIV, such as some African countries, the key to health is saying “no” to high-risk practices. If malaria is claiming thousands of lives around you, living in a safe, neighbourhood is vital. If washing our hands thoroughly avoids a million deaths a year, this simple gesture should become a daily obligation. In all these decisions, education is the key to health, affecting children and youngsters the most. Knowing what is at stake, ought we not adapt the context to effectively communicate our health educational message? It has been proven that knowledge complemented by excitement encourages learning. The manual you are holding is health wrapped in a football, a guarantee of excitement and thus a guarantee of better learning. Just as football is a team sport, health also resides in the community. Johann Cruyff claimed, ‘one chickpea does not make a stew’. In other words, no footballer wins a match alone and no one can win the battle for health alone. And this manual undoubtedly helps to build a team around health. We encourage you to use ‘Football for Better Health’ to build a healthier community, and on the way, enjoy football and each of the activities it proposes.”

Carlos de Cárcer Founder and Director Fundación Red Deporte y Cooperación

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO FOOTBALL FOR BETTER HEALTH

Aim of the manual Target Audience How to use the manual Why football? Where health resides Main health issues

8 9 10 11 12 13

CHAPTER 2

THE TRAINING SESION

Physical training

16

Warm-up activities (1-3)

19

Information about HIV/AIDS Activities: HIV/AIDS (4-9)

24 30

Information about Malaria Activities: Malaria (10-15)

37 42

Information about Basic Health Activities: Basic Health (16-21)

49 53

Activities to end a session (22-24)

59

How to prepare for a session

62

CHAPTER 3

PROJECT STAFF TEAM

The coach Profiles in a Football for Better Health programme Training and its multiplier effect

68 72 74

Data collection

76

CHAPTER 4

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 80 84 97

Global impact: HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Basic Health Information on other infectious diseases Glossary Football for Better Health Manual |

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FOOTBALL FOR BETTER HEALTH


AIM OF THE MANUAL “Football for Better Health” is a tool to promote health in the community, especially among children and young people, in an engaging and entertaining way.

CONVENTIONAL FOOTBALL  EXCLUSIVE

All sportsmen and women have experienced the benefits of exercise for physical and mental health. Also, as a means to connect with each other and reinforce our life skills and personal competencies. But the manual you are holding goes a step further, placing itself within the concept of sport for development, which consists of using sport as a tool to develop the community in terms of health, education or equality, amongst others. Although its use also contributes to perfecting football technique, this is not the main objective. Rather, it aims to strengthen the community against the threat of HIV, malaria and diseases linked to a lack of basic hygiene; and do all this in a close and attractive way for children and young people, especially for those who are growing up in more vulnerable situations.

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Priority: winning Economic focus Centres on talent for football

FOOTBALL FOR BETTER HEALTH  INCLUSIVE Priority: child and youth health Social and inclusive focus Centres on the community

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INTRODUCTION TO FOOTBALL FOR HEALTH

TARGET AUDIENCE Are you a football coach or instructor? Do you take part in sporting and educational activities in the community? Are you aware of the importance of health during childhood and adolescence? Many of you reading these lines will have responded yes to one or more of these questions. So, this manual may be of interest to you. Potentially this manual is aimed at football trainers, coaches, teachers, educators or outreach workers. It is also for health specialists interested in working with young people for health education. Among the multiple users, a trainer will be comfortable handling the technical aspects of football, but not so much the health terminology. On the other hand, a health worker who organises a Football for Better Health session will handle the healthcare terms with ease, but not so much the technicalsporting ones. Each user must identify their strengths and weaknesses and work on them. The manual user must meet two essential requirements: the desire to improve health and the enjoyment of working with children and young people.

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HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL This manual provides guidelines to easily organise a Football for Better Health session, creating an appropriate context for learning. It provides essential information on malaria, HIV/AIDS and basic hygiene, enabling instructors and coaches to use health concepts clearly. We must be aware that transmitting incorrect information in health matters can have very negative consequences. We have chosen these three areas as they have the greatest global impact, especially in developing contexts. Nevertheless, the appendixes provide extensive information on other highly relevant areas of health. The manual provides clear guidelines on how to condition the body to the training sessions, and to avoid injuries. The body and mind must be well prepared for exercise! The activities can be used alone. Example: a teacher who uses the manual to introduce some Football for Better Health activities in his or her sport’s teaching, without using any form of monitoring or evaluation.

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It could also be used as part of a more extensive health programme, which combines various components, including Football for Better Health sessions. Setting objectives and indicators, undertaking systematic monitoring of the activity. Evaluating the activity in a systematic way will depend, to a large extent, on whether the manual is used by an individual or by an organisation. An individual may not have the resources (time, money, power) to work in a complex way. If the manual is used by an organisation, they will have greater capacity to monitor and evaluate their work, following a model similar to that described in the Theory of Change. We encourage you to evaluate your activity, as much as possible, as you work. This manual also helps with this. And also to develop your own activities and be creative!

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Football is the most popular sport in the world. One of its secrets is the ease of playing: a ball and a pitch are enough. Football favours improvisation, adaptation and imagination; attributes not applicable to most other sports. Which African child has never played with a ball made from plastic bags? Who hasn’t played in the middle of the street or made use of anything as a goal?

We must take advantage of football, as a privileged tool it is, to give vital lessons on protection in the areas of HIV, malaria and basic health. Everything should be adapted to each age-group. A football is the perfect lure for children, young people and the not so young.

INTRODUCTION TO FOOTBALL FOR HEALTH

WHY FOOTBALL?

The figures back it up: football is the most popular sport on the planet. Globally, there are more FIFA members than states. The media has also helped its spread and popularity. The barrier to equality for boys and girls in football is also being torn down, little by little, although there is still much work to be done.

THE FOOTBALL PITCH: A SPACE TO PROMOTE HEALTH IN THE COMMUNITY

Conventional football practice

Educational activities on sports for development: discussion and learning space

Football and health festivals open to the community

Secure, risk-free environment for integrity

Guided practice: conditioning to avoid injury

Supplemented with medical check-ups and basic health care

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WHERE DOES HEALTH RESIDE? In recent decades we have moved from a health approach focused on the individual, to one more focused on the group, in which health is won or lost as a community. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines health as a holistic concept, understood as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Thus, incorporating the community and social spheres as important component of one’s health. Dahlgren and Whitehead divide the key factors that can cause health inequalities into five. Health determinants operate from the individual sphere, to social, environmental or socioeconomic conditions.

This manual is especially intended for use in vulnerable health contexts, where traditional health-care services such as clinics, health posts or pharmacies, are not accessible to everybody due to economic and physical issues, such as accessibility (distances, etc.). Therefore, a greater impetus is needed for the protection of health through education and in the community. Faced with the threat of disease, our attitude will be decisive for ourselves and the rest of the community. If we don’t keep our environment clean and free of mosquito outbreaks, everyone will be negatively affected by the spread of malaria. If we don’t want to know our HIV status, it will affect us and the people we have relationships or live with, producing a chain reaction. Thus, to a great extent, health resides in vulnerable environments, in a responsible attitude to social or environmental conditions or threats. Developing this attitude in a fun-filled sports environment is ideal. Adapting Dahlgren and Whitehead’s model to our area of action, it shows the sports environment is also a decisive space for health, from the individual sphere (physiological benefits) to the social (learning environment). Therefore, the sports field complements other spaces such as homes or school.

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In the activities proposed by this manual, HIV/ AIDS, malaria and basic health are addressed, as more serious threats in terms of health and youth development. However, the proposed activities can be adapted to educate and raise awareness about other diseases or threats that affect each community. For this it is essential to internalize and learn the basics well and to

HIV/AIDS

adapt the football exercise with imagination to each specific topic. At the end of the manual, in the chapter “Information on other Infectious Diseases”, the basic information on ten other key diseases in global and community health is exposed. The manual also provides in Chapter IV, detailed information on the global impact of HIV-AIDS, malaria and diseases associated with the lack of basic health.

MALARIA

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INTRODUCTION TO FOOTBALL FOR HEALTH

MAIN HEALTH TOPICS

BASIC HEALTH

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CHAPTER 2 THE TRAINING SESSION


PHYSICAL

TRAINING WHAT IS TRAINING?

HOW DO WE PLAN A TRAINING SESSION?

Training is the combination of actions we undertake with the aim of improving either our physical or mental performance. If we want to develop the sporting skills of a group of young people, training should include the following types of preparation:

Sometimes planning a training session can seem like a task of titanic proportions. However, it is much simpler if we follow the steps below: Warm-up Combination of exercises, ordered gradually, which help our body to prepare for the physical activity ahead and, moreover, improves our performance whilst reducing the risk of injury.

PHYSICAL

Main part of the training session TECHNICAL

MENTAL

In this way, full growth of the individual and team’s capacities can be achieved.

In this part, the main exercises and activities are carried out, designed to achieve the session’s key objective, whether it be developing our game as a team, improving our technique, or teaching us tactics to beat our rivals. The length of the session depends on the time available, however, it could last between 30 and 45 minutes. Cool-down: Whatever goes up must come down.

As instructors or players, we have to bear in mind that planning is a very important factor for football training - in order to be able to give our team a fun and enjoyable experience, trying to avoid the dreaded injuries. Each session should be designed in such a way that it is adapted to the skills and needs of our participants.

Just as when we throw a ball into the air it falls down, our body must return to the resting state it was in prior to training. We can achieve this through exercises of mild to moderate intensity and long stretches, which aim to relax our muscles. This part of the session may last between 5 and 10 minutes.

As a guide, we can ask ourselves the following questions: What do we want to achieve with the session? What is its objective?

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GUIDE TO WARM-UP EXERCISES

1

GENERAL WARM-UP • Cardiovascular warm-up • Joint mobility

2

3 STRETCHING

TARGETED WARM-UP

• Here we can tailor the players’ work towards the session’s objective

• Short stretches of mild intensity, which never cause muscular pain

LA PREPARACIÓN FÍSICA

1. GENERAL WARM-UP 5-8 MINUTES Exercises are carried out with the aim of preparing the joints and muscles for the activity ahead. Cardiovascular This means warming up so that the muscles reach a minimum temperature, to be able to do the warm-up for joint mobility. - Continuous running - Zig zag runs - Running with changes of direction - Jumps - High knees Kickbacks - Run and touch the ground with both hands - Run back and touch the ground again - Finally, slow walking Joint mobility This is about warming up the different parts of the body more quickly. It involves movement of the joints in a logical order, either ascending or descending (ankles, knees, hips, shoulders, etc.) - Circular movements, moving the head up and down (yes-no) and side to side - Circular movements with the feet, arms and hips - Knee rotations from one side to the other

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2. TARGETED WARM-UP 10-15 MINUTES This prepares the part of the body we are going to use for a specific activity. - Short passes in pairs - Longer passes in pairs - Shots on goal - Setting up shots on goal - Headers

3. STRETCHING 2-3 MINUTOS Short stretches of mild intensity, which never cause muscular pain.

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Psoas

Adductors

Quadriceps

Shoulders

Triceps

Back

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ACTIVITIES TO START THE TRAINING SESSION 1. MOBILITY EXERCISES 2. ESCAPE FROM THE VIRUS! 3. BALLS IN THE HOUSE


1

MOBILITY EXERCISES

TOPIC

GAME DEVELOPMENT

Motor skills, understanding, communication and positioning for children.

• First variation: the participants form a wide circle and the instructor stands in the middle. In a loud voice, the instructor calls out a colour and all the children wearing t-shirts of (mainly) that colour must run to the centre, touch the instructor, and then return to their places. The last to get back, or anyone who gets the colour wrong, is out. The game continues until only one person is left.

YOU NEED... • No equipment necessary

!

TOP TIP

An interesting exercise to work on the little children’s attention, with the aim of improving their capacity for learning during the exercises.

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• Second variation: when the coach says “left”, all the children raise their left hand; when he says “right” they raise their right hand. These instructions are called at random. Whoever makes a mistake, or raises their hand last, is out, until there is only one person left. • Third variation: The instructor says “up”, and the children stand up. When he says “down” they squat. These instructions are called at random. Whoever makes a mistake or is last, is out, until there is only one person left.

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SCAPE FROM THE VIRUS!

TOPIC Team spirit and team play

YOU NEED... • Balls • Bibs

TOP TIP

The exercise can be carried out in the centre circle of a football pitch. The game can be varied, those with bibs are the mosquitoes that transmit malaria. Some brief information on malaria or basic hygiene can be given at the end of the exercise.

GAME DEVELOPMENT The players start jogging in a designated area. The coach gradually introduces the following variations: • 1st Variation: Two players each hold a bib, they are the germs and they chase the others. Whoever they touch becomes contaminated and starts chasing the others. The player who was a germ becomes healthy and starts being chased.

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

!

• 2nd Variation: if a team mate crosses their path during the chase, the player who is being chased goes free and can no longer be contaminated. • 3rd Variation: Two balls are brought onto the pitch and whoever has the ball cannot be contaminated either. Normally the warmup is very lively and ends up being exciting as the variations are introduced.

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3

BALLS IN THE HOUSE!

TOPIC

GAME DEVELOPMENT

Communication and playing as a team.

One team takes one half of the pitch and owns all the balls. On the coach’s signal, the players from the other team try to win the balls and take them to their half of the pitch. When the coach signals, the game is stopped, and the team with the most balls in their half wins.

YOU NEED... • Bibs • Balls

!

TOP TIP

When the excer.

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ACTIVITIES FOR HIV/AIDS EDUCATION * INFORMATION ON HIV/AIDS 4. PROTECTION FOR THE COMMUNITY 5. HIV AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 6. BLIND FOOTBALL 7. PLAYING WITH YOUR HEAD 8. DODGE HIV 9. YOUR SKILL AGAINST HIV


HIV/AIDS WHAT IS HIV?

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of the infection caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), in which the immune system becomes severely damaged, reducing the body’s capacity to combat some infections and other diseases. The virus attacks and destroys a type of cell, the white cells of the immune system (CD4 cells or CD4 lymphocytes), which try to fight against infection.

HOW IS THE HIV VIRUS TRANSMITTED? The HIV virus is transmitted in several ways. Through the blood: due to the shared use of needles, blades, scissors or other sharp objects in everyday use. Also, through blood transfusions done without due control.

Body fluids typical of sexual contact: semen or vaginal fluid. Having unprotected sex is the most common form of transmission.

When the viral load is very high and our body’s capacity for immune system response is reduced to below minimum, we are diagnosed as having AIDS.

Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth or breast feeding: Natural childbirth can produce large amounts of blood, which can come into contact with the newborn’s blood. Therefore, most pregnant women with HIV give birth via cesarean section.

HOW DOES THE IMMUNE SYSTEM WORK IN RELATION TO HIV?

Breast milk can also transmit the HIV virus; therefore, children should be fed with formula milk, or breastfeeding should be delegated to another mother who does not have HIV.

Faced with the invasion of pathogens in our bodies, such as viruses, bacteria or parasites, our immune system activates the immune response via the white blood cells responsible for this task. The HIV virus neutralises this response by destroying the CD4 and CD8 in our cells, which it then continues contaminating and destroying.

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Kisses, hugs, sweating, shaking hands, doing sport, living with a person with HIV, sharing everyday objects (except those mentioned as “risky”) or work space, breath, contact with pets or mosquitoes.

CAN YOU CATCH HIV WHEN DOING SPORT?

• The use of condoms: especially important for people who have casual relations or multiple partners. Condoms provide protection, though not 100%, due to the risk of breaking or defects in their manufacture. They avoid other sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis or gonorrhea. The condom should be put on before sexual relations begin, not at an intermediate stage, as contact with fluids, as little as it may be, can be sufficient to transmit HIV.

No, contact during sporting activity through sweat, fouls, or kicks, does not spread HIV. Nevertheless, if an open wound occurs, it should be covered, the bleeding stopped (whether the person has HIV or not), the player rested or attended to by a doctor. The contact of blood with sweat does not transmit HIV.

WHAT CAN I DO, FACED WITH THE RISK OF CONTRACTING HIV? These are three most common attitudes: • Abstinence: not having sexual relations

ALCOHOL AND DRUGS - INDIRECT MEANS OF TRANSMISSION

• Faithfulness: does not completely eliminate the risk of contracting HIV, but it does reduce it. It is recommended that sexually active people who start a relationship, go together to be tested for HIV and also collect the results together.

Alcohol and drugs do not transmit HIV in themselves. Nevertheless, consuming drugs or alcohol reduces the perception of risk in unprotected relations. Therefore, they indirectly become a very negative factor in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

INFORMATION ON HIV/AIDS

HOW IS IT NOT TRANSMITTED?

SHOULD I TELL MY PARTNER IF I HAVE HIV? AND AT WORK? A person who is infected with HIV, and is aware of his/her status, must inform the persons they are going to have sexual relations with. There are countries in which not doing so may be considered a crime. People with HIV are not obliged to declare it to their company or place of work. The National Health Service of each country has a confidential register of patients with HIV/AIDS.

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HOW DO I FIND OUT IF I HAVE HIV? IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW? Knowing whether you have HIV or not, is crucial. And the sooner the better. The test is normally free, painless and instant - in other words, you can find out the results the same day. It would be extremely irresponsible to not take a HIV test, due to fear, taboos or any other pretext, especially for people who are sexually active.

WHAT HAPPENS IF MY TEST IS POSITIVE? The first thing you should do is entrust yourself to the care of your doctor. Normally you will undergo a second analysis, which will confirm or refute the results of the first test. If the result is different to the first, you will have to do a third test. If a positive is confirmed, you will have to follow your doctor’s instructions on the future of your treatment. In addition, you will be able to receive help and advice from therapists, so that you can confront, as best as possible, the fact you have HIV. Your doctor will be responsible for clinical monitoring, whilst therapists will be of great help in many practical and psychological aspects caused by being HIV positive.

AFTER TAKING THE TEST, IF IT IS NEGATIVE, WHAT SHOULD I DO?

There are two compelling reasons for this: • The first is that in the situation of being HIV positive and not knowing, we run a greater risk of transmitting the virus to our sexual partner, especially if we have unprotected relations. • The second is that, in case of being positive, it is very important to start taking the medication as soon as possible, as this will decrease the replication of HIV and the negative effects on our body. This is known as early diagnosis (taking the test, as soon as possible) and early treatment (starting to take the medication as soon as possible).

A negative result need not be definitive, as there is what is called the window period. During this period, you can be a carrier of HIV, yet test negative. The window period begins in the moment just after infection and varies between 2 and 12 weeks, depending on the test and the person. Because of this, when the test is negative, a confirmation test should be taken, six months after the first. Circumcision in men Voluntary male circumcision is a complementary measure to avoid contracting HIV. There are 14 countries in which this intervention is promoted (Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Circumcised men are less likely than uncircumcised men to contract HIV.

If you have a new partner, it is highly recommended to go together to take the test and also to collect the results. These are available almost instantaneously. Not talking about HIV is an irresponsible attitude. There is a great deal at stake.

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AIDS is not a curse or a “divine punishment” for having behaved reprehensibly. According to scientists, HIV comes from a type of chimpanzee from Central Africa. It is believed that the version of the immunodeficiency virus in chimpanzees (called Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, or SIV) was transmitted to humans and mutated to HIV when people came into contact with their infected blood when hunting them for meat. This happened many years ago (at the end of the nineteenth century) and in a matter of decades HIV spread through Africa and then to other parts of the world. Later, it was the city of San Francisco in 1980 where the first cases were identified, of a disease that was then unknown and would come to be known as AIDS. The first cases were among homosexuals, drug addicts (due to sharing syringes) and haemophiliacs (people who have problems with blood coagulation). This is one of the reasons “divine punishment” was talked about.

IS THERE A VACCINE AGAINST HIV? Till date, no. Much effort has been dedicated to research, but to date, this has not produced results of acceptable minimum efficacy.

CAN ANYONE HAVE HIV/AIDS? Yes, anyone. In fact, appearances can easily be deceptive. HIV/AIDS does not know economic status, social class, profession, age, physical appearance and other factors. Anyone can be a carrier of the virus. A successful business man, a nurse, a beautiful girl who works as a secretary, a lorry driver, and of course, children who have not had sexual relations but who have contracted HIV during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.

DOES LIVING WITH PEOPLE WITH HIV/AIDS PRESENT A RISK TO MY HEALTH? No, as long as some minimum and easily tolerable guidelines are followed, such as being vigilant when sharing sharp objects or with personal hygiene and using protection in sexual relations. EXTERNAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS has three stages, common in most people. STAGE 1 - ACUTE INFECTION Between 2 and 4 weeks after infection. Symptoms are similar to flu: head and muscle pain, sore throat, night sweats, fatigue or weakness. There are people with HIV who do not present these symptoms. People who have recently been infected are very contagious because the virus multiplies rapidly inside the body. STAGE 2 - LATENT OR ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION In other words, although they have the virus, they do not have any symptoms, but they can still spread HIV to others. Without treatment, this stage usually lasts about 10 years or more, although it may be less for some people.

INFORMATION ON HIV/AIDS

HAT IS THE ORIGIN OF HIV/AIDS? IS IT A CURSE?

STAGE 3 - AIDS. This is the final and most severe stage of HIV infection. The most common symptoms are chills, fever, swollen lymph nodes, redness on the body, sores and pustules in different parts of the body. It is very difficult to recover from common infections and patients experience progressive weakness and thinness. The immune system is so damaged that serious illnesses such as tuberculosis, serious infections or cancers take hold. People with AIDS may have a very high viral load and be very contagious. Without treatment, people with AIDS typically survive about 3 years.

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OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS

WHAT DOES THE TREATMENT INVOLVE?

Once our immune system is severely damaged by the lack of CD4 lymphocytes, it is much easier for diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis and other infections to appear and cause severe damage to our body. Finally, these opportunistic infections can cause death.

Nowadays, the treatment is simply taking medication daily, known as antiretrovirals. It is very important to take them every day at the same time. They must be taken for life.

IF I’M A CARRIER OF HIV, AM I “SENTENCED TO DEATH”? No. Years ago, having AIDS meant certain death. Research has been key to overcoming this fact. Today, if the treatment is followed properly, we can prolong our lives indefinitely, and quite possibly end up dying of a cause not related to AIDS.

WHO CAN HELP ME TO COPE WITH THE NEWS OF HAVING HIV? Discovering oneself to be HIV positive is difficult to come to terms with, and it can cause serious psychological trauma. Not only due to the important change in lifestyle - from that day on the person should strictly adhere to their daily intake of medication - but due to the taboos that still exist in the community regarding this disease. Therefore, family support is fundamental. The infected person is unfairly associated with promiscuity, irresponsibility or unfaithfulness; there are many cases of women who have contracted HIV from their husband, who has had unprotected relations outside of his marriage. Therefore, it is so important to entrust oneself to expert advisors and share and learn from the experience of people who have been through the same situation.

IS IT VERY EXPENSIVE, DO I HAVE TO PAY FOR IT? In many countries the treatment is free. Nowadays, through health institutions, and especially through NGOs, governments freely provide antiretrovirals for HIV.

WHAT ELSE SHOULD I DO DURING TREATMENT? It is very important to follow an adequate diet, varied and rich in nutrients, so that your body is wellnourished and strong against possible external threats. It is also necessary to sleep well and not submit the body to a heavy workload, which doesn’t mean that you can’t work with some normality.

HOW DOES THE HIV VIRUS AFFECT PREGNANCY? Today, with adequate treatment, a HIV positive woman can have children and considerably reduce the risk of them being born with HIV. She should go to her doctor to plan the pregnancy. As a carrier of HIV (her, her partner or both of them) will be

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administered antiretroviral drugs, in order to reduce the viral load to within allowable limits that prevent, to the extent possible, the child being born with HIV. If she is already taking treatment, she will continue with this; if HIV is detected during the pregnancy, or she has not had treatment, it will be started. If a HIV negative woman has a HIV positive partner, it is not necessary to take preventive treatment. When the load is low, the doctor will give the green light to be able to get pregnant.

WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY?

All pregnant women should take the HIV test before, during and at the end of their pregnancy. If the woman was HIV positive before the pregnancy, she is less likely to pass HIV to the child. Among other factors, because it is very possible that she was taking the treatment before and during the pregnancy.

Statistics tells us that the most critical age for HIV infection is 15-24 years old. During this stage the majority of young people feel drawn to football. Our favourite activity can be an excellent educational tool to inform young people about HIV/AIDS. In the case of sub-Saharan Africa, only about 20% have a clear idea of what HIV/AIDS is and how it is prevented or transmitted. Through instructors and educators, as well as their own team mates, what is called “peer education�, we can build a strong community against HIV/AIDS, and also have fun in the process.

INFORMATION ON HIV/AIDS

FOOTBALL AND HIV

TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Traditional medicine can neither cure nor prevent HIV/AIDS. Many people have been deceived and defrauded, and what is worse, believing themselves to be cured of HIV, have had sexual relations with others again, without informing them, putting their lives at risk and increasing the spread of the disease.

LIES ABOUT HIV/AIDS Having relations with a virgin cures AIDS. The man washing the pubic area after having unprotected relations prevents the transmission of HIV.

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4

PROTECTION FOR THE COMMUNITY

• A ball for every set of two players • Cones

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Shooting  Dribbling  Managing the ball

!

TOP TIP

It is a very fun game and it takes at least one hour. Players are asked to shoot the ball below waist-height to avoid injuring the player who is dribbling the ball. ···

GAME DEVELOPMENT • The players form two teams. Team one makes two separate lines about 12 meters apart. Each player has a ball and moves 5 meters away from their team mates. • Each player in team two dribbles the ball down the corridor that has been created. As they advance, the players in team one shoot their balls. If it hits the player from team two, he is eliminated. • If the player reaches the end without being hit, he can dribble the ball and shoot at the goal. If he scores, his team wins a point. Both teams alternate the roles. • In a second variation, a player is placed on each side of the one who is dribbling the ball, in order to provide protection from balls trying to touch him. Now the player will have a much greater chance of reaching the end of the corridor and earning a point for his team.

REPRESENTATION OF HIV

DISCUSSION

Once the exercise is finished, the players are asked how they felt. Normally they express that they found it much easier to play protected and thus avoid being touched by the ball (the virus). This opens up a discussion about the importance of community as a factor for protection.

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This activity emphasises the importance of the community in the fight against HIV/AIDS

PHASE ONE

YOU NEED...

TOPIC

PHASE TWO

10 - 12 players 11+ years old

The ball represents the HIV virus that tries to infect each player. If the player goes alone, he is likely to be infected. If the player is protected by the community, he has a much greater chance of reaching the goal.

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HIV AND THE INMUNE SYSTEM

YOU NEED...

• A football ball

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Shooting  Ball control  Passing  Blocking

!

TOP TIP

To better understand the game, the player who represents HIV and the immune system can wear a bib that indicates their condition and differentiates them.

···

DISCUSSION

At the end of the practical task, the importance of having a strong immune system to protect ourselves against different threats, such as HIV, is discussed. You can talk about the importance of proper eating habits and the regular practice of sports to strengthen our immune system. How HIV/AIDS attacks the immune system and how its effects are manifested are explained.

TOPIC How the immune system works to protect us from HIV. GAME DEVELOPMENT • The players are germs and form a circle, and another player, who represents a human, stands in the middle. • A player representing the immune system is positioned next to the human. Both are surrounded by germs, who will try to hit the human with the ball. The human is not allowed to move, trusting that the immune system protects him and will block the ball thrown at him by the germs. • Subsequently, a new player, representing HIV, enters to change everything. HIV blocks the immune system. Previously it was agile, fast and efficient, but now it does not find it easy to move and protect the human. The germs have much less problems hitting the human, due to the blocking action of the HIV.

ACTIVITIES: HIV/AIDS

8+ players 8+ years old

REPRESENTATION OF HIV In this activity, a second player can be introduced to block the immune system, representing AIDS. In this stage of the HIV infection, the blocking of the immune system is much more effective. You can also introduce a second player who protects the human, representing “treatment”, which strengthens the immune system and protects it against the attacks of the germs.

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6

BLIND FOOTBALL 12 - 24 players 11+ years old

YOU NEED...

• Balls • Scarves • Strips of cloth or eye masks

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Shooting  Positioning  Passing

!

TOPIC Effective communication about HIV/AIDS. GAME DEVELOPMENT • A game of football is played in which each player holds onto a team mate, whose eyes are blindfolded, and who will have to be guided by his team mate’s instructions. These should be clear, given sufficiently in advance, to avoid collisions and facilitating their inclusion in the game. After a while, both players switch roles. The goalkeepers can see and are not tied to any team mate. • The session can begin with a positioning exercise. The players form two lines, one in front of the other one. Players must leave a space of three metres between each other. Each player who can see, uses his hands and words to position the blindfolded player in front of him, so he dribbles the ball up to the first.

TOP TIP

A goal by a blindfolded player can be worth two points, further encouraging effective communication. ···

DISCUSSION

At the end of the activity, the importance of talking about HIV, knowing your own status and that of your partner, going together to take the test are discussed. The importance of communicating effectively and maintaining an attitude of active listening.

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REPRESENTATION OF HIV The blindfolded player represents the young people at risk of HIV. Many are afraid to take the HIV test, they do not have a clear idea of the means of transmission or have a wrong perception of the risk. The players who are guiding represent coaches and educators, who must communicate effectively on HIV/AIDS: promoting responsibility, teaching the means of transmission and the importance of knowing one’s HIV status.

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PLAYING WITH YOUR HEAD 12 - 30 players 11+ years old

TOPIC Rational decision making when facing with HIV.

YOU NEED...

• Football balls • Cones • Bibs in three colours

 Heading the ball  Short and long passes  Defence  Getting away from your marker

!

TOP TIP

Practical tasks with a double value: preventing HIV and avoiding contact with alcohol and drugs.

DISCUSSION

The importance of making rational decisions regarding HIV/AIDS. Assessing whether alcohol and drugs decrease our capacity for rational decision-making.

GAME DEVELOPMENT • First of all, a warm-up is carried out in which the ball is passed with the head without it touching the ground, in groups of two, then three, and up to four players. The level of difficulty can be increased (depending on the skill of the participants), and the ball driven from one area to another, without touching the ground.

ACTIVITIES: HIV/AIDS

FOOTBALL SKILLS

• Finally, a match is created with three goals, three teams and without goalkeepers. Each team must defend a goal, being able to score in the other two, only with the head. • Variation: The two who are best at passing will position themselves in the outer area, heading the ball to the players whose team deliver them the ball. These players can’t be touched. REPRESENTATION OF HIV “Playing with your head” is a slogan that represents making rational decisions in the face of HIV/AIDS. Conscious and rational decisions are the opposite of those taken without weighing up the consequences. Playing with the head represents a responsible and well-informed young person, who avoids high-risk behaviours in the face of infection, or who adequately follows AIDS treatment.

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8

DODGE HIV 8 - 24 players 8+ years old

YOU NEED... • Balls • Cones

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Dribbling  Overflow  Dribbling  Reflexes ···

DISCUSSION

What attitude is needed in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

!

TOP TIP

The number of stations can be increased or reduced. It is interesting that the goalkeeper’s bib shows the attitude that he represents

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TOPIC Different behaviours to avoid the risk of HIV GAME DEVELOPMENT Four stations are set up in the shape of a cross. The attacking player must go around each one, beating the goalkeeper. • First station: the goalkeeper, sits down between the cones, he can move his legs to defend, but without getting up. • Second station: the goalkeeper waits on his knees, he is able to move his legs, but without getting up. • Third station: the goalkeeper waits lying face down and looking ahead. When the attacker is within three metres, he can stand up and defend by moving freely. • Fourth station: the player faces two goalkeepers, who wait, being allowed total freedom of movement. REPRESENTATION OF HIV Each station represents a type of high-risk behaviour regarding HIV. Scoring a goal represents beating HIV. First station, abstinence: those who practise it avoid infection with almost total security. Second, faithfulness: it is essential to prevent infection, but, even so, it is not guaranteed. Third, use condoms: it helps to avoid transmission, but also carries risks. Fourth, unprotected relations. It is very difficult to avoid infection.

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YOUR SKILLS AGAINST HIV

YOU NEED... • Balls

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Control and protection of the ball  Skill (Considered as “skill” when a player is able to take more than three touches of the ball without it touching the ground).

!

TOPIC Being in an attitude of alertness against the threat of HIV/AIDS. GAME DEVELOPMENT • One player faces another and must move the ball using an individual skill (more than three touches). This step lasts 1 minute. • On the coach’s signal, the ball goes to the ground and the player who has possession must protect it (preferably with the leg farthest from the opponent). The team mate pressures him for 10 seconds. • The coach gives the signal and the tasks begins again with the first step.

ACTIVITIES: HIV/AIDS

4+ players 9+ years old

TOP TIP

Can be played with three players, and the one who has the ball must defend himself from the other two. ···

DISCUSIÓN

The instructor should lead the discussion towards what skills are needed to fight HIV (life skills). The importance of not letting your guard down or avoiding indirect risks of HIV (alcohol, drugs, disordered life).

REPRESENTATION OF HIV The skill represents all that we learn about HIV/AIDS and how to protect ourselves. Defending the ball is a reference to the need to be permanently on guard in the face of the threat of HIV.

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ACTIVITIES FOR MALARIA EDUCATION * INFORMATION ABOUT MALARIA 10. RISK FACTOR, PROTECTION FACTOR 11. SAFE ZONE 12. GET OUT MOSQUITOES! 13. GREAT GOAL AGAINST MALARIA! 14. UP PROTECTION! DOWN MOSQUITOES! 15. CATCH THE TREATMENT!


As the parasite lives in a person’s blood, malaria can be transmitted from one person to another through organ transplantation, sharing of needles/syringes and blood transfusions. Malaria belongs to the group of diseases transmitted by vectors. Vectors are living organisms, such as mosquitoes, flies, ticks, fleas, etc., which are capable of transmitting infectious diseases between people, or from animals to people. Many do this by ingesting the pathogenic microorganisms present in the blood of an infected carrier (person or animal), to then transmit these to a new host, who will contract the disease. The vector for malaria is the Anopheles mosquito.

WHAT IS MALARIA?

HOW MALARIA IS NOT TRANSMITTED Through food, or drinking water. If there is no mosquito, malaria cannot be transmitted just by being near to someone who is infected. You can sleep next to an infected person (both protected by a mosquito net) without risk of infection through just coughs or sneezes.

INFORMATION ABOUT MALARIA

MALARIA

nectar from flowers and does not bite people. Somebody who is infected with malaria puts their family and those they live with at risk, as a mosquito may feed on their blood, which is contaminated with parasites, and afterwards bite a healthy person, thus transmitting the parasites and therefore the disease. An infected mother can also transmit malaria to her baby, before or during the birth. This is called congenital malaria.

CAN MALARIA BE TRANSMITTED BY DOING SPORT?

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite (called Plasmodium) that is transmitted from person to person through mosquito bites (from the Anopheles mosquito), which lives in areas with water, such as pools, marshes, alongside streams and rivers, stagnant water or drinking troughs for animals. There are five different species of the Plasmodium parasite. The main one is the Plasmodium falciparum, and this is also the one that causes the most deaths on a global scale.

HOW MALARIA IS TRANSMITTED?

Playing sport with people who are infected with malaria does not carry any risk. Even if it is a contact sport, like football or basketball.

WHICH ANIMALS TRANSMIT MALARIA? Malaria is only transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. Rats, flies, cats, dogs or other species of mosquito or insect, do not transmit malaria.

IS THERE A VACCINE AGAINST MALARIA?

Malaria is transmitted by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito, which feeds on blood to nourish their eggs. It is when the female mosquito sucks human blood, that she transmits the Plasmodium parasite. The male mosquito feeds on

Till date, no. Many trials have been carried out, but the most successful have not immunized more than 50% of the population used to test the vaccine. The trials that were the closest to obtain a vaccine against

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malaria were carried out by Dr. Patarroyo in the early 90s.

DOES A PREVENTIVE MEDICINE EXIST? Preventive medicine does not totally avoid malaria, but it does help to considerably reduce the effects if the disease is contracted. Depending on the medicine taken, side effects can include, amongst others, ringing in the ears, headaches, or if taken for a long period of time, liver damage. People living in areas where malaria is endemic do not take it. For those travelling to an endemic area for a period of time, it is not normally recommended to take the medicine for more than three months. WHAT IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY TO PROTECT ONESELF AGAINST MALARIA?

it is night time, to stop mosquitoes from entering the house. • The mosquito is more active in the early morning and the final hours of daylight. Be more aware at those times, cover your arms and legs, if necessary, to avoid bites. IN YOUR COMMUNITY • Avoid water being left to stagnate, so that mosquitoes can’t grow and multiply. • Avoid being in places where many mosquitoes are concentrated, such as by exterior night light • Keep your home and your neighbourhood clean, avoiding puddles and insanitary areas, which mosquitoes like. • Informing and raising awareness about malaria, with your football team, family and friends • If you have malaria, follow the instructions given for treatment.

Sleeping beneath a mosquito net. This can last for a maximum period of three years. Then, it needs to be replaced with a new one, as often small tears appear, and it gets worn out, which allows mosquitoes to come in through any gaps. The mosquito net can be treated with insecticide as an added measure. Ways of avoiding infection: AT HOME • Sleeping beneath a mosquito net. • Not sleeping outdoors without being protected by a net (no matter how hot it is). • Avoiding leaving windows and doors open once

The mosquito needs an environment with water to flourish; therefore, more cases of malaria occur during the rainy season and immediately after. It is very important to avoid tyres with water collected inside, puddles, uncovered containers of water in the home, rubbish, and offal. Keep your home, neighbourhood and school clean. Mosquitoes love dirt and stagnant water!

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA? Headache, muscle and joint pain, feeling weak, fever or temperature, fatigue. The symptoms usually appear 10 to 15 days after being bitten by the mosquito and can be mistaken for those of flu. In general, the

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IF I HAVE MALARIA CAN I GO TO SCHOOL? When you have malaria, it is very important to rest, which helps to reduce the risks of complications associated with this disease. The treatment prescribed by the health centre or hospital must be followed faithfully. Apart from taking medication, it is advisable to eat properly and rest. In addition, going to school when ill increases the risk of exposure for classmates.

CAN MALARIA CAUSE DEATH?

the mother and child. The medicines are not harmful for children, pregnant women, or unborn babies. The problems that may be caused by malaria are much more damaging and dangerous.

WHAT DOES THE TREATMENT FOR MALARIA INVOLVE? It is necessary to continue treatment as directed by your health centre, and if in any doubt to consult your doctor, nurse, or authorised health worker. It is very important to complete the whole course of treatment: taking all the tablets over three days, although you may see improvement before. While the treatment is being followed, continue to rest, and avoid over exertion.

Malaria may cause death if it is not treated quickly and properly. There is a type of malaria called “cerebral malaria”, in which the parasite lodges in the brain. If not treated in time, this type of malaria can be deadly, as has happened in many cases. Early diagnosis (taking the test at the first sign of symptoms) and early treatment (once the test is positive, taking the medication as soon as possible) is the most effective way of avoiding major complications.

INFORMATION ABOUT MALARIA

symptoms and discomfort, are milder in the morning, and more acute in the afternoon and evening.

Anyone, once they notice the first symptoms, must go to the health centre or post to be tested for malaria and get treatment quickly (within 24 hours).

FOR WHICH GROUPS IS MALARIA MORE DANGEROUS? Small children, especially under the age of 5, have a very high risk of contracting malaria, since they are not aware of their own danger and do not easily remember their parent’s warnings. In addition, as their immune system is not very developed, their body cannot fight the disease and they can die because of it. Malaria is very dangerous for pregnant women (especially from the 4th to the 9th months inclusive) and the unborn baby. It can cause major complications in the pregnancy, and even the possibility of death of

Malaria is not cured by rest alone. If the tablets are vomited, others must be taken, and you must go to get more tablets to complete the course of treatment. Untreated or poorly treated malaria can become malaria with complications, which requires hospitalisation and specific treatment since it is very dangerous and can cause death.

CAN I DELAY OR SKIP THE MALARIA TREATMENT? If the test is positive, complete medication must be taken. Go to the dispensary, health post or hospital closest to your community. To facilitate the treatment, there are tablets that must be taken for three consecutive days.

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CAN THE TRADITIONAL DOCTOR CURE ME OF MALARIA? The traditional doctor does not cure malaria. Many claim to have remedies to prevent it or cure it. While they may have substances that alleviate the symptoms, the only effective treatment is to go to your health centre or hospital to receive conventional treatment. Balms, creams or ointments do not protect effectively against malaria. There are no useful “charms� to prevent malaria. Nor are there drinks which are specially prepared to avoid mosquito bites. Medicines based on natural products are neither effective nor sufficient to combat malaria.

WHY DO SOME PEOPLE NEVER HAVE MALARIA AND OTHERS HAVE IT VERY OFTEN? Malaria reacts differently depending on the person (in reality this happens with all diseases, but with malaria, if possible, even more). There are people who develop a much greater resistance to contracting malaria due their immune system or their lifestyle (diet, rest, etc.). In areas of high transmission, natural immunity develops more easily. There are different types of parasite in the various areas of the world where malaria is endemic (subSaharan Africa, Central America, South America, southeast Asia, amongst others). The most dangerous is in sub-Saharan Africa.

IS IT IMPORTANT TO TAKE THE MALARIA TEST? Taking the test, and as soon as possible; is essential. Early diagnosis and early treatment is the most effective way to avoid further complications, once you have malaria.

HOW IS THE TEST DONE? Malaria is diagnosed by observing the parasite under a microscope or by a rapid diagnostic test. If the test is negative, but you still notice symptoms of malaria, you should repeat it within 24 hours. Nowadays, the malaria test is through laboratory testing or through a simple kit, which is easy to use and provides the result almost immediately. In many cases, the test is free, or has a minimal cost.

DOES MALARIA CURE ITSELF? You can have malaria without realising, since the symptoms can be confused with flu, for example. If the symptoms appear, you must go to the doctor or Health Centre, to take the test. If malaria is diagnosed, follow the prescribed treatment strictly.

HOW MALARIA AFFECTS PREGNANT WOMEN Malaria can seriously affect the foetus, causing malformation and even miscarriage. It is advisable for pregnant women who live in highly endemic areas to get tested as soon as they have any identifiable symptom of malaria. It seems that pregnant women get up more often during the night to urinate and therefore are more exposed to mosquito bites. There is a specific prevention programme for pregnant women, known as intermittent preventive treatment, which consists of administering

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a specific tablet at each prenatal visit from the first trimester. The woman takes the tablet at the health centre during the prenatal visit.

WHAT HAPPENS IF I HAVE HIV AND I CONTRACT MALARIA?

WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? • Communicate your knowledge about the disease to others. • If you see puddles in the street, or areas of stagnant water, mobilize your friends to drain it or remove it.

INFORMATION ABOUT MALARIA

Malaria is an opportunistic disease, and there is an additional high risk of contracting malaria for HIV/ AIDS patients. Therefore, HIV/AIDS carriers must be much more vigilant against malaria.

• Sleep beneath a mosquito net. This is especially important for children and pregnant women. • World Malaria Day is celebrated on the 25th of April each year. On this day, various informative activities about the disease are carried out. Get to work to organise or participate in some of them.

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10

RISK FACTOR, PROTECTION FACTOR

8 - 14 players 7+ years old

YOU NEED...

• Cones • Balls • Bibs marked with “risk factor” and “protection factor”

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Passing  Control  Dribbling

!

TOPIC Risk factors and protection factors against malaria. GAME DEVELOPMENT • Game of three against three. Making three consecutive passes is equivalent to one point. • After five minutes two players join, whose only function is to destroy the game (remove the ball from whoever has possession). Each one has a risk factor against malaria written on his bib. • After a few minutes, the coach takes the destroyers off the pitch. Next, two other players are introduced, whose purpose is to play in favour of whoever has possession of the ball. They have protection factors against malaria written on their bibs.

TOP TIP

Risk factors and protection factors can be printed on a bib, or clearly visible signs can be attached to the bib.

DISCUSSION

The instructor discusses which risk factors are more common, how to avoid them, which ones we can address individually, or for which community involvement is essential.

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REPRESENTATION OF MALARIA The players who destroy the game, represent risk factors such as sleeping without a mosquito net, not taking the test, stagnant water, or not following the treatment, amongst others. Those who play in favour, represent protection factors such as sleeping with a mosquito net, draining standing water, etc. It is much easier to complete three passes when the protection factors come into play, and much more complicated with the risk factors in the playing field.

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SAFE ZONE 10+ players 8+ years old

YOU NEED... • Balls • Cones • Bibs

TOPIC The importance of sleeping beneath a mosquito net. GAME DEVELOPMENT Two safe zones are marked out at the ends of a football pitch. In each area there are two players, who play in favour of their team. No player can enter the safe zone.

FOOTBALL SKILLS

!

ACTIVITIES: MALARIA

 Combinated game  Deep passing  One-two  Ball control

TOP TIP

Positioning players at the ends who have the skill to make long passes is recommended. The two players from each team can interchange their position. ···

DISCUSSION

The importance of sleeping under a mosquito net, and other protection factors to effectively fight malaria are discussed.

REPRESENTATION OF MALARIA The safe zones represent the net that mosquitoes cannot penetrate, which protects us during the night.

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12

GET OUT MOSQUITOES!

12 - 30 players 7+ years old

YOU NEED... • Balls • Cones

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Passing  Control  Defense

!

TOP TIP

Place one player inside, for every five outside players. Form a wide circle, but not excessively so, as this will facilitate the completion of ten passes.

TOPIC The importance of regular habits to combat malaria. GAME DEVELOPMENT • The players of a team (eight, for example), are grouped in a broad circle. Inside the circle, three players of the opposing team are placed. • The players of the team that forms the circle, must pass the ball, while the function of the players inside, is to intercept the pass. • If the players from the outside manage to connect ten passes in a row, one player from the inside must exit, and another player enters the outer circle. The player can not pass the ball to the teammates next to him (left and right). • If the ball goes out of the circle or is intercepted by one of the players located in the center, an outside player is eliminated and another inner player enters. • The team that manages to eliminate all players from the other, wins.

DISCUSSION The importance of following regular habits and working as a team to combat the risk factors of malaria.

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REPRESENTATION OF MALARIA The players inside the circle represent the mosquitoes who transmit malaria. If we work well in a team, we will manage to get them out and avoid transmission of Malaria. If, on the other hand, we don’t work as a team and are not attentive, the mosquitoes will transmit malaria to the entire team.

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GREAT GOAL AGAINST MALARIA

YOU NEED... • Balls

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Moving with the ball  Short passes  Shots on goal  Defense

!

TOP TIP

You can vary the activity. For example, two players going out to defend, and an additional player supporting the attacker.

TOPIC The importance of the community to fight against Malaria. GAME DEVELOPMENT • Players form a row near the centre of the pitch. The ball is dribbled around cones and passed to a team mate located on the sideline, who returns the balls to the first player to shoot at the goal from outside the area. • In the second phase, another player intervenes, from the opposite sideline, whose purpose is to intercept the play. In this case, the player who is dribbling the ball must focus his attention, to do a good one-two that allows him to finish the play with a shot on goal. REPRESENTATION OF MALARIA The support player represents a positive community attitude, such as keeping the home and neighbourhood clean, key to combatting malaria. The opponent represents unsupportive attitudes, such as having an insanitary home or dirty neighbourhood space, which stop us from achieving the goal of eradicating malaria.

ACTIVITIES: MALARIA

12 - 24 players 8+ years old

DISCUSSION The importance of teamwork for scoring a goal against malaria. The need for the community to be involved in its eradication.

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14 9 - 21 players 7+ years old

YOU NEED...

• Cones • Football balls

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Long distance passes  Interception  Control

!

TOP TIP

UP PROTECTION! DOWN MOSQUITOES! TOPIC The use of mosquito nets against malaria. GAME DEVELOPMENT • Three areas are marked out, in which three teams are positioned. The middle area is three times as long as each of the outside areas. • The teams on the outside must complete a pass (normally high) and the team that is in the middle must try to intercept it, without entering the area of the teams on the outside. If it is intercepted, the team responsible (due to poor delivery or poor receipt) changes place with the team in the middle. Each correct pass equals one point and the team that collects more points wins.

You can play in smaller spaces, passing the ball high or low ···

DISCUSSION

At the end of the game, the more effective ways of eradicating and neutralising mosquitoes are discussed.

REPRESENTATION OF MALARIA The players in the middle represent the mosquitoes, which are a serious threat to our health. Each completed pass represents an action that eradicates mosquitoes: avoiding puddles, sleeping beneath a mosquito net (avoiding mosquitoes feeding and reproducing) or keeping the house and the neighbourhood clean.

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15 12 - 30 players 7+ years old

YOU NEED...

• Football ball • Cones • Bibs

FOOTBALL SKILLS

CATCH THE TREATMENT! TOPIC The importance of following the course of treatment against malaria. GAME DEVELOPMENT Two teams compete for possession of the ball. A safe zone with a goalkeeper is marked out in the centre. After three consecutive completed passes, the ball can be passed to the goalkeeper. If he catches it, the team gets a point, and restarts play with possession of the ball.

!

TOP TIP

Two players can act as “wild cards”, playing in favour of whoever has possession. They can represent good nutrition and rest, as additional measures, along with medication, for the treatment of malaria. ···

ACTIVITIES: MALARIA

 Short passes  Long passes  Passing at midheight  Control

REPRESENTATION OF MALARIA The goalkeeper represents taking the medication, as the most important measure that aids us in curing malaria.

DISCUSSION

Players discuss the advisability of taking the medication, resting, eating well and protect themselves against mosquitoes, to properly cure malaria.

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ACTIVITIES FOR BASIC HEALTH AND HYGIENE EDUCATION * INFORMATION ABOUT BASIC HEALTH AND HYGIENE 16. FOUR AREAS OF HEALTH 17. HEALTH IS MINE! 18. ONE CIRCLE FOR YOUR HANDS, ANOTHER FOR YOUR MOUTH 19. NOUGHTS AND CROSSES 20. SKILLFULLY MANAGE YOUR HEALTH 21. STARTING THE DAY WITH HYGIENE


HEALTH AND HYGIENE 1. FACE WASHING WHY MUST I WASH MY FACE? The face is in continuous contact with the environment. In addition, the face provides gateways to the inside of our body and sensory organs, such as the eyes, nose, mouth and ears. If we do not wash our face daily, eliminating the accumulated particles and microorganisms, they may enter our body and cause diseases; or they may affect the sensory organs, causing problems with vision, smell, taste, and hearing. Adequately washing the face will reduce infections of the sensory organs.

INFORMATION ABOUT BASIC HEALTH

Basic health is linked to the simplest hygiene habits, which are dependent on us. These are learned at home, and also at school.

 It reduces the likelihood of contracting diseases  It gives a healthier appearance.  We will be much fresher and more awake for school! The most common are washing your hands, face and mouth. Not following these habits greatly reduces our daily quality of life and worsens our appearance. In the long term, it can be very dangerous. Especially in young children, it can cause serious problems such as infections, diarrhoea and infant dehydration, and can even cause death. Having dirty hands and putting them in your mouth can cause diarrhoea, due to infection from having touched excrement, urine, or other infectious agents. Diarrhoea can cause severe dehydration, which occurs in many cases to children under five.

WHEN AND HOW SHOULD I WASH MY FACE?

 Wash your face at least twice a day: in the      

morning and in the evening As a general rule, whenever it is dirty Before washing your face, make sure that you have clean hands In the morning, make sure you wash away the sleep You should wet your face with plenty of water. If possible, apply soap, avoiding the area around the eyes and mouth. Rinse with water Dry with a paper towel or clean cloth

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2. HAND WASHING WHY SHOULD I WASH MY HANDS? We use our hands daily for eating, working, preparing food, in our personal hygiene, or to touch with people and animals. This continuous contact causes the accumulation of microorganisms on our hands, which can cause infections and help spread diseases. In order for hand washing to be effective, it must be done correctly. More than 200 diseases may be spread by improper hand washing.

IS NOT WASHING MY HANDS REALLY DANGEROUS FOR MY HEALTH?

HOW SHOULD I WASH MY HANDS?

 With plenty of clean water 

YES! and especially for children. Because of their habit of putting their hands in their mouths, children can ingest infectious agents that cause diarrhoea, for example. Diarrhoea can cause dehydration, and death in many cases. Hand washing reduces the probability of contracting diseases. Having open wounds and not having clean hands can cause serious infections.

WHEN SHOULD I WASH MY HANDS?

        

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    

Whenever they are dirty Before and after preparing meals Before eating After defecating or urinating After contact with animals or pets Before and after treating wounds After coughing or touching mucous After touching dirty objects or notes After work or going to school

and, if possible, with soap Especially under the nails and between the fingers, because these are the areas that accumulate more dirt and fungal infections Rinse with clean water. Don’t only wash your hands, but also your wrists and part of your forearm For no less than 3 minutes Dry your hands with a paper towel or clean cloth If there is no soap another disinfecting substance can be applied

FALSE BELIEFS

    

Washing with water is sufficient. To wash your hands, wetting them is enough It doesn’t matter if the water is contaminated Time for washing hands lasts a few seconds You mustn’t rub one hand against the other, to avoid passing microorganisms  It is not necessary to dry your hands

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3. DENTAL HYGIENE

HOW SHOULD I CLEAN MY TEETH?

  We use our mouths to eat, talk, smile, kiss, breathe, taste, sneeze or salivate. Poor oral hygiene can cause problems for our health. With good oral hygiene we avoid infections, diseases and loss of teeth.

   

WHEN SHOULD I BRUSH MY TEETH?

 You must brush your teeth after meals, before going to bed and in the morning when you get up (since during the night we have accumulated germs and it is advisable to have a clean mouth before breakfast).

WHAT HAPPENS IF I DO NOT BRUSH MY TEETH? Poor oral hygiene, in addition to causing teeth to fall out, can lead to heart disease, digestive disorders, bone disease, infections or diabetes. Improper hygiene results in a poor, unhealthy, appearance, and causes bad breath.

also the lips The teeth should be rubbed with what is available: toothbrush, toothpaste, or chewing stick. The movement of the brush is from top to bottom, along the length of the mouth The teeth are brushed with a horizontal movement Rinse with plenty of water Clean the lips, as they also form part of the mouth You should also brush the top surface of the tongue The process should last at least three minutes

LIES ABOUT TEETH CLEANING

   

It is not necessary to clean your teeth every day If you do not have water you cannot clean your teeth It is not necessary to clean the lips or the tongue It is not necessary for young children to clean their teeth

INFORMATION ABOUT BASIC HEALTH

 Mouth washing includes the teeth, tongue and

WHAT OTHER ADVANTAGES DOES TEETH CLEANING HAVE? When we have an illness of the throat or stomach, it is very good to have extremely good oral hygiene, since the mouth is a great accumulator of germs and bacteria. Scrupulous cleaning will help to better and more quickly eliminate diseases related to the throat or digestive system. Cleaning the mouth and teeth daily prevents diseases.

WHAT ARE CAVITIES AND WHAT CAUSES THEM? Cavities are the most frequent and well-known dental disease. They manifest in the form of dark stains on the teeth. They can cause severe pain and progressive decomposition, with the tooth subsequently falling out. Sugar, sweets, sugary drinks, tobacco and alcohol cause cavities. Football for Better Health Manual |

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IS IT EFFECTIVE TO CLEAN MY TEETH WITH A TOOTHBRUSH, BUT WITHOUT TOOTHPASTE? The ideal is to clean them with a toothbrush and toothpaste. A small amount of toothpaste is sufficient, as long as we clean them correctly. It is much better to clean your teeth with a toothbrush and without toothpaste, than not to clean them at all. IS TEETH CLEANING ONLY FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE A LOT OF MONEY?

WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? Teaching children to brush their teeth from a young age is very important for their health.

Not so, in fact, teeth cleaning has been being done since ancient civilizations such as the Babylonians and Egyptians, who used anything to keep their mouths clean and healthy, such as roots, leaves, feathers, or animal bones.

WHAT CAN I DO IF I DO NOT HAVE TOOTHPASTE OR A TOOTHBRUSH? Use other things, such as a root, dental floss, or rub them with your hands. Try to reach the teeth, mucous membranes, gums and tongue. Rinse with water. Clean your lips with water and dry them.

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16 YOU NEED... • Balls • Cones • Bibs

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Passing  Reflexes  Getting away from your marker

!

TOP TIP

In activities with very young children, the trainer must be very proactive and stimulating.

TOPIC Health and basic hygiene. GAME DEVELOPMENT • A square area is marked at each corner of a pitch. All players run around the pitch. Two of them represent the germs, who chase the others, carrying a bib in their hand. Whoever they touch, is contaminated, and must take another bib (located on the sideline) and chase the uncontaminated players. This first part ends when everyone is contaminated. • The safe zones in the corners prevent infection, players cannot stay in them for longer than 10 seconds. • In the second part, the game starts with two balls being introduced to the pitch. Whoever has the ball at his feet, cannot be contaminated. REPRESENTATION OF BASIC HYGIENE

ACTIVITIES: BASIC HEALTH

12 - 24 players 5+ years old

FOUR AREAS OF HEALTH

Each corner represents a safe area: hand washing, mouth washing, consuming drinking water or using the toilets. Players cannot stay in the safe zone for more than ten seconds, because in real life we are continually exposed to health risks. The balls represent hygiene and education for healthy habits, which prevent us from getting infected.

DISCUSSION

How to protect ourselves and our community from diseases linked to lack of hygiene, and their consequences.

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17 8 - 24 players 6+ years old

YOU NEED... • Football

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Speed  Dribbling  Defence

!

TOP TIP

HEALTH IS MINE! TOPIC The importance of acquiring basic hygiene habits. GAME DEVELOPMENT • Players form two teams, in rows facing each other. The trainer positions himself in the middle, with a ball. Each player is assigned a name, which is a habit for basic health. Both teams are assigned the same habits. • The trainer calls out a health habit in a loud voice and the two players run, trying to take the ball to their zone. Whoever succeeds, wins a point for his team. At the end of the game, all the players must have had at least one turn.

It is important that the coach makes note of each factor on a list in order to avoid confusion and be sure that everyone plays.

DISCUSSION Once the activity is completed, the importance of acquiring healthy habits, and being attentive to following them properly daily is discussed. Participants are encouraged to name more healthy habits.

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REPRESENTATION OF BASIC HYGIENE Each player is assigned a protection factor, such as washing hands, mouth, using the toilet, consuming drinking water, keeping the neighbourhood or school clean, or cooking without smoke. The ball represents that which we all try to win to protect us, constancy and regularity.

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ONE CIRCLE FOR YOUR HANDS, ANOTHER FOR YOUR MOUTH

10 - 20 players 8+ years old

YOU NEED... • Cones • Balls

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Passing  Interception  Speed

!

TOP TIP

When the player shoots from the edge of the area, you can add two players who will pass him the ball from the touchline, preferably to shoot with the other leg. ···

TOPIC Lavado de manos e higiene bucodental. GAME DEVELOPMENT • Make a circle around the centre circle. When the player in the middle intercepts the ball, he dribbles it to the edge of the area and takes a shot. The player in the circle who loses the ball, goes to the middle and to intercept the ball. • The player who shoots returns, to make a new circle alongside the first. This will grow as new players join. The last to join passes to the middle and it all starts again. • At each circle the game continues in this way until there are only two players, who will pass each other the ball while heading to the goal, one of them finally shooting at the goal. If he does not score, he will have to go to the centre of the circle.

ACTIVITIES: BASIC HEALTH

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DISCUSSION

On the importance of a routine for hygiene habits, about all hands and teeth washing. What helps or prevents us from following the routine? What hygiene habits do young people consider most important for staying healthy? REPRESENTATION OF BASIC HYGIENE The two circles represent the two key areas of basic hygiene: hand washing and oral hygiene. One must accompany the other, in a routine that is repeated daily.

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NOUGHTS AND CROSSES

6 - 12 players 7+ years old

YOU NEED... • • • •

Bibs Cones Posts Coordination ladder

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Speed  Driving the ball  Coordination

!

TOP TIP

This exercise can also be done without posts or a coordination ladder, replacing these with cones. ···

DISCUSSION

What makes us acquire healthy habits, or causes us to forget to clean our teeth and wash our hands daily? What to do to avoid laziness, forgetfulness or other factors that prevent us from internalising a habit.

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TOPIC Active attitude towards hand and oral hygiene. GAME DEVELOPMENT • One player from each team starts from the centre of a coordination ladder with a bib in his hand. When he comes out of the ladder, he receives the ball, dribbling it around a circuit of cones. He goes around a post and at the end reaches an area with nine cones forming a noughts and crosses board. He must place the bib on a cone, trying to make (with the help of his team mates) three in a row. • Once the bib is placed, he quickly dribbles the ball up to a defined post. Only then, he can drag his team mate from the coordination ladder to receive the ball, who will get the ball once he has come out of the ladder. • This sequence will be repeated until one of the two teams makes three in a row at the noughts and crosses board. This will be the winning team. • Please note: Each team must wear matching bibs! REPRESENTATION OF BASIC HYGIENE One team represents hand washing and the other represents mouth washing. Them both compete in the importance to keep us healthy. Speed is very important in this game, which reminds us that it is essential to keep ourselves awake and active in order to acquire a healthy habit.

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20 YOU NEED... • Footballs

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Driving the ball  Short passes  Medium passes

!

TOP TIP

You can vary the exercise, moving the ball with onetwos between two and up to three players. ···

TOPIC The importance of a routine in proper mouth, face and hand washing. GAME DEVELOPMENT • Players form two lines, opposite each other and 20 metres apart. The player must dribble the ball and make a short pass to the player in the opposite row, who repeats the same movement. Whoever completes the pass, is positioned at the end of the row from the player to whom he has given the ball. • In a second variation, the routine is repeated, but the pass is made from halfway. • In a third variation, the ball can be passed at first touch.

ACTIVITIES: BASIC HEALTH

8 - 30 players 5+ years old

SKILLFULLY MANAGE YOUR HEALTH

DISCUSSION

On the factors that prevent us from following the daily routine of hygiene habits.

REPRESENTATION OF BASIC HYGIENE It is a very simple exercise, which highlights the importance of acquiring routines (washing hands, mouth, using toilets, etc.). The short pass represents the importance of washing our hands well, and the pass from midway represents the importance of washing them even up to the middle of the forearm.

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21

START THE DAY WITH HYGIENE

8 - 16 players 8+ years old

TOPIC Four Basic Hygiene Habits.

YOU NEED... • • • •

Cones Bibs Posts Ball

FOOTBALL SKILLS  Combination game  Short passes  Medium passes  Dribbling

!

TOP TIP

As a variation two “wild cards” can be introduced: players who play in favour of the team in possession of the ball.

DISCUSSION

What habits do players consider essential for growing in a healthy way? They must agree on which are the most important.

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GAME DEVELOPMENT • Four posts are positioned in the middle of the pitch, forming four goals defended by four goalkeepers. In the four corners of the pitch, four zones are marked out with cones. • Two teams play a match, and can score in the four goals formed by the posts. Before starting play for the goal, the ball should be put in one of four areas in the corners of the pitch.

REPRESENTATION OF BASIC HYGIENE Each corner represents a basic health habit: like washing hands, mouth or face, the use of toilets or latrines, and consuming drinkable water. The mandatory entrance of the ball into one of the four areas, reminds players of the essential hygiene guidelines to stay healthy.

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ACTIVITIES TO END THE TRAINING SESSION 22. WE ARE A TEAM 23. TODAY I TRAIN 24. NETWORK OF FRIENDS


22

WE ARE A TEAM

TOPIC

GAME DEVELOPMENT

Discuss the session, get to know each other and gain confidence.

All players and trainers join hands and form a circle. Pass the ball to whoever you want. Whoever has the ball at his feet says whatever he considers apt about the session, what he liked, or not, or what he has learned. Before the end, everyone should have received the ball at least once. If anyone wants to ask for a turn to speak, he requests the ball to be passed. The head coach closes the session.

YOU NEED... • A ball

!

TOP TIP

Make sure that everyone participates and speaks at least once. If someone wants to speak, the ball can be passed to him. The coach should make sure that the opinion of each of the participants is respected.

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TODAY I TRAIN

TEMÁTICA

GAME DEVELOPMENT

Stretching, leadership

The players position themselves around the pitch to perform stretches or breathing exercises or muscle relaxation. A ball is rolled across and the player who receives it suggests a stretching exercise to the others, lasting between one and two minutes, approximately. When it ends, he passes the ball to another player, at random, who receives it and suggests another exercise, and so on. Stretching exercises are awarded in pairs.

YOU NEED... • A ball

!

TOP TIP

Stretching in pairs helps strengthen the team and confidence through physical contact. With mixed teams make sure that everyone feels comfortable. Do not force the most timid, but encourage them to lead

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24 TOPIC

GAME DEVELOPMENT

An exercise to close the course.

At the end of the session, the players form a circle. A player receives a ball of wool, which he holds by the end. He must say what he has learned during the course (or session) or a technical or human gesture that he liked from a team mate. Then he passes the ball to another team mate, who holds the wool and throws it to another. It is passed successively, until everyone has received the wool and passed it to the team mate they wish. By the end, a network has been formed that represents the value of working as a team. The trainer should highlight the value of empowering the group to work as a team, on a human and sporting level.

YOU NEED... • A ball of wool

!

TOP TIP

This exercise is very suitable for the end of the season, and emphasizes the importance of weaving relationships of friendship and team spirit between all members of the team.

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ACTIVITIES TO END THE SESSION

NETWORK OF FRIENDS

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HOW TO PREPARE A TRAINING SESSION * BASIC ASPECTS TO PROPERLY DEVELOP THE SESSIONS AND THE WORK PLAN * DIFFICULTIES AND SOLUTIONS RAISED DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITIES 1. PRIOR TO THE ACTIVITY 2. DURING THE ACTIVITY 3. GENERAL ADVICE 4. TIPS FOR TRAINERS


HOW TO PREPARE A SESSION BASICS ASPECTS TO PROPERLY DEVELOP THE SESSIONS AND THE WORK PLAN Implementation of a 90 min. session Presentation: conditioning

2. Follow the steps of a traditional session: warm-up, game development, and relaxation or “cool down�. 3. Discussion and reflection after the activity, as one of the most valuable contributions and fundamental means to achieve the goals intended. Spend time and discuss with participants at the end of the session.

Technical exercises: health activity

4. Look for open or closed spaces, depending on the day, weather, or type of activity. Adapt the games to the environment.

40 min

15 min

5. Privacy: in cases of games and sport with vulnerable groups (ie: groups of women, kids or teenagers with trauma) look for seclusion, intimacy and privacy, so they feel more comfortable.

HOW TO PREPARE FOR A SESSION

1. Creating a relaxed atmosphere. Icebreakers are very useful and well accepted for initial contact and socialisation, through verbal and non-verbal language.

Football match

6. Plan the timetable of activities per day/hour on a weekly plan and display in a visible place.

25 min

7. Make a list of equipment before the sessions. At the beginning of the intervention, research little by little, seeing what sports have greater acceptance in the community.

Stretching, discussion, close up

10 min Required equipment:

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DIFFICULTIES AND SOLUTIONS RAISED DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITIES 1. When there is a hostile atmosphere ... it is better to hold competitions and activities outside, including some “extraordinary” activity (picnic, relaxed meeting ...) 2. When new participants arrive ... the oldest members introduce the new ones to the rest of the group. We share out responsibilities between new and old participants. 3. Lack of trust in the trainers... indirect approach, create friendship circles, send friendship notes

4. Lack of involvement of family members... facilitate transportation for them, and create discussion groups on important issues for families, trainers, trainers’ role with the family. Inform them and consult them about the participation of themselves and their family members, especially girls and young women. 5. Poor training of sports coaches... promote training through successive workshops. Monitoring and evaluation of the training process. 6. Participation of children below the age of six ... games and unregulated sport, as they are not able to understand the complexity.

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1. PRIOR TO THE ACTIVITY • Carry manuals with you when going to the ground • Prepare the lessons and write them down • Prepare extra activities, in case they are necessary • Be sure to bring the necessary equipment • Be on time • Check the area of play, to avoid possible problems • Bring water (make sure it is suitable for consumption!) • In large groups, have more helpers (a realistic number) • Notify about the timetable and type of activity • Introduce yourself to the beneficiaries and explain the activities, be sure of what people expect • Flexibility to adapt the plan to eventualities or having to move to another point. • Very well know the theory of the health topics you are going to work with.

• Attend other activities organized by other organizations • Follow-up activities, making and incorporating the appropriate changes • Convince local and humanitarian authorities that sport is necessary • Involve participants in the preparation of areas that are safe for sport • Do not be afraid to repeat activities and more so when the children ask for it: this generates stability! • Involve volunteers and the young people in the community • Make sure that you’re helping.

HOW TO PREPARE FOR A SESSION

3. GENERAL ADVICE

2. DURING THE ACTIVITY • Continually check for safety • Whenever possible (strive to note down and remember) use the participants names • Eye contact with all participants • Keep things simple • Explain the activities using examples and, if possible, involve the beneficiaries • Vary the sessions, change the format • It is best to avoid elimination games • Compose teams (sporting and working) that are more collaborative than competitive.

4. TIPS FOR TRAINERS • Do not try to be superheroes, take breaks! • Exercise: go for a walk in the morning, yoga, stretching… • Set simple goals to achieve day by day • Have people for support • In times of “slump”, talk to the team mates! • Be careful with consuming stimulants (coffee, nicotine, alcohol, drugs, etc.) • Have fun like a child!

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CHAPTER 3 THE STAFF TEAM IN A PROJECT


THE TRAINER The coach/trainer is the key figure in the educational process of Football for Better Health. He or she must unite personal qualities and professional skills to develop their work with reliability and ease. Remember that our main goal is not to achieve maximum technique on a footballing level, but youth development through better education, health, values and life skills.

A good trainer or educator is made not born. Working with perseverance, every goal is possible.

A. PERSONAL QUALITIES FOR WORKING WITH YOUNG PEOPLE 1. COMMITMENT

3. RESPONSIBILITY

Firmness in fulfilling a purpose despite the difficulties we may encounter, since the goal is worth the effort.

In the development of young people, it is necessary to avoid unnecessary risks and carry out our work like diligent fathers or mothers. Even more so in the field of health, because of the consequences that making a wrong decision or the wrong transmission of knowledge can cause.

2. EMPATHY An attitude that allows us to put ourselves in the place of others, in our case, to see ourselves represented in young people growing up in a highly vulnerable context. To feel the threats and problems that surrounds them as our own, and put all our efforts into overcoming them.

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4. LEADERSHIP Exemplary behaviour that is consistent with the values we promote at all times. It involves having a proactive attitude, focused on positive change. Leadership is a complex and diverse concept, but from our point of view, these are some of the most important qualities it involves for trainers, coaches and educators.

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B. SKILLS 1. ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE

VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Communication is expressed verbally and also with our body. Active listening and the ability to understand the messages that we receive play a crucial role, not always an easy task. There are many resources to enhance communication with young people, and connect with them, such as songs, jokes, etc. In all cases, our communication must result in strengthening their self-esteem. An educational leader should communicate, both verbally and non-verbally, within a set of guidelines:

• • • • • • • • •

Use simple language Do not express yourself violently or aggressively Clarity when speaking: speed, vocalisation Adapted to the receiver: age, disability Careful with language: do not use swearwords or inappropriate expressions Smile, it’s free! Let everyone talk Facilitate the involvement of the least participatory members Be the voice of command in activities and training sessions, without imposing authoritatively.

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION • • • • • • • •

Pay attention to gestures, avoiding aggression Active Listening Pay attention to looks Look at people when they address you Dramatize, gesticulate Position to show interest Avoid yawning Use (appropriate) jokes that help to maintain attention.

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It is our way of connecting with children and young people. External factors such as fatigue, temperature and background noise, or our state of mind, undoubtedly influence our ability to communicate. The more we work on communication skills the less vulnerable we will be to these external factors.

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2. BE HAPPY AND ENCOURAGING

3. RESOLVING CONFLICTS

A quality that is very relevant to communication style, and how we express and present ourselves. Also called enthusiasm, it entails maintaining a positive attitude, which is projected outward, and capable of driving others towards a common goal. It is not the same as denying reality, rather it means internalising the conviction that obstacles will be overcome, and being able to transmit this. To be encouraging and transmit joy and enthusiasm we will have to consider:

We are playing football, an activity that puts two teams against each other from the start, and which is potentially a space of conflict. The way we relate can be a powerful ally when it comes to resolving conflicts. These are the three most common variants.

• Giving positive reinforcement, both verbally and non-verbally, whenever the opportunity arises • Always keeping the self-esteem of children and young people in mind. Building trust at all times. • Encouraging the participation of everyone, especially those who find it more difficult to join in A happy and encouraging attitude will have a very positive impact on the activity and on whomever is taking part!

Passive style: the main point being “do not get into trouble” It avoids confrontation. It eliminates anxiety, but only momentarily. In reality, the conflict remains. It seeks social acceptance. The opportunity to grow is also lost. Common expressions are “okay” “as you say,” or “you are right”. Aggressive style: short-term advantage, based on imposing. It achieves goals without considering others. For this, you need to be faced with a passive person. Common expressions are “I’m in charge here” “this is how it is and there is nothing more to talk about” “you shut up, you have no idea” Assertive style: expresses feelings and opinions without offending. The coach must speak clearly and with authority, which does not mean aggressively. It involves thinking more, and is riskier. It directs things to make them happen. Expressions: “I understand, but...” “I suggest that” “I respect your opinion, but I think that”. As coaches we must not be afraid of communicating assertively To resolve conflicts, it is key to try to focus on the analysis of the objective situation, and not on people. A poorly resolved conflict can cause problems between people. A poorly resolved personal problem can degenerate in conflict.

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4. BUILDING A TEAM Ability to transform situations of conflict into opportunities to unite the group and add new members. The ideal situation is not the absence of any conflict, (a very difficult thing on the other hand). A well-guided discussion can serve to unite the group.

The formation of opposing groups must always be avoided. In sport, the attitude of team building must be present within the group, but, without a doubt, the coach should be its main promoter. Do not leave children on the bench more than necessary.

C. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS 1. COMMUNITY HEALTH

3. SPORTS TRAINING:

Knowledge or attitudes necessary to successfully provide programs and activities related to health in the community. These can be related to infectious diseases, hygiene and basic health, nutrition or basic care, among others.

Knowledge and skills to carry out sports training sessions, without risks to health and in an organised and inclusive way.

2. ENERGISING AND LEADING YOUNG PEOPLE This competence not only deals with a series of personal qualities, but also involves specific skills that are continually being developed. This involves a variety of personal skills.

An essential factor to do our job well. As a coach, you can start with something as concrete as preparing the sessions well, in advance and in detail. This involves the management of groups of people, equipment and the spaces in which we work. It involves the ability to plan, evaluate and think in the short, medium and long term.

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4. ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY:

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PROFILES

IN A FOOTBALL FOR BETTER HEALTH PROGRAMME

To have impact on community health, it is essential to plan, set goals, and design activities that directly affect the desired changes. Working in a team and in an organised way are essential. A team must have a structure, which can be variable depending on each organisation. In this manual we want to describe a basic structure, with the essentials of each position. In this manual we give a description of those positions that are directly related to the implementation of Football for Better Health activities. We do not include support or administrative positions, such as “responsible for finance� or similar.

COORDINATOR In charge of directing the planning, monitoring, control and evaluation of a community health programme through sports. Leads a team of coaches and trainers who directly manage and implement the activities.

COACH Directly responsible for football activities, with one or more football teams under his charge. Performs the conventional work of a coach, consisting of technical training, physical preparation and supervision of football teams. Directs the training sessions and coordinates matches and competitions at different levels. In the field of sport for development, the work goes much further. Additionally, the coach must be directly involved in the design, monitoring and evaluation of football programmes and activities for health. He must have solid knowledge of community health and advanced knowledge of football training, always giving priority to an inclusive approach to sport.

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INSTRUCTOR

HEALTH SPECIALISTS

Differs from the coach, in that the instructor does not require advanced skills in football training. It is key that he has the ability to energise young people, basic knowledge of health for development. They can be a very important support figure in football training sessions and championships.

Qualified specialists in the field of health, with very solid knowledge in this area. Doctors, nurses or community health workers, who take part in the implementation of Football for Better Health activities, if they have the necessary skills. They can also be of great support in training programmes in the area of community health.

PEER EDUCATOR

Qualities such as flexibility and versatility in the design of staff teams, can be very interesting allies for the success of a Football for Better Health programme.

Also known as “multiplier agent�. These are the very children and young people of the community, who transmit what they have learned in terms of community health to their own friends, class mates and family environment. Youth leaders

Sport instructors Sports Centre managers

Community volunteers

PARTICIPATION IN THE SPORTS SPACE Coaches

THE STAFF TEAM IN A PROJECT

Parents and family

Educators Doctors / Health care personnel

Therapists (counselling)

Partners, various areas

Mediators (referees)

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CAPACITY - BUILDING AND ITS MULTIPLIER EFFECT Capacity-building is considered the most important action to achieve prosperity, self-sufficiency and wellbeing. It strengthens the skills and competences of people and communities, to overcome the causes of underdevelopment.

In the case of Red Deporte, this is organised in the following way: A SPECIFIC COURSES Combining health and sport for development. Taught by facilitators in community health, youth leadership and sports for development. The training is assessed, and all areas must be passed to receive a diploma.

B WORKSHOPS Given by accredited instructors and trainers. Example: a two-hour session given to youth leaders on how to conduct a Football for Better Health activity. The instructors who have received the training then participate in the organisation and implementation of Football for Better Health activities. The training process can take place in two directions: C FOOTBALL FOR BETTER HEALTH SESSIONS a) Vertical or more conventional, provided through courses, workshops or practices and volunteering at organizations. b) Horizontal, a more spontaneous process, through so called peer education.

Through the sessions that as an example are presented in this manual. They are provided by instructors or trainers with the capacity to carry them out. D PEER EDUCATION

In the case of health, protection comes through the community, and it is therefore crucial that education reaches all of its members. A vertical process given as a waterfall, and also a horizontal process.

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Spontaneous learning that is generated between children and young people who have acquired knowledge of health, and others who have not. The former transmit what they have learned to their peers in an informal environment. This represents the base of a pyramid and is where the multiplier effect shows its full potential.

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MULTIPLIER EFFECT: EXAMPLE IN FIGURES If 40 people attend a one-month conventional training course on Football for Better Health, within a year, each person trained should carry out Football for Better Health activities with at least 80 young people. Each of the 3,200 young people, transmit what they learned to two friends or family members.

THE STAFF TEAM IN A PROJECT

As a result of training 40 health instructors, we have an impact on 6,400 children and young people in the community. As far as impact is concerned, remember that a single gesture can generate a lifelong change: for instance, learning to wash hands correctly, take a HIV test, etc. Among peers, the change factor can take place in a conversation between friends or at home, to give two examples.

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DATA COLLECTION

1. DATA COLLECTION Measuring impact requires the collection of data in a systematic and accurate way throughout the intervention. It is also called monitoring and evaluation process. This task can be very tedious and is not within the reach of everyone to the same extent. We mentioned at the beginning of the manual, that this can be used in isolation by a Physical Education teacher who wishes to introduce Football for Better Health activities in his class; or, by an NGO that has abundant human and material resources, within a broader health intervention. Realistically, it will be more feasible and simpler for this organisation to collect data systematically, than for the teacher who

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uses the manual in isolation. Systematic collection of data is not always within reach, but it can be adapted to the capacity of each actor. An NGO can combine the continued use of various more or less complex tools to understand the evolution of the intervention. Also, an educator not fostered by any organization, adapting to his reality and capacity, can organise a discussion group to more precisely understand the strengths or weaknesses of his Football for Better Health sessions.

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Both collect data, at different levels. It is then key to use this information to make decisions. It is very important to internalize the importance of receiving feedback from the beneficiaries and other possible actors that take part in an intervention.

2. HOW WE COLLECT INFORMATION We use various tools to collect the information, such as questionnaires, in-depth interviews or the organisation of discussion groups on a specific topic or topics. There are also more basic tools such as lists or photographs, also called “verification sources”.

3. WHAT SIGNALS INDICATE THAT WE ARE ACHIEVING CHANGE?

DATA COLLECTION

The yardstick for measuring achievement are the so-called “indicators”. The indicator is the sign that a result (or change) is occurring. Indicators are measures that we must use at different levels: both in the intermediate and final achievements.

4. ESTABLISH A BASELINE Finally, to know the measure of achievement of an intervention with certainty, we must know our point of departure. In our case -the health field- knowing the data regarding morbidity, health habits, knowledge about means of transmission and prevention, access and use of health services, etc. These data can be collected through questionnaires, interviews, etc. (the aforementioned “data collection tools”). This starting point is also called “baseline” and it will ultimately allow us to know what we have achieved before and after the intervention. To use a metaphor, to know the effectiveness of a diet, we must know our starting weight. Only then will we know exactly how effective it is. Football for Better Health Manual |

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CHAPTER 4 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


GLOBAL IMPACT: HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND BASIC HEALTH


HIV/AIDS. GLOBAL IMPACT Data from the World Health Organization.

HIV/AIDS WITHIN AFRICA

• HIV is still a major problem for global public health; to date it has claimed more than 35 million lives.

• The region of Africa is the most affected, with 25.6 million people living with HIV in 2016. Africa also represents nearly two-thirds of the global total of new HIV infections.

• In 2016, 1 million people died due to HIV-related causes throughout the world. 36.7 million people were living with HIV at the end of 2016, including 1.8 million people worldwide who became infected during 2016. • 54% of adults and 43% of children who are currently living with HIV receive lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). The global coverage of ART for pregnant and lactating women living with HIV is high, 76% • Only 70% of people with HIV know their status. To reach the goal of 90%, 7.5 million additional people need access to the HIV test.

• Tuberculosis (TB) killed 400,000 people living with HIV in 2016. It is the leading cause of death among people with HIV in Africa and one of the leading causes of death in this population worldwide. • The most vulnerable populations often have legal and social problems related to their behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS, which increases vulnerability and reduces access to testing and treatment programs. In 2015, it is estimated that 44% of new infections occurred among very vulnerable populations and their partners.

• By mid-2017, 20.9 million people living with HIV were receiving ART worldwide.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

• Between 2000 and 2016, new HIV infections decreased by 39%, and HIV-related deaths fell by a third, with 13.1 million lives saved in the same period, thanks to ART. This achievement was the result of the great efforts of national HIV programmes supported by civil society and a variety of national and global partners for development and global health.

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MALARIA

BASIC HEALTH

Data from the 2017 World Malaria report

Data from WHO and UNICEF, 2015

• In 2016, there were 216 million cases of malaria in 91 countries, an increase of 5 million from 2015.

SANITATION

• Deaths from malaria reached 445.000 in 2016; a similar figure (446.000) to 2015. • In 2016, 90% of malaria cases and 91% of malaria deaths occurred in Africa. • 15 countries, all in sub-Saharan Africa except India, accounted for 80% of the global burden of malaria. (Top 3: Nigeria 30%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 14%, Burkina Faso 7%) • Children under 5 are particularly susceptible to infection, disease and death. 70% of all deaths caused by malaria occur in this age group. The number of deaths of children under 5 due to malaria has decreased from 440.000 in 2010, to 285.000 in 2016. Malaria is one of the leading causes of death among children under five years old, and a child’s life is taken every two minutes.

• Since 1990, the number of people with access to improved sanitation facilities has increased from 54% to 68%, but around 2.3 billion people still do not have baths or improved latrines. • In 2015, 39% of the global population (2.9 billion people) used a safely managed sanitation service, defined as use of a toilet or improved latrine, not shared with other households, with a system in place to ensure that excreta are treated or disposed of safely. • In 2015, 27% of the global population (1.9 billion people) used private sanitation facilities connected to sewers from which wastewater was treated. • 13% of the global population (0.9 billion people) used toilets or latrines where excreta were disposed of in situ. • 68% of the global population (5 billion people) used at least a basic sanitation service. • 2.3 billion people still do not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets or latrines. • Of these, 892 million still defecate in the open, for example, in street gutters, behind bushes or into open bodies of water. • It is thought that at least 10% of the world’s population consumes food irrigated by wastewater. • Poor sanitation is linked to the transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid and polio. • It is estimated that inadequate sanitation causes 280,000 deaths from diarrhoea annually and is an important factor in several neglected tropical

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diseases, such as intestinal worms, schistosomiasis and trachoma. Poor sanitation also contributes to malnutrition.

WATER

• 89% of the global population (6.5 billion people) used at least a basic service, that is, an improved water source located within a round trip of 30 minutes. • 844 million people lacked even a basic drinkingwater service.

• 2.1 billion people around the world lack drinkingwater in the home. Only 1 in 4 people in low income countries have facilities for washing hands with soap and water in the home. • In 2015, 71% of the global population (5.2 billion) used a safely managed drinking-water service; that is, located on the premises, available when needed and free of contamination. • One in every three people who used safely managed drinking-water services (1.9 billion) lived in rural areas. • Eight in every ten people (5.8 billion) used an improved water source with water available when needed. • Three-quarters of the global population the facilities. • Three in every four people (5.4 billion) used an improved source free from contamination.

• 263 million people had a round trip of more than 30 minutes to collect water from an improved water source (meaning they had a limited service to drinking-water). • 159 million people collected drinking-water directly from surface water sources, of which 58% lived in sub-Saharan Africa.

HYGIENE • 70 countries had comparable data available on handwashing with soap and water, representing 30% of the global population. • Availability of basic facilities for hand-washing with soap and water varied from 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa, to 76% in Western Asia and North Africa. However, currently the data is insufficient to produce a global estimate or estimations for other regions.

• In sub-Saharan Africa, 3 in every 5 people with basic facilities for handwashing (89 million people) lived in urban areas.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

• In less developed countries, 27% of the population had basic facilities for hand-washing with soap and water, whilst 26% had facilities for hand-washing without soap and water. The remaining 47% did not have facilities.

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INFORMATION ON OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASES


CHOLERA WHAT IS CHOLERA?

IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED?

Cholera is an infectious disease, which is transmitted through contact with food or water infected with the bacterium Vibrio Cholera. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? The main symptom is diarrhoea. This may be mild or serious, with acute diarrhoea that causes dehydration, and can cause death within hours. The symptoms appear from 12 hours to 5 days after ingesting contaminated food or water. HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR CHOLERA? From the typical symptoms of cholera. Diagnostic tests can confirm the diagnosis: presence of Vibrio Cholerae in stool samples. Afterwards, blood tests show the elimination of the disease. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? Cholera is transmitted through ingesting food or water infected with the bacterium Vibrio cholera.

• Rehydration, that is, take fluids to avoid dehydration caused by diarrhoea. • For rehydration, oral solutions will be taken in less severe cases, extending to the administration of intravenous fluids in severe cases. • Avoid contact with materials contaminated by patients, take extreme sanitation measures. GLOBAL IMPACT It is limited to certain geographical areas on a constant basis. It is estimated that, on a global scale, there are between 1.3 and 4 million cases of cholera annually. Cholera causes almost 80,000 deaths a year. WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? • Keep prevention measures in mind: food and water hygiene, and the oral vaccine against cholera. • If you contract the disease, take extreme care with sanitation measures. • Inform the reference authorities of cases of cholera

RISKS TO LIFE • Severe dehydration • Death within a few hours if it is not treated quickly HOW IS IT PREVENTED?

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

• Learning and surveillance of hygiene measures • Careful food preparation • Consumption of drinking-water and treatment of waste water • Oral vaccine, in conjunction with the necessary hygiene measures FALSE - > if the oral cholera vaccine is taken, it is not necessary to take further precautions

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TUBERCULOSIS WHAT IS TUBERCULOSIS? Tuberculosis is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This bacteria (germ) almost always attacks the lungs, but can also attack the kidneys, lymph nodes, bones, skin and brain. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? Intense cough with blood or sputum (phlegm from the lungs), fever, chills, night sweats, weakness, tiredness, lack of appetite, weight loss, chest pain. Some people become infected by tuberculosis and get ill (active tuberculosis), but others do not become ill (latent tuberculosis). When the bacillus enters the lungs, it can stay there for a long time without causing disease (the person is infected, but not sick). This occurs if the body’s defences are active and strong enough to fight the bacteria. But if you have an illness which weakens your defences (such as HIV, diabetes, malnutrition) or you are a smoker, the risk of getting ill if much greater.

HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR TUBERCULOSIS? Diagnosis is made by “sputum smear microscopy”, which consists in examining sputum samples under a microscope. There are also quick tests. In addition: chest x-ray, sputum culture. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? • From person to person and through the air. • When coughing, speaking, sneezing or spitting, the infected person expels the bacteria into the air, which will be inhaled by other people, who will become infected. The sick person is more contagious the more he coughs. • People with an active infection but without treatment are the most likely to transmit the disease.

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FALSE -> Tuberculosis is transmitted through sharing food or drink, cutlery, dishes, clothes, sheets or blankets. Shaking hands with someone. Kissing or hugging. Blood transfusion. Breast milk. Sexual relations. RISKS TO LIFE • If not treated adequately, tuberculosis can be fatal. Those most vulnerable to tuberculosis are: people with HIV, women, children under 5, smokers, the elderly, and malnourished people. • HIV is the main risk factor for contracting tuberculosis: it is the disease from which people with HIV most frequently suffer, and causes the most deaths amongst them. • If you are HIV positive, ask the doctor to examine you to see if you have tuberculosis. If you have tuberculosis, ask for a HIV test. People with HIV are 30 times more likely to become ill with tuberculosis. • Without any form of treatment, practically all HIV positive people who contract tuberculosis will die. • Tuberculosis is one of the main infectious diseases on a global scale. In a year, a person with untreated active tuberculosis can transmit the disease to 1015 people, through daily contact. • Once the treatment has begun, the possibility of infection reduces. • It is not necessary to isolate or abandon the patient during all the months of treatment. HOW IS IT PREVENTED? The best prevention against infecting is to strictly comply with the treatment for the entire duration. If there are people suffering from tuberculosis in the home, ventilate and keep good lighting. The bacteria can live for weeks in the shadow and dust, but sunlight destroys it in two or three hours. Therefore, it is very important to ventilate your surroundings, open the windows to let the sun in, especially where the ill person sleeps. Above all, before starting treatment and at the beginning of the treatment:

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• The sick person should cover their mouth and nose with a piece of paper when sneezing or coughing • If you spit, do it on a piece of paper or in the toilet (never on the floor). • Cover your mouth and nose to avoid infecting your baby if you are breastfeeding • If you have tuberculosis and share a bed when sleeping, lie in the opposite direction, in other words, your feet are towards the other person’s head. The only available vaccine against tuberculosis is the BCG vaccine (Bacillus of Calmette-Guerin, the names of the people who created it). This vaccine does not reduce the risk of infection, it only reduces the risk of the infection’s progression to active tuberculosis, especially in children. Due to the fear of stigmatisation because of this disease, many infected people will delay going to the doctor until they are very ill. This increases the risk of infection to people in their environment and also treatments are much less effective in the more advanced stages of the disease.

FALSE - > Natural or homemade remedies. Tuberculosis is like “a flu that doesn’t get better”. The medicines for tuberculosis cause the person to deteriorate more. GLOBAL IMPACT • Tuberculosis exists all around the world, but the vast majority of cases occur in Asia and Africa. • Approximately one-third of the global population is infected with tuberculosis, but not everyone will develop the disease. • Each year there are more than 10 million new cases of tuberculosis (approximately 28,000 new cases each day) worldwide. WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? • March 24th: World Tuberculosis Day. • Communicate your knowledge about the disease and how to prevent it. • Accompany or encourage your family member, friend or neighbour with suspected tuberculosis to go to the doctor for tests. If the illness is diagnosed, encourage them to take the treatment as instructed and without any interruption.

FALSE -> Ill people should be isolated or abandoned during their treatment. In humid, dark and poorly lit homes I don’t have a risk of becoming ill. IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED?

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

• Tuberculosis can be treated and cured with a combination of medicines over a period of 6 to 9 months. When taking the treatment, you will notice improvement, but do not abandon it! • To be cured and not infect others: comply with all the treatment for the entire duration. • If you stop taking the medicines, the bacilli multiply again and the person will continue to be ill and could also become resistant to these drugs, which will stop curing. • During the treatment conduct check-ups on the patient to check that all is going well. Red Deporte

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EBOLA WHAT IS EBOLA? The disease caused by the Ebola virus disease is very serious, often deadly in humans and is caused by the Ebola virus. It is very contagious and affects both humans and animals. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? Symptoms may appear within 2 to 21 days, following exposure to the Ebola virus, but the average time is between 8 and 10 days. People are not contagious until the symptoms appear: sudden fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, stomach, head and throat pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, rashes, renal and hepatic failure, and sometimes, internal and external bleeding. HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR EBOLA? By the symptoms and for different types of laboratory analysis of blood samples. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? The virus is transmitted to humans by wild animals and is spread in human populations by transmission from person to person. Patients are contagious as long as the virus is present in the blood. • From person to person by direct contact with: • Organs, fluids or bodily secretions (blood, vomit, urine, faeces, sweat, semen) of an ill person or someone who has died from Ebola • Objects contaminated by said fluids • Semen of a man who has overcome an Ebola infection (oral, anal or vaginal sex). • From animal to person by close contact with organs, blood, secretions or other bodily fluids of infected animals (chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, antelopes and porcupines)

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• Health workers who have close contact with Ebola patients and who have not taken adequate precautions. • If there is direct contact with the corpse, when burying Ebola victims, the disease may also be transmitted. FALSE -> Ebola is transmitted by air, water, food (except the meat of infected animals) RISKS TO LIFE The Ebola virus can cause death shortly after infection if not treated properly. HOW IS IT PREVENTED? There are no approved vaccines for Ebola, but there are some that are being studied. CONTACT WITH PEOPLE • Avoid direct contact with fluids, secretions and organs of animals and infected people. • Do not touch sick people who have the symptoms of the disease (fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, headache, bleeding). • Do not touch the corpse of patients who may have died from Ebola. • Regularly wash your hands with soap and water • Protect yourself and your environment, Ebola sufferers should be isolated in suitable places. • If you or someone you know has been in contact with the sick, ask for a follow-up to confirm whether or not there is an infection. CONTACT WITH ANIMALS • Avoid contact with animals that may be infected and the consumption of their raw meat • Wear gloves and other appropriate clothing to handle animals

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CONTACT WITH PATIENTS • The isolation of patients is important due to the high risk of infection. • Wear protective clothing and appropriate protective equipment when you need to take care of them. • It is necessary to wash your hands often after visiting or caring for the sick. • Safe handling of contaminated waste • Caution in the management of deceased patients because the levels of the Ebola virus remain high. The burial must be fast and with adequate protection. • To reduce the risk of sexual transmission through semen in patients who have overcome the disease, use condoms for the next 12 months. • Identify people who may have been in contact with Ebola patients and monitor them for 21 days, which is the incubation period of the disease.

FALSE-> There are natural products, knowledge and rituals that prevent or cure Ebola GLOBAL IMPACT The prevalence is difficult to determine, because it usually occurs in the form of outbreaks or epidemics. The majority of cases have occurred in Africa. WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? Community participation is essential for the successful control of outbreaks of Ebola, so that it collaborates with the care of patients, control and prevention of the infection, monitoring of cases and people who have been in contact with them. Make safe burials.

FALSE-> Caring for the patient as if it were another less contagious disease, thinking that you will not get sick because you have strong defences. IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED?

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

• There is no specific treatment for the Ebola virus. • Treatment for the disease consists of rapid rehydration and treatment of symptoms.

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TYPHOID FEVER WHAT IS TYPHOID FEVER?

HOW IS IT PREVENTED?

Typhoid fever is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium of the Salmonella genus. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? Fever, diarrhoea, extreme exhaustion, headache. HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED, OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR TYPHOID FEVER? Through the symptoms of this disease, together with a history of being in places with cases of typhoid fever. It is confirmed with the performance of diagnostic tests such as finding S. Typhi bacteria in blood cultures and fluids such as urine, faeces; and with greater certainty the detection of antibodies in blood. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? • Faecal-oral route. Mainly through food and water contaminated with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. • Faeces of sick people, or carriers, that contaminate the environment. RISKS TO LIFE • Typhoid causes disparate symptoms and with different degrees of intensity • Without treatment, it can cause haemorrhages, intestinal perforation and a very serious infection outlook • It can cause alterations in organs such as the liver and spleen. • Despite being cured, a person can remain a carrier for years, with risk of infection.

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• • • •

Adequate hygiene measures Vaccination in areas where the disease is frequent Hygiene in food handling Disinfection of contaminated objects, water and contaminated food • Avoid contact with contaminated waste and eliminate them safely FALSE -> Having the disease produces immunity: it cannot happen again, nor can it be passed on again. IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED? • Antibiotics • Replenish fluids to avoid dehydration. • Avoid contact with contaminated waste, disinfect clothes and utensils used by sick people GLOBAL IMPACT An estimated 16 to 33 million cases worldwide each year, causing 200,000 deaths. More frequent in Asia, South America and Sub-Saharan Africa. Higher incidence in school-age children and young adults WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? • Take general preventive and hygiene measures • Adequate hygiene and disinfection in the environment of the patient who has passed on typhoid fever.

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TYPHUS WHAT IS TYPHUS?

IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED?

Typhus is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of arthropods infected with the rickettsia bacteria, which causes typhus. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? Fever, chills, headache, changes in the skin: red rash that covers the body. Diarrhoea, cough, feeling generally unwell. HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR TYPHUS? Through specific tests such as blood analysis, skin biopsy or serology, amongst others. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? Through lice, fleas, mites or ticks. These arthropods are often found on mammals and birds, which transport them.

• Proper hygiene measures and disinfection of the bites • Administration of antibiotics • Hydration measures • Measures to reduce fever GLOBAL IMPACT Without early treatment in epidemics mortality reaches 50%. Typhus is endemic in Africa (specifically in Burundi, Rwanda and Ethiopia), Asia and South America. WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? • • • •

Follow proper hygiene measures Get vaccinated against typhus Properly disinfect insect bites, avoid scratching bites Inform the reference authorities of cases of typhus

RISKS TO LIFE Without treatment, it can cause death. Disparate symptomatology, according to the type of disease contracted. HOW IS IT PREVENTED?

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Administration of the vaccine and proper hygiene are the two essential measures to prevent the disease. Typhus is related to poor hygiene. Personal hygiene is one of the fundamental axes. FALSE-> If you are vaccinated you will not contract the disease. Hygiene is not related to typhus since it is transmitted mainly by insect bites.

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DENGUE WHAT IS DENGUE?

RISKS TO LIFE

It is a viral disease, transmitted by female mosquitoes, mainly of the Aedes Aegypti variety. These mosquitoes also transmit chikungunya fever, yellow fever and Zika virus infection. Dengue is widespread in the tropics.

Influenza-like illness that affects infants, young children and adults, which in its form mild is rarely deadly. Severe dengue (hemorrhagic) affects most countries in Asia and Latin America and has become one of the leading causes of hospitalisation and death of children and adults in these regions.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? • High fever (40 °C), very intense headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, enlargement on the lymph nodes, or rash. • Severe dengue is potentially fatal because it causes breathing difficulties, severe bleeding or organ failure. The symptoms are accompanied by a decrease in body temperature (less than 38 ° C). • The following 24 to 48 hours of the critical stage can be fatal; it is necessary to provide medical attention. • Incubation period of 3 to 9 days after the mosquito bite.

HOW IS IT PREVENTED?

HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED?

TREATMENT

Through serological testing, detection of specific antibodies, and blood results such as leukopenia (decrease in white blood cells), thrombocytopenia (decrease in platelets), haemoconcentration, decrease in serum proteins.

• There is no specific treatment. In severe dengue, medical assistance reduces mortality from 20% to 1%. • It is crucial to maintain fluid volume in the body

There is another more rudimentary test, the tourniquet technique, in which the fragility of the capillaries is checked, a characteristic sign of this disease. It is not conclusive but could help when there are no other more accurate methods of diagnosis. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED?

• Elimination of the vector (mosquito) • Sleeping beneath mosquito nets, preferably treated with insecticides. Mosquito nets on the windows and doors • Maintenance and cleaning of the streets, including a good refuse collection system • Communication strategies and similar strategies to malaria prevention in general • The use of the first vaccine against dengue was approved in several countries in 2016

GLOBAL IMPACT 300 million dengue infections occur each year, of which 96 million are clinically apparent WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? Collaborate in environmental and household sanitation.

Through mosquito bites. The Aedes Aegypti mosquito’s tolerance to sub-zero temperatures, its capacity for hibernation and adaptation to micro-habitats are factors that fuel their spread.

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HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS WHAT IS HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS?

HOW IS IT PREVENTED?

HPV is a virus that can cause different forms of disease and is transmitted sexually.

• Through safe sex and use of barrier methods of contraception: condoms • Vaccination against HPV • Screening and periodic reviews • Precautions in sexual relations: you can have the disease and not have symptoms • Visit a health worker if signs or symptoms of the disease appear

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? Symptoms may appear on the vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, scrotum, anus, mouth and throat. It can be asymptomatic: a person may be infected with HPV, but without symptoms of disease. HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR HPV? Through the appearance of signs and symptoms. Diagnostic tests such as colposcopy (of the uterus and vagina) allowing an internal examination. Through cytology, which shows cellular abnormalities in a sample taken from the cervix. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? Through sexual contact, with HPV-infected secretions. FALSE-> it is only transmitted through genital contact or penetration, without other parts of the body being affected. HPV infection never goes away. If you have contracted the virus and it has been cured, you will not contract it again.

FALSE-> It is only necessary for people who have the disease to use barrier methods of contraception. The HPV vaccine can only be given to women. If there are no symptoms it means that you are not infected. IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED? • There is no curative treatment for HPV. The best option will be prevention and early detection • Sometimes HPV infection is eliminated spontaneously by the body, without further treatment • In the case of infection, there are treatments to eliminate cellular lesions and warts • When you have HPV, have stricter periodic reviews to avoid serious illnesses such as cancer GLOBAL IMPACT

RISKS TO LIFE • It can lead to serious illnesses such as cancer • Low-risk HPV causes lesions and unpleasant warts • High-risk HPV is related to cancer of the vulva, vagina, cervix or penis. • A large part of the population is infected with HPV at some time in their life, which clears itself without symptoms. This facilitates its spread, and is why is it so important to carry out screening, reviews, and universal precautions, to avoid spreading the virus.

WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY If these preventive actions are carried out individually, both the individual and the community will benefit.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

• HPV infection in women is approximately between 3% and 20% worldwide • Almost 99% of cases of uterine cancer are related to HPV.

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YELLOW FEVER WHAT IS YELLOW FEVER?

IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED?

A viral disease, in which an infected mosquito transmits the flavivirus that causes yellow fever from an ill to a healthy person. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? Fever, nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, general fatigue, back pain, jaundice (yellowing of skin, eyes and mucous membranes, from which the disease takes its name), decrease in appetite. These symptoms may be mild, decreasing from the third to the fourth day; or more severe, causing haemorrhages and kidney and liver affectation, even leading to death. HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED, OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR YELLOW FEVER? It can be detected by blood tests, and in advanced stages it is possible to resort to antibody detection tests, ELISA and more specific tests. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? Through the Aedes or Haemogogus mosquito, which act as vectors. They do so by having previously bitten an infected person, later becoming infected themselves and transmitting the disease to a healthy person.

The treatment will centre on alleviating the symptoms, and is usually based on hydration, renal and hepatic control, fever management. There is no specific treatment for the virus. In case of concomitant bacterial infection, antibiotics may be necessary. GLOBAL IMPACT The areas most at risk are Africa, Central America, South America, especially in regions where there are tropical rain forests. The mortality rate varies between 6% and 33% of diagnosed cases. Even today there are epidemics and outbreaks in endemic areas, for example, in 2016 there was an epidemic of yellow fever in Angola. WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? • • • •

Collaborate in vaccination campaigns. Control of mosquitoes in your area. Cleaning and environmental hygiene. Notification of cases, or consulting experts in case of doubts or suspicions.

RISKS TO LIFE As mentioned, the severity of the disease may vary from mild forms, to renal and liver affectation, and can even cause death in a short period of time. HOW IS IT PREVENTED? Through vaccination. The WHO suggests vaccinations campaigns in endemic areas, for children older than 9 months. Additionally, through environmental sanitation, and elimination and control of mosquitoes with fumigation.

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MENINGITIS WHAT IS MENINGITIS?

RISKS TO LIFE

Meningococcal meningitis is a disease caused by a bacterial infection. There are different types of bacteria that cause the disease, one of the most serious is Neisseria meningitidis. Meningococcal infection causes inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, causing disorders in these areas of the body. The incubation period is from 2 to 10 days.

It is considered a medical emergency because the lack of adequate treatment results in serious consequences. The lack of antibiotic treatment results in a mortality rate of approximately 50%. Often, survivors of the disease suffer consequences such as deafness, intellectual disabilities, or brain damage.

Stiffness of neck, headaches, eye discomfort (photosensitivity), vomiting, high fever, dizziness and disorientation. HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR MENINGITIS? Is diagnosed through clinical characteristics and physical examination; there are specific tests, which mainly evaluate nuchal rigidity. Lumbar puncture allows us to obtain a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (liquid found between the meninges that surround the brain and the spinal cord) and evaluate the presence or absence of bacteria under a microscope. Finally, the diagnosis is confirmed by culture of the cerebrospinal fluid or blood culture. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? • From one infected person to another, by drops of respiratory or throat fluids. • Close and prolonged contact with an infected person, and without the necessary precautions, will cause a chain of infection in families, and in the population. • The lack of appropriate hygiene conditions in the home, nomadism, or street vending in inadequate conditions, increase the possibility of suffering from the disease.

• There are vaccines that have proven to be effective. • The maintenance of hygienic environmental conditions prevents the disease. • Restricted contact and periodic isolation of infected people is important, whilst they receive antibiotic treatment and recover. IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED? • Antibiotic treatment. In Africa, the most used antibiotic is ceftriaxone. • Isolate infected people until they have recovered, to avoid airborne and physical contact. GLOBAL IMPACT The most frequent epidemics occur in sub-Saharan Africa, between Senegal and Ethiopia, known as the meningitis belt. From December to June, the risk of epidemic increases, due to the combination of the dry season, cold nights and respiratory infections. WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY • Follow the recommended vaccination program. • Maintain hygiene in the home and in your environment. • Avoid contact with infected people. • Follow rules of isolation in the event that a member of your family is affected. • Inform the health authorities of suspected cases, to receive treatment in time.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?

HOW IS IT PREVENTED?

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POLIO WHAT IS POLIO?

IF I FALL ILL, WHAT TREATMENT MUST I FOLLOW TO BE CURED?

Polio is a serious disease, which attacks the nervous system. It is caused by a virus: poliovirus. Three main types exist: type 1, which is the most widespread; type 2, which is eradicated; and type 3. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?

As there is no definitive treatment, it is important to turn to the health authorities to prevent the progress of the disease. Therapeutic monitoring is essentially palliative treatment of the symptoms.

Initial symptoms include headache, fever, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, vomiting and stiffness of the neck. As the disease progresses, the symptoms worsen, to the level of muscle paralysis. In extreme cases it can cause death due to cardio-respiratory failure.

The main objectives are based on treating pain, avoiding muscle stiffness as much as possible, using muscle relaxants, and antibiotic treatment for concomitant infections. In some cases, ventilator support may be necessary, in the case of paralysis of the respiratory muscles.

HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED OR HOW AM I TESTED FOR POLIO?

GLOBAL IMPACT

Through the clinical picture, physical examination, and more specific diagnostic tests of blood and cerebrospinal fluid. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? It is transmitted from person to person by the faecaloral route. Sometimes there may be water and food contamination, causing common source outbreaks. RISKS TO LIFE • It is a disease that progresses quickly, in a short period of time. • It can cause death, due to paralysis of the muscles of the cardiac and respiratory systems. • One in every 200 patients will be left with irreversible paralysis.

Currently polio cases have been reduced considerably, marking a 99% decline in cases in the past 30 years. Furthermore, some strains of the virus causing the disease have been eradicated, as is the case with type 2. Eradication of the disease in the not too distant future may be foreseen. WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR COMMUNITY? • Follow recommended vaccination programs. • Maintain hygienic conditions in the environment in which you live. • Take precautions and attend the medical centre if the disease is suspected in an individual or on the part of a family member neighbour.

HOW IS IT PREVENTED? • While the disease has no cure, there is a preventative vaccine, which is administered orally. • Hygienic management of the environment is a basic method to prevent infectious diseases.

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GLOSSARY


Health: The World Health Organization defines it as

Vaccine: Preparation intended to generate immunity

“a state of complete wellbeing in a physical, mental and social way, and not just the absence of illness”

against a disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a retrovirus

Parasites: Organisms that live on or within another

that attacks the immune system of the infected person.

organism, usually causing harm to the host organism.

AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a set

Virus: Microscopic infectious agents that can only

of clinical manifestations that appear in the advanced stage of HIV infection. When the viral load is very high and the body’s capacity for immune system response is reduced to below minimum, a person is diagnosed as having AIDS.

multiply inside the cells of other organisms.

Bacteria: Single-celled microscopic organisms that cause of numerous diseases

Antibiotics: Immune system: Our body’s natural defence

Powerful medications that fight bacterial infections.

against infectious microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi capable of invading our body.

Congenital malaria: Occurs during pregnancy and is transmitted from mother to child.

Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes, or white blood cells, are one of the main types of immune cells.

Early diagnosis: Detection and treatment of the disease in the initial stages.

CD4 and CD8 cells: Types of cells that are part of the immune system and are responsible for the manufacture of antibodies to fight infections caused by external agents.

Prevalence: Proportion of individuals from a group

Antibodies: Proteins produced by the body’s

Hygiene: Cleaning or cleanliness to preserve health

immune system when it detects harmful substances

or prevent diseases.

Antiretroviral

Incubation period: a range of time between the

Treatment

(ART):

The treatment that is given to stop or reduce HIV infection.

or a population who suffer from the same disease at a given time.

invasion of an infectious agent and the appearance of the first symptoms of the illness.

Window period (or latent infection): Period of time after infection before the virus can be detected by HIV diagnostic tests.

Haemorrhage: Is the exit of blood from the circulatory system, caused by the rupture of vessels such as veins, arteries or capillaries.

Symptom: Alteration of the body that reveals the existence of a disease and serves to determine its nature

Disinfection: Physical or chemical process that kills or deactivates pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and parasites.

Asymptomatic: When the patient does not present any clinical signs indicating the characteristics of the disease through simple observation.

Serological analysis: Medical study to check for

Opportunistic

Barrier contraceptives: Objects that block

infections:

Occur more frequently or are more severe in people with weakened immune systems.

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the presence of antibodies in the blood.

sperm and help prevent pregnancy

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Condom: A sheath-like barrier device used during sexual intercourse to reduce the likelihood of pregnancy or the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

Sprain: Injury of the ligaments surrounding a joint, due to distension, excessive stretching or forcing a joint to move into an unnatural position (torsion). The areas most affected in football are: knee and ankle ligaments.

Muscle strain: Partial or total sprain of muscle fibres. It occurs when the muscle suffers a violent muscle contraction with simultaneous excessive stretching, thus producing the spraining of the muscle fibres. The most affected muscles are the hamstrings and the adductors (groin)

Dehydration: Occurs when the body does not have as much water and fluids as it needs.

Heat stroke: Illnesses affecting the head, caused by

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

the excessive heat of the sun.

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SPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT SESSION BASIC DATA Day ___/ ___ / 201___

Place ___________________________________

Instructors ____________________________________________________________________ Coordinator ___________________________________________________________________ Topic(s) ______________________________________________________________________ Group age __________________

Location ____________________________________

Characteristics of the place where the session takes place _________________________________ Equipment: Balls ________

Bibs _______

Cones _______

Ohers ________

Objectives _____________________________________________________________________ DEVELOPMENT OF THE SESSION Introduction (minutes and organiser) _____ / ________________________________________ Warm-up (minutes y organiser) _____ / _____________________________________________ ACTIVITIES 1. ___________________________________________________________________________ Topic. ________________________ Min. ________ Organiser ___________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________ Topic. ________________________ Min. ________ Organiser ___________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________ Topic. ________________________ Min. ________ Organiser ___________________________ Final stretching and evaluation (minutes y organiser) ____/ _______________________________ OBSERVATIONS _____________________________________________________________________________________

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FUNDACIÓN RED DEPORTE Y COOPERACIÓN

ABOUT US

HEALTH PROGRAMMES

Red Deporte is a non-profit organisation founded in 1999, whose objective is to promote sport as a tool for human development. It mainly consists of volunteers who support the fulfilment of our organisation’s mission.

WHAT DO WE DO? We foster health at the community, building children and youngsters’ capacities on the fight against HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other illnesses that put the community at risk.

VISION WHERE DO WE WORK? Sport helps children and young people with fewer opportunities to fulfil their dreams and aspirations. MISSION Promoting education, health and integration through sport.

Our programmes are developed in sports and educational environments, where we facilitate the attendance of children and young people, as the main beneficiaries of our work. WHAT ACTIONS DO WE CARRY OUT?

VALUES We believe in excitement, joy, motivation, capacity for effort and perseverance as determining factors for the development of youth, peace and prosperity.

• We train instructors and trainers on the use of sport as a tool to promote health in the community. • We launch training sessions and sports championships, accompanied by educational messages about health. • We incorporate the intervention of health workers in the clinical and health education sphere.


Fundación Red Deporte y Cooperación C/ Carlos Picabea, 1. 28250 Torrelodones, Madrid rdc@redeporte.org · www.redeporte.org

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Red Deporte_Football for Better Health_Manual  

Manual to promote community health through football based activities

Red Deporte_Football for Better Health_Manual  

Manual to promote community health through football based activities

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