UGO FORNO PAVILION
REcall is a research project founded by EC Culture 2007-13 Programme (n. 2012 - 0927 / 001 - 001 CU7 COOP7) focused on the possible roles Museography can play when dealing with Difficult Heritage such as the ones coming from conflicts and wars. REcall wishes to envision new ways to the handling of Painful Places & Stories going behind any traditional approach: there is the need to shift from the ‘simply’ commemoration attitude to a more active involvement and participation of people in/with Places & Stories, through design strategies of ‘reappropriation’ (www.recall-project.polimi.it).
The views expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and the European Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
REcall Consortium POLIMI-Politecnico di Milano - Coordinator - (Italy) AAU-Aalborg University (Denmark) NTUN-Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway) UNEW-Newcastle University (United Kingdom) Fasltad Museum, Falstad (Norway) Museo della Resistenza, Turin (Italy) Associated Partners Ergan Foundation Romsdal museet Routes Agency Snark © The Authors: Creative Commons: license CC BY SA 3.0
‘…nowadays we don’t need heroes, we need citizens.’
SMALL ACTS : UGO FORNO PAVILION The Ugo Forno Pavilion is an answer to how we can re-use, re-appropriate and re-present the painful heritage of World War II in Italy, by going beyond traditional approaches of commemoration. The aim is to re-inscribe the marginal story of Ugo Forno into the contemporary historical, cultural and social landscape by re-inserting it into everyday life. Following Ugo’s example, this proposal is based on Small Acts which everyone can perform in order to contribute to community life, taking responsibility and ownership for their environment. This is achieved with the community’s active involvement and participation, generating not only a recalling of lost memories of resistance but creating templates for civil action; aiding in creating a more equal and just contemporary society. Human interaction will be used to engage with memories of this difficult past. Because the contemporary cultural landscape is characterised by its dynamism, temporality and changing social perceptions, the Ugo Forno Pavilion is a temporary ‘monument’, acting as a place of memory and lived experience. This monument is comprised of two structures, one fixed and the other mobile, where learning, teaching, socialising and the exercising of civic duties will unfold through the community’s active participation.
The Story Ugo Forno was a 12 year old boy who lived in Via Nemorense 15, a middle-class suburb of Rome. On the morning of June 5th 1944, the day after the official arrival of the Allies in Rome, Ugo leaves the house saying he is going out to play. He goes to the central square of the neighbourhood and hears that the Americans are arriving to liberate that area of the city. At this moment in time several Nazi groups are still fighting. Around the river Aniene some Partisan groups are preparing the ground for the arrival of the Allies, but Ugo learns that a group of Nazi engineers are planning to blow up the railway bridge over the river, which is the main route for the Allied entry in Rome. Ugo convinces some older youths to join him to prevent the Nazis blowing up the bridge. They were Antonio and Francesco Guidi, Luciano Curzon, Vittorio Seboni and Sandro Fornari. This small group of improvised resistance fighters prevent the Germans from blowing up the bridge. As they retreat, however, the Nazis retaliate by firing three mortar rounds at the young partisans resulting in a direct hit on the head of young Ugo. He dies instantly. Ugo Forno is the last to fall in the battle for the liberation of Rome. Today, the memory of Ugo Forno and his heroic act is almost forgotten. Ugoâ€™s story is exemplary of how a single action, a small act can change the course of history. Ugo Fornoâ€™s individual act of resistance stemmed from an urgent need to oppose the current state of affairs by choosing to pursue active participation.
There are five sites in Rome connected to the story of Ugo Forno.
Railway Bridge over the Aniene River
2. Garden between via Pietro Mascagni and via Luigi Mancinelli 3. Ugoâ€™s house 4. Parque Virgiliano 5.
Luigi Settembrini School
Railway Bridge over the Aniene River
Railway Bridge over the Aniene River which Ugo protected from the Nazis. The bridge was dedicated to Ugo Forno in 2010. On site there is a plaque and an information panel. Presently the site underneath the bridge is used as a cyclist route.
Garden between via Pietro Mascagni and via Luigi Mancinelli
Garden between via Pietro Mascagni and via Luigi Mancinelli. This garden is currently being proposed as a site dedicated to Ugo Fornoâ€™s memory. Author and historian Felici Cipriani pinpointed this location as the exact place where Ugo Forno lost his life.
Ugo’s house, is situated at Via Nemorense 15.
Parque Virgiliano, is a park near Ugo Forno’s house. There is a marble plaque dedicated to Ugo but it is placed on the ground and is obscured by a tall hedge.
Luigi Settembrini School
Luigi Settembrini School, via Sebenico 1. This is the school Ugo Forno was enrolled at the time of his death. The school is still operating today. Its multimedia room was dedicated to Ugo Forno in 2013 and a plaque was commissioned with the support of Fondazione Roma. The plaque is placed on the door at a height above the average size of the students, which means that it is practically hidden from plain view.
Although all these sites indicate that there is a strong material culture related to Ugo Forno’s story, after our research we concluded that there is little or no social memory of the event. When interviewing the local community, not one person had heard of Ugo’s story. Based on this we can also conclude that the traditional memorialisation strategies, i.e. plaques, are not an effective strategy of remembrance and in keeping the story alive in people’s memories. According to our experience people respond better to strategies which involve human interaction. By creating moments and opportunities for human interaction we will not only be able to create personal memories for each individual involved, but also make an imprint of Ugo’s story in their personal lexicon.
AIMS Convey the story of Ugo Forno in a meaningful way in order to create a memory imprinted into the communityâ€™s collective imagination. Draw new audiences to this instance of â€˜difficult heritageâ€™. Link the story to the present time in order to make it relevant to younger generations and contemporary society. Generate a sense of belonging, responsibility and civic duty in the community.
APPROACH – Small Acts Ugo Forno’s story has not been addressed or acknowledged in an adequate manner. Our approach aims to go beyond simple commemoration and traditional memorialisation strategies. Ugo’s story is connected to five sites in Rome, which will be transformed into places of memory through active community participation and lived experience. In this manner memory will be renewed and reshaped into a contemporary context. The importance of linking the story to Rome’s present geography relates to a need to create a new definition of ‘community’ or ‘civil society’. By identifying Ugo Forno as an individual who opposed living conditions or actions which were unjust reiterates that everyone has a voice and a responsibility to reinforce civil action. As stated by Fabrizio Forno (Ugo’s nephew) ‘nowadays we don’t need heroes, we need citizens’. Ugo Forno’s project focuses on the small acts that everyone can perform routinely which will help to improve community life by engaging in a duty of care, a respect for fellow citizens and civic responsibility. These small acts will make Ugo Forno’s story visible and inscribed in the current social fabric. This approach entails a long-term involvement and engagement of a chosen target audience and local community. Our approach consists of four main points: Collaborative Work, Environment Led and Used by Community, Active Learning and Small Interventions and Events.
Collaborative Work : Target audience / Collaborators The main collaborators in this project are the students and teachers at the Luigi Settembrini School, which Ugo Forno attended. Involving the school in the conception of the project means that the teachers, students, parents and staff will be invested in its development, therefore taking ownership and responsibility for the continuation of the memory. The school already has a material, human and social structure in place. It also has established links with other schools in the country and abroad resulting in several exchange projects. This allows for Ugo Fornoâ€™s story to be disseminated far and wide. The curricular and extra-curricular activities in the school will be used and developed as strategies of remembrance. Children are a demographic that are able to have a greater impact on the wider community, such as parents, grandparents, teachers and friends. Each year there is a renewal of collaborators with the enrolment of new students at the school.
The Ugo Forno project has a network of collaborating institutions and individuals: •
Luigi Settembrini School, Via Sebenico 1 Vice-President, Laura Bianchi Prof Sacco, Italian literature teacher Prof Bifurco, Gymnastics teacher Prof Roberta Cauchi Students
Liceo Classico Giulio Cesare, (High School next door) Vice-President: Gabriella Testini
Prof. Orlando, former Luigi Settembrini’s History teacher
Historian and journalist Felice Cipriani, author of ‘Il Ragazzo del Ponte’, founder of Ugo’s foundation
Fabrizio Forno, Ugo Forno’s nephew
Environment used and led by the community In consultation with the children we learnt that there are many things they feel that are missing in the school. These are either resources or activities such as cooking classes; field trips; school camps; laboritories; a large gym; interactive blackboards, and a computer science lab. This project will not only provide a site of remembrance for Ugo Forno but also a place where the needs of the target audience will be met.
Active Learning Active learning is learning which engages and challenges children and young peopleâ€™s thinking using real-life and imaginary situations. It takes full advantage of the opportunities presented by: spontaneous play; planned, purposeful play; investigating and exploring; events and life experiences; focused learning and teaching. As suggested by delegates of a Curriculum for Excellence conference, children learn by doing, thinking, exploring; through quality interaction, intervention and relationships founded on childrenâ€™s interests and abilities across a variety of contexts. All combine to build the four capacities for each child. Active learning can support learnersâ€™ development of the four capacities in many ways. They can develop as: Successful learners through using their imagination and creativity, tackling new experiences and learning from them, and developing important skills including literacy and numeracy whilst following their own interests. Confident Individuals through succeeding in their activities, confident individuals have the satisfaction of accomplishment. They learnin about bouncing back from setbacks, and deal safely with risk. Responsible citizens, through encountering different ways of seeing the world, learn to share; giving and taking, and learning to respect themselves and others, and take part in decision making. Effective contributors, through interacting together in leading or supporting roles, tackling problems, extending communication skills, taking part in sustained talking and thinking, and respecting the opinions of others. Active learning requires an environment that can offer differential play and challenge.
The School’s Promise or Code of Conduct I promise to remain united to my group to resolve the injustices committed by those who want to harm others. As a member of the group UNITED: I’m going to help my teammates when playing I’ll help my classmates with classroom work I will treat other students with respect I will greet new friends and will not exclude them I will welcome anyone into my group who will show respect for my companions I will be polite to others I will not ever betray a friend I will encourage others to do good deeds I learned about human rights and will help others to do the same I promise to do my best to always follow these rules without violence.
Small Interventions and Events To draw new audiences to ‘difficult heritage’, a series of small interventions and events will take place around the city. These take place around special dates related to Ugo Forno such as 5th June, the anniversary of Ugo’s death and the 16th October, the date that many Jews in Rome faced deportation during World War II. This strategy is vital in disseminating the story of Ugo Forno not only to the local community but also further afield. This engagement process will also facilitate our team to uncover other people’s memories of ‘resistance’, adding a multitude of layers and depth to the project.
UGO FORNO PAVILION
UGO FORNO PAVILLION This pavilion is a temporary fixed structure placed outdoors within the Luigi Settembrini school’s internal patio, opposite to the school’s small allotment. It is a self-sustained building made of recycled materials with three floors each containing a multipurpose space. The colour scheme is inspired by the school’s logo. This structure was designed to accommodate both teacher’s and children’s wishes. When we visited the school in September, both groups were very vocal regarding the lack of space and facilities, which have an impact on their daily routines. This space will be run by the Ugo Forno Association which will be created and based at the school, directed by a panel of two teachers, three children and one artist. This panel will be in charge of the running and maintenance of the structure and their input and weight will be equal. As necessities and situations change and evolve the panel will be responsible for adapting the building for the changing circumstances. Taking responsibility and ownership for the building will be a good exercise for the children to follow Ugo’s example by taking care of their space, community and fellow students. A normal school day is divided by the curricular activities and lessons until lunchtime and in the afternoon the extra-curricular activities take place. During the morning teachers will be able to book the pavilion through the association for any required teaching such as maths, science, biology, chemistry and languages. In the afternoon the pavilion will host a number of extra curricular activities linked to the
memory of Ugo Forno, such as Ugo’s Kitchen, Ugo’s allotment and “UgoFM.com”, internet radio. This pavilion offers an environment of challenge and differential play. Here active learning will be put into practice by teaching the students through play and fun.
Ground floorUgo’s Kitchen
(Science/ Chemistry/Biology lab) The ground floor is designed to fulfil children’s wishes for cooking classes and also as an extension of the school’s newly established allotment. Currently, this allotment is in the early stages of development, therefore the teachers haven’t decided what to do with the harvest. The allotment and the kitchen are great environments for active learning. Basic social skills, self-sufficiency, problem solving, risk-assessment, enterprising behaviour, responsibility and action/consequence are a few of the lessons that can be learnt from it. This section of the building was inspired by the ‘Orti di Guerra’, which sprung up in Rome during the war. This was a widespread reality for many other countries, which shows us that the effects of World War II are a shared heritage. Food was scarce and communities took matters into their own hands. The allotments made people come closer together with shared responsibilities, allowing them to take ownership over their lives and sustainability during this uncertain time even if for brief moments. It also gave them a sense of hope and pride, which helped to alleviate the burden of war.
The Kitchen will be used for cooking lessons, which will promote healthy eating and food awareness whilst building confidence and encouraging independence. The ingredients for cooking will be brought from the allotment and occasionally bought. (The ultimate aim is to have a fully functioning allotment which will feed into the kitchen but this will take a bit of time.) Currently, the children bring several goods into the school in order to distribute them amongst disadvantaged people. This happens twice a year, during Christmas and at the end of the school year. With the addition of Ugoâ€™s kitchen in the school and the further development of the allotment, this will push the childrenâ€™s responsibility further as they will be accountable for the growth and cooking of the goods for distribution. The harvest can be
distributed amongst people and its surplus transformed in preserves. Cooking lessons allow children to practice basic maths skills like counting, weighing, measuring and estimating with every recipe. Keeping track of cooking times requires them to put their timing abilities to the test in a practical way and helps them to better understand sequencing - the idea that events occur in a logical order. Science can also be put into practice by discovering and observing how yeast makes dough rise, how salt affects the way ice melts and heat changes the way food looks and tastes. Communication is another important aspect of cooking. They have to be able to read, understand and explain recipe steps, but they must also take turns, work together and be ready so solve any issues that might arise. Learning how to safely use kitchen equipment, cleaning up, washing and putting away kitchen gear when their cooking is finished fosters responsibility, independence and boosts confidence. The kitchen will be equipped with the basic appliances and facilities such as a cooker, fridge, sink and working surfaces. This can be altered in consultation with the children to accommodate and develop needs as they arise.
Middle floor‘UgoFM.com’ Internet Radio/ Writing/ Study/ Social The school radio was inspired by the importance of communication within the wartime period, through printed media and broadcast radio, which can be linked to the school’s already established extracurricular activity - Journalism. In this activity, developed by the school, the children have access to experts in the field, workshops and guided tours to press agencies and offices. The radio station will be a suitable, easy and cost effective addition to the students’ skills set and a way to disseminate Ugo’s story. On the 13th December 2013, the children were involved in a project regarding Human Rights called “Face to Faith: Human Rights, not only words”, for which they have developed several activities involving the local community. With a school radio station, a platform is in place for a more permanent engagement of the local community with human rights issues. As another active learning environment, this radio station will enhance the students’ abilities to communicate in writing (i.e. scripts and programmes for broadcasting); confidence in speaking over the ‘air-ways’ and their ability to communicate with the broadcasting team. It will give them the opportunity to be heard and will enable them to be aware of current socio-economic and political issues as they research their programme material. Programme writing develops language skills and the ability to commit thoughts to paper. Students can develop
their interviewing skills as they prepare and deliver questions and answers for their programme. Last but not least, the children will learn to work effectively together and respect each other. An Internet Radio Station requires minimal equipment and can be easily operated. As students become more versed and confident in developing programmes, new equipment can be added. As a start-up pack, the radio station requires a computer, microphone, an account on a web-based streaming service (such as Justin.tv or ustream.tv) and a license (which can be bought through Live365.com or LoudCity). This room has a multi-purpose function. Due to the constraints of space and in order to accommodate for a large number of children to work together, hidden tables were designed. These pop up from the walls through a very basic pull mechanism. When not in use the tables can be pushed back into the
wall, leaving free floor space. The seats are folding chairs, which are collapsed and hung on the wall when not in use. A lockable cupboard will contain all the equipment necessary for the school radio (computer, microphone and extension cable). The key to this cupboard will be in possession of an association member and children need to sign in a logbook in order to request it. Because the equipment is stored away safely it means that this room can be used for other purposes outside the radio programmeâ€™s times.
Top floorplant nursery/herbs garden This top floor works as an extension of the existing allotment and it will function as a plant nursery where children can sprout seeds before transplanting them to the big allotment.
UGO FORNO Pavilion Energy System and Uses The UGO FORNO Pavilion will be completely energy efficient. It will use photovoltaic solar panels to generate electricity to run all the equipment it contains and it will have a rain water collection system to create drinking water and water for cooking and cleaning, at the same time feeding the vegetable patch, flower boxes and botanic cells. Although the Pavilion relies on the schoolâ€™s external staircase for structural support, it will not need to use any of the schoolâ€™s energy resources. The aim of this is so it can act independently and so demonstrates how small acts, like collecting rain, can have bigger impact on the surrounding environment and its inhabitants.
Water The rain water will be harvested via a collection unit on the roof of the surrounding staircase and platforms. This water will be stored in a tank and travel down to other parts of the Pavilion via two pipe systems. The first will supply drinking water to the kitchen sink. This water will be treated by a UVGI (Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation) filter. Once treated, the water will be stored in a tank ready for use on demand, whenever the kitchen tap is turned on. This water can be used for drinking water, cooking and cleaning dishes and kitchen equipment. It will not be an endless supply, there will only be the amount the Pavilion can generate, so the children will need to learn how quickly the Pavilion can do this and ration the water accordingly. The second pipe system will feed water to the flower beds, vegetable bed and botanic cells. This system should ensure that the plants do not need to be watered, but it will be the studentsâ€™ responsibility to check that this is the case and to care for the plants. All water that goes down the plug hole of the kitchen sink will feed directly into the Ground Floor Botanic Cells. Used water from the kitchen sink is still full of nutrients, especially if it contains food stuffs, and can be extremely useful. This water is known as grey water, and is often not used to its potential. The Pavilionâ€™s use of grey water will demonstrate to the students how water can be reused and the benefit of a small act like this has on the environment.
Any excess water from the systems can be siphoned off and put back into the rain water collection unit and storage tank to start its journey again. The vegetables grown in the vegetable bed and botanic cells can be used by the students for cooking in the kitchen. This will give them ownership of the project and they will be able to benefit from the fruits of their labour. How the UVGI Filter works The UVGI system is designed to expose water to germicidal UV light which is mutagenic to bacteria, viruses and other micro-organisms and breaks down their molecular bonds, destroying them or rendering them harmless. This process is similar to the way UV light can give humans sunburn. As bacteria has less protection to UV than we do, it cannot survive the exposure it receives inside the treatment unit. The unit is made from stainless steel so the UV light cannot escape and maximises its effectiveness.
Botanic Cells They contain layers of soil, sand and gravel that act as a filter for the water and the perfect base for growing plants and vegetables. These units also act as a treatment process for the rainwater and used water from the Pavilion (grey water). This is a natural process done by the plants in the cells via filtration, oxygenation and encountering friendly bacteria which all play a part in cleansing the once used water.
Filtration The water is first filtered through soil, sand and gravel and then again by the plant roots as they suck up the water. Oxygenation Oxygen will be emitted by the plants into the water and air, as they take up water through their roots. This process will also remove nitrogen from the water, cleansing it. A large amount of the grey water will be taken up by the roots of the plants to feed
them and help them to grow. Any excess water can be siphoned off and returned the rain collection unit and storage tank. Bacteria Encounter The gravel, sand and soil will create an environment that encourages the development of friendly bacteria. These bacteria will help to cleanse the grey water by attacking and killing off the unfriendly bacteria contained in the grey water. The Botanic cells will have clear plastic sides which act as windows, so the students can witness how the water travels through the system. The Middle Floor Botanic Cell will have an internal window so the students can see into it when they are inside. This will be a useful tool for any Geography and Science lessons that take place inside this room.
The process behind the Botanic Cells will also feed into the message of the project that â€œsmall acts have a big impactâ€?. Water is an extremely important part of life and one that is often taken for granted. This system of recycling water will be educational as well as carrying the message of the project.
Electricity Electricity will be generated by Photovoltaic Solar Panels mounted on the staircase structure and stored in the battery which will be used to supply the power sockets on the Middle and Ground Floor, WiFi, cooker, fridge, UV water filter. This power supply is gathered in a similar method to the water, from the sky. Also, like the water system, the students will benefit from a free energy source and the potential to learn from how it is collected in Science and Technology Lessons. For example: The Solar panels can be used to explain photosynthesis in Biology lessons and compared in contrast with the plants in the Botanic Cells, Vegetable and Flower Beds. The UGOFM.com Rrdio station equipment will also be run from the Pavilionâ€™s solar panels, so the students will be able to boast that they are broadcasting from a green source.
How the Photovoltaic Solar Panels work Photovoltaic Solar Panels convert sunlight into electricity at the atomic level. The panels contain semiconductive materials that can absorb photons of light and are specially treated to form an electric field, positive on one side and negative on the other. When sunlight hits the solar cell, electrons are knocked loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material. Electrical conductors are attached to the positive and negative sides, forming an electrical circuit. The electrons can be captured in the form of an electric current. The electricity is then stored in a battery and can be used to power the electrical sockets and equipment in the Pavilion.
Like the water, it is not an endless supply. The students will have to learn how much electricity the Pavilion can generate and ration it accordingly.
UGO FORNO MOBILE PAVILION
UGO FORNO MOBILE PAVILLION The Ugo Forno mobile pavilion is a multi-purpose tent that can be placed in any outdoor location accompanying children on public interventions, performances, and events. These events will be an effective strategy to disseminate Ugoâ€™s story and example to the wider community. Children will be able to do this by using methods they learn in the schoolâ€™s extra-curricular activities, such as Drama, Performance, Music. This structure, when not in use for performances and activities related to Ugo Forno, can be used as a mobile classroom.
Examples of Events Event 1: 16th October The 16th of October is a significant remembrance date in Rome related to the memory of World War II. On this date the local Jewish population were rounded up en masse for deportation to Auschwitz and Dachau. Remembrance events happen all over the city on this date. For this date it is important to remember the atrocities of deportation and also to speak up regarding human rights infringements at the present time. This is an extremely formative exercise as it is important that children become aware of the struggles facing our contemporary society. As stated by Fabrizio Forno, it is important that children recognise the disparity of contexts lived in different parts of the world. The more privileged societies have the duty to recognise their status and more importantly draw attention to the atrocities committed around the globe. In doing this, children can become better citizens, following Ugo’s example of taking up ownership and responsibility by speaking up. This performance will take inspiration from the Theatre of the Oppressed, a theatrical form that Augusto Boal developed in the 1960s. Boal’s techniques uses theatre as a means of promoting social and political change. In the Theatre of the Oppressed, the audience becomes active, such that as “spect-actors” they explore, show, analyse and transform the reality in which they are living.
Description: Location: Square in town centre or train station Action: A child approaches an adult and asks permission to share a secret with him/her. If the adult agrees the child will quote a true testimony from a child soldier who lives in another country. After this, the child will hand a leaflet to the adult, which contains an explanation of Ugo Forno’s story and the Ugo Forno Pavilion. The child walks away. Several children will perform this action simultaneously. Quotes’ examples: “I was working on the farm and heard that soldiers were coming, so my father told me to hide. But I was caught. The soldiers tied me and beat me and took me to a barracks in Lofa County. There were many small boys in Lofa, more than adults. Many were killed by bullets and rockets. They gave me an arm and told me how to use it…I used an AK 47; the adults used RPGs and other big weapons. I fired the gun but am not sure if I killed people. On the road enemy soldiers came and I tried to run away but a rocket hit my leg. Four people were wounded and some others died in the attack. Government soldiers came and took me to the Phebe hospital. After a week and two days an ambulance from JFK hospital came to pick me up. At JFK they amputated my leg. The soldiers gave me a little money while I was in hospital so I paid my way to come to ‘Titanic’, a centre housing former government militia, from JFK. I want to go to school and start a small business.” (JK, a 14 year old boy from Bong County, Liberia, was captured by former government forces in June 2003. Al Report: Liberia: The promises of peace for 21,000 child soldiers)
“They took us as wives straightaway. We had to cook for them. If a cow was killed, we had to cook it…When they came back, they would eat and drink, then they would call for you. They were so many. It was so painful…If they went to attack somewhere or to loot, there was always someone who stayed behind. Then he’d call you. If you refused, they used sticks to whip you…We mostly stayed in the forest but sometimes we had to go with them and carry what they looted… They all had sex with me. I don’t know how many people had sex with me. A man would come, then another and another. I wasn’t even the youngest. Some girls were even younger than me. Even the commanders called for you.You couldn’t refuse…They said they’d kill you if you ran away. Some people fled and didn’t come back. We didn’t know if they’d got away or had been killed.” (Following an attack on her colline in Gitega province, Burundi, in 2001, F., then aged 13, was forced to accompany a group of around 30 combatants. Al Report: Burundi: Child Soldiers – the challenge of demobilisation)
Event 2: 5th June The 5th of June is the date of Ugo Forno’s death. Usually the school has the end of the year party for the children on the 6th of June. We propose to merge these events and have a single celebration of the 5th of June. This event is inspired by the contemporary Smart Mobs. Smart Mobs are a variation on the Flashmobs phenomena where a group of people assemble suddenly in a public space, perform an unusual and seemingly pointless act for a brief time, then quickly disperse, often for the purposes of entertainment, satire, and artistic expression. Smart Mobs have the specific intention of conveying political messages and are used as a tool for social activism. Description: Location: Parco Virgiliano, park situated near Ugo’s House and School Action: Musical Smart Mob and Picnic. Children play musical instruments as an extra-curricular activity at the school, such as the piano, violin and guitar. They will put these skills to the test by performing an expected concert for the local community, parents and teachers in the park. Once they finish playing children will hand out leaflets to park users with information about the Ugo Forno Story and Pavilion. This action is a small act that will allow children to practice Ugo’s example of considering and caring for the welfare of its own community. Providing a
moment of unexpected pleasure for others is an important exercise of civic duty. After the performance, children, teachers and parents will gather around the park and have a picnic as a celebration of Ugo Forno and of the end of school year.
CONCLUSION The story of Ugo Forno, a 12 year old boy, is both heroic and tragic. According to Prof. Orlando, it has all the elements that attracts and connects to children that age. It is made of danger, courage, and risk, and it happened locally. In order to counter-balance the existing ineffective memorialisation strategies this project engages with the students from Luigi Settembrini school to produce a dynamic ‘monument’. One that shifts and adapts to growing and developing needs of the community using Ugo’s example as its code of conduct. Children’s collaboration in the development of Ugo’s pavilion will give them a sense of responsibility and ownership. By performing Small Acts they will learn how a simple gesture can have a great impact on the quality of lives of others around them. Using the already established School Promise as a code of conduct the Ugo Forno Pavilion will be a site where his memory will be inserted into everyday life. By adding simple activities to children’s daily routines of curricular and extra-curricular duties, the story is passed on in a relevant manner for the present context. These activities will also involve the development of new skills such as gardening, cooking, radio broadcasting and performance and will reinforce basic human rights such as respect, freedom, duty of care, etc.
The children will also be responsible to spread the message and teach adults and the local community through example by showcasing the small acts they have performed in order to build a stronger community. This strategy of remembrance and re-appropriation of Ugoâ€™s story comes to highlight that every single person has accountability in the way their lives unfold. As the famous saying goes â€˜The only thing necessary for the triumph of Evil is that good men do nothingâ€?.
Blank Isabel Lima, Lily Garnett, double room Toby Lloyd