TEXTILE Fabrics Book Rebecca Louise Todd BA Fashion Marketing & Communication Level 4, 2015-2016 MIED 411, Fashion Culture Textile Culture CWK1 Teacher: Michele Gilli
INDEX: Fibres……………………………………………………....0 Wool……………………………………………...1 Silk………………………………………………...2 Linen……………………………………………...3 Cotton…………………………………………...4 Viscose…………………………………………..5 Lycra……………………………………………...6 Polyester………………………………………..7 Acrylic……………………………………………8 Structures………………………………………………...10 Plain Weave……………………………………11 Twill Weave……………………………………12 Crepe……………………………………………..13 Pile fabrics……………………………………...14 Satin Weave…………………………………...15
Patterns…………………………………………….....17 Stripes……………………………………......18 Checks……………………………………......19 Jacquard…………………………………......20 Knit.......………………………………………..21 Finishing’s……………………………………………...23 Printing…………………………………….....24 Dyeing…………………………………….......25 Embroidering………………………………26 Textile Fibre Test.…………………………………..28 Soft Copy……………………………………………..29
Description: Wool is a textile fibre obtained from sheep and some other
animals, like goats and rabbits. Wool is crimped, elastic and it grows in clusters. Due to this crimp it is easy to spin the fleece as it helps the individual fibres attach to each other. Properties of wool: readily absorbs water but can also release it, however it dries slowly.Wool does not burn readily as it is naturally fire resistant. Also due to the crimp in the wool fibre, wool as the ability to stretch and then return to its natural length-this makes wools strong and durable. The fibres also readily accept dye colours. History: About 40% of the world production of wool fabrics come from merino sheep, 43% from merino crossbreeds and the rest obtained from other animals such as goats. Applications: As well as clothing wool is used for, blankets, horse rigs, saddle clothes, carpets and upholstery. Wool is also used widely as insulation, as it can absorb noise so is therefore used in piano covers.
Description:Silk is produced by silk worms. Silk has a smooth soft texture that is not slippery like many synthetic fibres. Silk is one of the strongest natural fibres however loses some of its strength when wet. Silk has very poor elasticity, and does not regain its original fit if stretched. History:Production of silk originates in china. Silk remained only in china until the silk-road opened at some point in the later part of the first millennium. Silk was not only used in the production of clothing, it was also used at the time for writing and was used as an indicator of wealth/social class in the tang dynasty. Applications: Silk is often used for clothing such as shirts, ties, blouses, formal dresses, lining, dress suits and sun dresses. Silk is an excellent fibre for protection against insect bites and it is not easily pierced. Due to silks lustre and drape, it makes it suitable for many furnishing applications. Care instructions: Silk is usually best washed by hand with a mild detergent. Silk must be washed more regularly as hard washing will damage the fibres. Avoid soaking silk as it has a flame resistant finish.
Description: Linen I a textile made from the fibres of the flax plant. Linen is very absorbent and garments made from linen are valued for their coolness in hot weather. Linen feels cool to the touch, it is smooth and get softer with every wash. But a crease in the dame fold over and over again can cause the fibres to break. This can usually be seen in hems and collars. Linen also has poor elasticity and will not bounce back to its shape readily History:Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world and their origins go back thousands of years. Linen was also sometimes used as a currency in ancient Egypt as well as this Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity and to display wealth. Applications:Aprons, bags, towels, napkins, bed linen, table cloths and chair covers Care Instructions:Linen is easy to take care of as it is resistant to dirt and stains, has no lint or a piling tendency and can be dry cleaned, machine washed or steamed and has moderate initial shrinkage. However linen should not be tumble dried too much and it is much easier to iron when slightly damp. Linen also wrinkles very easily, however many garments take advantage of this by using the wrinkles in the design to create iron free clothing.
Description: A white vegetable fibre grown on a plant related to the hollyhock. Cotton is grown in The United States, Russia, China, India and others. Cotton is both the name of the fibre and the fabric that it makes. Cotton fibre I most commonly spun into a yarn or a thread, to create a soft, breathable fabric. History: Use of cotton is traceable back to prehistoric times, cotton fabric found in Mexico has been dated back to 5000 BC. Itâ€™s estimated that the world production of cotton is about 25 million tonnes annually! China is currently the worldâ€™s leading producers in cotton, although most of which used domestically. Applications: Cotton is the most widely used textile and just about anything can bemade from cotton, it just depends on the look that is wanting to be achieved from the garment. Care Instructions: Machine was cotton in warm water, in a normal cycle with regular detergent and tumble dry on low setting. Use a hot iron to remove wrinkles and if desired spray with a starch spray in order to revive the crispness of cotton fabrics.
Description: Viscose is a semi-synthetic fabric, as it is man-made but made with natural products. It is structurally similar to cotton but canbe produced from a variety of plants such as soy, bamboo or sugar cane. Viscose has a silk like synthetic with very good drapes and soft hand. It has good retention of colour too. One of the strengths of viscose is its versatility and ability to blend with other fibres seamlessly, which is good way to reduce the cost of some products. History:The French scientish and industrialist who i nvented the first artificial textile fibre (artificial silk) also created viscose; Hilaire de Chardonnet. Care Instructions:viscose usually requires dry cleaning for the best results, however the most common viscose types are machine washable and tumble dry able quite satisfactorily.
Lycra, also known as spandex and elastane is a fibre known for its elasticity. It is stronger and more durable than natural rubber. It was invented by chemist, Joseph Shivers in 1958 and introduced in 1962. Lycra revolutionized many aspects of the fashion industry. Lycra can be produced in four different ways: melt extrusion, reaction spinning, solution dry spinning and solution wet spinning. For clothing, Lycra is usually incorporated into a large range of garments, especially skin tight garments. One of the main benefits of Lycra are its strength and elasticity and its ability to retain its shape after stretching, and it has the ability to dry very quickly. Lycra is normally mixed with cotton or polyester and accounts for a small percentage of the final fabric; because of the small percentage, it retains the look and feel of the main percentage of the fabric. E.g. Cotton. In North America it is rare to find Lycra in menâ€™s clothing but very prevalent in womenâ€™s clothing. Applications: active-wear, belts, bras, gloves, leggings, ski pants, socks and tights, swimsuits, underwear. Care: Always wash in a delicate cycle in cold water. Add household baking soda to get rid of any smells and make it smell good.
Polyester fibres are often blended with other fibres to produce a fabric with blended properties. For example cotton mixed with polyester can be strong, wrinkle and tear resistant and reduce shrinking. Two British scientists first invented polyester in 1941 in England. In 1945 DuPont a US company bought the rights to produce polyester. Polyester is made from oil which is broken down into different components. Since the 1960s, polyester has been the cheapest fabric, and almost half of the worlds clothing is made of polyester. As polyester is made of oil, it will get more expensive as oil becomes to run out. Uses: apparel, home furnishings, shirts, jackets, hats. And in more industrial uses are safety belts, conveyor belts, tyre reinforcements. Care: use a mild detergent and warm water, in machine and by hand. Keep polyester out of the sun when drying.
Acrylic is a lightweight, soft, warm and wool like, in terms of feel, fibre; that is often used to mimic natural fibres like cotton. Acrylic takes colour well, is machine washable and is generally hypoallergenic. Because of these qualities it is useful in garments for children as they need to be washed more regularly. However is more flammable than its natural counterparts, so take in care in use. Acrylic is also strong and warm so is used in garments that require these properties, like in linings of boots and gloves. History: DuPont (US company) created the first acrylic fibre in 1941, however it was only developed in the mid-1940s and only introduced and produced in large quantities in the 1950s. Uses include: socks, hats, gloves, scarves, sweaters, home furnishing fabrics, and awnings. Care: machine washable and dry cleanable. Garments should be washed in warm water with an added softer to keep the fabric soft and fresh. Dry on low temperature and fold or hang immediately to avoid wrinkling.
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It is the most basic of the three fundamental types of textile weaves. It is strong and wears well. The warp (vertical yarns) and weft (horizontal yarns) are aligned so they form a simple criss-cross pattern. You can identify a plain weave by the checkerboard like appearance it has. Plain weave fabrics that are not printed or given a surface finish have no right or wrong side. Plain weaves tend to wrinkle and have less absorbency than other weaves. For example, menâ€™s dress shirts are made using plain weave, they need to be ironed before wear and tend to show sweat very easily through the shirt. Used for fashion and furnishings. Used in fabrics such as chiffon, organza, oxford and taffeta.
Twill weave has a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. Because of this structure, twill can drape well in garments. Twill weaves generally have a front and a back side. The front of a twill weave is called the technical face and the back is called the technical back. The technical face is more pronounced in terms of ribs and is normally the more attractive and durable side. The fewer interlacingâ€™s in twills the more free and softer the fabric, which allows better drape. Stains are less noticeable on twill weaves because of the uneven surfaces. Therefore twill is often used for garments that are worked more, like denim or durable upholstery. Twill weave is used for: houndstooth, herringbone and twill flannel. Care: twill weave is prone to shrinkage, so wash in warm or cold washes and dry on low settings. If the twill weave is dyed, like denim, wash with alike pieces to avoid colour running on other garments.
Crêpe is a wool, silk or synthetic fabric that has a crisp or crimped appearance. Historically is was associated with mourning as it was used to make women’s mourning bonnets. This crimped or wrinkled surface appearance is achieved through weaving variations, chemical treatments and embossing. Surface textures range from, fine to flat to pebbled and mossy; some even resemble tree bark. Uses: Uses: suited to any garment that is flowy and draping, like blouses, skirts and dresses. Care: you can wash crêpe on a warm or cold cycle and you can tumble dry your crêpe garments on low or you can line dry them. Iron you garment on low heat and use a little steam.
Pile is the raised surface or nap of a fabric. It is made of upright loops or strands of yarn. There are different types of pile, these include: loop, uncut, cut, knotted and woven. Velvet is a form of pile fabric, in which the cut threads are evenly distributed. Care: depending on the type of velvet it should be dry cleaned. But others can be machine washed. A steamer should be used to remove creases; never iron velvet. Do not fold velvet as this flattens the pile. Uses: carpets, corduroy, velvet, plush.
It is a weave that usually has a shiny side and a dull side. The glossy effect is created by weaving threads so that 4 warp threads float over 1 weft thread. The floating threads with less interlacing creates the glossy look. During the middle-ages satin was made of silk so used to be very expensive. Satin weave wears well but only if it is not excessive hard wear. It is very suitable for linings of jackets as it allows jackets to be easily put on and taken off. Uses: baseball jackets, athletic shorts, lingerie, night gowns, blouses, and evening gowns. Care: depends on the type of fabric used. Refer to fibres section for the different fibres used to create satin weaves.
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Pinstripes: Are a pattern of very thin stirpes running parallel to each other. Pinstripes are often associated with a manâ€™s suit. But designers have made it very fashionable for woman and men in recent years. Pin stripes are not only found in every day garments, but a baseball team in the states have had pinstriped uniforms since 1907. Uses: Pin stripes is a pattern that can be on any garment of clothing, from pants to shirts to dresses. However it is mostly seen in menâ€™s suits and pants for woman. Care: This depends on the fabric that has the pinstripes prints. E.g. if itâ€™s on linen or cotton.
Tartan: Pattern created by criss-crossing horizontal and vertical bands of multiple colours. Was originally made in woven wool, but now can be found in various materials. Tartan is associated with Scotland. The different clans in Scotland have a particular Tartan associated with them. Most commonly known use of Tartan is in Scottish Kilts. Uses: Mostly known for use in Kilts. Now can be found on any item of clothing. Care: Traditional kilts should be spot cleaned, or if need be hand washed lightly to avoid damage. On any other fabric, wash as you would the fabric that the pattern is on.
The process and loom are named after their inventor, Joseph Marie Jacquard. It refers to the added control mechanisms that automates the patterning. Jacquard shedding made possible the automatic production of unlimited varieties of pattern weaving and is known as the most important weaving inventions. Jacquard is an intricately woven pattern. It is a process in which the pattern is incorporated into the weave rather than added to or on top of the already woven fabric. Uses: Incorporated into any garment. Care: Again it depends what the jacquard pattern is formed with (What fabric). Do not tumble dry and when ironed, must be ironed on a cooler setting. Do not dry clean.
Flat Knit: is a process in which the work is turned regularly. So the fabric is worked with on alternating sides facing the knitter. Flat knitting is more complicated than circular knitting as the same stitch is produced by 2 different movements when knitted from the right and wrong side. Uses: socks, hats, stockings, sweaters. Care: it depends on the yarn used. Knits should be hand washed gently and laid out flat to air dry as they are prone to stretching if hung and could lose their shape. Do not machine wash or dry.
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Printing is a process of applying colour to a fabric in specific patterns/designs. In well done printing the colour is blended with the actual fibre so it does not wash out. In printing one or more colours can be applied to certain areas and they can be sharply defined patterns. Uses: Prints can be applied to all garments, from shirts to skirts to dresses to pants. Care: printed garments can be hand washed or machine washed. Itâ€™s suggested that use a mild detergent or bleach free detergent, as bleach fades prints. Prints will fade over time but that is expected.
Dyeing is the process in which colour is added to textile products like fibres, yearns and fabrics. Dyeing is done in a solution that contains the dye/s along with a particular chemical material that allows that specific dye to attach to that particular fibre. Temperature and time are key factors in the dyeing process. There are 2 classes of dyeing; man-made and natural dyes. Uses: Generally most garments are dyed. Man-made dyes are usually used for garments that will come into sunlight more often, like curtains, as man-made dyes can with stand fading longer than natural dyes. Care: man-made and natural dyes can run so pre wash new garments separately before wear. Some dyes are also prone to fading so do not leave garments in the sun longer than need be.
It is the craft of decorations fabrics with needle and thread. Embroidery can also incorporate other materials like beads, pearls and sequins. Not only used in decorating with patterns but also used in adding logos to shirts and caps. Basic techniques on surviving examples include: chain stitch, buttonhole and running stitch, are still the man techniques of hand embroidery today. Uses: caps, hats, coats, blankets, dress shirts, denim, stockings and golf shirts. Care: hand washed and air drying are the gentlest options for heavily embroidered garments. If machine washed turn the garments inside out as to not catch the thread on anything, like zippers. Wash in cold water to avoid dyes running from other garments onto the embroidery or vice versa. When ironing put a press cloth between to avoid direct contact.
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This is a complete textile research book compiled of research pages and mood-boards for various fabric families. It was a project for a text...
Published on Feb 12, 2018
This is a complete textile research book compiled of research pages and mood-boards for various fabric families. It was a project for a text...