Forming Community Relationships in an Impersonal World
Rebecca Taecker • 2013-2014 Senior Thesis • Sandy Stannard
Forming Community Relationships in an Impersonal World
Rebecca Taecker • 2013-2014 Senior Thesis • Sandy Stannard
HOW IT COULD BE Urban Fusion
WHERE IT IS
Overview: San Francisco Site Neighborhood Flora Fauna Demographics Zoning Climate Data Energy Strategies Energy Analysis
4 6 8 12 14 18 20 24 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46
HOW IT CHANGES Physical Exploration Expression Preliminary Design
HOW IT WILL BE
Program Form Process Section Exploration Programmatic Arrangement Environmental Solutions Form and Privacy Connecting
HOW IT ENDS
Text Sources Image Sources
50 54 56 60 62 64 66 68 70 72
Social Bankrupcy Cohousing Cohousing Precedents Economic Limitations Affordability Precedents The Maker Movement Makerspace Precedents
HOW IT IS
HOW IT IS
Modern urban community is fragmented. In theory, cities should be a place of unity. The dense living quarters and nearby varied facilities should initiate a closeness in more than just physical proximity. Ideas, lifestyles, and world views can be shared easily and tighten individual relationships in the process. But cities hold darkness as well. Doors and windows are kept locked or barred in selfprotection. Men walk quickly through the streets as women hold their purses closer. Mothers anxiously wait for their children to come home, if they let them out alone at all. The truth is that cities
Things weren't always this way. In many cities, urban housing often was more than a place to sleep, eat, and leave your possessions; it was a home. People knew and trusted the people living around them. Rather than fearing a walk to the grocery store or pharmacy, city dwellers felt safe under the watchful eyes of their neighbors.
Without trust there can be no community. Those rose-colored “good ol’ days” seem to have vanished into grandmothers’ stories.
“Things that people once took for granted – family, community, a sense of belonging – must now be actively sought out.”
– Kathryn McCamant and Charles Durrett1
Beginning in the 1960s, a group of friends in Denmark began planning an escape from this social isolation. Their resulting product was Sættedammen, the first bofællesskaber (literally translated as “living community”). With it the
cohousing movement had been born.1
Cohousing, which has become a popular type of housing across much of western Europe and America, combines the autonomy of private dwellings with the advantages of community living. Anywhere between 6 and 40 households unite around six principle tenets:2 • Participatory process: Most cohousing communities are created from the ground up by the people who wish to eventually live together. As such, the process itself tends to weld together close relationships. • Neighborhood design: Whereas many housing developments like suburbs are created around use of the car, cohousing sites are planned around people. A pedestrian focus and strong central core encourage interaction with neighbors, by choice and by chance.
• Common facilities: Amenities such as a communal kitchen and dining room, laundry equipment, guest rooms, workshops, and
children’s playrooms supplement private living areas and reduce the size necessary for each individual unit. Most communities meet for shared meals several times a week to mingle and enjoy each others' company.
• Resident management: Residents manage development and upkeep, making group decisions at community meetings. • Non-hierarchical structure and decision-making: Unlike most secluded communities, cohousing does not rely on a charismatic leader - just a change in how we use our homes. No one member of a cohousing development has any authority over other members.
Cohousing developments have been instigated in locations varying from empty farmland to suburbs to crowded cities. When successful, they provide interaction, common resources, lessened requirements on time and money, and a sense of security for their residents.3
• No shared community economy: Cohousing is not a co-op, but an intentional neighborhood community in which residents maintain complete economic autonomy and do not earn any income from the development.
Jerngarden, Aarhus, Denmark Units: 8 Completed: 1977-78 Architects: Finn NĂ¸rholm and Ole Pedersen Tenure: Private
One of the first notable examples of successful urban cohousing, these rennovated rowhouses in an industrial neighborhood of Aarhus share an open back yard converted from a junkyard. It exemplifies creative use of space in a crowded city and friendly relations with the surrounding larger community.1
Doyle Street, Emeryville, California
This early precedent for American cohousing was inspired by a deserted redbrick warehouse on a low-desirability street; within a few years it was converted into twelve snug but cozy dwellings and a common house. Unlike Jerngarden, Doyle Street focused heavily on multiple stories and how to make balconies into community space.2
Units: 12 Completed: 1992 Architects: The CoHousing Company and William F. Olin Tenure: Condominium
La Querencia, Fresno, California Units: 28 Completed: 2008 Architects: Fresno Cohousing, LLC Tenure: Private
Located only a short walk away from an elementary school, a park, and popular retail areas, La Querencia openly encourages the surrounding community to gather and interact. They offer a communal kitchen, a pool and spa, a gym, various workshops, a crafts room, children's play areas, and a community garden to all who are interested, residents and neighbors alike.1
WindSong, Langley, British Columbia, Canada
When future residents of WindSong bought their 5-acre site, the government declared that they would be allowed to build on only a quarter of the lush natural forest grounds. The design takes advantage of this decree by using the density and a glass-covered street to simultaneously strenghten the community and shelter residents from the harsh northern weather.2
Cohousing Precedents (Con't)
Units: 34 Completed: 1996 Tenure: Private and Rental
Cohousing may be an admirable model, but it is typically only available in suburbs, and then to tenants who are financially able to buy their own homes.1 An entire demographic of city dwellers remains that still needs housing. In order to quantify demand, the government uses a household's area median income (AMI), or the median group income from the area, to determine what level of affordability is available to them.2 For households at or below 50% of the AMI, very-low income housing is an option. Further up the economic spectrum is low-income housing, which is accessible to households that bring in 80% of the AMI or less.3 In the middle one can find below market rate (BMR) housing for those who earn between 55% and 120% of the AMI. All typically fall under the category of affordable housing, in which no more than 30% of household income goes towards housing expenses.4
Many different approaches have been taken on the subject of affordable housing. One popular approach is mixed-income housing developments, which blend low-income and high-income residents.5 Theoretically, this intermingling gives new opportunities to poorer tenants and improves quality of life for all.
Clipper Residence, San Francisco, California Completed: 2006 Architects: Lorax Development Tenure: Private
Created with the Seussian mission to build environmentally responsible homes, the Clipper Residence has been dubbed the "greenest home in San Francisco." Its solar power collection system, extensive rainwater harvesting, reclaimed materials, and extremely energy efficient systems are anticipated to save more than 10 times the cost of initial investment over the building's lifetime.1
4800 Third Street, San Francisco, California
Third Street in San Francisco is transforming into a highly desirable pedestrian-friendly neighborhood, and this four-story Below Market Rate (BMR) development helps first-time home buyers afford the prime real estate. All units have windows on at least two sides for cross-ventilation, daylight, and vibrant views of the city.2
Units: 18 Completed: 2013 Architects: Van Meter Williams Pollak and San Francisco Housing Development Corp Tenure: BMR Condominium, Retail
Mark Rothko Apartments, Portland, Oregon Completed: In Progress Architects: Randy Rapaport and Steve Van Eck Tenure: Low-Income Rental
Winner of the 2009 AIA Design Award, this highdensity building cantilevers half of its structure over a transfer floor, which is also used as a greenspace and community room. The resulting layout maximizes space and allows more efficent and economical units. A faรงade of concrete panels gently bends and curves to create larger or smaller windows based on interior use of the space.1
Grow Community, Bainbridge Island, Washington
Grow Community focuses on environmental sustainability at low cost. All of the houses and townhouses are powered entirely by solar energy and provided with water from rain barrels. Shared solar-powered electric cars and organic gardens add to the small-town neighborhood feel.2
Affordability Precedents (Con't)
Units: 29 Completed: 2013 Architects: Davis Studio Architecture + Design, LLC and Cutler Anderson Architects Tenure: Private and Rental
Community requires more than a place to reside in order to thrive; it needs opportunities for people to live, explore, and connect. Few strategies capture this goal better than the recently-popular Maker Movement. Allegedly originating in 2005 with the publication of MAKE Magazine, the "maker culture" behind the movement is a contemporary, technologybased extension of the "do-it-yourself" (DIY) subculture. It emphasises learning-through-doing in a social environment; informal, networked, peer-led, and shared learning; invention and prototyping; and motivation through fun and selffulfilment.1 At its core, the Maker Movement is about empowerment: its members value skill over money, building over buying, and creation over consumption.2
Many self-named Makers extend the movement's social mantra by creating gathering places called makerspaces. They can take the form of looselyorganized individuals sharing space and tools, for-profit companies, non-profit corporations, organizations affiliated with schools, universities or libraries, and more. All provide access to equipment, community, and education, and all are unique in exactly how they are arranged to fit the purposes of the community they serve.3
The Maker Movement
Columbus Idea Foundry, Columbus, Ohio Established: 2009 Square Footage: 25,000 sf Founder: Alexander R. Bandar
The Columbus Idea Foundry was formed on the motto of "Knowledge, Talent, Mischief." Anyone in the neighborhood can take classes for woodworking, metalworking, welding, blacksmithing, jewelry-smithing, screen printing, glass working, photography, and use of a CNC router, laser cutter, and 3D printer; members have access to all tools and spaces at any time. It prides itself as a supporter of local entrepreneurs.1, 2
Maker Works, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Maker Works is a member-based workshop oriented towards builders, makers, artists, and tinkerers of all skill levels. The organization focuses on providing three specific benefits: access to expensive tools and machinery; space for all kinds of projects; and a vibrant community of likeminded people to interact with, learn from, and enjoy. Their amenities are divited into four areas - metal, circuits, wood, and craft - with different safety restrictions for each zone.3
Square Footage: 14,000 sf Business Model: For-Profit
HOW IT COULD BE
Urban housing needs a revitalization.
Two facets in particular must be addressed. First, the high cost of city living should not prevent anyone from finding decent accomodations; housing should be affordable to everyone. Secondly, the social bankrupcy of modern cities must be reversed with community living. By reaching for both goals simultaneously, we can create a synthesis that will benefit everyone involved. A first step will be a mixed-income
Community can be difficult to create and maintain, but it shouldn't have to be. All it needs is an invitation to be made strong again.
backgrounds will have a place to form open relationships with each other and rediscover trust. The first floor will be a complex of varied makerspaces for the extended neighborhood to use for creating, building, mending, and exploring, culminating in a cafe to serve as the neighborhood's open living room; on higher levels, residents will enjoy benefits such as open gardens, common living space, laundry facilities, guest rooms, and a community kitchen and dining room.
residential development and makerspace. Residents of all economic
WHERE IT IS
In San Francisco, California, a longstanding housing crisis makes finding accomodations of any kind difficult. As mentioned before, affordable housing is federally defined as requiring no more than 30% of household income towards housing expenses; however, 40% of Bay Area renters pay at least 30% of their income for rent.1 The National Low Income Housing Coalition ranks San Francisco as the nation's second least affordable city, bordered by the first (San Jose) and fourth (Oakland)2. At least 96,000 people cannot afford market rate housing. The main city alone requires an estimated 21,000 new low-income households as a bare minimum.3
A good site to start is the corner of Haight Street and Octavia Boulevard. Bordered by busy Market Street, within sight of the termination of Highway 101, and a stone's throw from the downtown district, this block-long stretch of property is a hub of activity. Add close walking distance to transit stops, jobs, schools, and public parks and you have prime real estate for affordable housing in the City by the Bay.
â€“ Scott Wiener, SF politician4
"San Francisco has a housing affordability crisis. Rents are too high, and homes are too expensive. People who live here are having trouble staying, and people who want to come here often can't. If we don't address this crisis, our City will be less diverse, and we won't be able to house our workforce. Our economy will suffer as a result."
Overview: San Francisco
e e r t
neighborhood: (noun) 1. the area or region around or near some place or thing; vicinity 2. a district or locality, often with reference to its character or inhabitants1
1. a social, religious, occupational, or other group sharing common characteristics or interests, residing in proximity, and perceiving itself as distinct in some respect from the larger society within which it exists2
1. to take or have a part or share, as with others; to partake; to share3
32 Grocery Stores Restaurants Churches Parks
Daily Life Hospitals & Doctors Pharmacies
SENSORY DIAGRAM: SOUNDS, SMELLS, BREEZES, TRAFFIC (STREET/ PEDESTRIAN), VEGETATION, ETC
BART Stations SIGHTS, Bus Stops
Transit High Schools Middle Schools Elementary Schools K and Pre-K
California Poppy Escholzia californica California's state flower, the California poppy has been used traditionally by Native Americans to make medicine from the leaves and cosmetics from the pollen. It is also called the golden poppy, California sunlight, and cup of gold.1
Seaside Daisy Erigeron glaucus These cheerful white and purple flowers can be found on coastal bluffs from the central coast to Oregon. They are well known for attracting butterflies.2
Purple Needle Grass Nasella pulchra
Found wild across western California, needle grass is valuable as erosion control and forage. It is the larval food plant for the California ringlet butterfly.3
Western Sword Fern Polystichum munitum
An evergreen fern native to western North America, where it is one of the most abundant ferns. It can be found along the Pacific coast from southwest Washington to southern California, and also inland east to southeastern British Columbia, northern Idaho and western Montana.4
Coastal Sagebrush Artemisia californica Valued today for its pleasing smell, the coastal sagebrush was one of the most important of the medicinal plants for local Native Americans. Depending on preparation, it could be used to treat toothache, coughs, asthma, rheumatic pains, stomachaches, burns and wounds, fever, or menstrual cramping.5
Coast live oaks thrive in coastal environments and can live past 250 years old, growing trunk diameters up to 12 feet. Its acorns are highly nutritious and were a dietary staple of at least twelve distinct cultures of Native Americans.6
Coast Live Oak Quercus agrifolia
California Ground Squirrel Spermophilus beecheyi California ground squirrels are extremely adaptable; the only habitat type they do not use is deserts. They live in burrow systems that can house many generations, forming a sort of colony. Each individual has its own entrance that it uses exclusively.1
Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer are a remarkably versatile species: of at least sixty types of natural vegetation in the western United States, they have (or do) occupy all but two or three. The expansive hunting economy built around them brings significant annual revenue to nearby towns and cities.2
California Quail Callipepla californica
California Quail are quite social and travel in small groups, ranging from 25 to 40 birds; however, coveys in excess of 1000 birds have been reported. They prefer living in open woodlands, bushy foothills, valleys with streams, and suburbs.3
Gopher Snake Pituophis catenifer
Gopher snakes are indispensible in controlling the populations of small mammals, birds, lizards, smaller snakes, and insects. Since they have no venom, they kill their prey through constriction; however, to discourage predators, they mimic rattlesnakes when threatened.4
Western Bumble Bee Bombus occidentalis Western bumble bee workers have three main color variations: Californian ones have distinctive yellow and reddish brown hair across their bodies. Because they do not depend on any one flower type, bumble bees are considered to be superior pollinators to honey bees.5
Once the source of a prosperous Californian fishing industry, anchovies are now used primarily as bait and feed for farmed fish. They provide a critical source of food for a great variety of organisms, such as larger fish, marine mammals, and marine birds.6
Northern Anchovy Engraulis mordax
2010 Census Block Data 1 Dot = 1 Person White Black Asian Hispanic Other Race / Native American / Multi-racial
Under 5 years 5 to 17 years 18 to 64 years 65 years and over
Age in San Francisco1 9.0% 4.4%
Race and Ethnicity in San Francisco3 41.9% 3.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2%
White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino (of any race) American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Island Some other race Two or more races
Less than 9th grade 9th to 12th grade, no diploma High school graduate, GED, or alternative Some college, no degree Associate's degree Bachelor's degree Graduate or professional degree
Educational Achievement in San Francisco2
STREET TREES FLOOR AREA RATIO (FAR) OFF-STREET PARKING, COMMERCIAL OR RESIDENTIAL PERMISSIBLE RETAIL SALES AND SERVICES
Full-service restaurant, small self-service restaurant, financial service, personal service, business or professional service, trade shop No residential density limit by lot area
RESIDENTIAL DENSITY BY DWELLING UNITS USABLE OPEN 100 square feet if common SPACE (PER UNIT)
HEIGHT LIMIT STREET FRONTAGE
Moderate Scale Neighborhood 1 Commercial Transit District (NCT-3) 85’ maximum height Transparent windows and doors must cover no less than 60% of the ground floor; ground floor minimum floorto-floor height of 14’ Required 3.6 to 1
42 0 am 2 am 4 am 6 am
8 am 10 am 12 noon
Sky Cover (percent) 0% (<10) 19% (10-30) 66% (30-60) 13% (60-80) 0% (>80)
2 pm 4 pm
6 pm 8 pm 10 pm
Temperature (Deg. F) <32 32-65 65-80 80-100 >100
Relative Humidity <30 30-70 >70
Recorded High Design High Average High Mean Average Low Design Low Recorded Low
100 90 80 70 60 50 40
h n Pat
et St reet
un er S
u er S
Southward-facing glazing will capture the most amount of light and warmth from winter sun as possible. To prevent overheating, however, overhangs should be designed to fully shade in summer.
Double pane high performance glazing (Low-E) should be installed on the west, north, and east sides of the building, with clear glazing to the south for maximum passive solar gain.
Heat gain from equipment, lights, and occupants will increase heating needs during the summer, but will also help offset heating costs in winter.
Organizing the floorplan around solar orientation will let users enjoy natural sunlight at different stages of the day and diminish the need for expensive additional heating.
Assumptions: Wall: R19 Floor: R19 Roof: R 38 Windows: U = .40 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient: .35 [double pane, low E]
Energy Use Intensity Electricity EUI: Fuel EUI: Total EUI:
Renewable Energy Potential
Roof Mounted PV System (Low Efficiency): Roof Mounted PV System (Medium Efficiency): Roof Mounted PV System (High Efficiency):
10kWh/sf/yr 41 kBtu/sf/yr 75 kBtu/sf/yr
178,838kWh/yr 357,677 kWh/yr 536,515 kWh/yr
*PV efficiencies are assumed to be 5%, 10%, and 15% for low, medium, and high efficiency systems
HOW IT CHANGES
What is community? Is it possible to define and understand through physical form? In order to do so for the Vellum Furniture Competition, an exploration was necessary to see community as abstract ideas.
It became clear that a chair would be an ideal piece: supportive, casual, and personal. A chair can embrace the person sitting in it; that person can feel immersed in a place so comfortable and homey that they'd never want to leave.
Ultimately the concept that best embodied this envelopment was the term "hyggeligt." A uniquely Dutch word, hyggeligt can be defined as many things. It is the comfort of a blanket and a hot cup of tea. It is a good, heartfelt conversation with a friend. It is the dim light of a winter afternoon and a candle on the table. It is a morning spent looking through a photo album with grandparents. Hyggeligt is exactly the kind of intangibility to use as a springboard into physical community.
"The Walnut" does far more than a traditional
chair form: it reaches out from every angle to hold you close, personifying a hyggeligt embrace. Its curved glu-lam wooden ribs create a "half-shell" cavity that allows the user to roll about freely. At its structural focal points, two steel gussets bolted to the ribs keep the tension in check; inside, wooden slats form the protective edges of a nest. To personalize the experience, a cushion is composed from old clothes: shirts, sweaters, pajamas, dresses, memories, stories, and dreams are all bundled up into a surrounding cloud. One person can sit and remember, or two people can sit and share; either way, a form of community is found.
Physical Exploration (Con't)
Selling Shopping Working Embracing Smiling Laughing Encouraging Loving Caring
Walking Exploring Sitting Moving Biking
Competing Arguing Hiding
Cooking Eating Hurting Healing
Prompt: "Climate Response" Buildings in San Francisco rarely need to be cooled; the famously foggy skies make the challenge a matter of heating and daylighting. This quick model was centered around how to reflect sunlight into deeper recesses.
Prompt: "Interconnectedness" Connection is a key concept behind this project. In order to find ways for inhabitants to relate to each other intangibly, I tried a shape that provided a number of ways to cross paths physically.
Rather than try to visually emulate the shape of something from nature, I pursued the concept behind many local animals' survival strategy: strength in numbers. Like a school of anchovies or flock of quail, the posts support each other to become a conhesive unit.
HOW IT WILL BE
Bathrooms Circulation/ Storage
• Bedrooms - 115 + 15 sf (closet) = 130 sf each • Living/Dining - 150 sf • Kitchen - 100 sf • Bathrooms - 60 sf each • Circulation/Storage - 60 sf
13 units (7) 1-bedroom, 1 bath (4) 2-bedroom, 1.5 bath (2) 3-bedroom, 2.5 bath
TOTAL: 11,000 sf Courtyard Patio Outdoor Seating
TOTAL: 4,000 sf
Parking 2,400 sf
• First Floor Cafe - 1500 sf • Kitchen/Dining - 1300 sf • Lounge/Flex Space - 1000 sf • Guest Room - 400 sf • Bathrooms - 200 sf • Laundry - 100 sf • Circulation/Mechanics - 500 sf
TOTAL: 5,000 sf
• • • • •
Woodworking Area - 4000 sf Metalworking Area - 3800 sf Craft/Flex Area- 2000 sf Bathrooms - 200 sf Circulation/Mechanics - 1000 sf
TOTAL: 10,000 sf
Makerspace Woodworking Metalworking Circulation/ Mechanics
First Floor Café Guest Room
TOTAL SQUARE FOOTAGE: 32,400 sf
1. Zoning maximum (85' tall, to edge of lot), footprint of ~12,500 sf
2. V-shaped dwelling layout with narrow courtyard, northern common house to street level 3. Stepped apartments, southern common house and parking
4. Townhouse layout, centralized common house
5. Courtyard protected from Octavia Blvd., Northern common house and parking
6. Angled townhouses for southern light, minimal first floor
8. Apartment/ townhouse combo with courtyard and southern common house to street level
7. Stepped podium with townhouses and northern common house
Due to the site's slope and angled tip, structure and floor levels needed to be accounted for as early as possible. Creating both a digital and physical model of the southern end in the preliminary phases of design helped to determine what would and would not work structurally, spacially, and tectonically.
A B C D E
Electric Car Ride Share Garage Makerspace Sewing and Craft Center Makerspace Metal Workshop Makerspace Wood Workshop CafĂŠ and Informal Performance Space
F G H I J K
Bicycle Parking and Storage Makerspace Flexible Area Makerspace Wood Workshop Con't Resident Facilities and Flexible Area Common Kitchen/Dining Space Rooftop Garden and Patio Space
San Francisco gets an average of 20.78 inches of rain every year.1 Very little of it is collected for pragmatic use.
With the main face of the site almost due west, the challenge is how to bring in maximum light while shielding residents from the harsh heat of western glazing. Most of the units' natural light comes from sloping skylights which double as rain collectors. Harvested rainwater is used to irrigate a series of planters that serve to protect against overheating; to keep the roofs cool; and to provide fresh fruits, vegetables, and herbs according to the residents' choice.
1. Zoning maximum (85' tall, to edge of lot)
2. Stepped downward to maximize southern exposure
3. Stepped inward for circulation
4. Rooflines altered for better access to sunlight and rainwater collection
Whenever the concept of community is pursued, it is important to also consider privacy. In this complex the program spaces are carefully arranged to encourage planned and spontaneous connection such as gathering in the common dining hall or chatting with a neighbor through their kitchen window - while leaving space away from the main thoroughfare for personal privacy.
71 Most Public Least Private
Least Public Most Private
A. Apartments B. Townhouses
C. Common Center
Resident Rooftop Garden Common Kitchen/Dining Facilities CafĂŠ and Informal Performance Space
E. Maker Space D. Garage
Bicycle Parking/Storage Electric Car Ride Share
Sewing and Craft Corner Metal Workshop Wood Workshop
Form and Privacy
Single Bedroom Converted Flat
Ultimately, this thesis is about connection and a place to allow it. Dwellings, gardens, common areas, and makerspaces are all tools to raise San Francisco from its social bankrupcy, one neighborhood and one community at a time.
HOW IT ENDS
P. 4-5 1 McCamant, Kathryn, Charles Durrett, and Ellen Hertzman. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, 1994. P. 6-7 1 McCamant et. al. 2 McCamant et. al. 3 ScottHanson, Chris, and Kelly ScottHanson. The Cohousing Handbook: Building a Place for Community. Gabriola Island, B.C.: New Society Publishers, 2005. P. 8-9 1 McCamant et. al. 2 McCamant et. al. P. 10-11 1 "Fresno Cohousing." La Querencia. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 "Windsong Cohousing." The Cohousing Company. McCamant & Durrett Architects, n.d. Web. P. 12-13 1 ScottHanson 2 "Resources for Affordable Rental Housing in San Francisco." Mayor's Office of Housing. SFGov, 2013. Web. 02 Oct. 2013. 3 "About HOPE SF." HOPE SF. San Francisco Mayor's Office of Housing, 2013. Web. 02 Oct. 2013. 4 "Resources" 5 Hoving, Kimberly, and Umut Toker. Mixed-income Housing: Assumptions and Realities: A Thesis. [San Luis Obispo, Calif.: California Polytechnic State University], 2010.
P. 14-15 1 Kujak, Piper. "Lorax's â€œGreenest House in San Franciscoâ€?." Inhabitat.com. Inhabitat, LLC, 02 Oct. 2006. Web.
Harrison, Linda. "4800 3rd Street." 4800ThirdStreet.com. Sotheby's International Realty, n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. 2
P. 16-17 1 Libby, Brian. "Reinventing Workforce Housing." Portland Architecture. Chatterbox, 26 Oct. 2009. Web. 2 "Grow Community Bainbridge." GrowBainbridge.com. Grow Community | Asani, n.d. Web. P. 18-19 1 "Maker Culture." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Mar. 2014. Web. 2 Jeffries, Adrianne. "At Maker Faire New York, the DIY Movement Pushes into the Mainstream." The Verge. VOX Media, 23 Sept. 2013. Web. 3 "What's a Makerspace?" Makerspace. Makerspace.com, n.d. Web.
P. 30-31 1 "Neighborhood." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web.
P. 28-29 1 Palm, Kristin. "Affordable Housing in an Unaffordable Region." Planning 71.1 (2005): 24-8. ProQuest. Web. 30 Sep. 2013. 2 Palm 3 Palm 4 "Resources for Affordable Rental Housing in San Francisco." Mayor's Office of Housing. SFGov, 2013. Web. 02 Oct. 2013.
P. 20-21 1 "Columbus Idea Foundry Home." ColumbusIdeaFoundry.com. Columbus Idea Foundry, n.d. Web. 2 "Columbus Idea Foundry Inspires Shared Tinkering." Innovate New Albany. City of New Albany, 22 Dec. 2011. Web. 3 "About Maker Works." Maker-Works.com. WordPress.com, n.d. Web.
78 2 3
"Community." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. "Participate." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web.
P. 34-35 1 "California Poppy." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Oct. 2013. Web. 2 "Erigeron Glaucus Cape Sebastian." LasPilitas.com. Las Pilitas Nursery, n.d. Web. 3 "California Native Grass Seed." LarnerSeeds.com. Larner Seeds, 23 Nov. 2013. Web. 4 "Polystichum Munitum." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 July 2013. Web. 5 "California Sagebrush." Sage Heart. WhiteSageBundles.com, n.d. Web. 6 "Quercus Agrifolia." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 25 Nov. 2013. Web. P. 36-37 1 Lima, Marcie. "Spermophilus Beecheyi." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 2003. Web. 2 Misuraca, Michael. "Odocoileus Hemionus." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 2003. Web. 3 Price, Zebulon. "Callipepla Californica." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 2003. Web. 4 Albert, Josh. "Pituophis Catenifer." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 2003. Web. 5 "Bombus Occidentalis." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Oct. 2013. Web. 6 Davis, Tasha, Eriq DelaTorre, and Aaron Raub. "Engraulis Mordax." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 2003. Web.
P. 38-39 1 United States. US Department of Commerce. US Census Bureau. San Francisco County QuickFacts. US Census Bureau, 27 June 2013. Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
"QuickFacts" 3 "QuickFacts" 2
P. 40-41 1 United States. San Francisco Planning Department. Zoning Map. Sfgov, Apr. 2013. Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
Text Sources (Con't)
P. 68-69 1 "San Francisco, California Average Rainfall." FindTheBest.com. FindTheBest, 2014. Web.
Cover House decal. Digital image. Living Legacy Brick Program. Habitat for Humanity, n.d. Web. San Francisco, California Skyline. Detailed Vector Silhouette. Digital image. Shutterstock. Shutterstock, Inc., n.d. Web. Blue sky with clouds. Digital image. TextureZ.com. TextureZ, 11 May 2011. Web. P. 4-5 Edmonson, Paul. Hole In Chain Link Fence. Digital image. Fine Art America. FineArtAmerica.com, 12 Mar. 2012. Web. Paras, Sheila. Empty Swing. Digital image. Fine Art America. FineArtAmerica.com, 12 July 2012. Web. Lonely. Digital image. 1MS.net. N.p., 12 Jan. 2013. Web. Child at the door. Digital image. KindSpring. ServiceSpace.com, 6 Jan. 2012. Web. P. 6-7 Frost, Sam. Two families walk together. Digital image. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 30 Apr. 2010. Web. Cohousing playground next to Common House. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia.com, n.d. Web. Crisostomo, Manny. Cohousing community dinner. Digital image. AARP.com. AARP, 28 Mar. 2011. Web. Porch music. Digital image. Enclave Nashville Blogspot. Blogger.com, 16 Mar. 2012. Web. Garden examination. Digital image. Canadian Senior Cohousing. WordPress.com, 20 Aug. 2011. Web. Neighborhood connection at the table. Digital image. Women for Living in Community. WordPress.com, 20 June 2012. Web.
P. 8-9 McCamant, Kathryn, Charles Durrett, and Ellen Hertzman. Jerngarden street view. Photograph. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, 1994. Print.
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McCamant, Kathryn, Charles Durrett, and Ellen Hertzman. Jerngarden patios. Photograph. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, 1994. Print. McCamant, Kathryn, Charles Durrett, and Ellen Hertzman. Jerngarden back view. Photograph. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, 1994. Print. McCamant, Kathryn, Charles Durrett, and Ellen Hertzman. Doyle Street courtyard. Photograph. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, 1994. Print. McCamant, Kathryn, Charles Durrett, and Ellen Hertzman. Doyle Street interior loft. Photograph. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, 1994. Print. McCamant, Kathryn, Charles Durrett, and Ellen Hertzman. Doyle Street floor plan. Photograph. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, 1994. Print.
P. 12-13 Stressful bills. Digital image. Philadelphia Ujima. Blogger.com, n.d. Web. For Rent sign. Digital image. KQED News. KQED Inc., n.d. Web. Leaky roof. Digital image. PublicDesignCenter.org. Public Design Center, n.d. Web. Homeless man. Digital image. TheAtlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, n.d. Web. Anderson, Brooke. Housing protesters. Digital image. Forbes.com. Forbes, n.d. Web. Tenderloin district at Market Street. Digital image. SFCitizen.com. San Francisco Citizen, 10 May 2013. Web. P. 14-15 Lorax front. Digital image. Inhabitat.com. Inhabitat, LLC, n.d. Web. Lorax bathroom. Digital image. Inhabitat.com. Inhabitat, LLC, n.d. Web. Lorax living room. Digital image. Inhabitat.com. Inhabitat, LLC, n.d. Web. Third Street pedestrian view. Digital image. 4800 Third Street. OHP, n.d. Web. Third Street interior. Digital image. 4800 Third Street. OHP, n.d. Web. Third Street floor plans, one model. Digital image. 4800 Third Street. OHP, n.d. Web.
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Grow interior. Digital image. Grow Community. Grow Community | Asani, n.d. Web.
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P. 20-21 CIF founder Alex Bandar. Digital image. ColumbusUnderground.com. Columbus Underground, n.d. Web. CIF workshop space. Digital image. CoumbusIdeaFoundry.com. Columbus Idea Foundry, n.d. Web. CIF welder. Digital image. CoumbusIdeaFoundry.com. Columbus Idea Foundry, n.d. Web. Fustini, Drew. Maker Works faire sign. Digital image. Element14. Premier Farnell Plc, n.d. Web. Maker Works sewing circle. Digital image. Maker-Works.com. WordPress.com, n.d. Web. Maker Works dinosaur. Digital image. Maker-Works.com. WordPress.com, n.d. Web.
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