Page 1

STUDIO r e b e c c a h u y n h . 5 8 7 3 0 9

contents 01 introduction 02 conceptualising 03 criteria design

rebeccahuynh I’m your typical local student, born and bred in Melbourne - sadly not very exciting. In contrast to my ordinary life in Melbourne, I have visited many places and all thanks to my mum’s love for travel (and ability to nag my dad), starting at the tender age of six. Not only have I been around Australia, but I’ve travelled to America, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Holland, Switzerland, France, Italy, Germany and Belgium. By having the opportunity to travel to such a broad range of countries, that sit on opposite ends of the spectrum, I have learnt about the differing culture and history of each place, and observed how architecture has derived from these influences. I am a third year architecture student, with a passion that lies in fashion design. My interest for architecture grew from my childhood, as I spent time playing LEGOs with my two brothers, building my ‘dream house’ on The Sims, and the countless visits to display home villages with my parents. I would like to one day incorporate my knowledge in both architecture and fashion design together.



Virtual Environments is the only experience I’ve had with working with parametric design. Personally I found the subject to be very enjoyable and I had learnt so many new things, despite the difficulty of picking up a completely new computer program. The use of Rhinoceros allowed me to understand the benefits of both analogue and digital






grasp a small insight to where design processing may head in the future. This semester, I hope to learn more about the a


advantages tool












a.conceptualising d e s i g n f u t u r i n g


renewable energy


ComputationalDesign soumaya museum 11 13

one ocean

Parametric Design19 white noise


foyn-johanson house


algorithmic explorations


conclusion 23 learning outcomes 24



the site: FRESHKILLS, New York Freshkills Park was once a landfill site, harboring tons of New


York’s waste.

Vein unVeiled is an interactive and educational outdoor gallery, made up of 36 sculptural pieces that are distributed along a 2km trail, representing 36,000 tons of waste produced in New York. The project aims to not only produce a renewable source of energy but also to


inform the users of the ‘hidden truth’ of the site and to emphasize the importance of the environment’s future.1





the concept

renewable energy

of the design is based on the veil - a sacred

A chain of small wind turbines are attached to

representation - and hence signifies the

the sculpture. Solar photovoltaic panels are also

importance of the site. As the users move through

embedded onto the turbines to obtain sunlight

the sculpture, their interpretation of the gallery

during the day, to power its LED lights at night. As the

spaces is altered by their experience with the

turbines spin, the lights flutter, creating an interesting

structure itself, of ‘veiling and unveiling’.



Each sculpture consists of a battery bench, which houses all the collected energy, as well as provide seating.1 01. Wind Turbine attached to sculpture


02. Structure made from 100% recycled materials

The sculptures themselves are made from 100%

03. Battery Benches store collected energy

recycled materials. The artworks, created by local

06/07. Samples of artwork made from trash

artists and community members, are made from

08. Solar powered LED lights







A catalyst is required to react with the sun’s pho-

Artificial photosynthesis is the process of producing

tons, which will enable the process of splitting wa-

energy by replicating the natural photosynthesis

ter molecules into liquid hydrogen fuel.3

process of plants. Research has been carried out, and potential HOW DOES IT WORK

materials to act as a catalyst consist of Manga-

Artificial photosynthesis is similar to the natural

nese, Titanium oxide and Cobalt oxide.3

process, where energy is created through the

Manganese is naturally found in plants, however in

conversion of solar light, water and carbon

the artificial process, manganese is more unstable.

dioxide, to produce oxygen and sugar.2

Titanium oxide is a stable catalyst, however the

The artificial process requires harvesting of

solvent erodes the other components of the sys-

sunlight and splitting water molecules, to obtain

tem when in contact with this catalyst.

liquid hydrogen, which can be used directly as

Cobalt oxide is the most favoured industrial cat-

hydrogen fuel, or transformed into other means of

alyst. It has been found to be stable and highly

energy use, such as methanol.2

efficient in triggering the reaction.3



artificialphotosynthesis solar powered technology


6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 carbon dioxide + water


sugar + oxygen

EFFICIENCY The advantages of artificial photosynthesis is its high efficiency to create energy, of up to 60%. The materials required to carry out this process are readily available in nature. Also the energy produced can be stored, as opposed to other renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panels, which cannot store solar energy obtained. This technological process is a mimic of natural conversion of energy created by plans, and therefore is almost full proof.3 10



soumayamuseum fernando romero enterprise. FREE

If the project had stuck to strict spending discipline, the museum would have been a shoe box. However, Romero...has succeeded in bringing about the greatest paradigm shift in Mexican architecture.

Soumaya Museum houses one of the largest private art collections in the world. It’s futurist and curvilinear design approach, juxtaposes the old ex-industrial area of Mexico city it is situated amongst.4 These are the two criterias the architects sought to achieve through the design of this iconic and sculptural piece of architecture.5

HEXAGONAL SKIN Soumaya Museum’s iconic and sculptural curved form was designed through the use of computational digital design. The building’s skin is made of aluminium hexagonal panels, with minimal openings that penetrate the surface.4 The





allowed for the arrangement of the hexagonal panels,






Gaussian analysis, identified and divided the surface into two zones: most curved (20% of the surface) and most regular (80% of the surface). With this analysis, hexagonal panels which are disproportional or abnormal in form can be stretched and refined to reach the desired form.5









STRUCTURALLY SOUND The construction of the double curvilinear surface

Each floor level size responds to the form of the structure

was made possible by the 26 individually designed

and hence determines the nature of the art collection.

curved columns which all differ in diameter, form and

The most upper level is the largest gallery of the build-


ing with a radius-like roof structure that supports the

By placing the columns on the perimeter of the

large span. The floating cantilevering roof allows for

structure allowed for large open gallery spaces and

maximum use of a column free space and provides an

non-linear ramps systems to flow through the column-

interior panorama and filtered sunlight.5

free spaces.5

left-right: 9. building in it’s surrounding context, 10. the roof and the filtering of light effect it creates, 11. the upper level gallery space and the visible ramp system, 12. study models, 13. working drawings, 14. the roof’s structure, 15. the hexagonal panels


THE LAYERS The structure of the building consists of several layers of structural lattices, and panelled surfaces. From the interior layers to the exterior facade, the layers consist of: an insulating durock (cement board), primary structure made of bent oilrigging structural tubes, triodesic secondary structure, waterproofing panels supported by the secondary structure, and hexagonal panels supported by purlines mounted onto the second structure.4 19

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN The whole developmental process of Soumaya Museum was centralised around computational design. The use of digital design conveys a clearer design intent and understanding of the design through 3D digital modelling.4 It is evident through this design, the issues that may be faced if a more traditional process of design would be used. However with the use of digital computation, the restraints were able to be pushed and hence resulted in such a building with such a complex form and structure - developing each column specific to its relationship with the structure. Digital design also enabled for the analysis of the surface to be refined to achieve a desired finish. Without the existence of computational design, the museum could have been any regular shoe-box structure, however computation was able to push far beyond those limits.5

22. Section of the building showing sizes of the different gallery spaces and the large floating roof.

20. the column and roof structure 21. the flowing ramp system

One Ocean Thematic Pavilion Soma Architects were selected as first prize winners of an international competition in Yeosu, South Korea. Their design embodies the theme of the “The living Ocean and Coast�, designing a thematic pavilion that merges together the surrounding urban and coastal contexts.6




Through exploring different surfaces and materials, the design of the building aimed to explore innovative ways to be sustainable through computational design. The site of the pavilion was situated in a former industrial harbor, which now aims to become adapted as an urban beach, offering leisure and activities to the public.7




We experience the ocean mainly in two ways, as an endless surface and in an immersed perspective - as depth.



ONE OCEAN. ONE LANDSCAPE This iconic landmark is astounding for its ability to

The lamellas are made of glass fibres reinforced

respond to its surrounding urban context and the

polymers which give them high tensile strength

natural environment. The building is under constant

and allows for reversible elastic deformations.8

‘negotiation’ between both water and land.

The kinetic blades choreograph animations

An organic meandering facade is situated along

from subtle local movements or mimic the

the coast-line, and the opposite side of the pavilion

movement of waves along the entire span

depicts a fish-like structure emerging from the

of the facade, through the use of computer

ground to roof-top gardens and winding pathways.

technology.8 LED bars are attached to the inner


sides of each lamella blade, intensifying visual


effects after sunset. These kinetic bars not only

The main feature of this pavilion is its innovative

create a dynamic visual, but also control the

kinetic facade made of lamellas that create

input of sunlight into the building itself, acting


almost like shading devices.9












COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN Soma’s One Ocean Pavilion utilizes computational

to uphold such architecture made of reinforced

design to create it’s organic, flowing form - both


externally and internally. Through the analysis of the

Computational design was also used to integrate

smooth surfaces, computational programs were

the use of computer driven technology of the

able to determine the structural elements required

lamella blades.


IN COMPARISON... Soma’s One Ocean pavilion is situated in a very similar site to LAGI 2014 competition site in Copenhagen. The innovative use of kinetic lamella blades could be further explored to design a dynamic and sustainable source of energy through architecture. 20. Coast-line facade of organic circular forms

23. The glowing LED kinetic facade at night

21 & 26. Curved interior walls reflect external form

24. Lamella blades and how they deflect

22 & 25. Diagrammatic sketches of the building’s design 28



parametricdesign As



Traditional processes of designing are constraint

of design, the new digital age has adopted

and limited to the progression of architectural

technologies that are changing the face of

design. The complexity of an idea may not be



expressed clearly and hence deter the designer

architecture, kinetic and dynamic systems, and

from formally portraying the complexity of an idea.

genetic algorithms are the emerging technologies

By perceiving a design in a holistic and 3D manner, it

of modern day architecture.

allows for interaction and a better comprehension










of the entire design.4 This is where computation

(CAD), which is used to computerize analogue

and parametricism is advantageous, leading

designs, architectural design is beginning to be

architecture into a direction of where design is

encompassed by computational and parametric

influenced by technologies.

design, where form and structure is manipulated

Parametricism is a tool that can be used to

through algorithmic inputs.

determine and influence the structural elements and its buildability of a design. It can also minimise

Algorithms are a set of finite rules applied

the use of materials and ultimately optimize a

systematically into a set of initial states of inputs,

design structurally and economically.13

carrying out a method or function to result in a final It is without doubt, the impeccable advantages of

state of outputs.11

parametric modelling provides in today’s designing The process of form finding through the use of

culture - understandable comprehension, design

algorithms is known as parametric design.


Parametric design is the process or method of


developing a geometric form, which is manipulated

technology, there are constraints between humans

by the result of inputting finite sets of parameters or

and computers. The designer must have an


understanding of the program and what tasks it is







structurally computer

capable of carrying out. With poor computer skills, Parametricism





the designer may not be aware of the command

computational designing and hence shares the

inputs and algorithms that are to be used to

same advantages in today’s technologically

develop ideas that are initiated through the mind.

influenced design culture.


As architectural design becomes more complex,

Regardless of the shortcomings of parametric

parametric design has allowed designers to clearly

modelling, the advantages exceed the minute

communicate their ideas and intents in such a way

issues. There are many processes and methods of

that is easy to understand, in a fast and efficient

designing that parametric modelling is capable of



whitenoise soma





White Noise by Austrian architects ‘soma’, is a mobile music pavilion initially erected in Salzburg, a city predominantly known for classical music.14 The pavilion houses events such as contemporary music festivals and has moved around European cities. The concept of the pavilion evokes curiosity, drawing people to engage and encounter the unknown or unusual.14 The pavilion links structure and parametric geometry through its design to create a aluminium portal-like pavilion. The aluminium structure of the pavilion consists of rods that intersect and interact in a chaotic manner. The static system is made up of several arches that span over 12 metres. Each arch is made of rods that are connected to neighbouring rods with circular studs.13 Parametric modelling determined the angle of the truss diagonals of the rod elements to optimize structural performance and efficiency in computation time as well as minimizing the structural weight.13 34


foyn-johansonhouse harrison and white




As residential architecture evolves and becomes







more innovative by integrating sustainable design

throughout the entire day and no shadows are

in an aesthetic manner, parametric modelling is a

cast from the structure itself.15 Evidently in this

tool that aids this purpose of design.15

design brief, parametric design has its advantages

Architects Harrison and White, were awarded

for resolving complex design issues. The use of

for the design for the Foyn-Johanson House in

parametric modelling for this house, addresses and

Northcote for its clever design of the facade. The

rebukes the stereotypes of parametric design - that

project addresses the idea of providing complete

architecture derived from computer generated

sunlight to the garden space throughout the day.15

programs will result in ‘blob-itecture’. However

This was achieved through parametric design by

the Foyn-Johanson House is an example of how

modelling the sun’s path and using this data to

parametric and computational design can be

subtract from the form of the house, creating an

used to create designs that respond to the context

oddly shaped slanted facade.

in a non abstract and arbitrary form.16

algorithmicexplorations Through the exploration of algorithms in Grasshopper, there is a realization of the potential for enhancing architectural design through the aid of computational technology and parameters. The figures below, depict the complex forms that can be achieved through computational and parametric design, which may be more difficult to portray in a more traditional design process. It is also evident of the multiple various outcomes that may be derived from a single starting point, demonstrating the endless possibilities of digital technology and design.

week 2: lofting and contouring I find it interesting that a 3D form made up of 2D planes can be abstracted from a 2D lofted surface.



Architecture has evolved from the traditional methods of analogue design towards a new era of digital computation. As the design culture has moved forward, we must too encompass the shift of architecture into a new language of parametricism. With this shift, there are many advantages of computer technology. Time and efficiency is a major factor that digital design provides. Computation has allowed for architects to reduce the time spent developing and portraying an idea. Parametricism has enabled for the development of elements to be influenced by the structure itself, to find the most optimum design outcome with a certain set of parameters, constraints or even materials. It can even determine the buildability of a design before being constructed. Parametricism and computation also makes designing more efficient as it analyses and assesses the materials used to develop a design that minimizes materials used and hence creating an economical and sustainable design. We can no longer rely solely on traditional design processes, but to acknowledge the revolution of architecture today, and that in order for us to move forward, we must invest towards technology.



The research carried out these past weeks about technology in the design culture has really enlightened me. I have developed a better understanding and sense of acceptance towards the future of design and where it could be heading with the shift towards computation and parametricism. It has also been made aware, the numerous architectural precedents that have already adopted this way of designing. And also that computational design does not necessitate for the stereotypical ‘blob-itecture’ or ‘spaceship’ like forms, but it can create elegant forms with functionality in mind. Heading through the next phase of the semester, I hope to learn how to better my skills to convey ideas through computation and the use of parameters, and to think outside the box, and grasp the concepts of the new digital age of design.


1 “Land Art Generator Initiative: Veil Unv e i l e d ”, L a n d A r t G e n e r a t o r I n i t i a t i v e A c cessed March 12, 2014. http://landartgenerat o r. o rg / L AG I - 2 0 1 2 / u n v e i l e d / 2 F e r r y , R o b e r t & E l i z a b e t h M o n o i a n , “A F i e l d G u i d e t o R e n e w a b l e E n e r g y Te c h n o l o g i e s ”, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2 0 1 4 . p p 1 - 2 3 , h tt p : / / l a n d a rt g e n e rat o r. o rg / LAGI-FieldGuideRenewableEnergy-ed1.pdf 3 Julia Layton, “How Artificial Photosynthes i s W o r k s ”, H o w S t u f f W o r k s , A c c e s s e d M a r c h 11 2014, environmental/green-tech/energy-production/ artificial-photosynthesis.htm 4 Fe r n a n d o Ro m e ro a n d A r m a n d o Ra m o s , “Bridging a Culture: The Design of Museo S o u m a y a ”, A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V o l u m e 8 3 , Issue 2, 12 March 2013. 5 “A r t w o r l d B e e h i v e ”, Pe d r o R e y e s , D o m u s , Accessed March 18, 2014, 6 “ T h e m e Pa v i l i o n E X P O Ye o s u , Ye o s u - K R , 2 0 1 2 ”, s o m a , A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2 1 2 0 1 4 , php?page=theme_pavilion&parent=2# 7 “ I n P r o g r e s s : O n e O c e a n / s o m a ”, A r c h i D a i l y , Accessed March 21 2014, 8 “ S o m a : Ye o s u E x p o 2 0 1 2 ”, D e s i g n b o o m , Accessed March 25 2014, 23


9 “ O n e O c e a n , s o m a ”, A r c s p a c e . c o m , A c c e s s e d March 24,2014, 1 0 K o l a r e v i c , B r a n k o , “A r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing” (New Yo r k ; L o n d o n : S p o n P r e s s , 2 0 0 3 ) 1 1 D e f i n i t i o n o f ‘A l g o r i t h m ’ i n W i l s o n , R o b ert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (Lond o n : M I T Pre s s ) , p p. 1 1 , 1 2 1 2 , 1 5 “A r c h i t e c t u r a l D i s c o u r s e , D i g i t a l C o m p u t a t i o n a n d P a r a m e t r i c i s m ”, D e s i g n i t o , Accessed March 27 2014, http://designito. 1 3 C l e m e n s Pre i s i n g e r, “ L i n k i n g St r u c t u re a n d P a r a m e t r i c G e o m e t r y ”, A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , Volume 83, Issue 2, pp 110-113, 12 March 2013. 1 4 “ M o b i l e A r t P a v i l l i o n ‘ W h i t e N o i s e ’ ”, Archello, Accessed March 27 2014, http:// 16 “Striking Australian Home is Shaped by S u n ’ s P a t h ”, I n h a b i t a t , A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2 7 2014,

figures 01-08 “Land Art Generator Initiative: Veil U n v e i l e d ”, L A G I A c c e s s e d M a r c h 1 2 , 2 0 1 4 . h tt p : / / l a n d a rt g e n e rat o r. o rg / L AG I - 2 0 1 2 / unveiled/ 09,10 “Solar Fuels and Artificial P h o t o s y n t h e s i s ,” R o y a l S o c i e t y o f C h e m i s t r y , Accessed March 20, 2014. S c i e n c e A n d Te c h n o l o g y / Po l i c y / D o c u m e n t s / solar-fuels-production-infographics.asp. 1 1 , 1 9 Fe r n a n d o Ro m e ro a n d A r m a n d o Ra m o s , “Bridging a Culture: The Design of Museo S o u m a y a ”, A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V o l u m e 8 3 , Issue 2, 12 March 2013. 1 2 , 1 4 , 1 5 , 1 7 , 2 2 “A r t w o r l d B e e h i v e ”, Pe d r o Reyes, Domus, Accessed March 18, 2014, http:// artworld-beehive.html 13,20,21 “Museo Soumaya, Mexico City, Mexico b y F r e e F e r n a d o R o m e r o ”, A r c h i t e c t u r e L a b Online Magazine, Accessed March 18, 2014, 1 6 N i c h o l a s C a s e y , “ T h e M u s e o S o u m a y a ”, Pyramid Beach, Accessed March 19, 2014, 1 8 “ S o u m a y a M u s e u m b y Fe r n a n d o Ro m e ro E n t e r p r i s e ”, A A s A r c h i t e c t u r e , A c c e s s e d March 17 2014, http://www.aasarchitecture. com/2013/01/Soumaya-Museum-FR-EEFe r n a n d o - Ro m e ro - E n t e r p r i s E . h t m l 2 3 , 2 5 , 2 6 “ O n e O c e a n , s o m a ”, A r c s p a c e . c o m , Accessed March 24,2014, http://www.arcspace. com/features/soma/one-ocean/

2 4 “ O n e O c e a n , T h e m a t i c Pa v i l i o n E X P O 2 0 1 2 / s o m a ”, A r c h i D a i l y , A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2 3 2 0 1 4 , 2 7 “ T h e m a t i c P a v i l i o n , E x p o 2 0 1 2 ”, K n i p p e r s Helbig Advanced Engineering, Accessed March 22 2014, projekte/thematic-pavillon-expo-2012 2 8 , 2 9 “ S o m a W i n s Fi r s t Pr i z e t o D e s i g n Th e m at i c P a v i l i o n a t Ye o s u E x p o 2 0 1 2 , S o u t h K o r e a ”, Designboom, Accessed March 22 2014, http:// 3 0 M o b i l e A r t P a v i l i o n ‘ W h i t e N o i s e ’, S a l z b u r g ” E-architect, Accessed March 27 2014, http:// 3 1 - 3 3 “ M o b i l e A r t P a v i l i o n ‘ W h i t e N o i s e ’ ”, Archello, Accessed March 27 2014, http://www. 3 4 C l e m e n s Pre i s i n g e r, “ L i n k i n g St r u c t u re a n d P a r a m e t r i c G e o m e t r y ”, A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , Volume 83, Issue 2, pp 110-113, 12 March 2013. 3 5 “A r c h i t e c t u r e : F o y n - J o h a n s o n H o u s e ”, Australian Design Review, Accessed March 27 2014, designwall/1212-architecture-foyn-johansonhouse 3 6 “ I n g e n o u s Fo y n -J o h a n s o n H o m e i n A u s t ra l i a b y H a r r i s o n a n d W h i t e ”, W a v e A v e n u e , A c c e s s e d March 27 2014, blogs/ingenious-foyn-johanson-home-inaustralia-by-harrison-and-white 24

b.criteria design research field: patterning


case study 1.0: OMA matrix table case study 2.0: MoMA


reverse engineering 1.0


31 39

critiquing the definition 43 reverse engineering 2.0


critiquing the definition 47 matrix table


technique development




technique proposal


learning outcomes


algorithmic exploration




Patterns are an arrangement of shapes

In early classical architecture, buildings

or forms in a repetitive manner. In

were commonly adorned with decorative

architecture, patterns are more commonly


used as facade or screens. However with


new technology, the aestheticism of

terms decoration and ornamentation.

patterns have been closely associated

A decoration can be considered an

with functionalism.1

ornamenent, however an ornament not






necessarily a decoration.


Ornamentation has been perceived as a

Decoration can be described as an

mechanism that connects architecture

attached component used to beautify.

to culture and its urban context, as well

Ornamentation can been seen as an

as engaging and communicating to its

element interacting within a system, to


create a holistic aesthetic presentation.

researchfield PAT T E R N I N G



Adolf Loos, greatly opposed this, stating


that ornamentation was used as a means


of differentiating, which was not needed

architectural patterning has been reborn

in modern society. He also argued

through the introduction and explorations

that architectural buildings should be

of parametric design.1

presented as they were constructed - raw

Parametricism allows for the integration

and sincere representations, and this was

of patterning into the architectural design

seen as ornamentation.

and structure itself, hence combining both

Hence modernism, utilised transparency

aesthetic and functionality together.1














representation of architectural elements

It is without doubt that parametric design

and space. And postmodernism using

and new technologies has opened doors


to many more design possibilities.


OMA M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t r e PAT T E R N I N G


Patterning in the McCormick Tribune

The arrangement of the pattern on a

Campus Centre, is the main glass feature

small scale, affects the overall portrait at

wall of the Welcome Centre. Simple

a large scale.

geometric diagrams of the same size are


utilized in the form of pixels. The images

These patterns are created as a visual

represent people performing different

means to the students who use the space,

activities such as sleeping, sitting, studying

but also provide an aesthetic value to the

etc. 3

facade and wall partition.

By using two tones, the pattern becomes

The pattern on the facade does not only

more evident from a distance, where the

serve as an aesthetic, but the patterning

small diagrams disappear to form a larger

can also act as a shading device,

holographic image.

reducing glare.3

McCormick Tribune Campus Centre, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2003 by OMA. Close up of the glass wall, shows the pattern is made of smaller diagrammatic images. Whereas from a distance, the pattern forms a holographic face portrait. 06.



disabledB 2C 2C --disabledB 3- 2 A-A-7C 1B -A1B - -2C -A3 - -3disabledB A- A-6C - 34B - 4B -A5C - -5C -2 --26C -A9- disabledB AA- 4B -A-4B 7C - -7C - 2 - 2C - 3 - 5C - A2A--7B 4B--A 6C 5C - 7B --92 -A6C - 4B -9 - -2 A2C 4B 7C- -2C 2 -A3- -7B -9 7B

AA- disabledB - disabledB- 2C - 2C- 3 -3

AA- 7B - 7B- 6C - 6C- 9 -9





shaped geometries, was our intial starting point of making changes





beginning similar A- 2C - disabledB -with 3 - 2C - 3 forms -22C - 3AA- 7B - 4B -- 5C -- 2A - 4B A - 4B --2A6C - 7C - 7B - 6C - 9A --7B AA - -disabledB - 2C - -34B - 3- 2 A A - disabledB 2C--6C 3 -A9- disabledB A- A 6C 4B - 7B -9 7C - 6C - 2- 9- 5CA- -2disabledB -7C 7B -- 92C


the original. At





geometries are evident to change, however at a large scale, the changes to the patterns are more subtle.

A - 1B - 2C - 3

B - 2CA -- 34B - 5C - 2

B - 5C A-2 4B - 7C - 2 31

A -- 4B A - 4B - 5C 2 - 7C - 2

A - 4B - 7CA--27B - 6C - 9

A - 4B - 5C - 2

A-2 7B - 6C - 9 A - 4B - 7C

A - 4B - 7C - 2

- disabledB A - 7BA- 6C -9

- disabledB - 2C A- 3- disabledB - 2C - 3 A - 7B A - 6C -9

A - 1B - 2C - 3

matrixtable A - 1B - 2C - 3


A - 4B - 5C - 2

A - 4B - 5C - 2





forms and shapes as the

A - 1B - 2C - 3 original, we explored A -iterations 4B - 5C - 2 through


A - 4B - 7

A - 4B - 7C - 2

A - 7B - 6


geometries and changing the in




was very much similar to the previous iterations - changing at a smaller scale.

A - 4B - 7C - 2

image that would be used

A - 7B - 6C - 9 A - disabledB - 2C - 3 32






relatively similar, 3D forms were used. These iterations show how 3D geometries can create a dynamic affect to the surface through different levels and sizes. The examples shown above portray the same rectangular forms being used, however plugged in with a different order.



A - 1B A - -4B 2C- -5C 3 -2

A -A4B - 4B - 5C - 7C - 2- 2

A-A 4B- 7B - 7C- 6C -2-9

3 -2 5C

A - 4B 5C- -7C 2 -2 A - -4B

A - 4B 7C -- 6C 2 -9 A -- 7B

disabledB AA- -7B - 6C - 9 - 2C - 3 A - 1B - 2C - 3

A - 1B - 2C - 3

- 1B - 2C - 3

A - 4B - 5C - 2

A - 1B - 2C - 3

A - 4B - 5C - 2

A - 4B - 5C - 2

A - 4B - 7C - 2

A - dis 7B

A - disabl

A - 4B - 7C - 2

A - 7B - 6C - 9

A - 7B - 6C - 9

A - disabledB - 2C - 3


IMAGERY The patterning is a major aspect in achieving the final image formed. The next steps in our iteration

- 4B - 5C - 2 consists of changing A - 4Bthe - 7C -2 image input into Grasshopper.

Images that are clear and distinct in colour, create the best results. When more tones are




need to be inputted to create a more cohesive image. 34

A - disabledB - 2C - 3






SURFACE The iterations above were created on a 2D surface. By manipulating the surface into a 3D form, the outcomes are evident of the restrictions of patterning. The 3D box geometry creates an interesting form and pattern reflecting the inputted surface. However, it is limited as they all intersect each other shown in surface 1, or are sparsely distributed, shown in surface 2 and 3, due to the form of the curve. Both the 2D patterns are somewhat limited as well due to the nature of the curve, and tend to collate where it is tighter and has a greater curve,


After analyzing the previous patterned surfaced iterations, it was found that



the pattern did not respond to the was undesirable. The definition was altered with the use of contours and divide domain, it allowed for an evenly


curvature of the curves and hence

distributed patterning. Instead of using provided more control and design to the pattern on the surface. The points were able to move freely, with the pattern responding to curved areas.



an image sampler, attractor points



The Reef project in the PS1 courtyard of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), recreates the underwater landscape atmosphere through light, shadow, shade and movement.4 The design translates aquatic elements into architecture, where fabric canopies are used as anemone clouds, timber mounded seating as reef rocks, and a bed of sand as the sea floor.5 The flow of the site and program generate the pattern of structure and surface for the anemone clouds and reef mounds.


MoMA.PS1reef 3 D PAT T E R N I N G


The constructional system of the anemone

is more diffused, while at less dense areas,

clouds make use of smaller pieces to

the apertures are larger thus allowing

create a larger whole. The anemone

more light to pas through. It also creates

clouds are composed of 1200 uniquely

a floating effect due to the light weight

shaped fabric mesh modules hanging

of the shapes suspended onto cables,

from cable trusses.

hardly seen from below. This was designed





This composition atmosphere


using parametric software, Digital Project/

underwater life, of filtered light. With the

CATIA to model and refine the design for

various shapes, lengths and sizes of the

fabrication of each module. These were

aperture, each element contributes in

then done by sewing the fabrics into

the filtration. Where pattern is denser, light

three dimensional rings.5


reverseengineering1.0 MOMA PS1 REEF

The process we took to reverse engineer the MoMA PS1 Reef was based on panelling lofted forms onto the surface using domains and the ‘SBox’. Instead of recreating the entire form, we focused on how the pattern was obtained and then further explored different iterations that could possibly have been used. Beginning by creating a surface to work on, we lofted a set of arbitrary curves through Grasshopper. The benefit of creating the loft through Grasshopper, rather than Rhino, was the ability for us to alter the curves and manipulate the surface. The surface was then divided using a domain with U and V counts, allowing us to freely manipulate the divisions on the surface. Visually the PS1 Reef is a structure made of repetitive 3D components distributed along a lofted surface. Explored in our iterations from Case Study 1.0, a curved surface may cause patterns to be position unevenly, i.e. more patterns to be clustered where there is a large curvature or distortion in the surface. To evenly distribute the 3D element, the surface box allowed for the lofted panel to be accommodated within the box.


Our attempts at creating the lofted panel form through grasshopper was unsuccessful, as it caused the surface to twist and distort. Hence the form above was created through Rhino, restricting us from changing the form through grasshopper.



reverseengineering1.0 CRITIQUING THE DEFINITION

From this definition created in Grasshopper

Also the lack of parameters being used in

to reverse engineer the MoMA PS1 Reef

the process of creating the surface and form

project, our group was limited in the form and

of the panels, meant we were limited to

alternation of the parameters.

distorting and manipulating the forms through Grasshopper.

Our interpretation of the Reef, was that the

These changes can only be altered by control

same form would be repeated across a

points in Rhino, which will be arbitrary.

surface. Through this exercise, we disregarded the fact that the Reef was constructed using

We explored patterning of the form through

a mesh fabric - which would be affected by

‘Cull Pattern’, which allowed us to create

gravity, Hence the use of the ‘Surface Box’

varying heights of the panels, however this


was still very restrictive in developing any

Grasshopper would restrict our form in

that it does not create a ‘dropping’ affect of

interesting designs.

material. Our definition meant that a box was created perpendicular to the surface, rather

We hope to explore a more successful way to

than reacting to gravity.

reverse engineer this project.


reverseengineering2.0 MOMA PS1 REEF

The process of reverse engineering the MoMA PS1 Reef was mainly focused on how the patterning was obtained rather than the entire form. After laying down the basic definition required, we then explored different iterations and possible outcomes. As opposed to the previous reverse engineering trial, we focused on how to recreate this project using grasshopper to manipulate it’s form rather than just panelling lofts onto a surface. By using points





catenary, rather than arbitrarily drawing curves through rhino, it gave us greater flexibility in manipulation of form. Two





contoured and then divided by length. This allows the contours to be divided more evenly, and allows the top surface to match with the bottom. Geometric forms were then connected to each point of the contour through ‘Construct Plane’ and ‘Orient’, and then scaled using ‘Scale NU’. The two geometries, on the top and bottom, are then lofted to create the PS1 reef form. 45


Catenary can be altered in any direction, this will create interesting forms, that can be explored through our iterations and eventually allow us to develop a form.




After reproducing the definition for the PS1

The only issue that we could not overcome,

Reef, we had a better understanding of what

was the connection between the square

we were lacking from the previous trial.

geometries, however due to the nature of the real Reef, this was not a threatening design

With this trial we begun from using points and


catenary and hence were not limited to set curves through Rhino. The catenary allowed

Through our iterations we hope to explore

us to set the length between the two curves

different surface forms, as well as change the

and hence play with the curvature as well as

geometries used to form these panels.

the direction of the curve.

Also, we will experiment with attractor points,

Through using two independent surface,

and expressions to try and achieve a more

we were able to manipulate the shift of the

ambitious form and design.

bottom curve from the top and thus affecting the lengths of the panels.


matrixtable 3 D PAT T E R N I N G

A. A. Catenary curves B. Geometry C. Contours and division D. Cull Pattern


E. Image Sampler F. Extrude G. Attractor Point H. 2D Patterning I. 3D Patterning

C. The four most successful iterations were chosen based on the techniques used. Catenary created interesting curved D.

forms based on the natural slack of a length between two points. The more curves employed, the more complex the form becomes.


Inputting an image sampler related closely to the first case study, which explored patterning to create images. The image sampler manipulated the


openings and varied the heights of the form. Using attractor points created a very dynamic response to the surface through


the varying heights of the extruded elements. Exploring panelled surfaces, the triangular faces seemed more suitable for curved


forms than other geometries. It is concluded through these explorations that we find 3D patterning to be more


desirable, as it is able to create dynamic forms which 2D patterns are limited to.


and collect wind energy. Instead of extruding

After exploring the iterations developed and

in a downward manner like the PS1 reef that

selecting the most successful, we were able

was studied, the extrusions can occur in the

determine which ideas and concepts we

vertical Z-axis to maximise wind capture.

were looking into further extrapolating and

These linear forms could also act as sheltered


spaces for people to occupy and interact with.

Incorporating an energy system into the


design, wind energy was considered as being

Further development of ideas, allowed for

the most appropriate for the site, and was

exploration of different potential design forms

further explored in extrapolated ideas.

through the manipulation of the channels.

The extrusion of the pattern based on the

Organic and fluidity constrasts the existing

location of an attractor point could be

site, and the use of such forms could create

developed into wind channels that create

dynamic artificial undulating landscapes.





positioned incorrespondence with the wind

Our group then looked into other potential

channels to stimulate movement.

design techniques that would integrate a

This concept incorporates both wind and

form of wind energy into the design, but at

kinetic energy production. Wind power will

the same time to create an architecturally

move the chimes that will then apply pressure

interactive space for the users to understand

to the Pezio crystals which are installed at the

about renewable energy.

connecting joints.

We then reviewed our chosen successful

Like the PS1 Reef, we aim to achieve a serene

iterations, and then found that the 2D

atmosphere through the manipulation of light,

panelled surface was most suited for this idea

sound and wind through the positioning of the

as it will promote a 3D environment through

chimes, and how they influence the ceiling

2D hanging elements. The chimes would be

topography to create a desired affect.


INTEGRATING THE TWO After the previous explorations with the


wind channels and the hanging chimes, we

experimented with different extruded wind

integrated the two design elements together

channel forms, and varying 2D and 3D chimes.

to create our desired technique.

By using an attractor point, it allowed us to play






with varying heights to stretch the channeled Our aim is to create a form that consists of

elements on the facade that would be most

extruded wind channels that slowly dissipates

prominent to wind capture. The positioning of

into a flatter surface where the chimes will be

the chimes were determined by using a cull





Diagram represents how the form will slowly move from being 3D to being 2D, and the pattern’s form will be influenced by this shift







The prototypes explored the affects of 2D

The prototypes explored the affects of 2D

and 3D patterning on a surface.

and 3D patterning on a surface.

Prototype 1 consists of two geometries

Prototype 2 is a 2D triangular panel on a


curved surface, with patterned openings










that allow for filtration of light into the

tweaking parameters. This allowed for

space. Experimenting with the lighting

experimentation with varying heights and

effects gave us an idea of the ambience

the effect 3D patterning creates with light

that could be achieved through cut out.

and space. Through this prototype we obtained a better understanding of how a ceiling typography is more successful through 3D forms. 58


This prototype explores our wind chime

the same for the last trial, where it is hung


in between two corners.





affects the chimes create when hung at

When wind is applied to these triangles,

different points.

the results were successful. Trials 1 and

Both first and third trials resulted in similar

3 did not alter from their initial positions.

outcomes when hung at the corner of

However trials 2 and 4 resulted in arbitrary

the triangular shape. The first triangle is

positions and outcomes when rustled and

elongated whereas the third is shorter but

disturbed from their initial state.


Triangle 1 seemed to be capable of

The second triangle is punctured in the

making the most contact with the

centre, which creates a random effect

surrounding chimes due to it’s elongated

where the geometry will fall and sit in an

nature as opposed to triangle 2. The most

arbitrary position. This outcome is

successful is trails 1 and 4.








The prototypes explored the affects of 2D and 3D patterning on a surface. Prototype 2 is a 2D triangular panel on a curved surface, with patterned openings that allow for filtration of light into the space. Experimenting with the lighting effects gave us an idea of the ambience that could be achieved through cut out.



The LAGI design site is situated in an ex-industrial




water. This site is prominent to winds and therefore wind energy was chosen due to the conditions of the site. Through analyzing the landscape, we found it most appropriate to locate our design closer to the water as wind is more prominent and stronger at the edge of the site. In Copenhagen, the average wind direction is North-West and therefore positioning our design in that direction will 63


allow us to generate an efficient amount of energy. Our design proposal consists of a structure made of wind channels with turbines that will capture the wind energy. The wind is then channeled outwards to move the wind chimes, thus incorporates both wind and kinetic energy in one process. Our design is not only sustainable in creating renewable energy, but it also allows for people to interact with a dynamic and non-static space we have created. 64


This part of the course really put our group work to the test and it proved difficulties when we all had our own ideas and concepts. There were times when we struggled to integrate all our ideas together and what was expected from each of us as a team and what was to be delivered. I believe in order to be successful in parametric design, one must have a coherent understanding of the program and what control the designer has over computer aided design. There were times when I had an idea, however had trouble reiterating these through the Grasshopper program. However, I have become more confident with using Grasshopper, and have a better understanding of what parameters to input in order to ensure the following parameters will work in the equation. In the part of the design process, our group had some disjointed ideas, which were more fully resolved. We had ideas, however they were not expressed and carried out well in the presentation. Therefore I hope to ensure these are carefully considered in the next part of the design process.



This algorithmic exploration experimented with various parametric inputs in Grasshopper. It is constructed by contours laid on a surface, and then using series to create a ‘step-up’ form, that increases in height by every contour. The Delauney Mesh tool was then developed from the number of division of the contoured lines. The algorithm on the left is a structured Delauney Mesh outcome and the one on the right consists of a bounded surface with cut-outs. These cut-outs were developed from a Scale parameter, however the positioning of which mesh face would be opened, was based on an inputted curve or geometry. This algorithmic process really allowed me to grasp a better understanding of how much further you can develop an idea from simple initial inputs such as a point, curve or surface, and how they are dependent of another to reach a final outcome.



1 Pa t r i c k S c h u m a c h e r, “ Pa r a m e t r i c Pa t t e r n s ” Architectural Design, 79,6, 2009, pp.30 2 M o u s s a v i , Fa r s h i d a n d M i c h a e l Ku b o, e d s ,” T h e F u n c t i o n o f O r n a m e n t ”, B a r c e l o n a : A c t a r, 2 0 0 6 , p p. 5 - 1 4 3 “ M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t r e ”, A r c, Accessed April 10,2014, http:// 4 “ P S 1 / M o M A R e e f ”, I w a m o t o s c o t t A r c h i t e c t u r e , Accessed April 17th, 2014, 5 “ P S 1 / M o M A R e e f ”, J e n n i f e r L y / D e s i g n e r , A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 7 t h , 2 0 1 4 , h tt p : / / j e n n i f e r. l y / ? / professional/Reef-1/

figures 0 1 “ I I T C a m p u s C e n t e r b y O M A O p e n s ”, ArchiNed, Accessed April 10, 2014. http://www. 0 2 “ D e Yo u n g M u s e u m , H e r z o g D e M e u r o n , S a n F r a n c i s c o , C A”, A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 0 , 2 0 1 4 . h tt p s : / / w w w. f l i c k r. c o m / p h o t o s / marcteer/5459099190/ 0 3 ” To n i C u m e l l a : S h a p i n g I d e a s / M o d e l a n d o I d e a s ”, M e t a l o c u s , A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 0 , 2 0 1 4 . toni-cumella-shaping-ideas-modelando-ideas 0 4 “A u t o n o m o u s Te c t o n i c ”, Rensselaer|Architecture, Accessed April 10, 2014. 0 5 ” M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t e r ”, O p e n Buildings, Accessed April 10, 2014. http:// 0 6 “ I c o n o s - M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t e r ”, J u d i t B e l l o s t e s , A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 0 , 2014. 0 7 “ O M A”, A r c h i Tr a v e l , A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 0 , 2014. architects/oma/ 0 8 - 0 9 “ P S 1 / M o M A R e e f ”, I w a m o t o s c o t t Architecture, Accessed April 17th, 2014, http://

Rebecca Huynh 587309 Part A+B  

Studio Air Part A+B

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