STUDIO r e b e c c a h u y n h . 5 8 7 3 0 9
contents 01 introduction 02 conceptualising 03 criteria design
rebeccahuynh I’m your typical local student, born and bred in Melbourne - sadly not very exciting. In contrast to my ordinary life in Melbourne, I have visited many places and all thanks to my mum’s love for travel (and ability to nag my dad), starting at the tender age of six. Not only have I been around Australia, but I’ve travelled to America, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Holland, Switzerland, France, Italy, Germany and Belgium. By having the opportunity to travel to such a broad range of countries, that sit on opposite ends of the spectrum, I have learnt about the differing culture and history of each place, and observed how architecture has derived from these influences. I am a third year architecture student, with a passion that lies in fashion design. My interest for architecture grew from my childhood, as I spent time playing LEGOs with my two brothers, building my ‘dream house’ on The Sims, and the countless visits to display home villages with my parents. I would like to one day incorporate my knowledge in both architecture and fashion design together.
Virtual Environments is the only experience Iâ€™ve had with working with parametric design. Personally I found the subject to be very enjoyable and I had learnt so many new things, despite the difficulty of picking up a completely new computer program. The use of Rhinoceros allowed me to understand the benefits of both analogue and digital
grasp a small insight to where design processing may head in the future. This semester, I hope to learn more about the a
a.conceptualising d e s i g n f u t u r i n g
ComputationalDesign soumaya museum 11 13
Parametric Design19 white noise
conclusion 23 learning outcomes 24
BAMBI LYOST.CHAD HUNTER.ISABELLA LEYSENS.HENRY NARIGON. NATE SCHLORHOLTZ
the site: FRESHKILLS, New York Freshkills Park was once a landfill site, harboring tons of New
Vein unVeiled is an interactive and educational outdoor gallery, made up of 36 sculptural pieces that are distributed along a 2km trail, representing 36,000 tons of waste produced in New York. The project aims to not only produce a renewable source of energy but also to
inform the users of the ‘hidden truth’ of the site and to emphasize the importance of the environment’s future.1
of the design is based on the veil - a sacred
A chain of small wind turbines are attached to
representation - and hence signifies the
the sculpture. Solar photovoltaic panels are also
importance of the site. As the users move through
embedded onto the turbines to obtain sunlight
the sculpture, their interpretation of the gallery
during the day, to power its LED lights at night. As the
spaces is altered by their experience with the
turbines spin, the lights flutter, creating an interesting
structure itself, of â€˜veiling and unveilingâ€™.
Each sculpture consists of a battery bench, which houses all the collected energy, as well as provide seating.1 01. Wind Turbine attached to sculpture
02. Structure made from 100% recycled materials
The sculptures themselves are made from 100%
03. Battery Benches store collected energy
recycled materials. The artworks, created by local
06/07. Samples of artwork made from trash
artists and community members, are made from
08. Solar powered LED lights
WHAT IS IT
A catalyst is required to react with the sunâ€™s pho-
Artificial photosynthesis is the process of producing
tons, which will enable the process of splitting wa-
energy by replicating the natural photosynthesis
ter molecules into liquid hydrogen fuel.3
process of plants. Research has been carried out, and potential HOW DOES IT WORK
materials to act as a catalyst consist of Manga-
Artificial photosynthesis is similar to the natural
nese, Titanium oxide and Cobalt oxide.3
process, where energy is created through the
Manganese is naturally found in plants, however in
conversion of solar light, water and carbon
the artificial process, manganese is more unstable.
dioxide, to produce oxygen and sugar.2
Titanium oxide is a stable catalyst, however the
The artificial process requires harvesting of
solvent erodes the other components of the sys-
sunlight and splitting water molecules, to obtain
tem when in contact with this catalyst.
liquid hydrogen, which can be used directly as
Cobalt oxide is the most favoured industrial cat-
hydrogen fuel, or transformed into other means of
alyst. It has been found to be stable and highly
energy use, such as methanol.2
efficient in triggering the reaction.3
artificialphotosynthesis solar powered technology
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 carbon dioxide + water
sugar + oxygen
EFFICIENCY The advantages of artificial photosynthesis is its high efficiency to create energy, of up to 60%. The materials required to carry out this process are readily available in nature. Also the energy produced can be stored, as opposed to other renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panels, which cannot store solar energy obtained. This technological process is a mimic of natural conversion of energy created by plans, and therefore is almost full proof.3 10
soumayamuseum fernando romero enterprise. FREE
If the project had stuck to strict spending discipline, the museum would have been a shoe box. However, Romero...has succeeded in bringing about the greatest paradigm shift in Mexican architecture.
Soumaya Museum houses one of the largest private art collections in the world. It’s futurist and curvilinear design approach, juxtaposes the old ex-industrial area of Mexico city it is situated amongst.4 These are the two criterias the architects sought to achieve through the design of this iconic and sculptural piece of architecture.5
HEXAGONAL SKIN Soumaya Museum’s iconic and sculptural curved form was designed through the use of computational digital design. The building’s skin is made of aluminium hexagonal panels, with minimal openings that penetrate the surface.4 The
allowed for the arrangement of the hexagonal panels,
Gaussian analysis, identified and divided the surface into two zones: most curved (20% of the surface) and most regular (80% of the surface). With this analysis, hexagonal panels which are disproportional or abnormal in form can be stretched and refined to reach the desired form.5
STRUCTURALLY SOUND The construction of the double curvilinear surface
Each floor level size responds to the form of the structure
was made possible by the 26 individually designed
and hence determines the nature of the art collection.
curved columns which all differ in diameter, form and
The most upper level is the largest gallery of the build-
ing with a radius-like roof structure that supports the
By placing the columns on the perimeter of the
large span. The floating cantilevering roof allows for
structure allowed for large open gallery spaces and
maximum use of a column free space and provides an
non-linear ramps systems to flow through the column-
interior panorama and filtered sunlight.5
left-right: 9. building in itâ€™s surrounding context, 10. the roof and the filtering of light effect it creates, 11. the upper level gallery space and the visible ramp system, 12. study models, 13. working drawings, 14. the roofâ€™s structure, 15. the hexagonal panels
THE LAYERS The structure of the building consists of several layers of structural lattices, and panelled surfaces. From the interior layers to the exterior facade, the layers consist of: an insulating durock (cement board), primary structure made of bent oilrigging structural tubes, triodesic secondary structure, waterproofing panels supported by the secondary structure, and hexagonal panels supported by purlines mounted onto the second structure.4 19
COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN The whole developmental process of Soumaya Museum was centralised around computational design. The use of digital design conveys a clearer design intent and understanding of the design through 3D digital modelling.4 It is evident through this design, the issues that may be faced if a more traditional process of design would be used. However with the use of digital computation, the restraints were able to be pushed and hence resulted in such a building with such a complex form and structure - developing each column specific to its relationship with the structure. Digital design also enabled for the analysis of the surface to be refined to achieve a desired finish. Without the existence of computational design, the museum could have been any regular shoe-box structure, however computation was able to push far beyond those limits.5
22. Section of the building showing sizes of the different gallery spaces and the large floating roof.
20. the column and roof structure 21. the flowing ramp system
One Ocean Thematic Pavilion Soma Architects were selected as first prize winners of an international competition in Yeosu, South Korea. Their design embodies the theme of the â€œThe living Ocean and Coastâ€?, designing a thematic pavilion that merges together the surrounding urban and coastal contexts.6
Through exploring different surfaces and materials, the design of the building aimed to explore innovative ways to be sustainable through computational design. The site of the pavilion was situated in a former industrial harbor, which now aims to become adapted as an urban beach, offering leisure and activities to the public.7
We experience the ocean mainly in two ways, as an endless surface and in an immersed perspective - as depth.
ONE OCEAN. ONE LANDSCAPE This iconic landmark is astounding for its ability to
The lamellas are made of glass fibres reinforced
respond to its surrounding urban context and the
polymers which give them high tensile strength
natural environment. The building is under constant
and allows for reversible elastic deformations.8
‘negotiation’ between both water and land.
The kinetic blades choreograph animations
An organic meandering facade is situated along
from subtle local movements or mimic the
the coast-line, and the opposite side of the pavilion
movement of waves along the entire span
depicts a fish-like structure emerging from the
of the facade, through the use of computer
ground to roof-top gardens and winding pathways.
technology.8 LED bars are attached to the inner
sides of each lamella blade, intensifying visual
A KINETIC FACADE
effects after sunset. These kinetic bars not only
The main feature of this pavilion is its innovative
create a dynamic visual, but also control the
kinetic facade made of lamellas that create
input of sunlight into the building itself, acting
almost like shading devices.9
COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN Soma’s One Ocean Pavilion utilizes computational
to uphold such architecture made of reinforced
design to create it’s organic, flowing form - both
externally and internally. Through the analysis of the
Computational design was also used to integrate
smooth surfaces, computational programs were
the use of computer driven technology of the
able to determine the structural elements required
IN COMPARISON... Soma’s One Ocean pavilion is situated in a very similar site to LAGI 2014 competition site in Copenhagen. The innovative use of kinetic lamella blades could be further explored to design a dynamic and sustainable source of energy through architecture. 20. Coast-line facade of organic circular forms
23. The glowing LED kinetic facade at night
21 & 26. Curved interior walls reflect external form
24. Lamella blades and how they deflect
22 & 25. Diagrammatic sketches of the building’s design 28
Traditional processes of designing are constraint
of design, the new digital age has adopted
and limited to the progression of architectural
technologies that are changing the face of
design. The complexity of an idea may not be
expressed clearly and hence deter the designer
architecture, kinetic and dynamic systems, and
from formally portraying the complexity of an idea.
genetic algorithms are the emerging technologies
By perceiving a design in a holistic and 3D manner, it
of modern day architecture.
allows for interaction and a better comprehension
of the entire design.4 This is where computation
(CAD), which is used to computerize analogue
and parametricism is advantageous, leading
designs, architectural design is beginning to be
architecture into a direction of where design is
encompassed by computational and parametric
influenced by technologies.
design, where form and structure is manipulated
Parametricism is a tool that can be used to
through algorithmic inputs.
determine and influence the structural elements and its buildability of a design. It can also minimise
Algorithms are a set of finite rules applied
the use of materials and ultimately optimize a
systematically into a set of initial states of inputs,
design structurally and economically.13
carrying out a method or function to result in a final It is without doubt, the impeccable advantages of
state of outputs.11
parametric modelling provides in todayâ€™s designing The process of form finding through the use of
culture - understandable comprehension, design
algorithms is known as parametric design.
Parametric design is the process or method of
developing a geometric form, which is manipulated
technology, there are constraints between humans
by the result of inputting finite sets of parameters or
and computers. The designer must have an
understanding of the program and what tasks it is
capable of carrying out. With poor computer skills, Parametricism
the designer may not be aware of the command
computational designing and hence shares the
inputs and algorithms that are to be used to
same advantages in todayâ€™s technologically
develop ideas that are initiated through the mind.
influenced design culture.
As architectural design becomes more complex,
Regardless of the shortcomings of parametric
parametric design has allowed designers to clearly
modelling, the advantages exceed the minute
communicate their ideas and intents in such a way
issues. There are many processes and methods of
that is easy to understand, in a fast and efficient
designing that parametric modelling is capable of
White Noise by Austrian architects â€˜somaâ€™, is a mobile music pavilion initially erected in Salzburg, a city predominantly known for classical music.14 The pavilion houses events such as contemporary music festivals and has moved around European cities. The concept of the pavilion evokes curiosity, drawing people to engage and encounter the unknown or unusual.14 The pavilion links structure and parametric geometry through its design to create a aluminium portal-like pavilion. The aluminium structure of the pavilion consists of rods that intersect and interact in a chaotic manner. The static system is made up of several arches that span over 12 metres. Each arch is made of rods that are connected to neighbouring rods with circular studs.13 Parametric modelling determined the angle of the truss diagonals of the rod elements to optimize structural performance and efficiency in computation time as well as minimizing the structural weight.13 34
foyn-johansonhouse harrison and white
As residential architecture evolves and becomes
more innovative by integrating sustainable design
throughout the entire day and no shadows are
in an aesthetic manner, parametric modelling is a
cast from the structure itself.15 Evidently in this
tool that aids this purpose of design.15
design brief, parametric design has its advantages
Architects Harrison and White, were awarded
for resolving complex design issues. The use of
for the design for the Foyn-Johanson House in
parametric modelling for this house, addresses and
Northcote for its clever design of the facade. The
rebukes the stereotypes of parametric design - that
project addresses the idea of providing complete
architecture derived from computer generated
sunlight to the garden space throughout the day.15
programs will result in â€˜blob-itectureâ€™. However
This was achieved through parametric design by
the Foyn-Johanson House is an example of how
modelling the sunâ€™s path and using this data to
parametric and computational design can be
subtract from the form of the house, creating an
used to create designs that respond to the context
oddly shaped slanted facade.
in a non abstract and arbitrary form.16
algorithmicexplorations Through the exploration of algorithms in Grasshopper, there is a realization of the potential for enhancing architectural design through the aid of computational technology and parameters. The figures below, depict the complex forms that can be achieved through computational and parametric design, which may be more difficult to portray in a more traditional design process. It is also evident of the multiple various outcomes that may be derived from a single starting point, demonstrating the endless possibilities of digital technology and design.
week 2: lofting and contouring I find it interesting that a 3D form made up of 2D planes can be abstracted from a 2D lofted surface.
Architecture has evolved from the traditional methods of analogue design towards a new era of digital computation. As the design culture has moved forward, we must too encompass the shift of architecture into a new language of parametricism. With this shift, there are many advantages of computer technology. Time and efficiency is a major factor that digital design provides. Computation has allowed for architects to reduce the time spent developing and portraying an idea. Parametricism has enabled for the development of elements to be influenced by the structure itself, to find the most optimum design outcome with a certain set of parameters, constraints or even materials. It can even determine the buildability of a design before being constructed. Parametricism and computation also makes designing more efficient as it analyses and assesses the materials used to develop a design that minimizes materials used and hence creating an economical and sustainable design. We can no longer rely solely on traditional design processes, but to acknowledge the revolution of architecture today, and that in order for us to move forward, we must invest towards technology.
The research carried out these past weeks about technology in the design culture has really enlightened me. I have developed a better understanding and sense of acceptance towards the future of design and where it could be heading with the shift towards computation and parametricism. It has also been made aware, the numerous architectural precedents that have already adopted this way of designing. And also that computational design does not necessitate for the stereotypical ‘blob-itecture’ or ‘spaceship’ like forms, but it can create elegant forms with functionality in mind. Heading through the next phase of the semester, I hope to learn how to better my skills to convey ideas through computation and the use of parameters, and to think outside the box, and grasp the concepts of the new digital age of design.
1 “Land Art Generator Initiative: Veil Unv e i l e d ”, L a n d A r t G e n e r a t o r I n i t i a t i v e A c cessed March 12, 2014. http://landartgenerat o r. o rg / L AG I - 2 0 1 2 / u n v e i l e d / 2 F e r r y , R o b e r t & E l i z a b e t h M o n o i a n , “A F i e l d G u i d e t o R e n e w a b l e E n e r g y Te c h n o l o g i e s ”, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2 0 1 4 . p p 1 - 2 3 , h tt p : / / l a n d a rt g e n e rat o r. o rg / LAGI-FieldGuideRenewableEnergy-ed1.pdf 3 Julia Layton, “How Artificial Photosynthes i s W o r k s ”, H o w S t u f f W o r k s , A c c e s s e d M a r c h 11 2014, http://science.howstuffworks.com/ environmental/green-tech/energy-production/ artificial-photosynthesis.htm 4 Fe r n a n d o Ro m e ro a n d A r m a n d o Ra m o s , “Bridging a Culture: The Design of Museo S o u m a y a ”, A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V o l u m e 8 3 , Issue 2, 12 March 2013. 5 “A r t w o r l d B e e h i v e ”, Pe d r o R e y e s , D o m u s , Accessed March 18, 2014, http://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/2011/06/16/artworldbeehive.html 6 “ T h e m e Pa v i l i o n E X P O Ye o s u , Ye o s u - K R , 2 0 1 2 ”, s o m a , A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2 1 2 0 1 4 , http://www.soma-architecture.com/index. php?page=theme_pavilion&parent=2# 7 “ I n P r o g r e s s : O n e O c e a n / s o m a ”, A r c h i D a i l y , Accessed March 21 2014, http://www.archdaily.com/208700/in-progress-one-ocean-soma/ 8 “ S o m a : Ye o s u E x p o 2 0 1 2 ”, D e s i g n b o o m , Accessed March 25 2014, http://www.designboom.com/architecture/soma-yeosu-expo-2012/ 23
9 “ O n e O c e a n , s o m a ”, A r c s p a c e . c o m , A c c e s s e d March 24,2014, http://www.arcspace.com/features/soma/one-ocean/ 1 0 K o l a r e v i c , B r a n k o , “A r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing” (New Yo r k ; L o n d o n : S p o n P r e s s , 2 0 0 3 ) 1 1 D e f i n i t i o n o f ‘A l g o r i t h m ’ i n W i l s o n , R o b ert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (Lond o n : M I T Pre s s ) , p p. 1 1 , 1 2 1 2 , 1 5 “A r c h i t e c t u r a l D i s c o u r s e , D i g i t a l C o m p u t a t i o n a n d P a r a m e t r i c i s m ”, D e s i g n i t o , Accessed March 27 2014, http://designito. wordpress.com/2013/04/04/architecturaldiscourse-digital-computation-and-parametricism/ 1 3 C l e m e n s Pre i s i n g e r, “ L i n k i n g St r u c t u re a n d P a r a m e t r i c G e o m e t r y ”, A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , Volume 83, Issue 2, pp 110-113, 12 March 2013. 1 4 “ M o b i l e A r t P a v i l l i o n ‘ W h i t e N o i s e ’ ”, Archello, Accessed March 27 2014, http:// www.archello.com/en/project/mobile-art-pavillon-white-noise# 16 “Striking Australian Home is Shaped by S u n ’ s P a t h ”, I n h a b i t a t , A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2 7 2014, http://inhabitat.com/striking-australian-home-is-shaped-by-the-suns-path/foynjohanson-house-9/
figures 01-08 “Land Art Generator Initiative: Veil U n v e i l e d ”, L A G I A c c e s s e d M a r c h 1 2 , 2 0 1 4 . h tt p : / / l a n d a rt g e n e rat o r. o rg / L AG I - 2 0 1 2 / unveiled/ 09,10 “Solar Fuels and Artificial P h o t o s y n t h e s i s ,” R o y a l S o c i e t y o f C h e m i s t r y , Accessed March 20, 2014. http://www.rsc.org/ S c i e n c e A n d Te c h n o l o g y / Po l i c y / D o c u m e n t s / solar-fuels-production-infographics.asp. 1 1 , 1 9 Fe r n a n d o Ro m e ro a n d A r m a n d o Ra m o s , “Bridging a Culture: The Design of Museo S o u m a y a ”, A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V o l u m e 8 3 , Issue 2, 12 March 2013. 1 2 , 1 4 , 1 5 , 1 7 , 2 2 “A r t w o r l d B e e h i v e ”, Pe d r o Reyes, Domus, Accessed March 18, 2014, http:// www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/2011/06/16/ artworld-beehive.html 13,20,21 “Museo Soumaya, Mexico City, Mexico b y F r e e F e r n a d o R o m e r o ”, A r c h i t e c t u r e L a b Online Magazine, Accessed March 18, 2014, http://architecturelab.net/2011/04/museosoumaya-mexico-city-mexico-by-free-fernandoromero/#lightbox/4/ 1 6 N i c h o l a s C a s e y , “ T h e M u s e o S o u m a y a ”, Pyramid Beach, Accessed March 19, 2014, http://pyramidbeach.com/2011/03/09/themuseo-soumaya%E2%80%A6/ 1 8 “ S o u m a y a M u s e u m b y Fe r n a n d o Ro m e ro E n t e r p r i s e ”, A A s A r c h i t e c t u r e , A c c e s s e d March 17 2014, http://www.aasarchitecture. com/2013/01/Soumaya-Museum-FR-EEFe r n a n d o - Ro m e ro - E n t e r p r i s E . h t m l 2 3 , 2 5 , 2 6 “ O n e O c e a n , s o m a ”, A r c s p a c e . c o m , Accessed March 24,2014, http://www.arcspace. com/features/soma/one-ocean/
2 4 “ O n e O c e a n , T h e m a t i c Pa v i l i o n E X P O 2 0 1 2 / s o m a ”, A r c h i D a i l y , A c c e s s e d M a r c h 2 3 2 0 1 4 , http://www.archdaily.com/236979/one-oceanthematic-pavilion-expo-2012-soma/7-290/ 2 7 “ T h e m a t i c P a v i l i o n , E x p o 2 0 1 2 ”, K n i p p e r s Helbig Advanced Engineering, Accessed March 22 2014, http://www.knippershelbig.com/de/ projekte/thematic-pavillon-expo-2012 2 8 , 2 9 “ S o m a W i n s Fi r s t Pr i z e t o D e s i g n Th e m at i c P a v i l i o n a t Ye o s u E x p o 2 0 1 2 , S o u t h K o r e a ”, Designboom, Accessed March 22 2014, http:// www.designboom.com/architecture/soma-winsfirst-prize-to-design-thematic-pavilion-at-yeosuexpo-2012-south-korea/ 3 0 M o b i l e A r t P a v i l i o n ‘ W h i t e N o i s e ’, S a l z b u r g ” E-architect, Accessed March 27 2014, http:// www.e-architect.co.uk/austria/mobile-artpavilion-white-noise 3 1 - 3 3 “ M o b i l e A r t P a v i l i o n ‘ W h i t e N o i s e ’ ”, Archello, Accessed March 27 2014, http://www. archello.com/en/project/mobile-art-pavillonwhite-noise# 3 4 C l e m e n s Pre i s i n g e r, “ L i n k i n g St r u c t u re a n d P a r a m e t r i c G e o m e t r y ”, A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , Volume 83, Issue 2, pp 110-113, 12 March 2013. 3 5 “A r c h i t e c t u r e : F o y n - J o h a n s o n H o u s e ”, Australian Design Review, Accessed March 27 2014, http://www.australiandesignreview.com/ designwall/1212-architecture-foyn-johansonhouse 3 6 “ I n g e n o u s Fo y n -J o h a n s o n H o m e i n A u s t ra l i a b y H a r r i s o n a n d W h i t e ”, W a v e A v e n u e , A c c e s s e d March 27 2014, http://waveavenue.com/profiles/ blogs/ingenious-foyn-johanson-home-inaustralia-by-harrison-and-white 24
b.criteria design research field: patterning
case study 1.0: OMA matrix table case study 2.0: MoMA
reverse engineering 1.0
critiquing the definition 43 reverse engineering 2.0
critiquing the definition 47 matrix table
Patterns are an arrangement of shapes
In early classical architecture, buildings
or forms in a repetitive manner. In
were commonly adorned with decorative
architecture, patterns are more commonly
used as facade or screens. However with
new technology, the aestheticism of
terms decoration and ornamentation.
patterns have been closely associated
A decoration can be considered an
ornamenent, however an ornament not
necessarily a decoration.
Ornamentation has been perceived as a
Decoration can be described as an
mechanism that connects architecture
attached component used to beautify.
to culture and its urban context, as well
Ornamentation can been seen as an
as engaging and communicating to its
element interacting within a system, to
create a holistic aesthetic presentation.
researchfield PAT T E R N I N G
Adolf Loos, greatly opposed this, stating
that ornamentation was used as a means
of differentiating, which was not needed
architectural patterning has been reborn
in modern society. He also argued
through the introduction and explorations
that architectural buildings should be
of parametric design.1
presented as they were constructed - raw
Parametricism allows for the integration
and sincere representations, and this was
of patterning into the architectural design
seen as ornamentation.
and structure itself, hence combining both
Hence modernism, utilised transparency
aesthetic and functionality together.1
representation of architectural elements
It is without doubt that parametric design
and space. And postmodernism using
and new technologies has opened doors
to many more design possibilities.
OMA M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t r e PAT T E R N I N G
Patterning in the McCormick Tribune
The arrangement of the pattern on a
Campus Centre, is the main glass feature
small scale, affects the overall portrait at
wall of the Welcome Centre. Simple
a large scale.
geometric diagrams of the same size are
utilized in the form of pixels. The images
These patterns are created as a visual
represent people performing different
means to the students who use the space,
activities such as sleeping, sitting, studying
but also provide an aesthetic value to the
facade and wall partition.
By using two tones, the pattern becomes
The pattern on the facade does not only
more evident from a distance, where the
serve as an aesthetic, but the patterning
small diagrams disappear to form a larger
can also act as a shading device,
McCormick Tribune Campus Centre, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2003 by OMA. Close up of the glass wall, shows the pattern is made of smaller diagrammatic images. Whereas from a distance, the pattern forms a holographic face portrait. 06.
disabledB 2C 2C --disabledB 3- 2 A-A-7C 1B -A1B - -2C -A3 - -3disabledB A- A-6C - 34B - 4B -A5C - -5C -2 --26C -A9- disabledB AA- 4B -A-4B 7C - -7C - 2 - 2C - 3 - 5C - A2A--7B 4B--A 6C 5C - 7B --92 -A6C - 4B -9 - -2 A2C 4B 7C- -2C 2 -A3- -7B -9 7B
AA- disabledB - disabledB- 2C - 2C- 3 -3
AA- 7B - 7B- 6C - 6C- 9 -9
shaped geometries, was our intial starting point of making changes
beginning similar A- 2C - disabledB -with 3 - 2C - 3 forms -22C - 3AA- 7B - 4B -- 5C -- 2A - 4B A - 4B --2A6C - 7C - 7B - 6C - 9A --7B AA - -disabledB - 2C - -34B - 3- 2 A A - disabledB 2C--6C 3 -A9- disabledB A- A 6C 4B - 7B -9 7C - 6C - 2- 9- 5CA- -2disabledB -7C 7B -- 92C
the original. At
geometries are evident to change, however at a large scale, the changes to the patterns are more subtle.
A - 1B - 2C - 3
B - 2CA -- 34B - 5C - 2
B - 5C A-2 4B - 7C - 2 31
A -- 4B A - 4B - 5C 2 - 7C - 2
A - 4B - 7CA--27B - 6C - 9
A - 4B - 5C - 2
A-2 7B - 6C - 9 A - 4B - 7C
A - 4B - 7C - 2
- disabledB A - 7BA- 6C -9
- disabledB - 2C A- 3- disabledB - 2C - 3 A - 7B A - 6C -9
A - 1B - 2C - 3
matrixtable A - 1B - 2C - 3
PAT T E R N I N G
A - 4B - 5C - 2
A - 4B - 5C - 2
forms and shapes as the
A - 1B - 2C - 3 original, we explored A -iterations 4B - 5C - 2 through
A - 4B - 7
A - 4B - 7C - 2
A - 7B - 6
geometries and changing the in
was very much similar to the previous iterations - changing at a smaller scale.
A - 4B - 7C - 2
image that would be used
A - 7B - 6C - 9 A - disabledB - 2C - 3 32
relatively similar, 3D forms were used. These iterations show how 3D geometries can create a dynamic affect to the surface through different levels and sizes. The examples shown above portray the same rectangular forms being used, however plugged in with a different order.
A - 1B A - -4B 2C- -5C 3 -2
A -A4B - 4B - 5C - 7C - 2- 2
A-A 4B- 7B - 7C- 6C -2-9
3 -2 5C
A - 4B 5C- -7C 2 -2 A - -4B
A - 4B 7C -- 6C 2 -9 A -- 7B
disabledB AA- -7B - 6C - 9 - 2C - 3 A - 1B - 2C - 3
A - 1B - 2C - 3
- 1B - 2C - 3
A - 4B - 5C - 2
A - 1B - 2C - 3
A - 4B - 5C - 2
A - 4B - 5C - 2
A - 4B - 7C - 2
A - dis 7B
A - disabl
A - 4B - 7C - 2
A - 7B - 6C - 9
A - 7B - 6C - 9
A - disabledB - 2C - 3
IMAGERY The patterning is a major aspect in achieving the final image formed. The next steps in our iteration
- 4B - 5C - 2 consists of changing A - 4Bthe - 7C -2 image input into Grasshopper.
Images that are clear and distinct in colour, create the best results. When more tones are
need to be inputted to create a more cohesive image. 34
A - disabledB - 2C - 3
SURFACE The iterations above were created on a 2D surface. By manipulating the surface into a 3D form, the outcomes are evident of the restrictions of patterning. The 3D box geometry creates an interesting form and pattern reflecting the inputted surface. However, it is limited as they all intersect each other shown in surface 1, or are sparsely distributed, shown in surface 2 and 3, due to the form of the curve. Both the 2D patterns are somewhat limited as well due to the nature of the curve, and tend to collate where it is tighter and has a greater curve,
After analyzing the previous patterned surfaced iterations, it was found that
the pattern did not respond to the was undesirable. The definition was altered with the use of contours and divide domain, it allowed for an evenly
curvature of the curves and hence
distributed patterning. Instead of using provided more control and design to the pattern on the surface. The points were able to move freely, with the pattern responding to curved areas.
an image sampler, attractor points
The Reef project in the PS1 courtyard of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), recreates the underwater landscape atmosphere through light, shadow, shade and movement.4 The design translates aquatic elements into architecture, where fabric canopies are used as anemone clouds, timber mounded seating as reef rocks, and a bed of sand as the sea floor.5 The flow of the site and program generate the pattern of structure and surface for the anemone clouds and reef mounds.
MoMA.PS1reef 3 D PAT T E R N I N G
The constructional system of the anemone
is more diffused, while at less dense areas,
clouds make use of smaller pieces to
the apertures are larger thus allowing
create a larger whole. The anemone
more light to pas through. It also creates
clouds are composed of 1200 uniquely
a floating effect due to the light weight
shaped fabric mesh modules hanging
of the shapes suspended onto cables,
from cable trusses.
hardly seen from below. This was designed
This composition atmosphere
using parametric software, Digital Project/
underwater life, of filtered light. With the
CATIA to model and refine the design for
various shapes, lengths and sizes of the
fabrication of each module. These were
aperture, each element contributes in
then done by sewing the fabrics into
the filtration. Where pattern is denser, light
three dimensional rings.5
reverseengineering1.0 MOMA PS1 REEF
The process we took to reverse engineer the MoMA PS1 Reef was based on panelling lofted forms onto the surface using domains and the â€˜SBoxâ€™. Instead of recreating the entire form, we focused on how the pattern was obtained and then further explored different iterations that could possibly have been used. Beginning by creating a surface to work on, we lofted a set of arbitrary curves through Grasshopper. The benefit of creating the loft through Grasshopper, rather than Rhino, was the ability for us to alter the curves and manipulate the surface. The surface was then divided using a domain with U and V counts, allowing us to freely manipulate the divisions on the surface. Visually the PS1 Reef is a structure made of repetitive 3D components distributed along a lofted surface. Explored in our iterations from Case Study 1.0, a curved surface may cause patterns to be position unevenly, i.e. more patterns to be clustered where there is a large curvature or distortion in the surface. To evenly distribute the 3D element, the surface box allowed for the lofted panel to be accommodated within the box.
Our attempts at creating the lofted panel form through grasshopper was unsuccessful, as it caused the surface to twist and distort. Hence the form above was created through Rhino, restricting us from changing the form through grasshopper.
reverseengineering1.0 CRITIQUING THE DEFINITION
From this definition created in Grasshopper
Also the lack of parameters being used in
to reverse engineer the MoMA PS1 Reef
the process of creating the surface and form
project, our group was limited in the form and
of the panels, meant we were limited to
alternation of the parameters.
distorting and manipulating the forms through Grasshopper.
Our interpretation of the Reef, was that the
These changes can only be altered by control
same form would be repeated across a
points in Rhino, which will be arbitrary.
surface. Through this exercise, we disregarded the fact that the Reef was constructed using
We explored patterning of the form through
a mesh fabric - which would be affected by
‘Cull Pattern’, which allowed us to create
gravity, Hence the use of the ‘Surface Box’
varying heights of the panels, however this
was still very restrictive in developing any
Grasshopper would restrict our form in
that it does not create a ‘dropping’ affect of
material. Our definition meant that a box was created perpendicular to the surface, rather
We hope to explore a more successful way to
than reacting to gravity.
reverse engineer this project.
reverseengineering2.0 MOMA PS1 REEF
The process of reverse engineering the MoMA PS1 Reef was mainly focused on how the patterning was obtained rather than the entire form. After laying down the basic definition required, we then explored different iterations and possible outcomes. As opposed to the previous reverse engineering trial, we focused on how to recreate this project using grasshopper to manipulate it’s form rather than just panelling lofts onto a surface. By using points
catenary, rather than arbitrarily drawing curves through rhino, it gave us greater flexibility in manipulation of form. Two
contoured and then divided by length. This allows the contours to be divided more evenly, and allows the top surface to match with the bottom. Geometric forms were then connected to each point of the contour through ‘Construct Plane’ and ‘Orient’, and then scaled using ‘Scale NU’. The two geometries, on the top and bottom, are then lofted to create the PS1 reef form. 45
Catenary can be altered in any direction, this will create interesting forms, that can be explored through our iterations and eventually allow us to develop a form.
CRITIQUING THE DEFINITION
After reproducing the definition for the PS1
The only issue that we could not overcome,
Reef, we had a better understanding of what
was the connection between the square
we were lacking from the previous trial.
geometries, however due to the nature of the real Reef, this was not a threatening design
With this trial we begun from using points and
catenary and hence were not limited to set curves through Rhino. The catenary allowed
Through our iterations we hope to explore
us to set the length between the two curves
different surface forms, as well as change the
and hence play with the curvature as well as
geometries used to form these panels.
the direction of the curve.
Also, we will experiment with attractor points,
Through using two independent surface,
and expressions to try and achieve a more
we were able to manipulate the shift of the
ambitious form and design.
bottom curve from the top and thus affecting the lengths of the panels.
matrixtable 3 D PAT T E R N I N G
A. A. Catenary curves B. Geometry C. Contours and division D. Cull Pattern
E. Image Sampler F. Extrude G. Attractor Point H. 2D Patterning I. 3D Patterning
C. The four most successful iterations were chosen based on the techniques used. Catenary created interesting curved D.
forms based on the natural slack of a length between two points. The more curves employed, the more complex the form becomes.
Inputting an image sampler related closely to the first case study, which explored patterning to create images. The image sampler manipulated the
openings and varied the heights of the form. Using attractor points created a very dynamic response to the surface through
the varying heights of the extruded elements. Exploring panelled surfaces, the triangular faces seemed more suitable for curved
forms than other geometries. It is concluded through these explorations that we find 3D patterning to be more
desirable, as it is able to create dynamic forms which 2D patterns are limited to.
and collect wind energy. Instead of extruding
After exploring the iterations developed and
in a downward manner like the PS1 reef that
selecting the most successful, we were able
was studied, the extrusions can occur in the
determine which ideas and concepts we
vertical Z-axis to maximise wind capture.
were looking into further extrapolating and
These linear forms could also act as sheltered
spaces for people to occupy and interact with.
Incorporating an energy system into the
design, wind energy was considered as being
Further development of ideas, allowed for
the most appropriate for the site, and was
exploration of different potential design forms
further explored in extrapolated ideas.
through the manipulation of the channels.
The extrusion of the pattern based on the
Organic and fluidity constrasts the existing
location of an attractor point could be
site, and the use of such forms could create
developed into wind channels that create
dynamic artificial undulating landscapes.
positioned incorrespondence with the wind
Our group then looked into other potential
channels to stimulate movement.
design techniques that would integrate a
This concept incorporates both wind and
form of wind energy into the design, but at
kinetic energy production. Wind power will
the same time to create an architecturally
move the chimes that will then apply pressure
interactive space for the users to understand
to the Pezio crystals which are installed at the
about renewable energy.
We then reviewed our chosen successful
Like the PS1 Reef, we aim to achieve a serene
iterations, and then found that the 2D
atmosphere through the manipulation of light,
panelled surface was most suited for this idea
sound and wind through the positioning of the
as it will promote a 3D environment through
chimes, and how they influence the ceiling
2D hanging elements. The chimes would be
topography to create a desired affect.
INTEGRATING THE TWO After the previous explorations with the
wind channels and the hanging chimes, we
experimented with different extruded wind
integrated the two design elements together
channel forms, and varying 2D and 3D chimes.
to create our desired technique.
By using an attractor point, it allowed us to play
with varying heights to stretch the channeled Our aim is to create a form that consists of
elements on the facade that would be most
extruded wind channels that slowly dissipates
prominent to wind capture. The positioning of
into a flatter surface where the chimes will be
the chimes were determined by using a cull
EXTRUDED WIND CHANNELS
Diagram represents how the form will slowly move from being 3D to being 2D, and the patternâ€™s form will be influenced by this shift
The prototypes explored the affects of 2D
The prototypes explored the affects of 2D
and 3D patterning on a surface.
and 3D patterning on a surface.
Prototype 1 consists of two geometries
Prototype 2 is a 2D triangular panel on a
curved surface, with patterned openings
that allow for filtration of light into the
tweaking parameters. This allowed for
space. Experimenting with the lighting
experimentation with varying heights and
effects gave us an idea of the ambience
the effect 3D patterning creates with light
that could be achieved through cut out.
and space. Through this prototype we obtained a better understanding of how a ceiling typography is more successful through 3D forms. 58
This prototype explores our wind chime
the same for the last trial, where it is hung
in between two corners.
affects the chimes create when hung at
When wind is applied to these triangles,
the results were successful. Trials 1 and
Both first and third trials resulted in similar
3 did not alter from their initial positions.
outcomes when hung at the corner of
However trials 2 and 4 resulted in arbitrary
the triangular shape. The first triangle is
positions and outcomes when rustled and
elongated whereas the third is shorter but
disturbed from their initial state.
Triangle 1 seemed to be capable of
The second triangle is punctured in the
making the most contact with the
centre, which creates a random effect
surrounding chimes due to itâ€™s elongated
where the geometry will fall and sit in an
nature as opposed to triangle 2. The most
arbitrary position. This outcome is
successful is trails 1 and 4.
The prototypes explored the affects of 2D and 3D patterning on a surface. Prototype 2 is a 2D triangular panel on a curved surface, with patterned openings that allow for filtration of light into the space. Experimenting with the lighting effects gave us an idea of the ambience that could be achieved through cut out.
The LAGI design site is situated in an ex-industrial
water. This site is prominent to winds and therefore wind energy was chosen due to the conditions of the site. Through analyzing the landscape, we found it most appropriate to locate our design closer to the water as wind is more prominent and stronger at the edge of the site. In Copenhagen, the average wind direction is North-West and therefore positioning our design in that direction will 63
allow us to generate an efficient amount of energy. Our design proposal consists of a structure made of wind channels with turbines that will capture the wind energy. The wind is then channeled outwards to move the wind chimes, thus incorporates both wind and kinetic energy in one process. Our design is not only sustainable in creating renewable energy, but it also allows for people to interact with a dynamic and non-static space we have created. 64
This part of the course really put our group work to the test and it proved difficulties when we all had our own ideas and concepts. There were times when we struggled to integrate all our ideas together and what was expected from each of us as a team and what was to be delivered. I believe in order to be successful in parametric design, one must have a coherent understanding of the program and what control the designer has over computer aided design. There were times when I had an idea, however had trouble reiterating these through the Grasshopper program. However, I have become more confident with using Grasshopper, and have a better understanding of what parameters to input in order to ensure the following parameters will work in the equation. In the part of the design process, our group had some disjointed ideas, which were more fully resolved. We had ideas, however they were not expressed and carried out well in the presentation. Therefore I hope to ensure these are carefully considered in the next part of the design process.
This algorithmic exploration experimented with various parametric inputs in Grasshopper. It is constructed by contours laid on a surface, and then using series to create a â€˜step-upâ€™ form, that increases in height by every contour. The Delauney Mesh tool was then developed from the number of division of the contoured lines. The algorithm on the left is a structured Delauney Mesh outcome and the one on the right consists of a bounded surface with cut-outs. These cut-outs were developed from a Scale parameter, however the positioning of which mesh face would be opened, was based on an inputted curve or geometry. This algorithmic process really allowed me to grasp a better understanding of how much further you can develop an idea from simple initial inputs such as a point, curve or surface, and how they are dependent of another to reach a final outcome.
1 Pa t r i c k S c h u m a c h e r, “ Pa r a m e t r i c Pa t t e r n s ” Architectural Design, 79,6, 2009, pp.30 2 M o u s s a v i , Fa r s h i d a n d M i c h a e l Ku b o, e d s ,” T h e F u n c t i o n o f O r n a m e n t ”, B a r c e l o n a : A c t a r, 2 0 0 6 , p p. 5 - 1 4 3 “ M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t r e ”, A r c space.com, Accessed April 10,2014, http:// www.arcspace.com/features/oma/mccormicktribune-campus-centre/ 4 “ P S 1 / M o M A R e e f ”, I w a m o t o s c o t t A r c h i t e c t u r e , Accessed April 17th, 2014, http://www.iwamotoscott.com/MOMA-PS1-REEF 5 “ P S 1 / M o M A R e e f ”, J e n n i f e r L y / D e s i g n e r , A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 7 t h , 2 0 1 4 , h tt p : / / j e n n i f e r. l y / ? / professional/Reef-1/
figures 0 1 “ I I T C a m p u s C e n t e r b y O M A O p e n s ”, ArchiNed, Accessed April 10, 2014. http://www. archined.nl/en/news/iit-campus-center-by-omaopens/ 0 2 “ D e Yo u n g M u s e u m , H e r z o g D e M e u r o n , S a n F r a n c i s c o , C A”, A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 0 , 2 0 1 4 . h tt p s : / / w w w. f l i c k r. c o m / p h o t o s / marcteer/5459099190/ 0 3 ” To n i C u m e l l a : S h a p i n g I d e a s / M o d e l a n d o I d e a s ”, M e t a l o c u s , A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 0 , 2 0 1 4 . https://www.metalocus.es/content/en/blog/ toni-cumella-shaping-ideas-modelando-ideas 0 4 “A u t o n o m o u s Te c t o n i c ”, Rensselaer|Architecture, Accessed April 10, 2014. http://www.arch.rpi.edu/2013/11/philipyuan/ 0 5 ” M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t e r ”, O p e n Buildings, Accessed April 10, 2014. http:// openbuildings.com/buildings/mccormicktribune-campus-center-profile-1315/media 0 6 “ I c o n o s - M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t e r ”, J u d i t B e l l o s t e s , A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 0 , 2014. http://blog.bellostes.com/?p=3742 0 7 “ O M A”, A r c h i Tr a v e l , A c c e s s e d A p r i l 1 0 , 2014. http://www.architravel.com/architravel/ architects/oma/ 0 8 - 0 9 “ P S 1 / M o M A R e e f ”, I w a m o t o s c o t t Architecture, Accessed April 17th, 2014, http:// www.iwamotoscott.com/MOMA-PS1-REEF