Digital Design - Module 02 Semester 1, 2018 Rebecca AndrĂŠ 920058 Michael Mack - Studio 5
Reading: Kolarevic B. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age
Kolerevic described three fundamental types of fabrication techniques in the reading. Outline the three techniques and discuss the potential of Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication with parametric modelling.
The three types of digital fabrication technique that Kolarevic describes are subtractive methods, additive methods and transformative methods. Subtractive fabrication techniques include laser cutting and CNC milling. These machines operate using 3-5 axes to control the position of a cutting tool that burns/carves away specific areas of the material. An example of additive digital fabrication is 3D printing. 3D printers work using a head that extrudes a material and layers it to build up an object. The position of the 3D printerâ€™s head is controlled in the x, y and z axes by a computer. Transformative methods of making use CNC machinery to pin a material in place and bend/reshape it to a desired form. This method of fabrication can be used to produce complex double-curved forms and to reshape a material into any desired shape. CNC machinery are very useful for modelling parametric designs. They are precise as controlled by a computer and remove the need for technical drawings as part of the production process by facilitating the â€˜file-to-factoryâ€™ method. This allows for numerous iterations of a design to be produced at lower cost and higher accuracy. Parametric modelling allows for many many iterations and variations of a design to be produced with ease. Parametric models can be complex and often unbuildable without the aid of CNC machinery, which reads directly from the digital model for fabrication.
The process of constructing surfaces began by defining a 150x150x150 cube in Grasshopper and then selecting certain sides as edges for the surface using the ‘list’ command. Each edge was then divided using the ‘divide curve’ command. Each surface was referenced between three or four points along the divided curve. To manipulate the surfaces, different points along the curves and different edges were selected by changing the values of the number sliders.
Week Four Panels & Waffle
Two panel types were chosen from the iteration matrix; a simpler panel (2d) on the more curved surface and triangular panel (2f) used in conjunction with an attrcator point on the flatter surface. Both panels creat movement across the surface, on in an undulating fashion, the other in a sweeping motion.
The purpose of the waffle structure was simply to hold apart the two surfaces and create a tunnel for light and movement.
920058 Rebecca Andre
For assembly purposes, it was important that the fold lines of the panels were perforated. For this the lines were laid on the FabLab template â€˜cutâ€™ layer and turned into dashed lines using the simple Grasshopper script above.
920058 Rebecca Andre
Preparing for laser cutting involved unrolling each surface and laying out each section of the waffle structure. A labelling system was devised to aid reassembly of the model.
Sheet 02 of 02
Sheet 01 of 02
The process began, once again, by defining a 150x150x150 cube in Grasshopper and the dividing it into a 3x3 grid. Cebtroids were placed at the intersections of these grids and a sphere referenced to each of these points. By changing the magnitude of an attractor point the grid was manipulated. Each sphere’s radius and relative scale was also manipulated. Once baked into Rhino, the ‘boolean difference’ command was used to subtract the volume of the spheres from the volume of the cube, and to cut sections of the hollowed cube.
Solid & Void
Matrix iteration 3l was chosen for the final 3D print. This iteration was a section from sphere manipulation 2n which was created using the â€˜scale non uniformâ€™ command to vary the radius of the spheres. The size difference between spheres created a sense of movement and allowed for the passage of light. It also created quite a strong sense of direction as well as expansion and contraction of space, defining a path and a destination. This was favourable with the consideration that this form could be turned into a pavilion. The form aslo shows the space to be the subtraction of matter through the generous scoops that almost allude to the domes and vaults of a church.
Task 01 - Surface & Waffle
Task 01 Matrix Iterations were chosen to be progressed/used in the next line of developemnt based on their potential interest/service to the process (eg. stability of the waffle structure). In line 1, item 1f was progressed beacuse it produced a successful waffle structure. Line 2 panels were selected based on their complementary qualities of movement.
Task 02 - Solid & Void
Task 02 Matrix Items in this matrix were chosen to be progressed simply if they were interesting and dramatic. A reasonably distorted grid from line 1 was carried forward for line 2. In line 2, variation was created for line 3 using the spheres of most different size as this aided the aim of creating expansion and contraction of space to allow for movement in the final design.
Final Isometric Drawings
Above: the entire Grasshopper script for Task 01. Below: the entire Grasshopper script for Task 02.
Appendix Task 01 Matrix
The initial surface selected to create the waffle structure between didnâ€™t exactly work out. The problem was that the surfaces were too curved and Grasshopper didnâ€™t know how to arrange the rungs of the waffle between them. This problem was simply solved by creating different surfaces with less of a curve/double curve.
Another problem encountered with Grasshopper involved the script not creating the fins correctly. This was due to a misalignment of points on the surface edges (pictured left). The script was tweaked to join the correct corresponding points in the list.
Appendix Task 02 Matrix
Grid Manipulation 1a
Sphere Maipulation 2a 2b
Surface 1a 3a
The process of assembling the laser cut pieces of the model for Task 1 began by untaping the panels from the sheets from the FabLab.
Next, each panel was folded into shape and glued with PVA held in place with a bobby pin unitl dry. The individual panels were then joned into rows of 5 and again glued together. Gluing them together in rows retained enough flexibility to place them along the curve of the waffle surfaces.
This was repeated for the other side of the waffle with the other panel type. The labeled Rhino 3D model was used as a guide for assembly and placement of each element.