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Grammar for Language Learning

Elements

of Success with essential

Online Practice

Anne Ediger OXFORD Ginny Heringer University Press ROUGH DRAFT PROTOTYPE UNIT Prepublished Pages Confidential

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6

Compare and Contrast Essay

The only place success comes before work is in the dictionary. —v ince

lombardi ,

football player , coach , and businessman

(1913–1970)

Talk about It  What does the quotation above mean? Do you agree or disagree?

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Warm-Up  3

6.1 Parallel Structure  4

6.3 Clauses of Comparison, Contrast, and Concession  18

Model for Writing and Grammar, Part A  6

Prepare to Use the Grammar in Writing  19

Prepare to Use the Grammar in Writing  7

Writing Assignment 3  20

6.4 Reduced Adverb Clauses  21

Writing Assignment 1  9

6.2 Linking Adverbials  10

Prepare to Use the Grammar in Writing  22

Prepare to Use the Grammar in Writing  12 Writing Assignment 2  14

Writing Assignment 4  22 Writing a Compare and Contrast Essay  23

6.5 Summary Chart for Proofreading  26

Working with Vocabulary  14 Model for Writing and Grammar, Part B  15

Warm-Up A | Read the sentences. Choose Agree or Disagree. Discuss your answers with a partner. personality

agree

disagree

1. People who have the same interests tend to have similar personalities. For example, people who like sports are more extroverted and people who like to read are more introverted. 2. While you cannot learn everything about people from first impressions, you can learn the most important aspects of their personalities. 3. 4. 5. 6.

B | The words in blue signal relationships between ideas. Write the words in the box according to the kind of relationship they show. contrast

addition

similarity

example

C | The underlined phrases and clauses are examples of parallel structure. How would you define parallel structure?

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6.1 Parallel Structure CoordinAting ConjunCtions

noun phrase

1 The long nights

noun phrase

and the cold winters led to isolation and depression. adjective

adjective

2 The workers were exhausted

but satisfied.

infinitive verb

infinitive verb

3 No one wanted to pay the high fees or to lose services. prepositional phrase

prepositional phrase

4 The pests could be found under the house and

behind large appliances.

CorrelAtive ConjunCtions

adjective phrase

adjective phrase

5 The author is either very dishonest or very naïve. gerund

A

gerund

6 Neither singing nor dancing was permitted. noun phrase

Parallel structure is the repetition of grammatical structures within a sentence. We use parallel structure with coordinating conjunctions such as and, but, and or and correlative conjunctions such as either… or, neither…nor., and not only… but also. These conjunctions can link noun phrases, adjectives, verbs and other similar phrases and can be used in different parts of the sentence, as in 1 – 7. They are also used to joined clauses, as in 8.

noun phrase

7 They purchased not only the building but also the surrounding property. clause

clause

8 A few of the packages were damaged,

but none of them were lost.

CompArisons

noun phrase

9 The author’s new book

noun phrase

is more engaging than his earlier one. verb

verb

10 The residents would rather move than accept the conditions. lists

adverb

11 She answered all of the questions

adverb

adverb

quickly, politely, and correctly.

repeAted form

12 The participants were given a pen and a blank sheet of paper, and they were asked

to wait alone in the room. The participants were given a pen and a blank sheet of paper, and we left them alone in the room.

B

Parallel structure is also used in comparisons 9 – 10 and lists 11.

13 “You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time,

but you cannot fool all the people all the time.”—Abraham Lincoln 14 “Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.”—Benjamin

Franklin. 15 “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where

they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.”—Martin Luther King, Jr.

Writers often use parallel structure within clauses or across sentences to make their point easier to understand. For example, they may repeat verb forms or other grammatical forms. This creates a pattern that is easy for readers to follow. 12 Writers also use repetition and parallel structure for stylistic effect, as in 13 – 15.

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1 | Noticing Parallel Structure  Underline the parallel structures in the sentences. Label them with a part of speech from the box. 

6.1

adjective

clause

noun phrase

verb

adverb

gerund

prepositional phrase

infinitive verb

1. It turns out that they came not only to meet and talk but also to ask for money. 2. Asking a friend for the information was easier than looking it up in the textbook. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Think about It  Look at the quotes (14–16) in Chart 6.1. Which elements are parallel? Why do you think the parallel structure makes the writing more effective?

2 | Using Parallel Structure  Choose the best ending for each sentence. 

6.1

1. What really matters to us is not how you look but (your actions/how you act). 2. The article has several problems. First, the author doesn’t mention the earlier research; second, (he doesn’t justify his conclusion/his conclusions aren’t justified). 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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Model for Writing and Grammar, Part A 3 | Writing Model  This article discusses William Sheldon’s controversial theories on the connection between a person’s appearance and personality.

Appearance and Personality: Sheldon’s Theory of Body Type and Temperament by James and Tyra Arraj In the 1940s, William Sheldon (1898–1977), an American psychologist, proposed a theory that particular body types, or somatotypes, are associated with particular personality characteristics. For his study of the human physique,1 Dr. Sheldon looked at 4,000 photographs of college-age men in front, back and side views. By carefully examining these photos, he determined that there are three fundamental components of physical form. When mixed together in different combinations, the result is a set of seven possible somatotypes. Sheldon worked out ways to measure the three components of physical form and to express them numerically. Consequently, every human body could be described in terms of these numbers, and two independent observers could arrive at very similar results when classifying a person’s body type. Sheldon named these basic elements endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy. He drew a triangular diagram on which he plotted the different extremes of body types. Endomorphy is centered on the abdomen and the whole digestive system. Mesomorphy is focused on the muscles and the circulatory system. Ectomorphy is related to the brain and the nervous system. Every person has all three components in his/her physical makeup, however, just as we all have digestive, circulatory, and nervous systems. No one is endomorphic without also being to some degree mesomorphic and ectomorphic. For example, Sheldon found that the hefty muscular person was quite common, as were the muscular thin person and the person who was spread out and round without being muscular at all. Sheldon devised a scale to evaluate the extent to which a person had each component. The scale ranges from 1 to 7—with 1 signifying a minimum degree of a component and 7 signifying the maximum. The classification of body types was not Sheldon’s ultimate2 goal. He wanted to resolve the age-old3 question of whether our body type is connected with the way people behave. In short, he wanted to explore the link between body and temperament. Temperament refers to personality and emotional makeup—the way people eat and sleep, laugh and cry, speak and walk. Sheldon’s system for determining the basic components of temperament was much like the one he used for determining body types. He did in-depth interviewsPrint-ready of several hundred people to find traits file 1/05/06 that he could use to describe the basic elements of behavior. He found three and named them similarly to RTW_6.2 their physical counterparts: endotonia, mesotonia and ectotonia. Oxford University Press KarenMesotonia Minot Endotonia is seen in the love of relaxation, comfort, food, and people. is centered on 4 (415)457-7559 assertiveness and a love of action. Ectotonia focuses on privacy, restraint and a highly developed self-awareness.

1 2

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physique:  size and shape of a person’s body ultimate: final

3 4

age-old:  ancient; of long standing restraint:  reserve; moderation in action or expression


Like physical traits, Sheldon devised a way of numerically rating these personality traits. His system was based on a checklist of sixty characteristics. The extremes can also be plotted on a triangular diagram. The “7-1-1” person is extremely endotonic, the “1-7-1” person is extreme mesotonic, and the “1-1-7” person is extremely ectotonic. As his terminology implies, Sheldon found a strong correspondence between the ectomorphic body type and the ectotonic temperament, between the mesomorphic body type and the mesotonic temperament, and between the endomorphic body type and the endotonic personality. But, just as a person’s body type has all three elements, so, too, does a person’s temperament.

prepare to use the grammar writing Print-ready file in 1/05/06

RTW_6.3 Oxford University Press Karen Minot Traits  Match the physical and personality traits 4 | Categorizing Somatotypes and Personality (415)457-7559 associated with each somatotype by filling in the chart below. physical traits hard, muscular body thin, delicate build soft, round body

Somatotype

personality traits active introverted combative quiet courageous relaxed good-humored sensitive tolerant

Physical traits

Personality traits

1. Endomorphic

2. Mesomorphic

3. Ectomorphic

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5 | Noticing Parallel Structure  Look at these sentences from the reading. Label the parallel elements.  6.1

1. Sheldon worked out ways to measure the three components of physical form and to express them numerically. 2. Sheldon named these basic elements endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Think about It  Look at the third paragraph of the article. The authors use the same grammatical structure in three sentences in a row. Why did they choose to do that?

6 | Error Correction  Correct the mistakes with parallel structure. Some sentences may be correct. 1. The high cost of energy may lead to higher prices, a slower economy and cause job losses. 2. They gave several examples to support their point but the explanations were missing. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

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Writing Assignment 1 A | Look back at the reading on page 6. Fill in the chart below. Somatotypes and Personality When developed Methodology used in determining somatotypes

1940’s > examined photos of 4,000 college-age men > devised system of measuring the components that made up their body types

Number of types

Name and primary characteristics of each body type

Method used to link body and personality types

Number of personality types

Name and primary characteristics of each personality type

Total number of personality types that can be derived using this theory

B | Using the information from your chart, write a short summary of Sheldon’s theory. C | Proofread. Underline any examples of parallel structure in your paragraph. Look for errors with parallel structure and for places where you could use parallel structure to make your writin clearer.

D | Revise your writing.

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Adverbials Chart_Title 1.5 Linking 6.2 Different linking adverbials signal different kinds of connections between ideas. These include contrast, concession, similarity and consequence.

A

ContrAst

1 The program had a beneficial effect on children of both grade levels; however, the nature of the effect was

different for the different age groups. 2 Students will no longer view concepts and ideas as an isolated set of facts or procedures. Instead, they will

be able to identify relationships among the concepts. 3 Audiovisual aids can be expensive and time-consuming; large-print materials, in comparison,  are quick and

easy to produce.

B

4 These behaviors are clearly not random. On the contrary, they exhibit high levels of organization. 5 The frequency of strong tornadoes has not significantly increased. The number of weak tornados, on the other hand,

has increased over time. ConCession

6 This approach would produce better results. Still, disadvantages would remain. 7 Most of the students said they frequently listened to music at high volumes. Nevertheless, they do not believe they

are at risk for hearing loss.

C

similArity

8 Average income figures can be misleading. Similarly, gross profits may only tell part of the story.

A D

9 Regular physical exercise is an effective way to enhance natural physical abilities. In the same way, mental activity

can help develop some aspects of cognitive ability. ADDitionAl informAtion

10 They are working on technology for the home of the future. For example, they’ve developed a “smart refrigerator”

that notifies the owner when food is reaching its expiration date. 11 This new initiative will save approximately 793,000 gallons of fuel. In addition, it will reduce CO2 emissions by

7,800 metric tons. 12 Although the foundations of all the houses are roughly the same size, the interiors aren’t the

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same. For instance, certain types of artifacts are found only in certain houses. 13 Other options were beyond the library’s financial resources. Furthermore, a tight schedule for construction

required a timely response. ConsequenCe or result

14 Investment has driven up the value of the Brazilian real, making it one of the most expensive currencies in

the world. As a result , restaurants in Sao Paulo are more expensive than those in Paris. 15 While the future of nanotechnology is very promising, it is still a relatively new form of engineering. 

Consequently, the risks are unpredictable. 

16 The university, though small, held great growth potential; the students, therefore, felt excited that they could

play a part in the development of the institution. 17 With genetic engineering, it may be possible to develop more effective cures for these diseases. Thus, genetic

engineering may become more and more important as a health-care tool. GO Online

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7 | Noticing Linking Adverbials  Choose the linking adverbial that best completes each sentence. 

6.2

1. The public relations department failed to advertise the fundraiser properly. (In addition/As a result), very few people attended the event. 2. There is widespread support for technological advancements in fuel use. There are, (nevertheless, on the contrary) only about 5,000 hybrid cars in the city. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Think about It  Find the linking adverbials in the reading passage on p. 6. How many are there? What relationship do they show?

8 | Usage Note: Sentence Patterns with Linking Adverbials  Read the note. Then do Activity 9. We can use linking adverbials in different ways, for example: PATTERN 1 (two sentences)

independent clause / period (.) + linking adverbial / comma (,) + independent clause

The atmosphere is a chaotic system. Nevertheless, weather prediction has improved vastly in recent years. PATTERN 2 (one sentence)

independent clause / semicolon (;) + linking adverbial / comma (,) + independent clause

The atmosphere is a chaotic system; nevertheless, weather prediction has improved vastly in recent years. PATTERN 3 (one sentence)

independent clause / semicolon (;) + part of independent clause / comma (,) + linking adverbial / comma (,) + rest of clause

The atmosphere is a chaotic system; weather prediction, nevertheless, has improved vastly in recent years.

9 | Using Linking Adverbials  Combine the sentences using one of the linking adverbials from

Chart 6.2. Use each pattern at least once. Compare your sentences with a partner. Did you choose the same adverbial/pattern? If not, do the choices work equally well?  6.2

1. a. Numerologists often use the number of letters in a person’s name to create a personality profile. b. Astrologers use people’s birth date to create personality profiles for them.

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2. a. Many people enjoy taking personality tests in magazines. b. Few people have much faith in personality tests in magazines. 3. a. Sheldon’s endomorphs are lively, social people who enjoy parties. b. Myers-Briggs’ extroverts enjoy human contact and social situations. 4. a. Serious astrologers base their analyses on careful study and observation. b. Astrologers are not trained scientists and have no expertise in drawing larger conclusions from their observations. 5. a. Handwriting analysis claims to examine personality based on a physical manifestation of subconscious temperament. b. Sheldon claimed to analyze personality based on the physical manifestation of subconscious temperament.

Think about It  Look at the sentences in Chart 6.2. Identify the pattern used in each sentence. How does the choice of semi-colon or period affect the flow of the ideas?

Prepare to Use the Grammar in Writing 10 | Determining Your Somatotype  Look at the Physical Traits column in the chart on page 7.

For each body type, rate yourself below. Give yourself a number from 1 (lowest degree present) to 7 (highest degree present) for each category. Then place yourself on the triangular diagram. Compare and discuss your results with a partner.

The degree to which

mesomorphy

I am endomorphic: The degree to which I am mesomorphic: The degree to which I am ectomorphic:

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endomorphy

ectomorphy


11 | Determining Your Personality Type  Fill out this temperament profile for yourself. For each

item in the chart, give a number from 1 (very little or no preference) to 7 (strong preference) for every possible answer. Simplified Scale of Temperament Endotonia 1–7

Mesotonia 1–7

Ectotonia 1–7

1. When troubled, I seek out . . .

people

action

solitude

2. I prefer . . .

physical comfort

physical adventure

privacy

3. The time of my life I favor is . . .

childhood

early adulthood

later years

4. What would bother me most would be . . .

being cut off from other people

being closed off in small places

being exposed to endless noise

5. When in a group, I like to . . .

mingle

take charge

take off

6. I prefer to . . .

let things take their course

do things

observe what is going on

7. The thing I like most is . . .

eating

exercise

time to myself

Talk About It   Look at each vertical answer column in the chart on page 115 separately. Look at the numbers you gave each possibility and figure out an average score. Write your average scores in the categories below. Then place yourself on the triangular diagram. Compare and discuss your results with a partner.

The degree to which I am endotonic: The degree to which I am mesotonic: The degree to which I am ectotonic: mesotonic

endotonic

ectotonic

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Writing Assignment 2 A | Look again at the ratings you gave yourself in Exercise 2 (body type) and Exercise 3 (temperament). Are

your numbers for endomorphy and endotonia similar? For mesomorphy and mesotonia? For ectomorphy and ectotonia? Write your thoughts about how well your results correlate below. Discuss your thoughts with a partner.

B | Proofread. Check your writing for mistakes and for clarity. Include a linking adverbial to show the relationship between two of your ideas.

C | Revise your writing.

Working with Vocabulary 12 | Understanding Prefixes and Suffixes  Match the following prefixes and suffix to the correct definition.

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1. ecto-

a. body

2. endo-

b. intermediate

3. meso-

c. in, into

4. -morph

d. shape, form, structure

5. somato-

e. external, outer


13 | Building Words with Prefixes and Suffixes  Look at the underlined word in each sentence. Write the meaning of the word in the blank. Then write the meaning of the prefix or suffix.

1. George is quite shy and introverted. He hardly ever socializes with other students. introverted means intro- probably means -vert probably means 2. George’s twin brother, Alex, is just the opposite. He is friendly and extroverted. Whenever I see him at a party, he is always talking to lots of people. extroverted means extro- probably means 3. George and Alex came to my party last month. Alex circulated all evening, talking to some people for a while and then moving on and talking to others. George just stayed on the couch and talked to one or two people. He didn’t circulate at all. circulate means circu- probably means 4. Usually, George doesn’t go to parties. He always says that he is sick. I think his illnesses are psychosomatic. No one can have that many colds in one year! psychosomatic means psycho- probably means 5. Have you seen George yet? What a metamorphosis! He grew about three inches over the summer. He’s very thin now and much more social. It’s as if he is a different person! metamorphosis means meta- probably means

Model for Writing and Grammar, Part B 14 | Writing Model  Other psychologists have developed different approaches to typology, or personality typing. Read about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

A Holistic Approach to Personality Analysis: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Among the most widely used psychological types are those developed by the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung (1875–1961). His typology emerges from his deep, holistic5 philosophy about psychology and people. He viewed the ultimate psychological task as the process of individuation,6 based on the strengths and limitations of one’s psychological type. Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs, developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator based on Jung’s typology. Underlying these typologies are four personality traits, or functions: Extroversion–Introversion: Do you recharge your energy via external contact and activity (extroversion) or by spending time in your inner space (introversion)?

Intuition–Sensing: Do you rely on your inner voice (intuition) or observation (sensing)?

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Thinking–Feeling: When making decisions, what do you rely on most—your thoughts or your feelings? Judgment–Perception: Do you tend to set schedules and organize your life (judgment) or do you tend to leave options open and see what happens (perception)? People fill out self-assessment questionnaires to determine the degree of each trait in his / her personality. The first trait defines the source and direction of a person’s energy expression. The extrovert has a source and direction of energy mainly in the external world, while the introvert has a source of energy mainly in the internal world. No one is only introverted or extroverted, but one side is usually dominant. The second function defines the method of a person’s information perception. Sensing means that a person believes mainly in information he receives from the external world. Intuition means that a person believes mainly in information he receives from the internal or imaginative world. The short quiz on sensation and intuition illustrates the differences.

Intuition

Sensation

I tend to . . .

a. get excited about the future

b. savor the present moment

When I have definite plans, . . .

a. I feel somewhat tied down

b. I am comfortable with them

If I worked for a manufacturer, I would prefer to do…

a. research and design

b. production and distribution

I am inclined to . . .

a. get involved in many projects at once

b. do one thing at a time

If people were to complain about me, they would say . . .

a. I have my head in the clouds

b. I am in a rut

People would call me . . .

a. imaginative

b. realistic

When I find myself in a new situation, I am more interested in . . .

a. what could happen

b. what is happening

The third function defines how a person processes information. Thinking means that a person makes decisions mainly through logic. Feeling means that, as a rule, he makes a decision based on emotion. The fourth category defines how a person implements or uses information that he has processed. Judging means that a person organizes all his life events and acts strictly according to his plans. Perceiving means that he is inclined to improvise and seek alternatives. The different combinations of the traits determine a type. There are sixteen possible types. Every type has a name (or formula) according to the combination of criteria. Letters stand for each trait. For example: ISTJ is Introvert Sensing Thinking Judging, or ENFP is Extrovert Intuitive (N) Feeling Perceiving. A type formula and a quantitative measure of expression of each criterion (strength of the preference) can be determined using the type inventory. Then a corresponding type description can be derived, as shown below. ENFP: The ENFP takes her energy from the outer world of actions and spoken words. When she is down, she seeks out the company of others to lift her spirits. Preferring to lead a flexible life, she follows new insights and possibilities as they arise. She is creative and insightful, often seeking to try new ideas that can be of benefit to people. Although sometimes neglectful of details and planning, she can work toward a general goal. She enjoys work that involves experimentation and variety.

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15 | Categorizing Personality Traits  Look at the groups of words. From your understanding of the reading, label each group according to which personality function pair it describes. Then label each column within the group according to its individual function. Add one trait to each function. Discuss your additions with your classmates.

E I = extroversion–introversion N S = intuition–sensing

T F = thinking–feeling J P = judgment–perception

E

1.

EI

social

private

expressive

quiet

interaction

concentration

action before thought

thought before action

unpredictable

2.

3.

4.

I

stable

analyzing

sympathizing

objective

subjective

logical

personal

criticism

appreciation

decide

explore

organize

inquire

firmness

flexibility

control

spontaneity

facts

possibilities

experience

novelty

present

future

realism

idealism

Talk About It  Look at the categories/traits above and decide which ones apply to you. Then discuss these questions with a partner: What is your type formula? Do your results in the Sheldon system match your results in the Myers-Briggs system? What could explain the differences?

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Chart_Title of Comparison, Contrast and Concession 1.5 Clauses 6.3 CompArison (similArity) just as / in the same way that + clause

A

1 Just as the first article details charges against the

administration, this document lists examples of illegal behavior.

Writers use clauses of comparison, contrast and concession to show the relationships between ideas. These clauses are dependent and must be attached to a main clause.

2 In the same way that immigrants arrived 100 years

ago looking for economic opportunity, they are arriving today in search of work and a better future for their children. Similar to / like + noun phrase

B

3 Similar to previous studies, this one finds that high

stress levels can be damaging to physical health. 4 Like other researchers, he has made use of the data

available from the Census Bureau. ContrAst while/whereas + clause

5 While there is considerable variability across families,

C

the data suggests that most families find the morning routines particularly stressful. 6 Whereas sighted people use visual landmarks to orient

themselves, a blind person faces a number of hurdles.

A D

in contrast to/unlike + noun phrase

7 In contrast to the predictions, study participants did not

notice the change. 8 Unlike many residents, this group had never signed

the agreement. ConCession despite the fact that / although / though / even though / + clause

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9 Despite the fact that these products are rarely

advertised, the individuals surveyed felt that they had often seen advertisements for them. 10 Although they did not find as many problems this time,

the numbers are consistent with earlier studies. 11 Though these designs have traditionally been

acceptable, the author suggests that more rigorous standards would benefit the field. 12 Even though college attendance has increased, the rates

of graduation have risen only slightly. 13 The rates of graduation have risen only slightly even

though college attendance has increased.

These clauses can come before or after the main clause (as in 12 – 13). Writers often use them before the main clause to create a smooth transition from one idea to the next (14).

14 There were over 5 million students enrolled in these

courses. Even though this number may seem large, it’s actually lower than in previous years.

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16 | Using Clauses of Comparison, Contrast and Concession  Choose the correct adverb. 

6.3

comparing sheldon and myers-briggs

1. (In the same way that/Even though) Sheldon’s theory uses self-reporting as an assessment tool, the MBTI depends on an individual’s honest answers to a series of questions. 2. (While/Just as) Type A personalities are driven, ambitious people, Type Bs tend to be less high-strung and more relaxed. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Think About It  Choose two of the sentences above and connect them with a linking adverbial. How does using a linking adverbial instead of a dependent clause affect the flow of the ideas?

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17 | Clauses of Comparison, Contrast and Concession  Re-read the paragraph that begins

“People fill out self-assessment questionnaires …” in the article on page 16 How does the author show contrast between introverts and extroverts? Is there another connecting word you could use? Would the sentence work as well with the clauses reversed? Would it make sense to use a linking adverbial?

Prepare to Use the Grammar in Writing 18 | Summarizing the Myers-Briggs Theory  Look back at the article on pages 15–16. Fill in the chart below.

Meyers-Briggs Theory Basis of theory

Jung’s philosophy and psychology about how an individual develops all aspects of the “self.”

Methodology used in determining personality type Number of personality traits / functions Names of personality traits / functions Total number of personality types that can be derived using this theory

How results are obtained

Think About It  Do you think that this theory could be accurately applied to the general population? Why or why not? In your notebook, write down what you believe to be good or bad about this theory. Give examples of situations in which it could not be accurately applied.

Writing Assignment 3 A | Write. Using the information from your chart, write a short summary of the Myers-Briggs theory. B | Proofread. Underline any clauses of comparison, concession, or contrast in your paragraph. Look for places where you could these kinds of clauses to make your writing clearer.

C | Revise your writing.

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6.4 Reduced Adverb Clauses of Contrast, Condition and Cause We can shorten adverb clauses of contrast, condition and causation when the adverb clause and the main clause have the same subject. To reduce adverb clauses of contrast and condition, remove the subject and the verb be. We do not usually reduce these clauses unless be is the main verb or helping verb. CompAre Full And reduCed Adverb ClAuses

1a Although they are interested, they are no longer able to attend the class. 1b Although interested, they are no longer able to attend the class. ContrAst although / though / while + verb be

A

2 Although they were rare, problems did occur. 3 Although rare, problems did occur. 4 Although they are not found in newspapers anymore, help wanted ads are easy to find on the Internet. 5 Although not found in newspapers anymore, help wanted ads are easy to find on the Internet. Condition if / whether + verb be

6 If he is hired, he will begin working next week. 7 If hired, he will begin working next week. 8 The insults, whether they are real or imagined, have caused an uproar. 9 The insults, whether real or imagined, have caused an uproar. To reduce adverb clauses of cause remove the conjunction and the subject and change the verb to a gerund. CAuse because / as

10 Because he wanted to impress the committee, he spent many hours creating a presentation.

b

Wanting to impress the committee, he spent many hours creating a presentation. 11 As she had never been there before, she tried to familiarize herself with the area.

Never having been there before, she tried to familiarize herself with the area. Wa r ning! An adverb clause cannot be reduced if it has a different subject from the main clause.

Because he loves to be outdoors, the new job is perfect for him. Loving to be outdoors, the new job is perfect for him. GO Online

19 | Noticing Reduced Adverbial Clauses  Underline the reduced adverb clauses. Some sentences do not have one. 

6.3

1. While he is embarrassed by the attention, he continues to put himself in the public eye. 2. Although not the largest home in the city, it is one of the most beautiful. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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Write about It  Change the full adverbial clauses in the sentences above to reduced adverbial clauses if possible. One of them cannot be reduced. Think About It  Look back at the description of an “ENFP” person on page XX. Underline the reduced adverb clauses. Do they show contrast, condition, or cause?

Prepare to Use the Grammar in Writing 20 | Using reduced adverbials  Reduce the clauses. 1. Because they feel nervous in social situations, they tend to spend more time at home. 2. Although they are difficult, these problems are not impossible to solve. 3. 4.

Talk About It  Discuss these questions in a small group. Then choose one question and summarize the group’s discussion of it in your notebook. 1. Have you ever taken a personality quiz in a magazine or on the Internet? Do you think the results reflected who you are as a person? Why do you think personality quizzes are so popular? 2. What is the value of personality typing for the individual? How could a person use that information to his or her advantage? What are some possible disadvantages to knowing your own personality type? 3. How might prospective employers use personality assessments to determine whether someone is a good candidate for a position? In what fields might personality assessments work best? Why?

Writing Assignment 4 A | Write one paragraph about the Myers-Briggs theory and one about the Sheldon theory. Answer these

questions. Do you think the theory could be accurately applied to the general population? Why or why not? What do you think is good or bad about this theory? Give an example of a situation where it could not be accurately applied.

B | Proofread. Underline any adverb phrases or reduced adverb phrases in your paragraph. Look for a place where you can use a reduced adverb clause to show a connection between your ideas.

C | Revise your writing.

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Writing a Compare and Contrast Essay YOUR TASK Write a five-paragraph essay comparing and contrasting William Sheldon’s Body Type and Personality Assessment with the Myers-Briggs Typology Index. Include the following in your essay: the method of development—whether it is based on theory or scientific experimentation; the number of possible types; the range and method of application; the credibility of the theory. alternative TASK Write a five-paragraph essay comparing and contrasting one other theory of personality with either the Sheldon Body Type and Personality Assessment or the Myers-Briggs Index. For example, do research on a theory such as Type A / Type B Personalities, Handwriting Analysis, or Astrological Profiles. Include the following in your essay: the method of development—whether it is based on theory or scientific experimentation; the number of possible categories; the range and method of application; the credibility of the theory.

21 | Brainstorming  Fill in the typology questionnaire. Answer the questions with yes or no for each theory based on your understanding of the readings.

Typology Questionnaire

1. Are the results the same every time the theory is applied?

Theory 1

Theory 2

no

no

2. Can it be applied to the general population? 3. Does it work for different cultural backgrounds? 4. Are the results based on scientific experiments? 5. Are the results based on self-reports? 6. Are the results based on the theorist’s own observations? 7. Is the theory useful for hiring suitable personnel for a job? 8. Is the theory useful for helping people find business partners, friends, or love interests? 9. Is the theory useful for helping people understand themselves better? 10. Do you think two independent researchers using this theory would always come up with the same results?

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22 | Comparing and Contrasting Theories  Do a point-by-point comparison of theories by filling in the chart with the similarities and differences for each point of comparison. Points of comparison

Similarities

Differences

Method of development: based on theory or scientific experimentation Degree of differentiation: Number of categories Range and method of application

Credibility

23 | Introductory Paragraphs for Comparison and Contrast Essays  Read the note. Then do Activity 24.

A comparison and contrast essay is not merely a list of similarities and differences. It is either an evaluation of the relative merits of the two things (for example, Theory A has a far greater range of applications than Theory B).

or

an argument that the similarities and differences have a larger significance (such as demonstrating the effect of having a particular personality type on one’s health or chances for success).

The approach of your essay should be clear in the introductory paragraph.

24 | Understanding Introductory Paragraphs  Read this introductory paragraph comparing and contrasting Sheldon’s theory with the Myers-Briggs theory. Then answer the questions that follow. Why do we do the things we do? William Sheldon’s Body Type and Temperament theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) are two attempts to answer this question. These two theories are very similar in their origins. Neither of them is based on controlled scientific studies. Sheldon hoped to show that there is a link between people’s personalities and their physical appearance. The MBTI, on the other hand, is based on the idea that people’s personalities are not physical but psychological. The MBTI fits all personalities into the philosophical categories developed by Carl Jung, which rely on Jung’s clinical observations and subjective memories. Both Sheldon’s theory and the MBTI claim that assumptions and predictions can be made about a person based on his or her personality type. Although the typology of each system is different, their common assertion that their own system can predict behavior is fundamentally flawed and potentially harmful.

1. Does this introduction have a hook? If so, what is it? 2. What is the thesis statement? 3. What is the writer’s attitude toward these theories? 4. What words in the paragraph help the writer explain similarities? What words highlight differences? 5. How does the thesis statement point to similarities and contrasts at the same time? 24


25 | Organizing Your Essay  Read the note. Then do Activities 26–27 Comparison and contrast essays can be organized in several ways. Study the block diagrams of two possible structures to plan a first draft of your comparison and contrast essay. Decide how you would like to organize your essay. Then, in your notebook, draw your own diagram and write your notes in each of its sections. Version 1

Version 2

INTRODUCTION Origins of both theories

INTRODUCTION

BODY ¶ 1 Basis of categories

BODY ¶ 1 Explanation of theory 1

BODY ¶ 2 Applications

BODY ¶ 2 Explanation of theory 2

BODY ¶ 3 Criticism

BODY ¶ 3 Criticisms

CONCLUSION Your opinion

CONCLUSION Your opinion

26 | Writing a First Draft  Now write a first draft of your essay. Try to use some of the vocabulary and structures that you have practiced in this unit.

27 | Revising the First Draft  When you have finished writing the first draft, read it to a partner. After discussing your essay with a partner, some reorganization may be necessary.

Checklist for revising the first draft When you listen to your partner’s essay and when you discuss your own, keep these questions in mind: 1. Does the introduction clearly state the two theories being compared / contrasted? 2. Does the introduction give the reader an idea of the approach to the topic that the writer is going to take? 3. Does each body paragraph focus on one element of the comparison? 4. Does the writer use a variety of expressions to show comparison and contrast? 5. Is the writer’s opinion in the conclusion? Is this opinion supported by the body paragraphs?

28 | Writing the Second Draft  Now write a second draft that includes all of your changes.

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Chart_TitleChart for Proofreading 1.5 Summary 6.5 PArAllel StruCture

Look for sentences containing and, or, but, not only…but also, either… or, neither… nor or than.

A A

Do these words link like elements? (for example, noun phrases, adjectives, or clauses) 1 They may enjoy being in social settings sometimes and being alone sometimes. 2 The strategy is not only effective but also economical. 3 The introvert would rather work through his problems alone than seek the advice of a group. Do linked clauses contain the same grammatical structures to make the writing clearer? 4. They have explained their reasoning very clearly, but they haven’t demonstrated a clear outcome.

B

linking ADverBiAlS

Look for words like however, nevertheless, consequently, or in addition. Do they signal the correct meanings? (contrast, concession, additional information, result)

B

Do they follow one of the patterns demonstrated below? 5 They have explained their arguments clearly and concisely. In addition, they have drawn some interesting conclusions.

C

6 He doesn’t fit any of the descriptions they provided; he is, however, a very unusual case. 7 They spoke to a fairly small group of people; nevertheless, they were able find many commonalities. ClAuSeS of ConCeSSion, ContrASt AnD ComPAriSon

Look for words like while, just as, similar to, unlike and despite the fact that. Do they signal the correct meanings? (concession, contrast, comparison)

D C

Are they followed by the correct forms? (for example, while + clause; unlike + noun) If the dependent clause is before the main clause, is it followed by a comma? 8 While I have never had an interest in this type of thing before, I have now developed a fascination with these theories. 9 Unlike her sister, she plans every minute of her life to the last detail.

GO Online

reDuCeD ADverB ClAuSeS

Look for clauses with although and if. Do they have the verb (or helping verb) be? Do you they have the same subject as the main clause?

D

Would it help the variety and flow of your writing to reduce them? 10 Though a “Feeling” person, he can also make decisions based on logic. Look for -ing phrases. Are they reduced adverb clauses? Do they have the same subject as the main clause? 11 Believing whole-heartedly in his theory, he published a number of different books in an attempt to persuade others. GO Online

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29 | Practicing Proofreading  Proofread the paragraphs below for the items in Chart 6.5. 1. Although the profiles are fairly simple, they manage to describe a wide range of personalities. Consequently, they are easy to understand and apply. I found that it was not too difficult to describe my own personality using the Myers-Briggs profile, but Sheldon is more difficult. 2.

3.

4.

5.

30 | Proofreading your final draft.  Make sure it includes one example of the following. parallel structure a linking adverbial a clause of concession, contrast or similarity a reduced adverb clause

31 | Rewriting  Rewrite your essay with the corrections.

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Elements of Success Level 4 Prototype Unit  

Rough Draft unit for TESOL focus group

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