Evolution of Recording Images
Art History Timeline
Postmodernism/ Stone Age Byzantine and deconstrutivism Islamic Baroque Myan Impressionism 30,000 b.c. 1800 b.c. a.d 476 1600 1865 1976 3100 b.c. 653 b.c. 1400 1848 1917 2000â€™s Renaissance Egyptian Realism Indian, Chinese and Surrealism Japanese
Stone Age: Cave Paintings
Cave paintings are the first know way that people used to record images or messages. The purpose of these paintings is not fully known or understood, however, many people believe they may have been created as a way for different groups/tribes to communicate with each other. The picture on the left is more that 40,800 years old and is believed to be the oldest cave painting ever discovered. It is called â€˜Hand stencilsâ€™ and was found in El Castillo cave in Puente Viesgo, Spain. The image below is believed to be 25,000 years old and was discoved in France.
Egyptian: Pyramids and Tomb Paintings
These painting were painted on a flat surface using white wash or mud plaster to prepare the surface. However, limestone took paint directly and there was no need to prepare the area. The pigments of the paint contained minerals so they could withstand strong sunlight and not fade and the main colours used were red, blue, black, gold and green. The Egyptians used a technique called â€œfresco a seccoâ€? which means they applied the paint to wet plaster. After the painting was done a varnish or resin was applied to make it last longer and not wear. These paintings were able to survive due to the Egyptian climate being very dry. The reasonings for these paintings being made is said to be to create a pleasant afterlife for the deceased, the themes included a journey through the afterlife and protective deities.
Murals are said to be sygnificant because the bring art into public areas. They are painted directly onto walls, ceilingâ€™s and other large permenant areas. The technique used mixes pigment with water, the pigment is then applied to wet plaster and absorbed by the surface causeing a reaction which then dries it in place. This allows the mural to stay there for many years. Murals that are painted onto the surface with no plaster first have to have a binding medium, this is like a varnish.
Indian, Chinese and Japanese Art
Asian art characteristics are that they are meditative, serne and include arts of the floating world. Much of the finest work done was produced in factories or large workshops by virtually unknown artists. Chinese: They use the same techniques for their art as calligraphy does. The dip a brush in black or coloured in and the paintings are made on paper or silk. Japanese: Used to write with brushes and not pens so aesthetic detail in their paintings is important to them. Indian: Painted â€˜minuture paintingsâ€™ featuring aspects of the physical world such as figures, animals and plants and are either illustrated books or single works for specific occasions.
Byzantine and Islamic: Mosaics
Mosaicâ€™s use small pieces of coloured glass or stones to create pictures. They were used as decorative art, interior decoration or held cultural and spiritual sygnificance such as in Cathedrals. They had many different themes, these ranged from figures to plants.
Renaissance emerged as a distinct style in Italy in the 15th Century. It was pecieved as a rebirth of ancient traditions and was influenced by philosophy, literature, architecture, theology, science, government and society. The themes used were widely varied, religious alterpieces, fresco cycles and small private works were the most popular. Techniques used were perspective, foreshortening (meaning to shorten lines to create an illusion of depth), sfumato (meaning to blur of soften short lines) and chiaroscuro (meaning the contrast between dark and light).
The baroque art used easily interpreted detail to for tenion, drama and exuberance in sculptures, paintings and architecture. Concepts for the paintings included monachy, iconogrphy, handling of paint and compositions. Techniques used were exaggerated lighting, intense emotions and release from restraint.
Realism artists depict subjects that actually exist and draw wh they see, meaning there is no b used. Their paintings may emphasis the ugly or sordid; Socia realism or regionalism. They discard theatrical drama, lofty subjects and classical forms of instead of using common plac themes.
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Characteristics for Impres ism include small, thin bru strokes, accurate depiction light, ordinary subjects an usual visual angles. Colou pure and also mixed, it wa blended smoothly or shad achieved intense colour in paintings. Many painters w in the evening effects de so means the shadowy effects evening or twilight.
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Surrealism artists aim to produce the element of surprise and unexpected juxtapositions in their art work. Many of the art works show an expression of the philosophical movements at the time and real functioning of thought outside of all aesthetic moral proccupation.
Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art Abstract Expressionism: This movement put emphasis on spontanious, automatic or subconcious creation. It is said the movements name comes from the mixture of emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists.
Pop art: This form of art work included imigary from popular culture, such as advertising, news, etc. A material would sometimes be taken out of itâ€™s know context the isolated or combined with unrelated items. The origin of pop art is from employing irony and parody, with focus on dynamic and paradoxial imagary of popular culture.
Postmodernism/Deconstructivism is the reaction to scientific or objective efforts to explain reality. It works with the studied subject area to expose and undermine itâ€™s frame of references, ideological foundations and assumptions. This form of art can be characterised by manipulating a structures surface or skin, this is called fragmentation.