Page 1


*t abuh gen d a n g*

Bayangkan kopi Indonesia ter tuang dalam kar ya tulis K ita tahu - kopi Indone sia a ma t n ik ma t . Ke a da a n a la m Ind o n e si a yang di namis b e ra n dil me mb e rik a n c it a ra sa y a ng kaya kepada kop i I n do n e sia da n me mb u a t k it a ingin terus me mi numny a ! D a ri coffe e s ho p y a n g t re ndy s am pai warkop di pi n g g ir p a n t a i, lida h k it a sib u k mempel aj ari rasa-rasa b a ru , ist ila h -ist ila h b a ru . Sembari menci ci pi ca p p ucci no h in g g a ko p i f ilt e r da ri d es a te r tentu, sembari k it a me mp e rk ay a ilmu t e n t a n g Ind o nesi a i tu sendi ri . Say angnya, wal aupun kit a a ma t b e rse ma n g a t u n t u k mempel aj ari ci tarasa da n c e rit a y a n g su da h t e rlu p a k a n, kita masi h ke k urangan k a r y a t u lis ko p i y a n g b e ra n e k a ra ga m dan seme nenar ik ko p i k it a se n diri. Di s it ul ah k ami me ngisi ke ko so n g a n . S in g a lo n g ad alah sebuah hyb r id -s t y l e d p ubl i cat i o n de n g a n misi menjal i n ceri ta te ntan g du n ia ko p i di I n do n e sia ; da ri pa ra p e l ak u kopi dan p o lit ik ny a , da ri e ko n o miny a hing ga pe nge tahuan ala mny a , da ri crop t o cup . Sembari membaca, kami in g in An da me ny a ny i b e rsa ma ka mi; i k ut be rbi ncang -b in c a n g b e rsa ma b e rb a g a i o ra n g d a ri akade mi si hi ngga p a ra a k t iv is, roas t e r s h in g g a ar t i sts , petani hi ngga p e n ik ma t ko p i, ma sin g -ma sin g menyumbangk an suarany a ; se p e r t i a n sa mb e l, a k ap e la , s es i n ge-ja m, sepe r ti se b u a h sing-along! Da la m publ i k asi i ni , ka lia n a k a n ‘me n de n g a rk a n ’ ber bagai esai , dari car a me mb u a t ko p i t u b ru k y a n g d id ramati si r, k unj unga n sy a h du ke se b u a h de sa penghasi l kopi di Jaw a , h in g g a p ho t o e s s ay y a n g membaurkan kopi dan f ilo so f i H in du B a li.


K a mi j uga percaya bah wa k a mi a da la h s l ow m e di a per tama di duni a! Ar t iny a , k a mi t ida k me n ja dwa lka n publ i kasi maj al ah in i, mirip se p e r t i a lb u m y a n g d iluncurk an keti k a di a siap u n t u k dilu n c u rk a n . K am i ti dak te rburu-bu ru — k a re n a k a r y a t u lis y a n g betul-betul di pi l i h seca ra se k sa ma a da la h se su a t u y ang amat penti ng di t e n g a h g a g ap g e mp it a du n ia onl i ne n ews . Dan wakt u An da b e rh a rg a ! Ja d i mari s croll d own , hav e a s i p o f coffe e , and en joy th e s ymph ony ! - Si nga lon g


*dr um rolls *

Imagine an Indonesian coffee publication You k now i t; Indone sia ’s c o f fe e s a re su p e rb. Ou r d r a mati c l andscape give s u s n o t h in g le ss t h a n a wid e rangi ng aromati c sp e lls a n d we ju st c a n ’t g et enough of i t! F rom t h e h ip c o f fe e sh o p s t o c o ffee wa ru n g by the b e a c h , o u r t o n g u e s a re bus y l earni ng new fl avo rs, n ew la n g u a g e s. As we s ip our way from a c u p o ‘c h in o t o a c u p o f *name-a -villa ge-h ere*, we a re rip e n in g o u r knowl edge about Indo n e sia it se lf . Yet, d espi te thi s bri mm in g e x c it e me n t t o rev isit thes e forgotte n fl avor s a n d st o rie s, we st ill la c k a c ohesi ve coffe e l i te rat u re t h a t is ju st a s a llu rin g a s o u r coffe e i tsel f. That’s w here we fi l l i n t h e sile n c e . S in g a lo n g is a hy brid-styl e d publ i cat io n wit h a missio n t o we ave to get her a narrati ve a b o u t t h e c o f fe e sc e n e in Ind o nesi a; from the p e o p le t o t h e p o lit ic s, f ro m the finance s to the sc ie n c e s, f ro m c ro p t o c u p. A s you re ad through, we wa n t yo u t o sin g a lo n g with us; to j oi n us i n c o nve rsa t io n s t o g e t h e r wit h folks from academi cs t o a c t iv ist s, ro a st e rs t o a r tis ts, farmers to the c o f fe e a f ic io n a do s, e a c h c ontri buti ng thei r ow n vo ic e ; like a mu sic a l ens embl e , an acappel la , a ja mmin g se ssio n , a s ing-al ong! In this publ i cati on, scro ll down a n d yo u ’ll f in d a c ac o phony of e ssays, f ro m a dra ma t ize d way o f m a king tu b ru k, a conte mp la t ive v isit t o t h e pic turesque coffee vi lla g e in J av a t o a p h o t o e ssay that bl ends coffe e wi t h H in du B a li p h ilo so p h ie s.


We’d al so l i ke to be l i eve t h a t we ’re t h e f irst slow m ed ia i n the worl d! T h a t me a n s we p u b lish o n o u r own ti mi ng te rms and like a n a lb u m, we will release when i t’s re ad y t o b e re le a se d. We d on’t rush thi s pub lic a t io n – b e c a u se c a re f u lly c ura ted conte nt matt e rs eve n mo re a t t h is t ime o f news -fl ood. And your t ime is p re c io u s! So let’s scrol l dow n, have a sip o f c o f fe e , a n d enjoy the symphony! - Si ng alon g Ph o to s C re d i t : Will W i raw a n Th e Ha n d s B e h i n d t h e B rew


The Playlist Enjoy a cup of tradi tio n a l h a n d- b rewe d c offee wi th a tw i st! A Trad ition a l Meth od fo r M ak i ng C offe e R obe r t Fin la ys on

pg. 1

Venture out to the hig h la n ds o f Gom be ngsari i n Banyuwa n g i fo r t h e ir rec ent awake ni ng as a c o f fe e v illa g e N gopi d i Tempa t ya n g S e m e s t i nya B ac htia r Dja n a n

pg. 6

Take a conte mpl ati ve st ro ll in t o a v a s t e meral d gre e n fore st t h a t is t h e s a nc t uar y for a smal l c o f fe e p la n t a t io n T he Ha n d s Beh in d th e Brew Wi l l Wir ia wa n (Ph oto E s s ay )

pg. 13

W itness the l i ve s i n b e t we e n c offee -che rr y pi ck i ng , t h e n re de f in e the me ani ng of ‘ coffe e f a rme rs’ Cof fe e Conver s a tion wi t h D r. J e ffre y N e i l so n - Ju lia Win terfl oo d

pg. 31

Lear n how Coffe e s’ 4 t h Wave c o n n e c t s Ind o n e si a wi th the wo rld Happen in g Now Coffee ’s Four t h Wav e R odney G lic k

pg. 38 (IND) pg. 46 (ENG)

End your j ourney w i t h a c u p o f c o f fe e a t B a li’s l ocal coffe e shop s. T he Rwa Bh in ed a of Bal i ’s C offe e C ul t ure M ar k L Ch a ves (Ph oto Es s ay )

pg. 53


A TRADITIONAL METHOD FOR MAKING COFFEE ROBERT FINLAYSON

A Serial Novel: Chapter 1

The hol e i n the road wa s so b ig a n d so de e p t h a t s om e sai d fae ri e s, fay, f a t a , dr y a ds, imp s, le p re c h a u n s, goblins, hobgobl i ns, gre mlin s, sire n s, e n c h a n t e rs, ny m phs, pucks, el ve s, b rown ie s, p ix ie s, g e n ie s, p e ri, s prites, bogi es, ni sses , wh a t ’s in a n a me , a ro se by a ny other woul d sme ll a s swe e t , t h e se b e in g b u t s pir it s of the ai r, thi n a ir, wa t e r y wa t e r, t h e f u lso me ear th, the burni ng fl am e , t h e sh rie k in g lig h t n in g , t h e furr y, fe athe red, scal ed a n d sk in n e d c re a t u re s, la rg e a nd smal l , the ani mal cu le s, mic ro b e s, t h e sp a c e s betwe e n atoms, par ti c le s o f in de t e rmin a t e e x ist e n c e , fo rm , name , busy enab lin g t h e fo re st in t h e h o le ’s m o s t abundant thri vi n g n e ss, t h a t so me h a d sa id thes e e l eme ntal spi ri t s we re re f u g e e s o f t h e re mov a l o f the once -vast e xpa n se o f fo re st n ow g rowin g c a s s ava, mai ze , houses , sh e ds, a f a c t o r y ma k in g s hir ts, seve ral motorc y c le re p a ir sh o p s, ma ny fo o d s talls , gove rnment off ic e s, t h a t t h ey h a d a do p t e d hum an form, bui l t a villa g e in wh ic h da ily live s we re lived l i ke mor tal s, tha t is t o say, t h ey say, drin k in g c o ffee , smoki ng, e ati n g f rie d c a ssav a a n d go ssip in g und er and betwe e n the le a f y f ro n ds o f Are ng a pi nna ta (Wurmb) Merr., D i al i um i ndum L ., He l i ci a se r rata (R . Br. ) Bl ume , M ag nol i a m ac k l ot t i i ( Ko r t h ) 1


Da nd y, Pteros permu m j av ani cum Ju n g h ., S l o ane a s i g un (B lume ) K. Schum. , Fic us p unct at a T h u n b e rg , A g al myla tu b eros a (L. ) R e n dle , Pe r i cam py l us g l aucus M err., An a d en d ru m micro s t ac hy um ( M iq .) B a c ke r & A ld rew, Meloth r ia ma de ras p at ana (L .) C o g n . a n d C offe a ca n eph ora w i th ma ny o t h e rs t o o nu me ro u s t o m ention l e st thi s repo r t n eve r e n d, in t h e h o le . In the branches of a M or i nda ci t r i fol i a L ., o ra n g e a n t s (O e c o phylla s ma ra gd in a) in a lin e we re ma k in g t h e ir way f rom thei r si l ke n , le a f y n e st down a lo n g t h e g rey ish trunk on the ma rc h in se a rc h o f b e e t le s, flies and hymenopte ran s t owa rd a ju mp in g sp ide r (C osmoph a s is c ypr ia ), t h a t wa s b idin g it s t ime , a nd two fai ri e s (Fa ta sp p.) in t h e p ro c e ss o f a s s umi ng human form (H o m o s ap i e ns ), t h u s, f irst , a g rave bubbl i ng of we t e a r t h re min isc e n t t o so me o f tha t whi ch he ral ded t h e la st g re a t e ru p t io n o f t h e near by fi re mountai n ro se u p sh imme rin g dir t a n d leaves ce nti pedes and g n a t s f a llin g away a s a fo rm fo rm e d of twi n mount a in o u s ro t u n dit ie s, a g re a t e r rotundi ty nei ghbourl ly ly n e a rby, de n se b u sh o f refulgently steami ng b la c k in t h e v a lley, o v a st b u rst s o f s imul acra of me at b o n e s b lo o d, re c lin in g , a bra xas!, from the fl esh f u l ma ssif s t a ke s fo rm a d ar k-red-brow n house f ro c k o f swirlin g ind etermi nate pattern , le av in g a u n a t u re l c a lve s a n d s hins ve rdantly hai r y, a rms a k imb o, h a n ds u n de r h a ir blac ker than a publ i sh e r’s h e a r t , b u n n e d, f lowin g lav a, onto i nto the suc c u le n t so il, a rmp it s a fo re st o f m o onl ess ni ght, a gl owin g c ig a re t t e b e t we e n fa bulous l i ps stre ami n g smo ke la n g u o ro u sly f ro m no s tr i l s and corne rs of t h a t u n du la n t mo u t h , it being a fi ne thi ng to s e e , a s, lo o k ove r t h e re !, t h e a ir s p ark s mi l l i only, tr illio n ly, me rg in g in t o sh imme r, o paque , thi cke ni ng, fi rst , fe e t , f la t , wide , t h e n sk in ny s hins , thi ghs, hi ps, i nca n de sc e n t ro d o f lig h t b lo o din g d ar k re ddi sh, l i ght formin g b o n e s o f a c h e st , sin ewy nec k, the head and hair o n e n d lo n g f rizzin g st ill s par ki ng, se ttl i ng, a ba t t e re d t -sh ir t ma n ife st in g fa d ed face s of aspi ri ng dist ric t h e a ds o f lo n g lo n g a go, shape l ess pants o f n o k n own c o lo u r, we will leave the fe e t unshod a s p e a c e se t t le s o n c e mo re 2


a fter al l the se rumbl i n g s, ro a rin g s, mo a n in g s, g ro ani ngs, spark i ngs, s h imme rin g s, se t t lin g s wit h a c c ompanyi ng dramat ic de a fe n in g b la st s o f o rc hestra, i n the pi t. – I coul d do wi th a c o f fe e a f t e r t h a t . I ’m feelng w i re d, fr y-e d, sa id t h e sk in n ie st , h a n ds trembl i ng ever so sl i gh t ly, st a n din g , a n e x c it e d c a rrot face , scraw ny n e c k swive llin g 1 8 0 , t u rn in g , tur nin g, w here ’s the war ung ? Rumbl i ng out of the c o rp u le n t lip s, a lo n g low so u n d c reep s among the fal le n le ave s, b u b b le s u p e c h o e s t o flappi ng e ars, heari ng – Min ya k pu tih , Mas . A puf f of smoke punct u a t e s t h e a dv ic e . – Mamma, I ai n’t go t n o m as uk ang i n, I n e e d a c a lm i ng coffee!, sparks H is S k in n in e ss, H e o f t h e Fla s hi ng Eyes. – Che rri e s, red, rum b le s M a mma , a f a t f in g e r po inti ng to a Coffea c ane p hor a wa it in g p a t ie n t ly a t Skinny’s ragged back. – Che rri e s? H e wo n de rs. – Berri es, advi ses Ma mma , re d, p ic k ’e m. Lines of sparks fly for t h . T h e t re e ’s st rip p e d like it ’s ha lfw ay through a bat h , ju st do n e it s h a ir. Pile o f c herri es at Sk i nny’s fee t . – –

Now what? Cook ’ e m.

A s ingl e fl ash stri kes t h e p ile . Ff f f ! Vap o u rize d. Cherri es to ashe s, du st . A lo ng, tal l col umn of smo ke rise s f a st f ro m M a mma’s fabul ous l i ps , a ru mb le ru mb le s fo r t h –

Li ke thi s, Mas. 3


A tre e sprouts i n Mamma ’s v a lley, sh o o t s fo r t h leaves, fl owe rs of the fo re st , c h e rrie s, t h ey f a ll, ro ll upwards to Mamma’s mo u t h , h e r se n sa t io n a l lip s a c ur ve d di sh i nto w hi c h t h ey h u ddle , o b e die n t c hild re n, a coconut fa lls, ro lls t o M a mma , c ra c k s o pen, a pi ece break s o f f , slide s u p a n d in , a ha nd ful of hard ri ce i n so f t a ir ma t e ria lize s, du ll white rai n ami d the b la c ke n in g c h e rrie s, t h e lip s und ulate , turni ng, turn in g , st o p, sp it in t o a n o p e n e d fa llen branch, upri se s M a mma , t h e p la n e t sh a ke s, h a ir loo s e , breasts sw i ngi n g , p o u n din g , p o u n din g wit h a m ighty l og, pul veri si n g t o du st , f a ir y du st , risin g in a c loud, fal l i ng i nto a cup h ove rin g in sp a c e , t ime , t h e mus ic of the sphe res lu sc io u sly c re a k in g . –

Cook thi s, Mas.

Rivers of swe e t swe at g u sh in me llif lu o u s t o rre n t s from the wi de-hear ted g e n e ro sit y o f t h e p o re s o f M a mma’s ri ch chocol a t e sk in st re a min g , t h e N in e Great Waterfal l s of th e R e a lm o f t h e G o ds, f a llin g in a pla iti ng ri ver through t h e iride sc e n t a ir, S i Skinny’s bony fore fi nge r t ra n slu c e s, sp a rk le s, m ic row ave of modern it y f rizzlin g a midst t h e H 2 O, whic h fal l s, boi l i ng, fi llin g , t h e c u p, a lmo st t o t h e br im, al most. – Ahhhhhhh! And ra ise s it t o h is a t t ra c t ive ly t h in , blueish l i ps be neath a g rey M ilk y Way o f mo u st a c h e . – Four mi nutes, Mas. L e t it b rew. – Eeeeeeeeew wwwww! I t de sc e n ds. Pea c e , somewhat strain e d, a lso de sc e n ds, in c u p ’s c o mpany, a l ong l ow sn o re b a ssin g in side M a mma ’s o nc e-agai n-re cl i ni ng fo rm. – Lot of work for a c u p o f c o f fe e , M issu s, o p in e s The Sl ende r One , hi s o u t lin e f rizzin g a n d sp a rk in g , the ai r, at once , te nse a n d t e n de r. A s nor t cuts off a des c e n din g n o t e o f sn o re , b re a st s heave , a gentl e far t tro t s ju ic ily in t o dist a n t c o rn e rs o f worl ds, a rumbl e tu mb le s fo r t h . – Some one ’s gotta do it , M a s. 4


RO B ERT FINLAYSON d r i nk s 5- 7 l ar ge cup s o f ko p i tubr uk a d a y, prefera b l y fro m hi s ib u me r t u a i n J awa Tengah, wh ic h s h e h a nd p i c k s , dr y s i n t he s un, t he n roast s with ke l apa a n d b e ra s.

5


Ngopi di Tempat yang Semestinya BACHTIAR DJANAN

SU M MARY IN ENG LISH A t Gemb on gs a r i, a coffe e v i l l age i n Bany uwang i , coffe e i s e nj oyed r igh t a t th e coffe e far m . How ev e r, t hi s s t at e m e nt wasn’t tru e ju s t few year s ago . Ev e n w i t h 1,750 he ct are o f c offe e fa rm, fa rmer s of t e n p re fe r re d t o s e l l g re e n be ans i n mu c h c h ea per pr ices . A l ocal co m muni t y o r g ani z at i o n c al l e d HIDORA b ega n educat i ng far m e r s on t he fi nanci al and c u ltu ra l va lu e of c offe e s o t hat far m e r s can g ai n be tt er c ont rol over pr ices . E duc a tion in c lu d es wor k s ho p s and di s cus s i o ns t o re ev al ua t e Gomben gs a r i’s poten tia l s i n t he coffe e i ndus t r y. C offe e t our s to th e pla n ta tions w e re o r g ani ze d, w he re far m e r s and l o ca l villa ger s cou l d s how cas e t he i r t radi t i onal brew i n g ski l l s . In 2016, coffee a nd cul t ure fe s t i v al was he l d and re c e i v ed en ormou s n a tio nal , re g i o nal , and i nt e r nat i onal me di a a tten tion .

6


yang

Geliat Kampong Kopi di Lereng Kawah Ijen N go p i di te mpat yang se me st iny a . S e b u a h t ag l i ne y a ng ki an popul er di ka b u p a t e n p a lin g t imu r Pu la u Jawa, yai tu Banyuwang i. J ik a b ia sa ny a a k t iv it a s n go p i d ilakukan di k afe , ke da i ko p i, a t a u p u n wa ru n g ko p i, d i B a nyuwangi “ngopi di t e mp a t y a n g se me st iny a � a d a la h , tak l ai n tak buk a n , di ke b u n ko p i. K a mpong Kopi Gombe n g sa ri (de mik ia n la h p e nye b u ta n ke k i ni an bagi ke l ura h a n y a n g b e ra da di le re n g Gunu ng Ij e n sebe l ah t e n g g a ra in i) b e ra da p a da ketinggi an 400-700 me t e r di a t a s p e rmu k a a n la u t d an di domi nasi ol eh ke b u n ko p i y a n g dit a n a m o le h m a s y arakat se te mpat. Ironisnya, wal aupun terdap a t le b ih da ri 1 .7 5 0 h e k t a r laha n ke bun kopi , w ar g a G o mb e n g sa ri se ja k du lu tid a k terbi asa mempro du k si ko p i b u b u k , se la in untuk konsumsi pri ba di. Ko p i se rin g k a li diju a l d alam bentuk green b eans ke p a da t e n g k u la k de n g a n s is tem i j on (tradi si on a l) da n dih a rg a i R p 1 6 ,0 0 0 – Rp 17 , 000 per k i l o. P ad a bul an Nove mbe r 2 0 1 5 , k a mi da ri H I D O R A (Hid u pl ah Indone si a R ay a ) , se b u a h ko mu n it a s y a n g m ela kuk an akti vi tas p e mb e rday a a n ma sy a ra k a t di d es a dan kampung, mu la i me la k u k a n so sia lisa si doo r t o-doo r, di skusi sambi l n go p i, da n me nye le n g g a ra k a n wor ks h op i nformal , den g a n t u ju a n me n g k a ji u la n g po tensi kampung Gomb e n g sa ri da n me n g e mb a n g k a n s is i w i sata desa. Da la m prose s aw al i ni, k a mi s har i ng t e n t a n g pa nd angan k ami dan b e ru sa h a me mb u a t wa rg a de sa perc aya di ri , bahw a desa da n a k t iv it a s ke se h a ria n m ereka se betul nya san g a t me n a rik b a g i wisa t awa n . P ad a saat i tu, yang pen t in g a da la h me mb u a t ru t e 7


per jal anan dan al ur ke g ia t a n y a n g me n a rik u n t u k t a mu , s er ta memperhati kan le b ih me n g e n a i ke b e rsih a n da n kerapi an, agar tamu me ra sa le b ih ny a ma n .

Tim Hidora bersama tamu acara

Ha s il dari bebe rapa ka li s har i ng , disk u si, da n w o r k s ho p kec il-keci l an i tu adal a h se b u a h ske n a rio t u r se de rh a n a menje l aj ah ke bun kop i, da ri me mp e rke n a lk a n t a n a ma n ko pi ci ri khas Gombe n g sa ri, me nu n ju k k a n p ro se s roast in g s ec ar a tradi si onal de n g a n t u n g k u k ay u b a k a r da n wa jah gera bah, me ndi ngi nk an ko p i h a sil sa n g ra i, me nu mb u k , meny ari ng, sampai menye du h ko p i da n me n ik ma t iny a .

The journey of a cup of coffee , de mi k ia n la h t e ma wisa t a ko p i di

ka mpung i ni , sebuah pe rja la n a n u n t u k me n ik ma t i ind ahnya suasana kebu n ko p i sa mb il me n ik ma t i s ec angk i r kopi panas dit e ma n i ja ja n a n k h a s de sa . Ta k he ran, ke i nti man su a sa n a in i p u n b a ny a k me n a rik per hati an w i sataw an da ri b e rb a g a i b e la h a n du n ia . 8


Menumbuk (grinding) kopi dengan lumpang dan alu

Dira sa tak cuk up, setah u n ke mu dia n wa rg a berin i si ati f me mpe rke n a lk a n p o t e n si k a mp u n g ny a s ec a ra l ebi h l uas me l alu i Fe st iv a l K a mp o n g Ko p i Lerek Gombengsari (Fe st iv a l Ko p ile go ). Sela in te ntang kopi , Fe st iv a l in i me lib a t k a n le b ih d ar i 5 0 orang se ni man da ri 7 n e g a ra se r t a da ri 8 kota dan kabupate n d i I n do n e sia y a n g h a dir se c a ra s uka re l a. Se bal i k nya, wa rg a p u n b e rgo t o n g - royo n g m embuat panggung, m e nye dia k a n ko n su msi, sa mp a i m eny iapk an rumah-ru ma h ny a se b a g a i t e mp a t m engi nap bagi para sen ima n p e n g isi a c a ra . 9


Menyangrai (roasting) kopi dengan wajan dari tanah liat dan kayu bakar

“ M eledakl ah� acara Fe st iv a l Ko p ile go. M u la i da ri ba z a ar UMKM warga, fam t r i p wisa t a ko p i da n peternak an k ambi ng, w o r k s ho p p ro se s ko p i u n t u k p a ra petani , acara seni musik da n t a ri, sa mp a i me mu n c u lk a n kem bal i tradi si se pak b o la ap i k h a s G o mb e n g sa ri y a ng sudah mati suri ; b e rb a g a i a k t iv it a s t e rse b u t d is elenggarak an untuk me ra ma ik a n Fe st iv a l Ko p i in i. K a ren a acaranya yang u n ik , ma k a Fe st iv a l Ko p ile go p u n m end apatkan pe l i puta n ma k sima l da ri b e rb a g a i me dia lokal, regi onal , sampa i n a sio n a l, me mb u a t ny a v ira l da n s em a ki n di kenal l uas. Da ri si tul ah, anak -anak mu da de sa ma k in me ra sa ba ngga de ngan pote ns i- p o t e n si y a n g a da di de sa ny a . K a mi s h a re ane k a ti ps da n t rik u n t u k me n do ro n g s er ta me nyemangati m e re k a a g a r g ia t me n do k u m entasi kan dengan fot o, v ide o p e n de k , da n c e rit a c erita me nge nai kampu n g me re k a da n se g a la po tensi nya, untuk di seb a rk a n me la lu i so sia l me dia , s ekaligus be l aj ar me n ju a l p ro du k ko p i se c a ra onl i ne . Da ri aw al yang sederh a n a de n g a n t u r p e rke b u n a n ko p i hingga Fe sti val Kopi l e go it u se n diri, da ri p e n ja ja k a n hingga pe rencanaan, m e la t ih S D M h in g g a me n e n t u k a n s tandar s er vice , manaj e me n h in g g a p ro mo si, se mu a kam i l akuk an bersama ma sy a ra k a t se c a ra swa day a da n m a nd i ri , tanpa keterl i b a t a n p e me rin t a h . 10


Di s a mpi ng pendapata n le b ih da ri wisa t a ko p i, wa rg a pun ak hi rnya be l aj ar b e rdiri di k a k i se n diri, b a ik da ri s eg i organi sasi maupu n f in a n sia l. M a ka dari i tu ti dakl ah mu st a h il de sa -de sa ko p i la in ny a d i Indonesi a dapat me n g e mb a n g k a n p o t e n siny a s ec a ra mandi ri .

P as c a Festi val Kopi l ego, ke lu ra h a n G o mb e n g sa ri y a n g d ulunya ti dak banyak dike n a l, b a h k a n o le h wa rg a B a ny u wangi se ndi ri , k in i t e la h go i nt e r nas i onal . Brand K a mpong Kopi Gomben g sa ri me n ja di se b u a h i con wis ata de sa di Banyuw a n g i y a n g su k se s da n b e rda mp a k pa d a meni ngkatnya kese ja h t e ra a n wa rg a . S e b a g ia n a nak-anak muda yang t a diny a me ra n t a u p u n mu la i ter ta ri k pul ang kampu n g u n t u k b e rb isn is ko p i a t a u bis nis-bi sni s l ai nnya ya n g t e rk a it de n g a n p a riwisa t a . Go mbengsari te rus berg e lia t , se irin g de n g a n “ p ro se s perjal anan� w arga k am p u n g y a n g t e la h me n e mu k a n 11


kem bal i j ati di ri dan i de n t it a sny a . K in i me re k a ba ngga me nj adi warga K a mp o n g Ko p i G o mb e n g sa ri, s ebuah k ampung di l e re n g t e n g g a ra G u nu n g I je n , K a bupate n Banyuwang i. Sebuah Warning Sebagai pe nutup tul i sa n sin g k a t in i, say a sa mp a ik a n s ebuah wa rn in g bagi p a ra p e n ik ma t ko p i di se lu ru h pelo s ok nusantara dan di se g a la p e n ju ru du n ia : ja n g a n pernah mengak u-ngaku se b a g a i p e n ik ma t ko p i se ja t i kalau bel um pernah ngo p i di ke b u n ko p i. I t u sa ja . Wo i … Udah pada ng o p i belu m… ? Di e m diem bae , ngop i a p a n g o p i… N go pilah di tempat ya n g s emes t inya … N go pi di kebun kopi… .

B ACHTIAR DJ AN AN a dal ah s al ah s at u p e ndi r i HID O RA (Hid u pla h In done s i a R aya), s e buah ko muni t as yang m ela ku ka n a ktivit as p e m be rdayaan m as yarak at di de sa da n ka mpu n g. Sa at i ni ko muni t as HI D O R A t e ng ah me l ak u ka n progra m pendam p i ng an m as yarak at di de s ade sa di Ka b u pa ten Ba n y uwang i , K abup at e n Te g al . Fot o o leh pen u lis

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PHOTO ESSSAY

The Hands Behind the Brew WILL WIRIAWAN

R IN GKASAN B AHASA IN D O N ES I A - L oka s i foto a d a la h Des a Li ng g aj at i di J awa Barat , de ng an ketin ggia n 1,200 am s l (Abov e M e an S e a Lev e l ) - Kopi Ara b ika b a ru mu l ai di t anam di de s a i ni s e k i t ar 10 t ahu n ya n g la lu - D e sa d a n perkeb u n a n yang as r i i ni m as i h m e nj adi ‘r umah ’ b a gi b erb a ga i tanam an dan bi nat ang e k s ot i s .

I f good c offee is eas y to make , there won’t be bad c o ffee in this world ! N es tl ed underneath s t re t c h e s o f p in e t re e s lie s a s ec re t patch of smal l Ara b ic a c o f fe e f a rm, wh ic h is operated by an equal ly sma ll nu mb e r o f f a rme rs. The local vi l l age rs have b e e n f a rmin g in t h is a re a for d ecade s. Yet Arabic a c o f fe e is re la t ive ly n ew to this l and, only l ess t h a n a de c a de o ld. A tmosphe re i s ve r y l ush (1 2 0 0 a msl) . N o uri shed by mountain sp rin g wa t e r a n d fe r t ile s o il, e xoti c pl ants, fro m c love s, v a n illa o rc h ids, 13


to avocados, have fl ourish e d o n t h e h ills o f t h is sle e p in g volc ano. For over a cen t u r y, t h is n a t u ra l e c o sy st e m h a s been a sanctuar y for va rio u s a n ima ls, in c lu din g wild l uwak, by provi di ng them wit h e n o u g h fo o d t o live fo r g enerati ons. B ut hu mans are he r be st f rie n d a n d a lso h e r b ig g e st enem ies. H i ke rs and cl imb e rs a re k n own t o f re q u e n t this area, some ti me s eve n h u n t in g t h e wild. I t is n o t a s urpr ise that humans a re by f a r t h e mo st imme dia t e threat thi s l and has. Welc ome to De sa Li ngg a ja t i.

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WIL L WIRIAWAN is a n ar c hi t e ct , p hot og rap he r, and an Ar t of Livin g Yoga & M e di t at i o n t e ac he r. He ’s al s o a c e r tified Q Ara b ica G rade r and g re e n be an p ro duce r. Hi s pilot project, s een he re on t hi s fe at ure , i s a brand new or i gi n s oon to b e a va ilabl e ne ar y ou. Fol l ow hi m on Inst agra m: @kopib u mi

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COFFEE CONVERSATION WITH DR. JEFFREY NEILSON JULIA WINTERFLOOD

R IN GKASAN B AHASA IN D O N ES I A Wal au pu n kopi s ema kin di ge m ar i ol e h be r bag ai k al ang an , bai k mereka ya n g pemi num ko p i sp e c ia lt y arabi k a m aup u n kopi i n s ta n , n a mu n ku al i t as ke hi dup an p e t ani kop i t i dak be rar ti memb a ik. Ba gi D r J e ffre y N e i l s o n, ge og rafe r dar i U ni ve r s ity of Syd n ey ya ng m e l ak uk an r i s e t di To raj a, bahk a n i st i l ah ‘peta n i kopi’ pu n adal ah i s t i l ah yang k urang t e p at. Se l ai n men a n a m b erb ag ai m acam t anam an di l uar kop i , para p eta n i d i Tora ja ju g a m e ndap at k an p e ng has i l an ut a m a dar i s a n a k s a u d a ra ya ng be ke r j a di ko t a be s ar. Ko p i adal a h ‘bant en g tera kh ir’ mere k a. D e nga n men in gka tn ya p e r m i nt aan t e r hadap ko p i , ke p al a kope ras i d i Tora ja men gam bi l p e ran yang l e bi h p e nt i ng dan dib u tu h ka n u n tu k m e nj e m bat ani roas t e r s de ng an pe t ani. Kepa la kopera si m e m bant u roas t e r s m e ncar i dan m en gu mpu lka n kop i dar i be r bag ai m acam p e t ani di dae ra h n ya ya n g s es u a i de ng an ke but uhan roas t e r s t e r s e b u t .

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If you think Indonesia’s booming specialty coffee sector means a better deal for farmers, ask first whether ‘Indonesian coffee farmers’ even exist For the coffe e cognosc e n t i, it ’s we ll-k n own I n do n e sia i s the worl d’s four th l ar g e st c o f fe e p ro du c in g n a t io n . T h ey may b e l ess fami l i ar h oweve r wit h t h e f a c t I n do n e sia i s the worl d’s faste st-growin g c o f fe e re t a il ma r v ke t , a n d the fi fth l arge st by ret a il vo lu me . B e t we e n 2 0 1 2 a n d 2016, coffee franchi se o u t le t s a n d sp e c ia lt y c o f fe e sh o p s d o uble d, to 1, 083 and 1 ,0 2 5 re sp e c t ive ly, a c c o rdin g t o ma rket researcher Euro mo n it o r I n t e rn a t io n a l. S t a rb u c k s now has 240 outl e ts a c ro ss t h e c o u n t r y, I n do n e sia ’s M axx Coffee has 70 s in c e o p e n in g in 2 0 1 5 , a n d E x c e ls o has 65. Wi th the numb e r o f in de p e n de n t c o f fe e sh o p s and roasters that have p o p p e d u p in u rb a n a re a s in t he pas t ye ar al one , the arc h ip e la go ’s c u rre n t t o t a l mu st s urely now be nudgi ng 1 ,5 0 0 . “There has been massive c h a n g e in t h e I n do n e sia n d o me sti c market over t h e p a st t e n ye a rs,” say s D r Je f f N eils on, a geographe r a t t h e U n ive rsit y o f S y dn ey wh o has lived, studi ed, wor ke d a n d re se a rc h e d I n I n do n e sia over the past 25 years, a n d re se a rc h e d a n d p u b lish e d abo ut the nati on’s cof fe e in du st r y sin c e 2 0 0 1 . “ Te n yea r s ago, al l good qual i ty A ra b ic a wa s e x p o r t e d. Yo u ’d go t o any of these [coffee growin g ] re g io n s a n d t h e re ’d jus t be fai rly consol i d a t e d e x p o r t f irms o f t e n lin ke d to int ernati onal traders, a n d t h ey we re re sp o n sib le for quality control syste ms. All t h e go o d q u a lit y c o f fe e wa s bei ng fe d i nto the in t e rn a t io n a l sp e c ia lt y se c t o r,” Jeff expl ai ns. Des pite the unquench a b le t h irst fo r sp e c ia lt y c o f fe e and café cul ture i n Indo n e sia ’s u rb a n a re a s, do me st ic d ema nd for i nstant co f fe e mixe s st ill re ig n s. E u ro mo n i t o r repor ted off-trade sale s ( t ra n sa c t io n s wit h su p e rma rke t s and s mal l er food retaile rs) g rew a t a slig h t ly f a st e r ra te than on-trade sale s ( t ra n sa c t io n s wit h c a f é s, b a rs , hotels and restaurants) la st ye a r. 32


Dr Jeffrey Neilson, geographer and Indonesia Country Coordinator for the University of Sydney’s Southeast Asia Centre (Photo Credit Yogi Sumule)

It was no surpri se tha t To ra b ik a , o n e o f I n do n e sia ’s lar g est i nstant coffee p ro du c e rs, sn a g g e d do ze n s o f a d ver ti si ng sl ots duri n g M e t ro T V ’s re c e n t re g io n a l elec tions coverage . Al o n g wit h t h e ic o n ic t o ng k anan, t h e tr a d it i onal ance stral ho u se o r r um ah adat o f t h e To ra j a n peopl e , the ad feature d f a rme rs in t ra dit io n a l h e a ddre s s g az ing up from a sea o f ru by re d c o f fe e c h e rrie s. A re t hese farmers smilin g a b o u t I n do n e sia ’s b o o min g s pec ial ty coffee sector a n d in c re a sin g de ma n d fo r 4-in-1? Afte r al l , i t see ms t h a t a sig n if ic a n t c o mp o n e n t o f s pec ial ty coffee cul ture ’s n e e d t o t ra c e t h e o rig in o f beans i s ensuri ng a bet t e r de a l fo r t h o se p ro du c in g them. Wi th i dyl l i c i ma g e s su c h a s t h e se , wh ic h a re o f t e n replicate d i n café dé c o r – t h in k a f ra me d b la c k a n d w h i t e pho tograph of a w i zen e d o ld ma n g e n t ly g ra sp in g a b u n ch o f c offe e cherri es, or a wa t e rc o lo r o f a yo u n g wo ma n in c oni cal hat arm ou t st re t c h e d fo r t h e p rize d f ru it , or even j ust an ornate ch a lk b o a rd illu st ra t io n o f a c o f fe e plant – i t’s easy to su c c u mb t o t h e ro ma n t ic n o t io n t h a t fa rm er l i ve l i hoods must b e imp rov in g wit h eve r y ‘f a rm fres h’ cup of Aceh Gayo o r B a jawa we sip. T h e far m - t o pl at e move ment has b e e n swif t ly fo llowe d by far m - t o - c u p .

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Des pi te thi s, Jeff admit s h e ’s u n c e r t a in f a rme r livelihoods have actually imp rove d t h a t mu c h wit h inc rease d dome sti c dema n d. “ Wh a t I h ave n o t ic e d in a lot of these pl ace s – in S o u t h S u lawe si, in We st Jav a , i n Nor th Sumatra – is t h a t it ’s t h e h e a ds o f c o operati ve s, or the ro le fo r a lo c a l a g e n t h a s b e c o m e really i mpor tant,” he e x p la in s. “ Yo u ’ve go t a J av a - b a se d roa s ter for e xampl e , an d t h ey ’re t rave lin g t o E n re k a n g [in South Sul awe si ], an d t h ey wa n t t o so u rc e t e n b a g s , but they sti l l can’t de a l dire c t ly wit h t h e f a rme rs, t h at ’s s till logi sti cal ly too d if f ic u lt a s t h e re a re a wh o le b u nch o f farme rs and w ho’s go in g t o ma n a g e t h e q u a lit y fo r them? T here ’s thi s rol e t h a t ’s e me rg e d – so me t ime s it might be the vi l l age h e a d, o r t h e h e a d o f t h e c o operati ve , who wou ld t h e n so u rc e t h e t e n b a g s f ro m a bun ch of farmers. A t t h e leve l o f t h a t a g e n t , t h ey ’ve d eveloped a l ot of new o p p o r t u n it ie s, b u t t h a t do e sn ’t nec essari ly transl ate t o t h e f a rme rs.”

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“Often these ‘middle men’ are the most efficient providers in dealing with logistics for buyers. But they’re also the ones that are benefiting.” So mi ddl e men sti l l exist ? “ Yo u n e e d t h o se middle me n , the term ‘ mi ddl e men’ ma ke s it so u n d n e g a t ive . Of t e n thes e ‘ mi ddl e me n’ are t h e mo st e f f ic ie n t p rov ide rs in d ea ling wi th l ogi sti cs fo r b u ye rs. B u t t h ey ’re a lso t h e o nes that are be nefi ti n g .” As eve r in I n do n e sia , t h in g s a re never as cut-and-drie d a s t h a t . Je f f e x p la in s f u r t h e r, “ There are a whol e l o t o f re a so n s why t h e re h a sn ’t b e e n a huge i mproveme nt i n f a rme r live lih o o ds a s a re su lt o f g rowi ng dome sti c dem a n d. An d a lo t o f t h a t h a s a lo t t o d o with the nature of f a rme r live lih o o ds in I n do n e sia. “ One thi ng I often say is I do n ’t eve n like t a lk in g a b o u t the ide a of ‘ Indonesi a n c o f fe e f a rme rs’,” Je f f c o n t inu es a rd ently. “In these re g io n s t h e re a re h o u se h o lds t h a t g row coffee , but they’ve o f t e n go t dive rsif ie d live lih o od s . They may al so be growin g ric e , wh ic h may b e do min a n t , o r rel i ance on off-farm in c o me s may b e do min a n t . T h ey m ight have the i r k i ds in t h e c it y wh o a re se n din g b a c k remit tances. Most rura l live s in I n do n e sia a re p re t t y c o mpl i cated. And eve n in t h e b ig c o f fe e g rowin g a re a s , c o ffee i s ofte n j ust on e c o mp o n e n t wit h in a b ro a de r livelihood strateg y. Eve n if t h e re we re slig h t ly in c re a s e d pr ic es for coffee , there ’s n o g u a ra n t e e t h a t wo u ld le a d t o s ig nifi cantly i mproved live lih o o ds. “ Even the i ni ti ati ves I ’ve b e e n invo lve d in , in f a c ilit a t in g a nd researchi ng, a ge n e ra l c o n c lu sio n I ’ve c o me t o is t h a t c o ffee i s ve r y rarely se e n t o b e t h e b e st p a t h way o u t o f pover ty for these house h o lds. T h ey will o f t e n c u lt iv a t e c o ffee al most as a l as t re so r t . I u se t h e t e rm ‘a fo r t res s c rop’ as that’s the te rm a K a ro f a rme r u p in N o r t h Sum a t ra use d l ast ye a r.” Je f f b o rrowe d t h e t e rm a f t e r t h e 35


“In these regions there are households that grow coffee, but they’ve often got diversified livelihoods. They may also be growing rice, which may be dominant, or reliance on off-farm incomes may be dominant.” K a ro farme r expl ai ned c o f fe e wa s h is be nt e ng ; i t es s enti al ly stops hi m a n d h is f a mily f ro m st a r v in g , it ens ure s food se curi ty, b u t it ’s n o t t h e c ro p t h ey p la n t t o g enerate we al th. Wou ld t h e ma jo rit y o f I n do n e sia n s w h o g row coffee share the be nt e ng c ro p ide a ? Af t e r a p a u s e , Jeff agrees. “ Yo u go to Toraj a, and it ’s eve n mo re e x t re me ,” h e c o ntinues. “Toraj an cof fe e ’s go t t h is g re a t re p u t a t io n . I ’ m a big fan of good qual it y To ra ja n c o f fe e , b u t I c a n t e ll yo u it is f ar from be i ng th e mo st imp o r t a n t a sp e c t o f ru ra l livelihoods i n re mote To ra ja n v illa g e s. E ve n t h o u g h c o f fe e is qui te cl e arly the mo st imp o r t a n t c a sh c ro p, t h ey will al so grow ri ce , and t h a t ’s re a lly imp o r t a n t b e c a u s e tha t’s a crop from the go ds. T h a t ric e f ie ld is p a r t o f t h e a nc estral i nheri tance – t h ey b u ild t h e se g re a t e n o rmo u s r ic e barns wi th al l the mo t if s. R ic e is a n imp o r t a n t c ro p, it’s not j ust some basic c o mmo dit y, a n d it ’s go t a lo t o f c ultural i mpor tance .” Part of Torajan’s elaborate ritual rites. Photo by Arian Zwegers

“Even though coffee is quite clearly the most important cash crop, they will also grow rice, and that’s really important because that’s a crop from the gods.” 36


It’s fai r to say Toraj a is eve n mo re f a mo u s fo r it s e p ic funeral ce remoni es tha n it is fo r it s c o f fe e . “ At a To raj a n funeral you’ve got thi s in c re dib le c e re mo n ia l e c o n o my. A t big funeral s you mig h t b e sa c rif ic in g 4 0 , 5 0 , eve n u p to 10 0 buffal o, and yo u n e e d a lo t o f mo n ey fo r t h e se , a nd I can assure you’re n o t go in g t o g e t t h a t mo n ey fro m s ellin g coffee .” So how do To ra ja n f a milie s g a t h e r t h e fund s for the unfathoma b le nu mb e r o f b u f f a lo re q u ired fo r c ere moni al sacri fic e ? “ I n st e a d t h e h o u se h o ld will ge nerate money t h ro u g h mig ra t io n ,” Je f f e x p la in s m a tter-of-factly. “I’ve do n e a few su r vey s in To ra ja whi ch s how that on ave rage a h o u se h o ld will h ave u p t o t h re e remit tance sende rs, an d t h a t ’s wh a t ’s driv in g t h e c a sh ec onomy. Coffe e i s sor t o f imp o r t a n t in a se n se t h a t yo u g et a bi t of extra cash , b u t it ’s c e r t a in ly n o t a h u g e pr ior i ty, i t’s not centra l t o t h e ir live lih o o ds.” N ext ti me I’ m si ppi ng a c u p o f To ra ja K a lo si, ima g e s o f magni fi ce nt ton gka n an in min d, I ’ll n ow a lso t r y a n d ima gine the Toraj ans f a r away f ro m t h e ir f a milie s in Ja ka r ta, work i ng over t ime t o se n d mo n ey h o me . I n a c o unt r y as cul tural ly, e nv iro n me n t a lly, a n d e c o n o mic al ly c o mpl ex as Indonesi a , it ’s go in g t o t a ke a lo t mo re t h a n inc rease d dome sti c cof fe e c o n su mp t io n t o imp rove c o nd i ti ons for those wh o f a rm.

Photo by Rodney Glick

JU L IA W INTERFLOOD i s a C e nt ral Aus t ral i an de s e r t g i r l who ha s ca lled In d on es i a ho m e for t he p as t four ye ar s . A s Int e r na tion a l Med ia Co ns ul t ant for t he Ubud W r i t e r s & R e ader s Fes tiva l a n d U bud Foo d Fe s t i v al , s he cons um e s a st e ady d iet of In d on es ian l i t e rat ure , l ang uage , ar t , musi c , film, food a n d , o f cour s e , coffe e . 37


SEDANG BERLANGSUNGGELOMBANG KOPI KEEMPAT RODNEY GLICK

‘Gelombang Keempat’ adalah ‘Gelombang Ketiga’ yang terjadi di negara penanam kopi. Da ri konsumsi masi f ko p i R o b u st a t a n p a memedul i k an asal nya, sa mp a i ko p i Ara b ik a sp e sia l y a ng be rasal dari temp a t t e r t e n t u , g e lo mb a n g keem pat kopi tengah me la n da k it a . Pa ra p e n a n a m ko pi k i ni me ni k mati “ko p i a sli” . P us a t uj i coba kopi mu la i b e rg e se r da ri n e g a ra neg ara pe ngonsumsi ko p i ke n e g a ra -n e g a ra penanam kopi . Pe nge t a h u a n lo k a l, ja rin g a n

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regional dan pe ni ngk a t a n day a b e li t e la h me n g u b a h pa s a r kopi duni a de nga n c a ra -c a ra b a ru y a n g belum pe rnah ada se b e lu mny a . Pro se s p e n a n a ma n , pengol ahan, pe nyangra ia n , da n p e nye du h a n ko p i, d engan di be k al i pe mah a ma n y a n g me n da la m a k a n as al-u sul nya, membuk a p e lu a n g b a g i ma sy a ra k a t d i negara pe nanam ko p i u n t u k b isa me n g e n a lk a n ra s a - rasa yang baru ke p a sa r du n ia . Per kembangan pesat p e n go la h a n ko p i di se a n t e ro A m eri k a Te ngah, Asi a Te n g g a ra da n Af rik a , me n ja di penggerak tre nd di neg a ra - n e g a ra b e rke mb a n g (Gl oba l Sou th ). Ci ri -ci ri p e ru b a h a n in i a n t a ra la innya adal ah be r tumb u h ny a p e n go la h a n sk a la kec il, pe nyangrai an s p e ci al t y co ffe e , k a fe -k a fe d eng an kopi si ngl e or ig in , de sa in p ro du k y a n g ber a ni , dan j uga per tu mb u h a n ke la s me n e n g a h .

Bila Gelombang Ketiga kopi terjadi di negara-negara pengonsumsi kopi, Gelombang Keempat ini merupakan ciri khas ‘Gelombang Ketiga’ yang tengah terjadi di negara penanam kopi, sekarang ini. M enurut defi ni si Ge l omb a n g Ko p i o le h Trish Ro thgeb, ki ta tengah b e ra da di g e lo mb a n g ke t ig a penikmat kopi , yai tu ke t ik a su mb e r b iji ko p i y a n g d ikenal i buk an l agi da ri n e g a ra ma n a t e t ap i da ri perkebunan mana, dan ke t ik a t u ju a n p e ny a n g ra ia n buka n l agi untuk menu t u p i t e t ap i u n t u k mengel uarkan karak te r u n ik ma sin g -ma sin g je n is biji kopi , dan ke ti ka ra sa me n ja di b e rsih , k h a s, da n mur ni . 39


B ila G e l ombang Ke ti ga ko p i t e rja di di n e g a ra neg ara pe ngonsumsi ko p i, G e lo mb a n g Ke e mp a t ini me rupak an ci ri kha s ‘G e lo mb a n g Ke t ig a ’ y a n g tengah te rj adi di ne gara p e n a n a m ko p i, se k a ra n g ini. Peng amatan R othgeb t e rh a dap ‘G e lo mb a n g Kopi’ berasal dari car a p a n da n g n e g a ra -n e g a ra B a ra t pe ni k mat kopi ‘y a n g b u k a n p e n a n a m kopi’ te rhadap trend ko p i du n ia . D i sisi la in , kons ume n di negara pe n a n a m ko p i me milik i s eja rah Gel ombang Kop iny a se n diri y a n g ja u h berbe da dari yang di milik i B a ra t . Ko p i a da la h bua h, obat, dan sel al u b e rsif a t p o lit is. R a t u sa n ta hun pe nj aj ahan, kem isk in a n , p e ra n g sa u da ra , kekuasaan di k tator, da n p e n in da sa n , me ru p a k a n ba gian sej arah yang tak t e ru c ap k a n da n je la s tid a k di bahas dal am d ia lo g - dia lo g G e lo mb a n g Ketiga.

N ega ra-negara pe nanam ko p i y a n g b e ra da d i a nt ara Gari s Bal i k U t a ra da n G a ris B a lik Selatan k i ni me ni k mat i s p e ci al t y co ffe e me re k a s end iri , kopi yang tel a h se ja k la ma die k sp o r – y a ng terbai k. Segal a p e n g e t a h u a n da n t a t a c ar a G e l ombang Ke ti ga y a n g t e rja di di n e g a ra neg ara sepe r ti Eropa, Ame rik a S e rik a t , da n Jepa n g se l ama berpul u h - p u lu h t a h u n k in i t e n g a h d ia d ap tasi , di terapkan , da n din ik ma t i di n e g a ra neg ara yang menghasi lk a n ko p i. 40


Selagi mereka disibukkan dalam menyempurnakan teknik dan teknologi mereka, para pelaku kopi di negara-negara penanam kopi belajar dengan giat; mempelajari gerakannya, mendengarkan dan mengumpulkan uang untuk mulai menanam dan mengolah kopi kualitas tinggi. P as ar s pecia lty coffee di n e g a ra p e n a n a m ko p i k in i m enik mati bi j i kopi m e n t a h y a n g dio la h de n g a n kua lit as ti nggi , yang d isa n g ra i o le h p e ny a n g ra i lo k a l d eng an sangat k reati f, da n dise du h o le h b a rist a lo ka l yang be rpe ngal a ma n . Fo k u s G e lo mb a n g Ketig a pada pe ni ngk at a n p ro du k si p e r t a n ia n t e la h m embe ntuk Ge l omban g Ke e mp a t . Gelo mbang Ke e mpat ko p i t e n g a h t e rja di sa a t ini – namun ti dak di n e g a ra -n e g a ra p e n ik ma t ko pi Ge l ombang Ke ti ga . Pa sa r-p a sa r G e lo mb a n g Ketig a ti dak menanam a t a u me n go la h ko p i y a n g d inikmati nya. Me reka b isa ja di p e rn a h b e r t e mu d eng an petani kopi da n b e rja b a t t a n g a n de n g a n ny a , pernah be rfoto di de p a n g e rb a n g p e rke b u n a n ko pi, namun me reka t ida k t in g g a l di n e g a ra t e mp a t penanaman dan pe ngola h a n dila k u k a n . Ku n ju n g a n ke perkebunan mungkin me ru p a k a n c a ra me re k a membe ri k an asal -usul p a da ko p i di p a sa r me re k a s end iri , karena me man g t ida k a da ja la n la in ; n e g a ra neg ara pe ni k mat kopi G e lo mb a n g Ke t ig a t ida k menghasi l kan kopi , ke c u a li Ta iwa n da n , b a g i se b a g ia n bes ar duni a i ni , Tai w an b u k a n la h n e g a ra . N eg ara-ne gara peni km a t sa n g a t b e rja ra k da ri a sa lus ul kopi nya. Pe nanama n , p e n go la h a n , p e ny a n g ra ia n , d an penye duhan kopi di t e mp a t a sa lny a , t e mp a t ko p i ters ebut di hasi l kan, m e ru p a k a n u n su r me n da sa r y ang me ndorong pe ralih a n da ri G e lo mb a n g Ke t ig a ke Gel ombang Keemp a t . 41


Kela s mene ngah yang b e r t u mb u h di n e g a ra -n e g a ra s eper ti Brazi l , Panama , Ke ny a , da n I n do n e sia , k in i mengal i hk an perhati an me re k a p a da k u a lit a s h a sil ag rikul turnya se ndi ri da n ko p i me n ja di b a g ia n u t a ma d ar i fokus mere k a. Ini a k a n t e rja di di n e g a ra ma n a pun, keti k a ada cuk up b a ny a k o ra n g y a n g me milik i s ejuml ah uang yang bi sa dib e la n ja k a n u n t u k h a l-h a l d an barang-barang yang b u k a n la g i ke b u t u h a n u t a ma kelua rga me reka. Gelo mbang Keempat me nye lin ap da ri b e la k a n g p a ra pela ku Gel ombang Ket ig a . S e la g i me re k a disib u k k a n d alam me nyempurnaka n t e k n ik da n t e k n o lo g i mereka, para pel aku ko p i di n e g a ra -n e g a ra p e n a n a m ko pi be l aj ar dengan gia t ; me mp e la ja ri g e ra k a n ny a , mend engarkan dan me n g u mp u lk a n u a n g u n t u k mu la i menanam dan me ngol ah ko p i k u a lit a s t in g g i. K in i, ko pi yang mere k a ol ah da n sa n g ra i diu t a ma k a n untuk pasar dome sti k me re k a , b u k a n u n t u k e k sp o r. Gelo mbang keempat me n g u b a h din a mik a , me n g g e se r titik be rat menj auh da ri p e mb e li lu a r n e g e ri, da n mempe r tahankan kopi k u a lit a s e k sp o r di p a sa r lo k a l. Pela nggan pun me nunt u t minu ma n de n g a n k u a lit a s y ang le bi h bai k dari ha sil p e r t a n ia n n e g a ra ny a se n diri. K ini ada ke l as mene nga h y a n g t e ru s b e r t u mb u h y a n g 42


m a mpu me mbe l i k ual i t a s in i. I n i p e ru b a h a n y a n g m engguncang. De ngan t o t a l ju mla h p e n du du k le b ih d ar i 2 mi lyar j i w a di se a n t e ro B ra zil, C h in a , I n dia , da n Ind o n e si a, pasar s peci al t y co ffe e do me st ik di se lu ru h s a buk penanam kopi t u mb u h sa n g a t p e sa t .

Gelombang Keempat berfokus pada kopi sebagai agen perubahan. A d a nya transparansi p a da ra n t a i p a so k a n b u k a n la h per g eseran radi kal kala u k it a b ic a ra t e n t a n g ko p i. Ini langkah be ri k utnya y a n g p a lin g ma su k a k a l s es udah Ge l ombang Ke t ig a . Ke t ik a k it a me n ja la n k a n us a ha pe nyangrai an s p e ci al t y co ffe e sk a la ke c il d i Sa n F ransi sco, Me l b o u rn e , a t a u Amst e rda m, m enyempatk an di ri m e n g u n ju n g i p e rke b u n a n ko p i d i negara pe nanam ko p i ma n ap u n se la ma b e b e rap a har i se harusnya di j ad ik a n la t ih a n p e ma sa ra n da n jed a dari ruti ni tas, baik b ila dila k u k a n , n a mu n t ida k m engguncang duni a. Ketika ki ta me nj al ank a n u sa h a p e ny a n g ra ia n , misa lny a d i Indone si a, dan dapat me n g h a b isk a n ko p i y a n g kita panen, mengol ah b iji ko p i me n t a h k it a se n diri, hany a k are na k i ta bi sa me la k u k a n ny a , k a re n a k it a tingg al hanya satu j am da ri p e rke b u n a n , di sin ila h awalnya se gal a se suat u me n ja di le b ih me n a rik . Ke t ik a 43


prod uk ki ta tel ah mem ilik i p a sa r lo k a l b e rk a t ja rin g a n peng ecer atau j ari ngan dist rib u si p e ny a n g ra ia n sk a la bes a r, mul ai l ah menj adi le b ih me mik a t . Ke t ik a h a rg a b i j i kopi me ntah yang te l ah dio la h me n ja du c u k u p t in g g i d i pa sar domesti k se h in g g a e k sp o r t a k la g i dip e rlu k a n, m a ka para pe nyangrai di Ame rik a , B e la n da , a t a u A us tral i a ti dak l agi bi sa me mb e li p ro du k k it a k a re n a kita t i dak l agi mengeksp o r. K a lik a n ske n a rio in i b e rib u kali, dan k i ta akan sada r b a h wa o ra n g - o ra n g di n e g a ra pena nam kopi ki ni ti d a k h a ny a b isa me n ik ma t i ko p i y ang lebi h menari k, tet ap i ju g a ko p i y a n g b e rk u a lit a s tingg i, yang ke l ak bi l a sa mp a i ke p a sa r e k sp o r a k a n berharga premi um.

Gelo mbang Keempat b e rfo k u s p a da ko p i se b a g a i ag en perubahan. Deng a n me ma n f a t k a n me dia so sia l, y a ng aw al nya merupaka n ke ru g ia n b a g i p a ra p e t a n i di wilay ah te rpe nci l , ki ni b e rb a lik me n ja di p o sit if . Pa ra petani di pe gunungan t e rp e n c il di S u lawe si, E t h io p ia , d an Col umbi a, k i ni dap a t b e rc a k ap -c a k ap lewa t du n ia m ay a de ngan para barist a di B o st o n , Pa ris, da n S t . Petersburg. 44


Penge tahuan kopi re g io n a l k in i t e rse b a r lu a s ke ko muni tas gl obal me l alu i b e rb a g a i p la t fo rm di I n t e rn et , y ang membawa ke pent in g a n -ke p e n t in g a n k h a s ko mu n it a s lo ka l ke tataran forum du n ia y a n g le b ih lu a s. G a g a sa n ga ga s an Gel ombang Ke e mp a t in i ke mu dia n dip a n t u lk a n kembal i ke ne gara pen ik ma t G e lo mb a n g Ke t ig a mela lui kesadaran akan a da ny a isu y a n g le b ih b e sa r y ang b e rdampak pada p a ra p e n g h a si ko p i. Te k n o lo g i membantu te rhubungny a ru mp u n - ru mp u n ko p i y a n g ber be da-beda dan te rp isa h -p isa h . D e n g a n b e rfo k u s pa d a i kl i m yang be rub a h , p ra k t ik - p ra k t ik p e r t a n ia n , kemiski nan, pe ngakua n a sa l u su l, p e le st a ria n a ir, pengol ahan, pene ntua n h a rg a p a sa r, g ay a p e nye du h a n d a n rasa, kopi te l ah m e n ja di p e ra n t a ra p e ru b a h a n kema syarakatan. Gelombang Ke e mpat ada la h ra n g k a ia n g a g a sa n Gelombang Ke ti ga saa t in i, y a n g t e rja di di n e g a ra penanam kopi , yang d it e rap k a n se c a ra k re a t if de n g a n d is ipli n yang baru. Di sin i, disu g u h i ko p i b u a t a n b a rist a y ang mengol ah bi j i kop i me n t a h ny a se n diri su n g g u h s a ngat berbeda de nga n disu g u h i ko p i y a n g h a ny a ‌ ha ny a e nak .

Per tama kal i di tul i s da n didisk u sik a n p a da b u la n Des embe r 2015. Per tama kal i di terbi tk a n p a da b u la n Ag u st u s 2 0 1 7

RO D NEY G LICK a d a la h s al ah s at u t o ko h S p e ci al t y C o ffe e t e rde p a n d i In d on es ia . I a m e r up ak an ‘Q ’ G rade r be r l i s e ns i SC AA , s a la h s eora n g d a r i s e ge l i nt i r p e ngo l ah bi j i kop i me nt ah d i In d on es ia , p e nyang rai , bar i s t a, dan s e ni m an kont emporer.

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HAPPENING NOW:COFFEE’S FOURTH WAVE RODNEY GLICK

‘4th Wave’ is ‘3rd Wave’ happening in coffee growing countries From the mass consump t io n o f R o b u st a c o f fe e o f unknown ori gi n, to sp e c ia lt y Ara b ic a c o f fe e f ro m known ori gi n, coffees ’ 4 t h wave is wa sh in g ove r us . The ve r y peopl e th a t p ro du c e c o f fe e a re n ow d rinki ng ‘ ori gi n’ . The locus of coffe e e x p e rime n t a t io n is sh if t in g away from coffee consumi n g c o u n t rie s in t o c o f fe e g rowin g c o unt ri es. Local k now le dg e , re g io n a l c o n n e c t io n s a n d inc rease d di sposabl e in c o me a re c h a n g in g t h e g lo b a l c o ffee market i n w ays t h a t a re ju st b e g in n in g t o b e appreci ated. By farmi n g , p ro c e ssin g , ro a st in g a n d brewi ng coffe e wi th a n in t ima t e u n de rst a n din g o f t h e i r prod u cts ori gi n, peop le in c o f fe e g rowin g c o u n t rie s a re ope ni ng new fl avou rs fo r t h e wo rld t o e x p lo re .

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Throughout Ce ntral Ame ric a , S o u t h E a st Asia a n d A fric a radi cal deve l op me n t s in c o f fe e p ro c e ssin g a re lea d ing thi s promi nent “ g lo b a l so u t h ” t re n d. M ic ro - lot proc e ssi ng, spe ci al ty co f fe e ro a st in g , sin g le o rig in c a fe s , experi mental product de sig n a n d a g rowin g middle c las s are al l poi nters t o c h a n g e . In Trish R othge b’s def in it io n o f C o f fe e Wave s we a re c urre ntly i n the thi rd wave o f c o f fe e c o n n o isse u rsh ip, where be ans are sourc e d f ro m f a rms in st e a d o f c o unt ri es, roasti ng i s a b o u t b rin g in g o u t ra t h e r t h a n d is gui si ng the uni que c h a ra c t e rist ic s o f e a c h b e a n , a n d flavour i s cl ean, di sti n c t a n d p u re . If 3rd Wave coffee hap p e n e d in c o f fe e c o n su min g c o unt ri es 4th Wave i s a ‘3 rd Wave ’ se n sib ilit y h ap p e n i n g in c offee produci ng cou n t rie s, n ow. C o u n t rie s t h a t g row coffee are the n ew c e n t e rs o f 4 t h Wave .

If 3rd Wave coffee happened in coffee consuming countries, 4th Wave is a ‘3rd Wave’ sensiblity happening in coffee producing countries, now. Rothge b’s’s obser vati on s o f ‘C o f fe e Wave s’ de rive s from a We ste rn consu min g , ‘n o n c o f fe e - g rowin g ’ c o unt r y’s vi ew of the wo rld’s c o f fe e t re n ds. Co ns ume rs i n coffee p ro du c in g c o u n t rie s h oweve r, have thei r ow n hi stor y o f C o f fe e Wave s b u t t h e ir his to r y i s a ve r y di ffe re n t o n e t o t h e We st . C o f fe e is a frui t, a drug and has a lway s b e e n p o lit ic a l. Hund re ds of ye ars of c o lo n iza t io n , p ove r t y, c iv il wa rs , d ic ta t orshi ps and re p re ssio n t o n a me ju st a few a re a ll par t of thi s unspoke n h ist o r y a n d de f in it e ly n o t d is c usse d i n the curren t 3 rd Wave dia lo g u e . 47


From the Tropi c of Ca n c e r t o t h e Tro p ic o f C ap ric o rn c o unt ri es that produc e c o f fe e a re n ow c o n su min g their ow n Spe ci al ty cof fe e drin k s, t h e c o f fe e t h a t ha s hi stori cal ly be e n e x p o r t e d - t h e go o d st u f f . All the knowl edge and pr a c t ic e s o f 3 rd Wave h ap p e n in g in c ountri e s such as Eu ro p e , U S A, a n d J ap a n fo r d ec a des are now bei n g a dap t e d, ap p lie d a n d e n joye d i n c o unt ri es that grow c o f fe e . The spe ci al ty coffee m a rke t in p ro du c in g c o u n t rie s now dri nk s hi gh qual it y p ro c e sse d g re e n b e a n s t h a t a re c reati vely roaste d by lo c a l ro a st e rs, a n d b rewe d by ex peri ence d l ocal b a rist a s. A 3 rd Wave fo c u s towa rds i mprovi ng agric u lt u ra l p ro du c e is de f in in g the 4th Wave .

4th Wave coffee i s hap p e n in g rig h t n ow- b u t n o t in 3 rd Wave coffee consumi n g c o u n t rie s. T h e se ma rke t s do no t farm or proce ss t h e c o f fe e t h ey drin k . T h ey may m eet a farme r and sha ke h a n ds wit h o n e , h ave t h e ir pho to take n standi ng a t t h e f a rm g a t e b u t t h ey do n ’t live in the countr y w h e re t h e g rowin g a n d p ro c e ssin g is d one . T he farm vi si t may go in so meway t o p rov ide the c offe e ’s provenanc e in t h e ir own ma rke t p la c e b u t there ’s no way around it ; 3 rd Wave c o f fe e c o n su min g c o unt ri es don’t grow c o f fe e , ap a r t f ro m Ta iwa n a n d, fo r muc h of the worl d, Taiwa n isn ’t a c o u n t r y. 48


Whilst they have been busy refining their techniques and technologies, coffee people in coffee producing countries have been studying hard; learning the moves, listening and earning money to start growing and processing high quality coffee. Co ns umi ng countri e s a re dist a n t f ro m o rig in . C o f fe e fa rm ing, proce ssi ng, ro a st in g a n d b rewin g a t t h e s ource , where coffe e is a c t u a lly p ro du c e d, a re t h e fund amental i ngre di en t s driv in g t h e t ra n sit io n f ro m 3rd to 4th Wave . The growi ng mi ddl e cla ss in c o u n t rie s like B ra zil, P ana ma, Ke nya and Indo n e sia a re n ow t u rn in g their atte nti on to the q u a lit y o f t h e ir own a g ric u lt u ral prod u ce and coffe e i s b e c o min g a ma jo r p a r t o f t h e ir fo c us . T hi s happens i n a ny c o u n t r y wh e re yo u h ave enough peopl e havi ng a de q u a t e mo n ey t o sp e n d o n goo d s that i s no l onge r e sse n t ia l fo r t h e ir fa mily’s sur vi val . 4th Wave has snuck u p f ro m b e h in d 3 Wave rs. Wh ilst they have been busy re f in in g t h e ir t e c h n iq u e s a n d tec hnol ogi e s, coffe e p e o p le in c o f fe e p ro du c in g c o unt ri es have be e n s t u dy in g h a rd; le a rn in g t h e moves , lis teni ng and e arni ng mo n ey t o st a r t g rowin g a n d proc e ssi ng hi gh qual i t y c o f fe e . C o f fe e p ro c e sse d a n d roa s ted pri mari ly for t h e ir do me st ic ma rke t s a n d n o t fo r ex por t. 4th Wave is c h a n g in g t h e dy n a mic , sh if t in g the emphasi s aw ay from ove rse a s b u ye rs, a n d ke e p in g the expor t qual i ty co f fe e in t h e lo c a l ma rke t . Cus tomers are de man din g b e t t e r q u a lit y drin k s f ro m their ow n countr y’s a g ric u lt u ra l p ro du c t s. T h e re is a g rowi ng mi ddl e cl ass t h a t c a n n ow p ay fo r t h is q u a lit y. This is a se i smi c shi ft . Wit h a c o mb in e d p o p u la t io n o f 49


over two bi l l i on peop le t h ro u g h o u t B ra zil, C h in a , Ind ia and Indonesi a th e do me st ic S p e c ia lt y Co ffee markets throu g h o u t t h e c o f fe e g rowin g b e lt a re boomi ng. Hav ing transpare ncy i n t h e su p p ly c h a in is n o t a to tally radi cal shi ft i n c o f fe e t h o u g h t . I t wa s re a lly jus t the next l ogi cal st e p fo r 3 rd Wave c o f fe e . W hen you’re runni ng a mic ro -ro a st in g sp e c ia lt y c o ffee busi ness i n San Fra n sisc o, M e lb o u rn e , o r A ms terdam, havi ng a c h a n c e t o go t o f a rm in a ny c o ffee growi ng countr y fo r a few day s is a ma rke t in g exerci se and a l i ttl e bit o f a b re a k f ro m ro u t in e , nic e to do, but not ear t h - sh a t t e rin g . W hen you’re ope rati ng a ro a st in g b u sin e ss, fo r exam pl e , i n Indone si a a n d h ave t h e c h a n c e t o sp e n d the c offe e har ve st proc e ssin g yo u r own g re e n b e a n s bec ause you can, becau se yo u live o n e h o u r f ro m the farms, then thi s st a r t s t o b e c o me in t e re st in g . W hen your product alre a dy h a s a lo c a l ma rke t du e to your re tai l outl e ts o r wh o le sa le ro a st in g d is tri buti on ne twork s, t h e n t h is b e c o me s eve n mo re a ttra cti ve . Whe n the p ric e s fo r yo u r p ro c e sse d g reen be ans are hi gh e n o u g h wit h in t h e do me st ic m a rket to make e xpo r t u n n e c e ssa r y t h e n t h e roa s ter i n USA, H ol l an d o r Au st ra lia wo n ’t g e t a 50


c ha nce to buy your pro du c t b e c a u se yo u ’re n o t expor ti ng. Mul ti ply this sc e n a rio t h o u sa n ds o f t ime s a nd you’ l l re al i ze that p e o p le in c o f fe e g rowin g c o unt ri es can now not o n ly drin k mo re in t e re st in g c o ffee but those spe c ia lt y c o f fe e s t h a t do event ual ly make i t i nt o t h e e x p o r t ma rke t may well fe tch a pre mi um p ric e .

4th Wave focuses on coffee as an agency for change. 4th Wave focuses on c o f fe e a s a n a g e n c y fo r c h a n g e . Us ing soci al medi a, w h a t wa s o n c e t h e f a rme rs lo t to live i n re l ati ve i sol a t io n is n ow t u rn e d in t o a po s itive . Isol ated moun t a in f a rme rs in S u lawe si, Ethiopi a and Col umbi a c a n n ow c h a t o n lin e wit h ba ris tas i n Boston, Paris a n d S t Pe t e rsb u rg . Reg ional coffe e k now le dg e is n ow sh a re d wit h in a g lo bal communi ty thro u g h nu me ro u s I n t e rn e t platforms bri ngi ng di st in c t lo c a l c o mmu n it y c o nc erns i nto a broade r, wo rldwide fo ru m. T h e se 4 Wave i de as are the n re f le c t e d b a c k in t o 3 rd Wave c o ns umi ng countri e s t h ro u g h a g re a t e r awa re n e ss o f is s ues effe cti ng pe ople g rowin g c o f fe e . Te c h n o lo g y is helpi ng to connect t h e dif fe re n t disp a ra t e c o f fe e tr ibes. Focuse d on a ch a n g in g c lima t e , a g ric u lt u ra l pr a c tices, pove r ty, accre dit a t io n o f o rig in , wa t e r 51


c o ns e r vati on, proce ssin g , ma rke t p ric in g , st y le s o f brewi ng and taste , cof fe e b e c o me s t h e me diu m fo r s oc ietal re form. 4th Wave i s a current se t o f 3 rd Wave ide a s happeni ng i n coffe e p ro du c in g c o u n t rie s c re a t ive ly applied wi th new di scip lin e . Wh e re , b e in g se r ve d a c offee by a bari sta w h o a c t u a lly p ro c e sse d t h e ir g reen be ans i s vastly dif fe re n t t h a n b e in g se r ve d a c o ffee that i s j ust we ll… we ll- ma de .

First written and discussed in December 2015 First published in August 2017 Rodney G lick is on e o f I ndo ne s i a’s l e adi ng S p e ci al t y C offe e per s on a lities . H e i s a S C AA Li ce ns e d ‘Q ’ Grader, on e of a few h i g h- e nd I ndone s i an g re e n be an proc e ss or s , a roa s ter, bar i s t a and cont e m p o rar y ar t i s t . 52


PHOTO ESSSAY

The Rwa Bhineda of Bali's Coffee Culture MARK L CHAVES R IN GKASAN B AHASA I N D O N ES I A - Fot o es a i in i men gu rai di nam i k a duni a kop i di Bal i yang pe nuh d en ga n oks imoron - Ji ka filos ofi Tao memi l i k i Y in dan Ya n g , Bal i H i ndu me mi liki R wa Bhi ne da , yai t u p r i ns i p ke har m oni s an dal am perb ed a a n - Subyek ya n g d ia mb il a dal ah I nfi ni t y C o ffe e di S anur yang anti -ste reotype d an H e l m e n C offe e di D e np as ar yang cen d eru n g leb ih m o de r n - M asin g-ma s in g tempa t ko p i di p as ang s e cara be rda mpin ga n u n tu k m e nonj o l k an p e r be daan s e k al i g us ke harmon is a n mereka The Meandering Initia lly, I pl anne d to v isu a lly p re se n t t h e b a c k st o rie s o f mai nly two pe opl e: I rf a n o f H e lme n C o f fe e in Denp asar and Gung B a g u s o f I n f in it y C o f fe e in S a nu r. 53


B ut, somethi ng i nsi de me a b o u t B a li’s c o f fe e c u lt u re ha s be e n tuggi ng at me sin c e t h e day I a rrive d. Wh a t ’s c a lling to me i s Bal i ’s ox y mo ro n ic re la t io n sh ip with coffe e . This puzzl i ng rel ati on sh ip, re a lly c e n t re s a ro u n d o ne que sti on: “Why do e sn ’t B a li ( like t h e re st o f Ind onesi a) propor ti on a lly re c o g n ise I n do n e sia ’s d om inance i n the coffe e wo rld? ” I t ’s t h is y i n a n d yang (o r irony) that I’ m grav it a t in g t owa rds a n d n ow wish to prese nt i n my e ssay. Eloquently e nough, Bali h a s R wa Bhi ne da- B a li’s y i n a n d yang phi l osophy. Rwa Bhi ne da c o mp ile s eve r y t h in g to get he r rathe r ni cely. I h o p e yo u a g re e . The Rwa Bhineda of B a li’s Cof fe e Cu lt u re A c c ordi ng to Sangtu ( S a n g Ke t u t o f B a li S ile n t Retre at), Rwa Bh in ed a is a k in t o t h e du a lism o f I n dia n philo sophy or to the Ta o o f C h in e se p h ilo so p hy. R wa Bh in ed a i s the Balin e se p h ilo so p hy fo r t h e ha rm ony of opposi tes . In thi s e ssay, two tre n din g c o f fe e sc e n e s a re p re se n t ed a s c ontrasti ng pe rspe c t ive s. As in t ru e R wa Bhi ne da fa s hion, ne i the r scene is go o d o r b a d, a n d e a c h o n e need s to coexi st to b rin g b a la n c e a n d o rde r. On o ne si de of the dual i t y sp e c t ru m is t h e mo de rn a n d c rea tive ly i ncl i ne d, H e lme n C o f fe e in t h e c ap it a l c ity D e npasar. On the o t h e r side is t h e su rp risin g ly refreshi ng be ach anti - st e re o t y p e , I n f in it y C o f fe e in t h e s ea s ide re sor t town of S a nu r. D ipt ychs I’ve p ai red each i mage wit h it s o p p o sit e . T h is p a irin g a d heres to the Rwa Bhi ne da t h e me . I t h in k t h e dip t y c h s a re a compel l i ng forma t fo r t h e sp irit (t ak s u/ j i wa) o f this e ssay.

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D ipt ych captions yi n and yang | the i ro ny o f B a li’s c o f fe e sc e n e gri tty dic hotomy | coa rse ve rsu s re f in e d-a ma t t e r o f taste ke ttl e harmony | mak in g ko p i B a li a n d V 6 0 b rewin g s ing le ori gi n Ki ntamani 1 8 0 degrees | Denpasa r & S a nu r, t wo e x t re me s ye t the s ame i sl and d i ffe rent fac ades | Ba li’s u rb a n a n d b e a c h hut a rchi tecture e qu al opposing view s | t h e v iew f ro m H e lme n Co ffee i n Denpasar an d f ro m I n f in it y C o f fe e in S a nu r cup of java | coffe e c o mfo r t in t h e c it y a n d o n the b e ach B al i ’s c ampur | Indon e sia ’s dive rse c u lt u re s c o me to get he r and bl end i n B a li; I rf a n o rig in a lly f ro m E a st Jav a and Gung Bagus o rig in a lly f ro m B a li. to o l s of the trade | u rb a n de sig n a n d war ung c hic styl e sa me same but differen t | wh e re t h in g s a re c re a t e d a t Hel men i n Denpasa r a n d I n f in it y in S a nu r th e balanc e | musi c sp e a k s t h e u n ive rsa l la n g u a g e in Denp asar and Sanur

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M A R K L CHAVES is a p ho t og rap he r, w r i t e r, and di g i t al me di a con s u lta n t b a s ed i n Bal i , I ndo ne s i a. Be fore mor ph in g in to a freela n ce r, he s l ung co de and m anage d we b t ea ms for For tu n e 500 co m p ani e s . M ar k ’s fav o ur i t e me di t ation s a re a good boo k w i t h a cap p ucci no , fe e di ng st ray ca ts a n d d ogs , a n d w i s hi ng t o be a roc k s t ar i n hi s ne xt life .

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