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Newsletter of the Australian Institute of Criminology / Number 01 / April 2009

ISSN 1836-8026

AIC co-hosts international anti-money laundering conference Anti-Money Laundering and CounterTerrorism Financing Conference 2009: Managing Risk: Australian and International Perspectives

Attorney-General Robert McClelland opens the conference.

The Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) joined with the Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC), the AttorneyGeneral’s Department and the Australian Bankers’ Association in hosting the international conference on Anti-Money Laundering and CounterTerrorism Financing (AML/CTF) in Sydney from 1–2 April. The flagship AML/CTF event in Australia and throughout the Asia-Pacific region

The conference was opened with

for 2009, the theme of the conference

speeches by Australian Attorney-

was Managing Risk: Australian and

General Robert McClelland and

International Perspectives.

Secretary of the Attorney-General’s

Some 250 key stakeholders from the

Department, Roger Wilkins.

broad range of industries covered by

The AIC’s visiting fellow, Professor

AML/CTF legislation were in attendance

Michael Levi, presented the dinner

at the Hilton Hotel to discuss insights

address on the impressive political

by the AIC’s General Manager of

and strategies on the management and

history of anti-money laundering and

Research, Dr Judy Putt.

mitigation of AML/CTF risks. The event

counter-terrorism financing and

was the first of its kind in Australia and

explored what might be the limits

Dr Russell Smith presented a paper in

comprised keynote addresses, panel

of such activity.

discussions and concurrent sessions provided by a range of distinguished international and Australian speakers from both the private and public sectors.

the panel session on Global Trends in Money Laundering which reviewed the

A number of well-attended panel

key outcomes of the AIC’s AML/CTF

sessions encouraged debate and

research program by examining the

interaction, including a panel session

crime displacement risks associated

on the Wickenby investigation chaired

with the AML/CTF regulatory regime. continues on page 2…

Australia’s national research and knowledge centre on crime and criminal justice


AIC analyst wins Fulbright Scholarship Australian Institute of Criminology

The recent author of AIC reports in the

(AIC) research analyst Dr Kim Kwang

areas of cybercrime and anti-money

(Raymond) Choo has been awarded a

laundering, including Future directions in

Fulbright Scholarship to visit the United

technology-enabled crime: 2007–09,

States to study the future cybercrime

Raymond has a PhD in Information

threat environment.

Security from the Queensland University of Technology and joined the Institute in

Fulbright scholars, students and teachers

2006. He is also a Visiting Fellow at the

are selected on the basis of academic

Australian National University’s ARC Centre

merit and excellence reflecting the mutual

of Excellence in Policing and Security,

interests of the partner nations. Since its

and a member of the International

inception in Australia, over 2,500

Consultant Group (Research) in the joint

Australians and 1,800 Americans have

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

been recognised as Fulbright scholars

and Korean Institute of Criminology ‘Virtual

and undertaken study and research

Forum against Cybercrime’ Program.

in our respective countries.

The AIC’s Acting Director, Tony Marks,

cybercrime risks and the development of

Dr Choo has been awarded the 2009

congratulated Raymond on his scholarship

responses for law enforcement agencies

Fulbright Professional Australia–US

when the 23 recipients were announced

and policymakers in neutralising those

Alliance Studies Scholarship, sponsored

in Hobart on 12 March.

risks and preventing harm to the

by the Department of Foreign Affairs and

‘This is welcome recognition of the calibre

community. His visit will also help to

Trade. He will spend three months at the

of the AIC’s researchers and their

Rutgers University’s School of Criminal

commitment to high-quality, forward-

Justice and the Palo Alto Research Center

looking research, particularly in new and

to undertake the project.

emerging types of crime,’ Mr Marks said.

Welcome to the first edition of Brief Welcome to the first issue of a new publication for AIC stakeholders—Brief. The newsletter has been designed with the aim of providing a regular summary of Institute research and activity in a convenient and cost-effective format. We hope it will help to build closer ties between the Australian Institute of Criminology and our partners in the law enforcement and criminal justice communities. Each issue will provide a summary of recent AIC activity with our stakeholders and partners. It will include a list of recent research publications and event outcomes and look at topical areas of research and towards coming events. Brief will also highlight staff profiles, AIC services and innovations. It will be available on our website at www.aic.gov.au/publications/brief/. The electronically produced colour magazine is compiled from contributions by research and communications staff, edited and designed in-house and will be distributed via email to all AIC stakeholders three times a year, with editions in April, August and December.

‘Raymond’s US studies will complement his research at the Institute in identifying

strengthen ties and develop cooperative arrangements between Australia and its international criminological research partners.’

…continued from page 1 Conference delegates included decision-makers from banking and finance, gambling, money service and other businesses, industry bodies, government and the education sector. Sponsors for the conference were the Australasian Casino Association, Arab Bank Australia and Western Union. The objectives of the conference were to establish a government-led forum where industry and government could inform and guide attendees on the current thinking and best practices in implementing AML/CTF legislation. It also provided an insight into current international standards and objectives and useful knowledge to motivate better compliance from reporting entities. The conference program, including presentations by key speakers, is

We look forward to continuing our strong, collaborative relationships and keeping you

available from the conference website

abreast of our activities.

www.aic.gov.au/conferences/2009-anti-

Tony Marks | Acting Director

money_laundering/index.html

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Drugs and Offending Online data tool In November 2008, the Australian Institute

between drugs and crime and, in particular, research into the

of Criminology launched a new and improved

causes and consequences of the ‘heroin drought’ of 2001

version of the Drugs and Offending online data tool that provides enhanced data

(see Figure 1 for an illustration of the significant fall in heroin use in Parramatta). Committed to improving public dissemination of the DUMA

analysis capability in an easy-to-navigate

data, the AIC has released the new online data tool for public

user interface.

use through the AIC’s website (www.aic.gov.au). With data from 1999–2007 already uploaded, users can

Developed in conjunction with Space-Time Research, the

access both time-series and cross-sectional data for a range

new online tool is built using data from the AIC’s Drug Use

of data items including: test positive and self-reported drug

Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) program—Australia’s only

use; most serious offence types; and a range demographic

quarterly collection of drug use and criminal offending data

indicators such as gender, age, residential and marital status.

from individuals detained by the police.

In addition, the tool also allows users to drill further into the

DUMA has been an ongoing data collection and monitoring

DUMA data and perform basic variable-restricted cross-

program since 1999 and currently operates at eight police

tabulations. To this end, users could generate statistics to

stations in seven jurisdictions including New South Wales,

answer research questions as specific as ‘What proportion

Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and

of married and single 19 to 24-year-old males in Bankstown,

the Northern Territory. Data from the program has played

NSW test positive to cannabis, heroin or amphetamines?’

a significant role in Australian research regarding the link

(see Figure 2).

Figure 1

Figure 2

number 01 / April 2009

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Ground-breaking conference on domestic-related homicide More than 200 delegates

A major focus of the conference was

• Dr Myrna Dawson, University of Guelph

attended the AIC’s highly

domestic-related homicide. In Australia,

• Dr David Martin, Australian National

successful International

alongside other countries, this type of homicide is proving the most resistant to

Conference on Homicide

prevention efforts. The conference brought

in Surfers Paradise, from

together a number of international and

3–5 December 2008. Homicide is the most serious criminal offence in every country in the world and this conference highlighted research and practice in the field. The first of its kind in the southern hemisphere, the conference attracted much attention and both national and international interest.

brief number 01 / April 2009

• Dr James Robertson, Australian Federal Police

national experts with a wealth of practical

• Dr Marieke Liem, Utrecht University

knowledge and experience on domestic-

• The Hon. Dame Dr Carol Kidu, Minister

related homicide.

for Social Development, Government of

Keynote speakers included:

Papua New Guinea

• Professor Rebecca Dobash, University of Manchester • Professor Russell Dobash, University of Manchester • Dr Carolyn Rebecca Block, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority

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University

• Associate Professor Mark Kebbell, Griffith University • Carolyn Harris-Johnson, University of Western Australia • Heather Nancarrow, Central Queensland University


Participants included law enforcement representatives, academics and students, practitioners working in domestic violence, health and crime prevention and youth services, policy makers and interested members of the general public. The conference revealed a strong

Coming events at the AIC

dedication to prevention by police,

Occasional seminars

researchers and practitioners, with many

7 April 2009—Canberra

of the presentations focusing on this

Measuring the harm from serious and

challenge. A notable shift in practice

organised crimes: some reflections

and thought was demonstrated which is a sign of progress in efforts to prevent and reduce domestic violence. Feedback received from different groups at the conference was positive, in particular from the police. Participants gained value from the conference through their exposure to the latest research, with the collaborative nature of much of the work presented encouraging many to see the benefits of working with researchers on the topic. An innovative format was adopted for the conference, which featured panel sessions on topical issues in homicide. Participants at the Homicide in Popular Culture panel included John Silvester, crime reporter for The Age and editor/author of the popular Underbelly series of true crime stories, along with journalist and author Adam Shand and former Queensland radio personality and prolific author Sandy McCutcheon. Participants in the domestic-related homicide and the criminal justice system

Visiting Fellow to the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC), Professor Michael Levi of Cardiff University, will be conducting a seminar for AIC stakeholders. The seminar will be held from 2–3pm at the Australian Institute of Criminology. 15 April 2009—Canberra Police and other law enforcement use of innovative technologies to communicate How do law enforcement agencies use new technologies, particularly Web 2.0 and beyond to share and develop knowledge with other agencies and the public? What are the opportunities and challenges, particularly in security-conscious workplaces? Frans-Jan Mulschlegel, Project Manager, International Police Expertise Platform, will use his extensive experience in web-based information to explore existing services and future possibilities. From 10.30am – 12.30pm at the Australian Institute of Criminology. If you are interested in attending either of these presentations, please email aic.events@aic.gov.au for more information.

panel included Jonty Bush, Homicide Victims Support Group, Qld; Ross Ray

Conferences

QC, President, Law Council of Australia;

12–13 August 2009—Sydney

Paul Rutledge, Deputy Director, Qld

Indigenous young people, crime and justice conference

Director of Public Prosecutions; and Brian Wilkins, Head of Homicide, Qld Police. The conference was funded by the Australian Government as part of its 2007 election commitment to reduce violence against women and children. Each of the plenary speakers’

The Australian Institute of Criminology, in partnership with the NSW Commission for Children and Young People and the NSW Attorney-General’s Department, will be hosting a conference on the latest research, practical applications and profiling of best practice in the area of Indigenous young people, crime and justice. The conference will:

presentations from the conference

• Showcase the latest research in the area

is on the AIC website, including links

• Highlight case studies of successful practice in Indigenous justice, crime

to recordings which enable visitors to listen to each talk at www.aic.gov.au/ conferences/2008-homicide/presentations. html. A compilation of selected papers and presentations is expected to be

prevention and reduction • Profile examples of evidence-based policies and programs • Identify gaps in research For more information on the conference visit www.aic.gov.au/conferences

published by the Institute later this year. number 01 / April 2009

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Recent research publications from the AIC

Facts & Figures This annual publication provides a statistical overview of the most recent available national information on crime in Australia, and is intended to serve as a ready reference. The publication presents statistics on the numbers and types of recorded crime, their place of occurrence, victim details, responses of criminal justice agencies and government resources to deal with crime and corrections.

Good governance for effective crime prevention The contemporary approach to the delivery of community crime prevention work is quite a sophisticated activity when viewed from the perspective of modern management practices. Typically, crime prevention programs are built on the idea of collaborative multi-agency action involving a number of different initiatives and participants.

AICrime Reduction Matters

Crime Facts Info

2008 Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards

Mental disorders and incarceration history

The annual Australian Crime and Violence Prevention Awards were announced in October 2008 by the federal Minister for Home Affairs. The Awards, a joint initiative of the Australian, state, and territory governments recognise outstanding community-based projects that prevent or reduce crime and violence. The winning projects, selected from a field of 67 nominated from around Australia, focused primarily on domestic and family violence, youth, and alcohol-related crime.

In the 12 months preceding an ABS survey, the incidence of any mental disorder in individuals who had at some time been incarcerated was greater than in those who had not.

The carriage and use of knives by young people The most common type of weapon category used in violent crime in Australia is that of knives. There has been widespread community concern about the use of knives in crime, and particularly about young people carrying or using knives. This is in part due to media attention on recent violent incidents involving young people and knives. Some states have already reformed weapon laws to outlaw the carriage of knives in public, and there are plans for making further restrictions, including restricting young persons’ ability to purchase knives.

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to describe those forms of trafficking in persons of which the exploitative purpose relates to a person’s labour. There are, however, debates over the scope and meaning of these terms. This brief provides an introduction to key terms and notes some of the issues that remain less settled. Charges and offences of money laundering There are currently 19 different offences of money laundering available under the Criminal Code, and these can be classified into two types: those linked to the proceeds of crime (funds generated by an illegal activity) and those linked to the instruments of crime (funds used to conduct an illegal activity).

Monitoring Reports

Australian internet security at home

Firearm theft in Australia 2006–07

Australians who use computers at home make extensive use of internet security devices, according to the AusCERT home users computer security survey 2008.

The National Firearms Theft Monitoring Program (NFTMP) was established at the Australian Institute of Criminology following a recommendation by the (then) Australasian Police Ministers’ Council Firearms Policy Working Group for the long-term monitoring of firearm theft. The program is funded by the Australian Government under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 for a period of four years, starting 1 July 2006. This report represents the second in the NFTMP-funded series and the third examining annual firearm theft data.

Juror understanding of judicial instructions The overwhelming majority of jurors understand judicial instructions and judges’ summing-up of evidence in criminal trials, according to a report by the New South Wales (NSW) Law Reform Commission and the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.

Transnational Crime Brief Labour trafficking: key concepts and issues At the international level, there is no single, clear definition of ‘labour trafficking’. Arguably, the expression can be used

Research and Public Policy Series Using crime prevention to reduce deliberate bushfires in Australia Based on previous research undertaken by the Australian Institute of Criminology


it seems that approximately half of all vegetations fires—some 20,000 to 30,000 each year—are deliberately lit, and that arson in all forms costs the Australian community $1.6 billion annually. Although it can be very difficult to identify whether a fire is deliberately lit and even more challenging to identify who is responsible, there are still a range of strategies and interventions that may reduce the likelihood of bushfire arson occurring.

Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice Adolescence, pornography and harm The probability that a young person will have exposure to pornography prior to the age of 18—the legal age in Australia at which it is permissible to view and purchase such materials—is very high. Concern exists, among both parents and policymakers, that widespread, premature exposure to

pornography is changing the nature of sexual attitudes, behaviours, and intimate relationships and potentially contributing to sexual violence in society. Gauging public opinion on sentencing: can asking jurors help? Using jurors to ascertain public opinion on sentencing has a number of advantages over other methods. Jurors’ opinions are based on informed judgements rather than uninformed, intuitive responses and they have detailed knowledge of the offence and a sense of the offender as a real person. Using a sample of jurors from Tasmanian courts, this study examined the utility of using jurors to gauge public opinion on sentencing and as a means of informing the public about crime and sentencing issues. Adolescent stalking: offence characteristics and effectiveness of intervention orders To date, research on stalking has focused almost exclusively on adults. This paper examines the nature of stalking among adolescents to determine the

characteristics of stalkers and their victims and the utility of intervention orders for managing this behaviour. Career trajectories of women in policing in Australia At 30 June 2006, 23 percent of Australian police were women, almost double the percentage in 1996. Despite this change, the issues relevant a decade earlier remain today, namely difficulties in recruitment and deployment and the low representation of women within senior ranks. This paper examines the career paths of one cohort of police sworn in during 1991 in a number of jurisdictions, to examine what differences, if any, exist between the male and female personnel in terms of recruitment, rank attainment, departures and deployment.

How to order AIC publications All recent publications are available for free download from the AIC website. Or complete a publications order form from www.aic.gov.au/publications/order.html

Online survey on trafficking in persons The Australian Institute of Criminology is conducting a national online survey which asks respondents for their understanding of trafficking in persons and seeks to examine attitudes towards related issues.

Australian Institute of Criminology

People trafficking online survey

The survey was piloted in the Australian Capital Territory in December 2008 and will be running nationally throughout April 2009. The questionnaire will be made available in paper form to participants who do not have access to the online version. The Australian Institute of Criminology received funding from the Australian Government for a four-year program of research on trafficking in persons in 2007. The overarching objective of the program is to contribute to the effectiveness of the Australian and international response to trafficking in persons by conducting research which builds on the existing knowledge base. A component of this work seeks to examine perceptions of key stakeholders and their awareness of trafficking in persons and relevant issues. Examining the community’s understanding of trafficking and expectations of who victims are believed to be are valuable for informing policy and practice in the area. This information is important for two reasons: members of the community are more likely than the authorities to come into contact with trafficked persons and the juries before which such cases are likely to be tried are also drawn from the wider community. Such information can shape future awareness raising activities and shed light on issues which can have a significant impact on trial outcomes. The survey can be accessed online from the AIC website.

number 01 / April 2009

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The AIC JV Barry Library Australia’s pre-eminent crime

collection in recent years. Although print

evaluating the resources they require and

and criminal justice library

material is still important, the bulk of new

specific research and reference assistance.

additions to the library database are in

It also is an active participant in the

digital formats. The transitory nature of

national interlibrary loans system, where

much web-based material, particularly

it has always lent or supplied around three

has been an important contributor to Australian

government reports, brings with it a new

times as much as it has requested.

criminology and the

set of challenges, but the library hopes to provide a relatively stable resource

One of the services to AIC researchers

Australian library sector since its establishment with

base into the future.

the Institute in the mid 1970s.

The library’s database provides most

month, a list of recent publications and

of the resources in the database of

websites in a variety of subject areas is

the Indigenous Justice Clearinghouse, a

added to the AIC website. Alerts are sent

web-based resource of research-based

out, either by RSS feed set up from the

information for Indigenous policy, projects

website, or by email. The subjects covered

and practice. Library staff monitor new

are Alcohol and violence; Crime prevention;

resources from many sources for

Cybercrime; Drugs; Evaluation; Financial

information to add to the Clearinghouse.

crime; Homicide; Indigenous justice;

The Institute maintains this website in

Juvenile justice; People trafficking;

collaboration with the NSW Attorney

Recidivism; and Sexual assault. To be

General’s Department.

added to the mailing lists for any of these,

The library provides a range of services

contact front.desk@aic.gov.au noting

The library is named for Sir John (Jack) Barry, one of the founders of the study of criminology in Australia and a strong supporter for the establishment of the Institute. The library’s primary purpose is to support AIC researchers, by keeping them up to date with the knowledge in their fields of work and interest and in finding and selecting information as they conduct in-depth research. Researchers comment that the library saves them substantial time they would need to find material themselves—a critical difference when deadlines are tight.

to Institute staff, from subscriptions to

is now available to external researchers, policymakers and practitioners. Each

which of the alerts are required.

key journals and databases, finding and

Since its inception, the library has identified new material in Australian criminology and recorded the details in CINCH, the Australian criminology bibliographic database. With professional subject indexing and abstracts, the database is a primary source of information for students and practitioners throughout the world. It has been a part of the Informit family of online databases for more than 20 years. Like most libraries, the JV Barry Library has been changing the focus of its

Subscribe now!

The Australian Institute of Criminology regularly releases publications and alerts which can be subscribed to by following the links below. You can also subscribe to this newsletter to ensure you receive every issue by emailing your details to front.desk@aic.gov.au Email alerting service www.aic.gov.au/publications/mailingList.html New releases by RSS www.aic.gov.au/aic_news.xml Library alerts by RSS www.aic.gov.au/library/alerts/jvbarry.xml

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© Australian Institute of Criminology 2009. GPO Box 2944, Canberra ACT 2601. Tel +61 2 6260 9200. Fax +61 2 6260 9299. Email front.desk@aic.gov.au. Website http://www.aic.gov.au

service, the Institute’s library


AIC - Brief