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Schizophonic Retreats

Dimploma Unit 18 The Energy Attack Unit 2012/ 2013

The Schizophonic Retreats Explorations into the materiality of sound as a medium to connect people to their natural environment.

Ardi Rexhepi

Tutors: Enric Ruiz Geli Edouard Cabay Pablo Ros

Architectural Association School of Architecture


Schizophonic Retreats

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Sound Explorations

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Diploma Schizophonic 18 Retreats

Energy / Sound / Environmental Concern

THE SCHIZOPHONIC RETREATS by Ardi Rexhepi


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Diploma Schizophonic 18 Retreats

INDEX 00. Introduction - Energy Attack Unit

7

Phase 1 - Research and Analysis 01.

Case Studies

02.

Masters of Music

22 - 35

03.

Sound and Architecture

36 - 41

04.

Discovery

42 - 43

8-21

Phase 2 - Experiments and Instruments 05.

Introduction

44 - 47

06.

Experiment 1 - The Sonic Shadows

48 - 77

07.

Experiment 2 - The Venturi Formations

78 - 91

08.

Experiment 3 - The Acapella City

09.

Experiment 4 - The Arctic Symphony

106 - 119

10.

Experiment 5 - The Galapagos Sway

120 - 127

92 - 105

Phase 3 - Compositions 11.

Composition 1 - The Sonic Shadows

130 - 131

Composition 2 - The Venturi Formations

132 - 133

Composition 3 - The Acapella City

134 - 135

Composition 4 - The Arctic Symphony

136 - 137

Composition 5 - The Galapagos Sway

138 - 139

Phase 4 - Performance 12.

Performance 1 - The Sonic Shadows

142 - 143

Performance 2 - The Venturi Formations

144 - 145

Performance 3 - The Acapella City

146 - 147

Performance 5 - The Galapagos Sway

148 - 149

13. Conclusion

150 - 151


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Diploma Schizophonic 18 Retreats

00.1 ENERGY ATTACK UNIT Green politics is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, social justice, and grassroots democracy. It began taking shape in the western world in the 1970s; since then Green parties have developed and established themselves in many countries.

Diploma 18 continues its exploration on terri-

of seminars on generative design methodologies

The unit methodology is driven by research. To-

tories affected by global warming by focusing on

through the application of algorithmic techniques

day research is not about a linear progression where

the natural patrimony of the Galápagos Islands. It

in processing. Students will analyse the archipelago,

A leads to B leads to C and eventually ends up at

is within this isolated archipelago that Darwin en-

using a taxonomy of resources such as recursion,

E; instead it is a multi-directional process where A,

countered the complex biodiversity that enabled

branching, swarm behaviour, cellular automata and

B,C,D,E develop simultaneously to each other.

him to complete his taxonomies and construct his

fractals.

As a result, the unit is rooted in deep self-suffi-

theory of evolution. These islands are still used as

The design projects will be initiated by a unit

cient research comprised of independent research

a ‘live laboratory’ to investigate and understand

trip to the Galápagos. From there, each student will

“silos”. The silos employ diverse research tools such

microevolution and speciation. However, this frag-

select a specific theme of analysis related to climate

as literature review, empirical physical testing or par-

ile environment (on UNESCO’s list of Endangered

change that will ultimately unfold into a design the-

ticle simulation. Thus the conclusion of each silo gets

World Heritage sites) is highly threatened by invad-

sis addressing social, political, economic and eco-

presented in different media from printed graphics

ing species, pollution, over-exploitation and, most

logical matters.

to theatrical performance to digital animation. The

importantly, climate change, and can be seen as a microcosm of the changes occuring in our world.

The unit proposes a research-based agenda that will compel students to take an independent posi-

This year we will start in Barcelona, exploring

tion towards the role of the architect in a world af-

on lightness, space, structure and geometry, as

fected by global warming, with empathy, leading to

well as physical and climatic phenomena, through

a new environmental consciousness in architecture.

an investigation of soap films. We will run a series

knowledge collected in the silos leads to the development of an individual portfolio proposal.


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Case Schizophonic Studies Retreats

01.1 CASE STUDY - THE ALLIANZ ARENA Like the Beijing National Stadium, Allianz was designed by Swiss architecture ÀUP+HU]RJ GH0HXURQZKLFKFUHDWHGDVWDGLXPZLWKLQà DWHG(7)( plastic panels, giving it a billowy, cloud-like form.


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EXTERNAL MEMBRANE ETFE Cushions

SECONDARY STRUCTURE 120X220 Steel RHS

PRIMARY STRUCTURE Pre-cast spun concrete


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Case Schizophonic Studies Retreats

01.1a CASE STUDY - THE ALLIANZ ARENA 7KRVHWUDQVOXFHQWSDQHOVDOVRDOORZHGWKHDUFKLWHFWVWRFKDQJHWKHDSSHDUDQFH of the stadium by adjusting illumination. Allianz “accentuated what we can do with light technology,” Niemuth says, “to completely transform these buildings with the color of lighting instead of just hanging a sign on it.”

The stadium construction began on 21 October

planade separated from the parking space consisting

The arena facade is constructed of 2,874 ET-

2002 and was officially opened on 30 May 2005. The

of Europe’s biggest underground car park.[6] The roof

FE-foil air panels that are kept inflated with dry air

primary designers are architects Herzog & de Meu-

of the stadium has in-built roller blinds which may

to a differential pressure of 0.038 hPa. The panels ap-

ron. The stadium is designed so that the main en-

be drawn back and forth during games to provide

pear white from far away but when examined closely,

trance to the stadium would be from an elevated es-

protection from the sun.

there are little dots on the panels.


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PRIMARY STRUCTURE Pre-cast spun concrete

SECONDARY STRUCTURE 120X220 Steel RHS

EXTERNAL MEMBRANE ETFE Cushions


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Case Schizophonic Studies Retreats

01.1b CASE STUDY - THE ALLIANZ ARENA $SSUR[LPDWHO\FXELFPHWHUVRIFRQFUHWHZHUHXVHGWRFRQVWUXFWWKH VWDGLXPDQGPĂ°IRUWKHSDUNLQJORWV:HXVHGWRQVRIVWHHOIRU WKHFRQVWUXFWLRQRIWKHVWDGLXPDQGWRQQHVIRUWKHFRQVWUXFWLRQRI SDUNLQJORWVZKRVHDUHDLVDSSUR[LPDWHO\VTPHWHUV

The roof of the Allianz Arena consists of 2,874

approximately 35 square meters, although none of

available. If the blower fails and water collects during

air cushions and has a total surface area of 64,000

the honeycombs made of ethylene tetrafluoroeth-

the resulting cooling process, a type of valve opens at

square meters. This is the world’s biggest roof made

ylene has precisely the same shape. Giant fans un-

the lowest point so that the moisture can flow away

of foil. The foil is only 0.2 mm thick and up to 98%

derneath the stadium pump up the cushions and

before the mass of water overloads the roof construc-

UV-permeable. Each cushion has a surface area of

ensure that there is always an adequate supply of air

tion.


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Case Schizophonic Studies Retreats

01.2 CASE STUDIES - ART INSTALLATIONS The artistry of kinetic sculpture is varied and beautiful. Wind causes these sculptures to twist and turn, and their counterbalances and carefully weighted components require only the slightest nudge to begin a random and undulating movement.


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Case Schizophonic Studies Retreats

01.2 CASE STUDY - THE SINGING RINGING TREE 7KH6LQJLQJ5LQJLQJ7UHHLVDZLQGSRZHUHGVRXQGVFXOSWXUHUHVHPEOLQJDWUHH set in the landscape of the Pennine mountain range overlooking Burnley, in /DQFDVKLUH(QJODQG

The artistry of kinetic sculpture is varied and

The Singing Ringing Tree is a musical structure

to erect a series of 21st-century landmarks, or Pano-

beautiful. Wind causes these sculptures to twist

found in Lancashire, England, which makes beautiful

pticons (structures providing a comprehensive view),

and turn, and their counterbalances and careful-

tones whenever a light breeze sweeps by its exposed

across East Lancashire as symbols of the renaissance

ly weighted components require only the slightest

tubes. With the effect of blowing over the open neck

of the area.

nudge to begin a random and undulating movement.

of a bottle, times a thousand, this structure fills the

The Singing Ringing Tree is a sound powered

Wind powered art is no longer just a fake wind mill

air with music. The Singing Ringing Tree makes wind

sculpture resembling a tree set in the landscape of

sitting on your lawn, it now makes up exhibition

chimes seem like child toys; its music and organic

the Pennine mountain range overlooking Burnley,

pieces in some of the most famous museums the

shape reawakens a passion for the natural world

Lancashire. Designed by architects Mike Tonkin and

world over.

that’s unexpected from something constructed out

Anna Liu of Tonkin Liu, the tree is a 3 metre tall con-

of such industrial materials.

struction with comprising pipes of galvanised steel

It’s interesting how many artists like to emphasize the combination of natural forces and man

The Singing Ringing Tree is a wind powered sound

which harness the energy of the wind to produce a

made materials by creating wind powered sculptures

sculpture resembling a tree set in the landscape of

slightly discordant and penetrating choral sound

in the shape of trees or organic looking structures.

the Pennine mountain range overlooking Burnley, in

covering a range of several octaves.

Some artists go an entirely different direction, how-

Lancashire, England.

ever, by creating sculptures that look entirely alien

Completed in 2006, it is part of the series of four

and disconnected from nature, until the whistle of

sculptures within the Panopticons arts and regener-

wind through their tubes reveal them to be just as

ation project created by the East Lancashire Environ-

connected as the rest of us.

mental Arts Network (ELEAN). The project was set up


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Case Schizophonic Studies Retreats

01.3 CASE STUDY - UNDERWATER SCULPTURE Oceans teem with microscopic organisms that are constantly drifting down towards the sea bed, attaching to and colonising on the way any hard secure surface, such as rock outcrops, and thereby creating the basis of a natural reef.

Mysterious, attractive and ephemeral; over 400

types of sponges, hydroids, corals and thereby cause

modelled after local residents. This will also include

submerged life-size statues created by Mexico-based

overall increase in the reef biomass. This, in turn, can

the world’s first kinetic underwater sculpture using

English sculptor Jason deCaires Taylor, off the coast

support an entire marine ecosystem.

living fan coral.

of Cancún has become the hotspot for tourists and vacation divers from across the world. Every year, close to 750,000 visitors travel to the Cancun Marine Park, situated close to the coast of

The location of the sculptors also allows the re-

Apart from this, some of the sculptors are made

covery of the natural reefs in the region as it draws

with live coral cuttings rescued from areas of the reef

the visitors away from them thereby providing the

system that have been damaged either from human

required space for natural rejuvenation.

activity or from storms. This technique plays a vital

It was in the year 2006 that Taylor created the

role in reef conservation. Moreover, to ensure the

world’s first underwater sculpture park off the coast

safety of marine life, Taylor made use of inert pH

The exclusive marine park is however not merely

of Grenada in the West Indies. Works in the park in-

neutral environmentally friendly marine cement to

an underwater attraction providing scuba divers an

cludes the Lost Correspondent, Grace Reef and the

construct the sculptors.

exciting “subaquatic” experience but is also a haven

Unstill Life.

Isla Mujeres in Mexico to get a glimpse of these fascinating underwater sculptors.

for fish and other forms of marine life.

The Grenada Park was followed by the creation of

By creating these permanent sculptors, deCaires

the monumental MUSA (Museo Subaquatico de Arte)

Taylor aims to establish a balance between man and

museum in Cancun having over 400 unique sculp-

nature by increasing marine biomass and attracting

tural works. An additional 60 sculptors will be added

various fish species to the region. These artificial

to the museum in July, 2012, many of which will be

reefs becomes a source of attractions for various


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Case Schizophonic Studies Retreats

01.4 CASE STUDY - PIANO STAIRCASE ¶7DNHWKHVWDLUVLQVWHDGRIWKHHVFDODWRURUHOHYDWRUDQGIHHOEHWWHUµLVVRPHWKLQJZHRIWHQKHDURUUHDGLQWKH6XQGD\SDSHUV)HZSHRSOHDFWXDOO\IROORZ that advice. Can we get more people to take the stairs over the escalator by making it fun to do?’

Apart from the fighting fit, most of us struggle

Commuters soon opted for the intriguing new

Volkswagen will soon be launching a website

taking the stairs during the morning commute to

stairway and enjoyed making musical movements as

called thefuntheory.com, which will show various

work, especially if there is an escalator right next to

they ascended up and down the scale.

ways they have attempted to change their behaviour

them. Now Volkswagen has come up with a nifty way of encouraging people to exercise more... by making climbing the stairs a note-worthy experience.

The car company found 66 per cent more people than normal chose the musical stairs over the escalator. A video of the innovation has since become an in-

Overnight, a team transformed the stairs leading

ternet hit, as the concept resonated with thousands

out of the Odenplan subway in Stockholm, Sweden,

of web users. A number of people have posted their

into a giant functioning piano keyboard - much like

own videos on YouTube showing their attempts to be-

the piano made famous in the Tom Hanks movie Big.

come top-flight musicians.

Applying pressure on each step played a musical note.

for the better. Presumably this won’t include driving less.


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Research Schizophonic Retreats

02.0 RESEARCH - MASTERS OF MUSIC )URP0HGLHYDOWR5HQDLVVDQFHIURP%DURTXHWKURXJK&ODVVLF5RPDQWLFDQG WKH0RGHUQHUDWKHVHDUHWKHFRPSRVHUV\RX¡YHJURZQXSZLWK%UHDWKWDNLQJ in their orchestration, with many songs recorded by world-class symphony orchestras and ensembles, their songs have stood the test of time.


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02.1 PIERRW BOULEZ If you want one piece to convince you that the highest achievements of contemporary music are the opposite of desiccated, solipsistic experimentalism, listen to Boulez’s Notations

Born in Montbrison/Loire on 26 March 1925,

tradition as represented by Schönberg or Stravinsky

beginning in Darmstadt in the 1950s and continuing

Pierre Boulez is a composer, conductor, thinker, a

but also his teacher, Messiaen, whose influence has

right up to the present, primarily in Lucerne where

motor of international musical life, an emblematic

nevertheless left its mark on Boulez’s music.

he passes on his immense knowledge to fledgling

figure in post-war European, indeed, world culture.

In his compositions but also in his writings,

conductors at the Festival Academy.

A living classic. Ever since the 1950’s, composers

Boulez was initially an angry and rebellious young

New compositions emerge and become straight

around the world have followed with curiosity what

man (see his scathing obituary Schönberg est mort).

away an integral part of the repertoire. It is as if or-

he was writing, to see if they could adapt his ideas

With the passage of time as he became an estab-

chestras and ensembles could not wait for a new

in their own music or to reject them in their search

lished figure, with France inviting him back to found

work to leave his desk: after the premiere, a Boulez

for an idiom they could call their own. In 1957, Györ-

IRCAM and the Ensemble Intercontemporain and his

novelty is taken up – snatched up – by performing

gy Kurtág arrived in Paris with the goal to compose

career as a conductor also taking off, there has prob-

bodies all over the world. Boulez – a living classic.

something he could show to Boulez (in the end, he left

ably been less to rebel against and Boulez has mel-

without a work worthy of being presented). The mu-

lowed and broadened his horizons to conduct a wide

sic the French composer has written ever since the

range of repertoire including Bruckner and Mahler.

late 1940’s was a conscious act of rebellion against

Boulez has also been a highly influential teacher,


Research

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02.2 EARLE BROWN An American composer who established his own formal and notational systems. Brown was the creator of open form. Among his most famous works DUH'HFHPEHUZLWKLWVXVHRIDQHQWLUHO\JUDSKLFVFRUHWKHRSHQIRUP SLHFHV$YDLODEOH)RUPV, ,,&HQWHULQJDQG&URVV6HFWLRQVDQG&RORU)LHOGV


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02.3 JOHN CAGE An American composer, music theorist, writer, and artist. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical LQVWUXPHQWV&DJHZDVRQHRIWKHOHDGLQJĂ€JXUHVRIWKHSRVWZDUDYDQWJDUGH &ULWLFVKDYHODXGHGKLPDVRQHRIWKHPRVWLQĂ XHQWLDO$PHULFDQFRPSRVHUVRI WKHWKFHQWXU\


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02.4 IANNIS XENAKIS Commonly recognized as one of the most important post-war avant-garde composers. Xenakis pioneered the use of mathematical models in music such as applications of set theory, stochastic processes and game theory and was DOVRDQLPSRUWDQWLQテ々HQFHRQWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIHOHFWURQLFDQGFRPSXWHU music.


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02.5 GEORGE CACIOPPO :KLOHVRPHRI&DFLRSSR·VH[SHULPHQWDOZRUNVDUHLPSRUWDQWLQWKHPVHOYHV LQFOXGLQJ´7LPHRQ7LPHLQ0LUDFOHVµ´+RO\*KRVW9DFXXPµDQG´&DVVLRSHLDµ Cacioppo’s biggest impact was through his decades of teaching.


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Sound Explorations

EARLE BROWN

The Schizophonic Retreats

JOHN CAGE

Randomness /

IANNIS XENAKIS

Music

Uncontrolled Element

Unconventional

Unconventional

Maths

Notation (drawing)

Notation (drawing)

(Unconv. Notation)

Music

Aleatoric Music

Architecture

02.6 SUMMARY 7KHZULWLQJGRZQRIPXVLFKDVWZRPDLQSXUSRVHV)LUVWLWHQDEOHVDSLHFH of music to be “recreated� over and over again fairly exactly. It thus gives the composer more precise control over how the music sounds.


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Research Schizophonic Retreats

ARDI REXHEPI

?

?

?


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Research Schizophonic Retreats

03.0 RESEARCH - SOUND AND ARCHITECTURE Papers on noise pollution are increasingly taking a holistic, soundscape apSURDFKWRQRLVHFRQWURO:KHUHDVDFRXVWLFVWHQGVWRUHO\RQODEPHDVXUHPHQWV and individual acoustic characteristics of cars and so on, soundscape takes a top-down approach.


Sound Explorations

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7.OUTPUT - Sound

7.OUTPUT - Sound

7.OUTPUT - Sound

FACADE

MICROPHONE

03.1 SOUNDSCAPES A soundscape is a sound or combination of sounds that forms or arises from DQLPPHUVLYHHQYLURQPHQW7KHVWXG\RIVRXQGVFDSHLVWKHVXEMHFWRIDFRXVWLF HFRORJ\7KHLGHDRIVRXQGVFDSHUHIHUVWRERWKWKHQDWXUDODFRXVWLFHQYLURQment and environmental sounds created by humans.

SPEAKER


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Research Schizophonic Retreats

7.OUTPUT - Sound

7.OUTPUT - Sound

7.OUTPUT - Sound

7.OUTPUT - Sound

7.OUTPUT - Sound

7.OUTPUT - Sound

7.OUTPUT - Sound


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2.PSYCHOLOGICAL SPACE - Internal Room

03.2 SCHIZOPHONIA 6FKL]RSKRQLDLVDWHUPFRLQHGE\50XUUD\6FKDIHUWRGHVFULEHWKHVSOLWWLQJRI an original sound and its electroacoustic reproduction.


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3.SCHIZOPHONIC SPACE - Internal Room

Research Schizophonic Retreats

3.SCHIZOPHONIC SPACE - Internal Room

2.PSYCHOLOGICAL SPACE - Internal Room

2.PSYCHOLOGICAL SPACE - Internal Room

2.PSYCHOLOGICAL SPACE - Internal Room

1.PHYSICAL SPACE - Internal Room


Sound Explorations

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04.1 DISCOVERY - THE SCHIZOPHONIC PANDEMIC A pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic.

CAUSE

Electroacoustic Technology

PROCESS

Input device

Sound Extraction

INTERVENTION 2

INTERVENTION 1

(Microphones etc.)

Internal Output device (Mp3 player etc.)

Technology that is able to extract, store

External Output device

and reproduce sound digitally.

(Stereo etc.)

Technology

Mobile phones, PCs etc.

Sound

Transportation

Cars, Trains, Planes

Sound

Social / Cultural Context

Shopping centres etc.

Sound

Population Increase

People

Sound

Architects

Design Aid Technology

Visual driven design

Industry

Visual Architecture (Uncontrolled sonic environemnts)

Client expectations

TREATMENT

PROCESS

Electroacoustic Technology (re-learning how to use the technology to connect to environment)

Acoustic Metamaterial Technology (sound manipulation technology)

Instigator

Apparatus

Input

Apparatus


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Discovery Schizophonic Retreats

Disease: SCHIZOPHONIA

DIAGNOSIS

OUTCOME

SYMPTOMS

Internal Sound Projection

Sonic Sensory Environmental Disconnection

Decrease of environmental awarness

The confusing feeling of detachment from the

External Sound Projection

NOISE

original source of a digital sound.

Loss of environemtnal ownership

Sonic Sensory Overload

Decrease of quality of urban life

Inability to distinguish and interpret individual sounds from noise.

Uncontrolled, unintended Sonic effects

PROGNOSIS

OUTCOME

SYMPTOMS

Sonic Sensory Environmental Connection

Gain of environemtnal ownership Increase of environmental awarness

Output

Sonic Sensory Management

Increase of quality of urban life

Effect

Outcome


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Experiments Schizophonic- Retreats Introduction

05.0 EXPERIMENTS - INTRODUCTION Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are the VLJQDOVRUGDWDVHQWIURPLW7KHWHUPFDQDOVREHXVHGDVSDUWRIDQDFWLRQWR “perform I/O” is to perform an input or output operation.


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05.1 EXPERIMENT HIERARCHY AND SYSTEM 7KHSURMHFWLVH[SHULPHQWVWKDWPDQLIHVWLQWR,QVWUXPHQWV&RPSRVLWLRQV DQG3HUIRUPDQFHV7KURXJKRXWWKHSURFHVVWKHQRWLRQRIFRQQHFWLQJSHRSOH totheir natural environmentan is the driving factor.


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Experiments Schizophonic- Retreats Introduction

My project is fundamentally 5 experiments that evolve into 5 Architectural Instruments

Most of the experiments use a system where a

In this case the theremin is used to manipulate

theremin instrument is means of input‌.speaker

the surface of water within a fish bowl. Water is also

My project became 5 experiments that manifest-

means of output and a medium that is manipulated

used in most of the experiments as it has malleable

ed into 5 architectural ideas that attempt to connect

to create an interaction and a new soundscape as an

properties that can be adapted to suit different needs.

people to their natural environment.

outcome.


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Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

06.0 EXP 1 - SONIC SHADOWS 7KHDPELWLRQRIWKLVLQYHVWLJDWLRQLVWRH[SORUHWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQVRXQG DQGDVRDSÀOPPHEUDQHDQGWRVHHZKHWKHULWLVSRVVLEOHWREULQJRUGHUWR the chaotic nature of the dynamic state within the membrane. Colour is used to reveal the results.


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06.1 OBSERVATION - PEP BOU PERFORMANCE 7KHSHUIRUPDQFHE\3HS%RXLVXVHGWRHVWDEOLVKDKLHDUFK\WKDWFDQWKHQEH reinterpreted. In this case, vibration of the membrane and the effects on the DLUDUHFRQVLGHUHG7KLVLVHVVHQWLDOO\WKHVDPHV\VWHPDVRQWKDWLQFOXGHVVRXQG in it.

2. APPARATUS - ARM

1. INSTIGATOR - PEP BOU

3. INPUT - KINETIC ENERGY The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. The body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes.


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Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

4 & 6. APPARATUS - SOAP FILM MEMBRANE

3. MANIPULATOR - AIR PRESSURE

7a OUTPUT 1 - MEMBRANE DYNAMICS

7b. OUTPUT 2 - LIQUID DYNAMICS

Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted on a

Soap films are thin layers of liquid (usually wa-

Daily experience shows that soap bubble forma-

surface by the weight of air above that surface in the

ter-based) surrounded by air. For example, if two soap

tion is not feasible with water or with any pure liquid.

atmosphere of Earth. In most circumstances atmos-

bubbles come in to contact, they merge and a thin

Actually, the presence of soap, which is composed at

pheric pressure is closely approximated by the hy-

film is created in between. Thus, foams are composed

a molecular scale of surfactants, is necessary to sta-

drostatic pressure caused by the mass of air.

of a network of films connected by Plateau borders.

bilize the film.


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06.2 INTERPRETATION & EXTRAPOLATION 7KHODQGVFDSHFRQWRXUVWDNHRQWKHUROHRIPHPEUDQHERXQGDU\(DFKERXQGDU\DFWVDVWKHWKUHVKROGIRUQHZG\QDPLFFRQGLWLRQV7KHVHFDQEHUHSUHVQWHG through colour or lines around the edges. Sound is introduced to manipulate each layer of membrane.

1. INSTIGATOR - RESEARCHER Recording device Light Source

Soap film

Removable ring

Soundwaves

Cylinder tube

2. APPARATUS - THEREMIN 3. INPUT - DATA A theremin is a musical instrument controlled without physical contact from the player. consists of

Speaker unit

two metal antennas which sense the position of the player’s hands and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, and amplitude with the other.


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Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

VARIABLE 5 - Interaction VARIABLE 4 - Time VARIABLE 3 - Volume VARIABLE 2 - Frequency VARIABLE 1 - Arrangement

4. APPARATUS- SPEAKER

6. APPARATUS- SOAP FILM MEMBRANE

7b. OUTPUT - LIQUID DYNAMICS

5. MANIPULATOR - SOUNDWAVES

7a. OUTPUT - MEMBRANE DYNAMICS

7c. OUTPUT - AESTHETIC QUALITY

In order to translate an electrical signal into an

Soap films are thin layers of liquid (usually wa-

Daily experience shows that soap bubble forma-

audible sound, speakers contain an electromagnet: a

ter-based) surrounded by air. For example, if two soap

tion is not feasible with water or with any pure liquid.

metal coil which creates a magnetic field when an

bubbles come in to contact, they merge and a thin

Actually, the presence of soap, which is composed at

electric current flows through it.

film is created in between. Thus, foams are composed

a molecular scale of surfactants, is necessary to sta-

of a network of films connected by Plateau borders.

bilize the film.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

The arrangement of the soap film membrane is

The first variable to be tested was distance to

The second variable was shape. Basic shapes

tested in scale, orientation, distance to speaker and

speaker. This proved to be inconclusive as the dis-

such as square, circle and triangle were tested. The

shape. Each test is timed and starts from the moment

tance did not affect the longevity of the membrane.

longest lasting by far was the circle shape. It lasted

the membrane is placed above the speaker. The time

The further away it was position however, the less

twice as much as a square and almost three times as

is stopped when the membrane bursts.

effect the sound had on the membrane.

much as the triangle.


54/55

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

06.3 VARIABLE 1- ARRANGMENT The ďŹ rst variable to be tested was distance to speaker. This proved to be inconclusive as the distance did not affect the longevity of the membrane. The further away it was position however, the less effect the sound had on the membrane.

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

Otin sullat, C. Avere nos hae mo temniquam pect-

tem et; in diem ia vivirturis inceri simus at, nimulese-

tionsic iestra nequam factuus simum non pari ser-

enatum omnentius at, quod moeriverem publibus

sist faciaet eorum esi terionsua pulintioc iamporidem

terei fin sum lat vis hacchus, vius, simuluderis bon-

con desci sent? Quo Catus essupercem sestes publibe

oculvis, sendio, quam nonvocrum superum sedemus

tis, que consu catquastrum inpractus auctod pultus,

mperum Patracem inium omandi, tervignosta vil vo,

adducte riterfe conficia rem auc moviterfec tuita, ces

que consilici suam audet poruntiae nihilicae iptemni

quit in supiemo riverfe risside ressoltur. Vivemus con

hil unu cut omne ad Catius, di senihicaed adhuctors

tiostan diena, Ti. Bis? Aximandite etiame consuli con-


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

50 Hz

100 Hz

150 Hz

200 Hz

250 Hz

300 Hz

350 Hz

400 Hz

450 Hz

500 Hz

550 Hz

600 Hz

650 Hz

700 Hz

750 Hz

800 Hz

850 Hz

900 Hz

950 Hz

1000 Hz

The arrangement of the soap film membrane is

The first variable to be tested was distance to

The second variable was shape. Basic shapes

tested in scale, orientation, distance to speaker and

speaker. This proved to be inconclusive as the dis-

such as square, circle and triangle were tested. The

shape. Each test is timed and starts from the moment

tance did not affect the longevity of the membrane.

longest lasting by far was the circle shape. It lasted

the membrane is placed above the speaker. The time

The further away it was position however, the less

twice as much as a square and almost three times as

is stopped when the membrane bursts.

effect the sound had on the membrane.

much as the triangle.


56/57

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

06.4 VARIABLE 2 - FREQUENCY 7KHYDULDEOHRIIUHTXHQF\FRQWUROWKHOHQJWKRIWKHVRXQGZDYHDQGDVDUHVXOW PDQLSXODWHGWKHQXPEHURIZDYHVFUHDWHGRQWKHVRDSÀOPPHPEUDQH7KH OHYHORILQÁXHQFHGLPLQLVKHGDIWHU+]%HVWUHVXOWVZHUHEHWZHHQWKH UDQJHVRIDQG+]

100 Hz

450 Hz

50 Hz

100 Hz

150 Hz

200 Hz

250 Hz

300 Hz

350 Hz

400 Hz

450 Hz

500 Hz

550 Hz

600 Hz

650 Hz

700 Hz

750 Hz

800 Hz

850 Hz

900 Hz

950 Hz

1000 Hz

Otin sullat, C. Avere nos hae mo temniquam pect-

tem et; in diem ia vivirturis inceri simus at, nimulese-

tionsic iestra nequam factuus simum non pari ser-

enatum omnentius at, quod moeriverem publibus

sist faciaet eorum esi terionsua pulintioc iamporidem

terei fin sum lat vis hacchus, vius, simuluderis bon-

con desci sent? Quo Catus essupercem sestes publibe

oculvis, sendio, quam nonvocrum superum sedemus

tis, que consu catquastrum inpractus auctod pultus,

mperum Patracem inium omandi, tervignosta vil vo,

adducte riterfe conficia rem auc moviterfec tuita, ces

que consilici suam audet poruntiae nihilicae iptemni

quit in supiemo riverfe risside ressoltur. Vivemus con

hil unu cut omne ad Catius, di senihicaed adhuctors

tiostan diena, Ti. Bis? Aximandite etiame consuli con-


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

100 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 40% Volume

100 Hz 80% Volume

100 Hz 100% Volume

400 Hz 20% Volume

400 Hz 40% Volume

400 Hz 80% Volume

400 Hz 100% Volume

The arrangement of the soap film membrane is

is stopped when the membrane bursts.

100 Hz 60% Volume

400 Hz 60% Volume

The further away it was position however, the less

tested in scale, orientation, distance to speaker and

The first variable to be tested was distance to

shape. Each test is timed and starts from the moment

speaker. This proved to be inconclusive as the dis-

The second variable was shape. Basic shapes

the membrane is placed above the speaker. The time

tance did not affect the longevity of the membrane.

such as square, circle and triangle were tested. The

SETUP & ESTABLISHMENT OF VARIABLES

effect the sound had on the membrane.


58/59

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

06.5 VARIABLE 3 - VOLUME 7KHYDULDEOHRIYROXPHFRQWUROWKHOHQJWKRIWKHVRXQGZDYHDQGDVDUHVXOW PDQLSXODWHGWKHQXPEHURIZDYHVFUHDWHGRQWKHVRDSÀOPPHPEUDQH7KH OHYHORILQÁXHQFHGLPLQLVKHGDIWHU+]%HVWUHVXOWVZHUHEHWZHHQWKH UDQJHVRIDQG+]

100 Hz 60% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

400 Hz 60% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

400 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 40% Volume

400 Hz 40% Volume

100 Hz 60% Volume

400 Hz 60% Volume

100 Hz 80% Volume

400 Hz 80% Volume

100 Hz 100% Volume

400 Hz 100% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

Otin sullat, C. Avere nos hae mo temniquam pect-

quit in supiemo riverfe risside ressoltur. Vivemus con

adducte riterfe conficia rem auc moviterfec tuita, ces

enatum omnentius at, quod moeriverem publibus

tem et; in diem ia vivirturis inceri simus at, nimulese-

hil unu cut omne ad Catius, di senihicaed adhuctors

con desci sent? Quo Catus essupercem sestes publibe

sist faciaet eorum esi terionsua pulintioc iamporidem

tionsic iestra nequam factuus simum non pari ser-

mperum Patracem inium omandi, tervignosta vil vo,

oculvis, sendio, quam nonvocrum superum sedemus

terei fin sum lat vis hacchus, vius, simuluderis bon-


PHASE 4 - Chaos

PHASE 3 - Complete Order

PHASE 2 - Arrangement

PHASE 1 - Total Chaos

Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36 01:3 3 2 :36 :

01:32:36 001 01: 01:3 11:3 : 3 2: :3 2:3 22:36 :36 ::3 36 36

01:32:36 01:3 1:33 2 :36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36 01:3 3 2 :36

01:32:36

01:32:36 01:3 ::33 2:36

01:32:36

01:32:36 01 1 :3 2:36 1:

01:32:36

01:32:36 001:3 1:3 : 3 2 :366 :3

01:32:36 01:3 3 2:36 2 :3

01:32:36 01:3 :33 2:36

01:32:36

001:32:36 1 :3 2:36

01:32:36

01:32:36 01:3 01: : 3 2:366 :3

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36 01:3 3 22:36 :36

01:32:36

01:32:36 01: 1:: 3 2:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36 01: ::33322 :36

01:32:36 01: 001 01:3 11::3 1:3 : 3 2: 2:36 22:3 :3 :36

01:32:36 01:3 :33 2:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

01:32:36

The arrangement of the soap film membrane is

is stopped when the membrane bursts.

The further away it was position however, the less

tested in scale, orientation, distance to speaker and

The first variable to be tested was distance to

shape. Each test is timed and starts from the moment

speaker. This proved to be inconclusive as the dis-

effect the sound had on the membrane. The second variable was shape. Basic shapes

the membrane is placed above the speaker. The time

tance did not affect the longevity of the membrane.

such as square, circle and triangle were tested. The


60/61

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

Otin sullat, C. Avere nos hae mo temniquam pect-

quit in supiemo riverfe risside ressoltur. Vivemus con

adducte riterfe conficia rem auc moviterfec tuita, ces

enatum omnentius at, quod moeriverem publibus

tem et; in diem ia vivirturis inceri simus at, nimulese-

hil unu cut omne ad Catius, di senihicaed adhuctors

con desci sent? Quo Catus essupercem sestes publibe

sist faciaet eorum esi terionsua pulintioc iamporidem

tionsic iestra nequam factuus simum non pari ser-

mperum Patracem inium omandi, tervignosta vil vo,

oculvis, sendio, quam nonvocrum superum sedemus

terei fin sum lat vis hacchus, vius, simuluderis bon-


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

06.6 EXPERIMENT - SOUND RESIDUE 6RXQGLVSURMHFWHGWKURXJKDVRDSÀOPPHPEUDQHZKLFKOHIWDUHVLGXHWKDW FDQEHH[SHULHQFHGYLVXDOO\7KHUHIRUHFUHDWLQJZKDW,FDOOHGVRQLFVKDGRZV


Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

62/63


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

06.7 PERFORMANCE 7KHSHUIRUPDQFHLVEDVHGRQPDJLFDQGDVVXFKDWKHUHPLQLVXVHGIRUHIIHFW ,WFUHDWHVDVHQVHRIPDJLFWKDWZRXOGQRWH[LVWVZLWKDQRUPDOLQVWUXPHQW7KH performnance creates an oppurtunity to test input methods and the establishment of a new interactive system.


64/65

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

“Magicians and scientists alike spend their lives

there is generally a lack of theatrical engagement

Traditional representation methods prove unsuc-

confronting the laws of nature. A magician’s goal is

when the work is presented. In contrast, magicians

cessful in capturing the dynamic environment of

to defy those laws, while the scientist’s goal is to ex-

use “finesse”3 and “showmanship...to present their

the material and the relationship between user (in-

plain them”1 and perhaps the architect’s role is to

shows”4 to the “sophisticated clientele whom they

put), sound (medium) and membrane (output). Mag-

both defy and explain them. There are strong com-

hoped to attract.”5

ic performance is selected as a mode of representa-

mon grounds between all three professions and al-

If the two professions exist in such harmony but

tion and a variety of magic categories are layered

though Architecture and science have are explored

are expressed through contrasting modes, can the

to create the desired effect. Metaphors from the art

continuously, the connection between architecture

system of one be extrapolated and implemented to

of shadowgraphy in particular are extrapolated to

and magic is rarely explored.

enhance the delivery of the other? If there is such

explore the relationship between hand movement/

It can be argued that both professions are es-

lack of ‘performance’ in architectural presentation,

gestures(input), light (medium) and projected image

sentially two sides of the same coin, both “hinting

then how can secular magic be utilized as a medium

(output).

at intangibles and visualising the unimaginable”2 .

of representation, distorting the junction between

The capacity of the performance not only to rep-

However, due to the pragmatic nature of methodolo-

architectural and magic performance to present

resent but also to develop the investigation is que-

gies undertaken within architectural investigations,

and perhaps inform an architectural investigation?

ried. In this instance, is the performance just the

architects are prone to represent their ideas with

The journey of discovery begins with a specific

a similar pragmatic approach. Although visually

investigation examining how sound can be used as a

the work itself is well considered through graph-

medium to manipulate the architectural properties

ic principles, colour, fonts, drawing viewpoint etc.,

and the dynamic nature of soap film membranes.

conclusion of the investigation or the starting point of another chapter?


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

P1a. 00:00:00

P1b. 00:01:00

P1c. 00:01:05

P1d. 00:01:06

P1e. 00:00:10

P1f. 00:01:20

02.1

PHASE 1 - Assertion of Authority P1g. 00:01:30

P1h. 00:01:40


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Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

P2a. 00:01:50

P2b. 00:01:55

P2c. 00:02:00

P2d. 00:02:05

P2e. 00:02:10

P2f. 00:02:13

02.1

PHASE 2 - Expression of Power P2g. 00:02:15

P2h. 00:02:17


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

P2a. 00:02:25

P2b. 00:02:30

02.3

PHASE 3 - Expression of Control 1 P3a. 00:02:35

P3b. 00:02:40

02.4

PHASE 4 - Expression of Control 2 P3c. 00:02:45

P4a. 00:02:55

P4b. 00:03:00

P4c. 00:03:05


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Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

02.5

PHASE 5 - Manipulation of Control P5a. 00:03:15

P5b. 00:03:25

P5c. 00:03:35

P5d. 00:03:45

P5e. 00:03:55

P5f. 00:04:05

P5g. 00:04:10

P5h. 00:04:12


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

The audience enter the bright lit space and take

The architect appears on stage from behind the

sense of authority over the audience and the space

a seat on one of the chairs of their choice. This cre-

curtain, opening his arms to emphasize his pres-

they occupy. Almost as if transferring that sense of

ates a sense of self empowerment and ownership

ence. Without verbally communicating anything, he

empowerment and ownership from the audience, to

over the space. The Architect is not seen and the au-

raises his arms and slowly lowers them. As the arms

the performer.

dience build an association with the space without

lower, the lighting in the space is dimmed and even-

the performer. The audience are then provided with

tually all lights, apart from a set of spot lights fo-

earplugs but no explanation is given. This raises in-

cusing on the centre of the stage, located behind the

trigue and a sense of danger.

audience are turned off. This immediately creates a

The deconstruction of the visual representation

The positioning and the focus of the lights high-

The scene is set for the performer to introduce

and persona of the magician (Fig1.) reveals the im-

light the face and the hands of the performer. This

the investigation and warn the audience about the

portance of hand movements and gestures to create

is based on the stage magic of ‘Black Art’ where the

potential hearing issues due to the extreme levels

a sense of sophistication and an additional layer of

entire “stage is draped in black”6 and “everything

of sound. He concludes with the instruction for the

control over the audience. Much like sleight of hand

that appears is painted white”7 . The spatial treat-

audience to wear their earplugs. The combination

where the magician uses misdirection, the hand

ment and lighting conditions allow the performer to

of spatial conditions and performers body language

gestures are used to direct and control the attention

focus attention and control the visibility of objects

combine to create and familiarise the audience to

of the audience.

and apparatus.

the new visual form of communication.


70/71

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

The first result of the investigation to be pre-

The circle frame is painted white and is visi-

frame gets higher, the circle shape and the mem-

sented is the ‘arrangement variable’. This is the soap

ble to the audience. Each film is extremely fragile

brane become more stable, reflecting the findings of

film membranes ability to adapt to different shapes

and lasts between 20 to 40 seconds so the frame is

the investigation.

and forms. The key architectural conditions to be

dipped into a soap mixture numerous times dur-

A levitation effect is used to express a sense

presented are the notions of shape, scale and con-

ing the performance. The mixture lies on a black

of power and maintain the figure of authority. The

text. The investigation result concludes that a circle

container resting on a black table. As the frame is

performer uses his face and hands to direct the at-

shape with a certain diameter is the most stable en-

raised, it swings and rotates slightly, creating an

tention of the audience towards the area where the

vironment for the membrane to hold on to.

optical illusion of various cylindrical shapes. As the

circle frame and soap membrane slowly start to rise. The hands shake and vibrate and the facial expressions suggest some sort of invisible force or energy

is being used to levitate the membrane. To build ten-

other. At the start of the trick, the performer raises

hook to a piece of black painted metal. He opens

sion and suspense, initially the speed of levitation is

his right hand towards the hook and slots one of his

his arms and embraces the audience to signal the

very slow and constant. However, as the trick is re-

fingers through it. As he pulls down with his right

end of the trick. This is repeated throughout the

peated, it no longer has the same effect so the speed

hand, the membrane rises upwards. To conceal the

performance but alternatively an assistant behind

is increased each time.

kinetic relationship between the right hand and the

the curtain could also control the thread. The com-

membrane, he pushes his left hand upwards and

pletion of the trick reinforces the sense of authority

turns and lowers his body downwards.

and power the performer holds and sets the scene

The effect is produced using an ‘invisible thread’ and a ceiling hook. The thread is attached to the frame at one end and a small black hook on the

Once the membrane is at the desired height, he hides his hands behind his body and attaches the

for the representation of the next investigation.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

same is then carried out with the volume.

The investigation moves on to the manipulation

Results show that the membrane behaves much

of the membrane using sound waves. The first two

like a sound wave in section when exposed to

The effect begins with the performer vertically

sound wave variables to be explored are the ‘fre-

sound. The frequency increases and decreases the

levitating a thin white tube, only then to grab and

quency’ and ‘volume’. A reflection of the spot light

number of waves in the horizontal axis, while the

swing it like a wand. Meanwhile, at least one re-

directed to the centre of the membrane is stretched

volume controls the vertical axis. In order to show

flection of one of the lighting units is seen on the

and deformed under different sound wave condi-

the controlled experiment, the membrane is first

membrane itself from all members of the audience,

tions. This reflective quality is used to measure the

subjected to a full range of frequency, starting from

regardless of their seating position. The wand is

effect on the membrane and thus its elastic prop-

0Hz and increasing by 50Hz every 3 seconds. The

placed vertically on the table where it appears to hover. The performer moves his hands near and

erties.

around the wand but never touches it. These move-

1.

The overall effect is achieved by intelligent use of

ing the Theremin which in turn manipulates the

lighting and a combination of carefully positioned

soap membrane. This creates visually interesting

The principles of the trick are very similar to the

apparatus. A Theremin device is used as means of

patterns made from the warping of the reflection of

art of shadowgraphy. “The art of casting silhouettes

input. The device is raised through levitation from

the lights behind the audience.

with hands, on an illuminated screen. Silhouettes

the floor and placed onto the table next to the per-

The architectural purpose of the exercise is

are projected with marvellous dexterity of manip-

former. The Theremin is connected to a speaker just

to explore the interactive nature of the setup and

ulation.“8 The main difference being sound as the

behind the curtain. At the area of the speaker, the

potential input methods to manipulate the mem-

medium instead of light and reflection as the output

fabric is very think but the difference cannot be

brane. It deals with proximity, scale and orientation.

instead of shadow.

seen because its black. Sound is produced by play-

ments seem to directly influence the shapes created by the reflections of the light on the membrane.


72/73

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

For the next stage of the performance, the per-

In order to make the dynamic nature and col-

Much like Pepper’s Ghost, the angles of the light-

former starts to move his hands and body much

ours of the membrane visible, the lighting setup is

ing units are crucial. It is all about the right reflec-

more freely. This has a direct influence on the mem-

changed. The direct spot lights are opened up and

tion from the right seats. If incorrectly set up, the

brane which slowly goes from white line reflections

create more of an even ambient lighting condition.

audience may not see anything.

to whole colour changes. A lot more of the bubbles

This is carried out by one of the assistant who would

dynamic surface is seen and the room is slightly lit

not be seen.

with the colours of the membrane. The performer goes through various intensities, sometimes moving slowly, sometimes very fast.

The magic connotations of raising spirits is high-

The performance ends with an intense climax

lighted. The performer behaves very much in a

with the performer moving his hands and body with

similar way, almost as if in a trance or overtaken

more and more vigour and the sound becoming

by other spirits. The slow appearance of the colours

louder and louder until the room begins to shake .

are also very much reminiscent to ghosts. These be-

Just as the sound and vibrations become uncomfort-

come visible for a short period of time before the

able, the performer moves his arms down and the

bubble bursts and the colours disappear.

sound sops and the membrane bursts.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

P1a

P1b

P1c

P1d

P2a

P2b

P2c

P2d

P2e

P2f

P2g

P2h

P3a

P3b

P3c

P3d

P4a

P4b

P4c

P4d

P5a

P5b

P5c

P5d

P5e

P5f

P5g

P5h

One of the first surprising results of the perfor-

almost as important as the output. Under standard

The performance created an interactive environ-

mance was the capacity of magic to inform an ar-

modes of representation, the input is almost com-

ment where a new intuitive input language could

chitectural investigation. The architectural concept

pletely lost. There is no relationship between cause

be established. Just as shadowgraphy has its own

is the manipulation of the membrane so the input is

and effect. There is only data and visual impact.

language, ie. certain hand gestures represent cer-


74/75

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

P1a

P1b

P1c

P1d

P2a

P2b

P2c

P2d

P2e

P2f

P2g

P2h

P3a

P3b

P3c

P3d

P4a

P4b

P4c

P4d

P5a

P5b

P5c

P5d

P5e

P5f

P5g

P5h

1.

tain patterns, the performance produced an input

toolset the designer has in his disposal. Perhaps this

industry. The possibilities are there but obviously

language.

goes further; gesture software is developed and the

this needs to be developed further and alongside the

If designing with sound is the overall theme of

ability to design well with this new tool becomes

sound output program.

the project, then this new language becomes the

one of the defining skill sets in the architectural


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

01.2 & 3 INTERPRETATION & EXTRAPOLATION 7KHODQGVFDSHFRQWRXUVWDNHRQWKHUROHRIPHPEUDQHERXQGDU\(DFKERXQGDU\DFWVDVWKHWKUHVKROGIRUQHZG\QDPLFFRQGLWLRQV7KHVHFDQEHUHSUHVQWHG through colour or lines around the edges. Sound is introduced to manipulate each layer of membrane.

VARIABLE 1 - Arrangement

VARIABLE 2 - Frequency

VARIABLE 3 - Volume The second surprising result was completely unThe roof of the Allianz Arena consists of 2,874

UV-permeable. Each cushion has a surface area of

expected. In the search to find out if magic can be

air cushions and has a total surface area of 64,000

approximately 35 square meters, although none of

used within an architectural context, architecture

square meters. This is the world’s biggest roof made

the honeycombs made of ethylene tetrafluoroeth-

has actually contributed towards magic and poten-

of foil. The foil is only 0.2 mm thick and up to 98%

ylene has precisely the same shape. Giant fans un-

tially created a new form of magic art. The similar-


76/77

Experiment Schizophonic 1 -Retreats The Sonic Shadows

06.8 MODULE / INSTRUMENT A performance was also carried out to explore the new interactive language WKDWZDVGHYHORSLQJWKURXJKWKHXVHRIWKH7KHUHPLQ 7KHH[SHULPHQWFRQFOXGHGZLWKWKHGHVLJQRIDPRGXOHWKDWFRXOGEHXVHGLQ YDULRXVVFDOHVDQGFRQÀJXUDWLRQV

ities to shadowgraphy are clear and the overall ef-

tion. The narrative can be kept the same or be com-

learn but almost impossible to master. ‘In this way,

fects undoubtedly fall within the margins of secular

pletely different. A name such as ‘Theremography’

the task of the Magician has always been consistent:

magic. Perhaps the experiment is repeated but this

or ‘Reflegraphy’ could be asigned. Unlike most mag-

demonstrating the impossible, intriguing the audi-

time with emphasis on magical performance with-

ic tricks, secrecy would not be an issue. The art can

ence by pushing open a door at the brink of reality,

out the rigid structure of the architectural presenta-

be presented as a particular ability that is easy to

and teasing them.”9


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats


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Experiment Schizophonic 2 -Retreats The Venturi Formations

08.0 EXP 2 - THE VENTURI FORMATIONS Ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of ocean water generDWHGE\WKHIRUFHVDFWLQJXSRQWKLVPHDQĂ RZVXFKDVEUHDNLQJZDYHVZLQG Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences and tides caused E\WKHJUDYLWDWLRQDOSXOORIWKH0RRQDQGWKH6XQ


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

08.1 ANALYSIS - GALAPAGOS OCEAN CURRENTS Located at the conuence of ďŹ ve ocean currents, the climate in the Galapagos Islands is different than one might imagine from islands located on the equator. The climate is dominated by the prevailing current; which creates strong, unpredictable tides between islands, cooler than normal temperatures, and ultimately results in the unique ecology of the islands.

UNDERCURRENTS UPWELLING


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Experiment Schizophonic 2 -Retreats The Venturi Formations

PA

N

A

M

IC

C

U

RR

EN

T

SOUTH EQUATORIAL CURRENT

PE RU O CE AN CU RR EN T


The Schizophonic Retreats

VARIABLE 1 - ARRANGEMENT

Sound Explorations

08.2 INTERPRETATION A similar process of reinterpretation was carried out, culminating in a simulation where sound was used as input to create virtual islands that interacted with streams of water.

VARIABLE 2 - FREQUENCY

Simplified Geometry

100HZ Not Scaled

100HZ Horizontaly Scaled

100HZ Proportionally Scaled

100HZ 2DB

100HZ 5DB

100HZ 8DB

400HZ 5DB

400HZ 8DB

VARIABLE 3 - VOLUME

400HZ 2DB


82/83

Experiment Schizophonic 2 -Retreats The Venturi Formations

Key Full Detractor /100 Detractor /10 Detractor Full Speed Trail /10 Speed Trail /100 Speed Trail Contour Wave Trail Original Contour Outline

VARIABLE 4 - TIME

100HZ 3DB

100H 100 00H 0 00 0 Z 8DB B

Situated in the Pacific some 1,000 km from the

Ongoing seismic and volcanic activity reflect the

The site is situated on the Galápagos Submarine

South American continent, these islands and the

processes that formed the islands. These processes,

Platform, and consists of 120 islands. The larger is-

surrounding marine reserve have been called a

together with the extreme isolation of the islands,

lands are Isabela, Santa Cruz, Fernandina, Santiago

unique ‘living museum and showcase of evolution’.

led to the development of unusual animal life such

and San Cristobal. The islands were formed by vol-

Located at the confluence of three ocean currents,

as the land iguanab and the giant tortoise that in-

canic processes and represent the summit of a vol-

the Galápagos are a ‘melting pot’ of marine species.

spired Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

cano, some rise over 3,000 m from the Pacific floor.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats


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Experiment Schizophonic 2 -Retreats The Venturi Formations

08.3 EXTRAPOLATION 7KHODQGVFDSHFRQWRXUVWDNHRQWKHUROHRIPHPEUDQHERXQGDU\(DFKERXQGDU\DFWVDVWKHWKUHVKROGIRUQHZG\QDPLFFRQGLWLRQV7KHVHFDQEHUHSUHVQWHG through colour or lines around the edges. Sound is introduced to manipulate each layer of membrane.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

100 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

100 Hz 20% Volume

Ulut aventil intiam tat, Cas intra ta suloculius

duc retre cutemor arbitu stam noste conenih ilicae

ionvoc, cotiur auroraremus pata quam dien vemus-

es consus, nosusulici signossilne incesim enatabem

hus, nondien de pl. Rem publicestela convenductum

piem a iacresci inature tum escipicio uterfex morem

es perbisultiam inatquam teliumu squit; iam ma, ut

ad consus, ublintridem pos habus num prae re, non

in vessulemur, sent. Ra nia orte vives? Multimm ore-

L. Lus ocultum iptestrari pra adhumusces vignon

defac mantem in testat fuem st pliceris orsulto cu-

munces opotia que non Etrurbemus id in tatquam

patius, quodii simpermium P. Efachil huceratui pub-

piem, diti, culvide muscrimus; hebatis, esillesent,

hostrici int? Dum iacruntri furo, Cas caed atabem

liciis. Ecrio Catum pra pro horbis. Et dentique tem

C. Ella L. Dit, opotis consum se cuperae et videfac

estra consci in nostrum los hi, non Etracii


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Experiment Schizophonic 2 -Retreats The Venturi Formations

08.4 VARIABLE 3 - VOLUME 7KHYDULDEOHRIYROXPHZDVWKHRQHRIPRVWLQWHUHVW7KHLVODQGVEHKDYHGLQ an unexpected manner. It became evident that the virtual islands were almost like pockets of air within a volume of water.

Key Full Detractor /100 Detractor /10 Detractor Full Speed Trail /10 Speed Trail /100 Speed Trail Contour Wave Trail Original Contour Outline

Outer contour increase in size equally

Island dissapears due to the influence of the others. Increase in y axis but remains relatively small in y axis. Island increase and merge to form one larger entity. Due the the neighbouring islands, this remains relatively the same regardless of the increase in volume.

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

Adhuium neressi cul hus ignatie opublicae cum

ca niris? Palicam publius itatusatquid conterfente,

nessatam ingula no. Sere, nonsunum iam Patissolis

acia ademum publique et dum nos in tem inam

C. An huconst in inc vis; C. Vivendione consum

consulius sigil unc tam acit; nihicon sperferem is.

sescibe ntebatudeora verficave, diem a tum me nos,

orum cessulesis. Apecon re audemnes pubit, entis,

Ostem diis; Cuperim entimus, terimis convent.

C. O tebem, cute dit, morem inte coerces it. Valarit,

quidem iam ingultur, dit, C. Fuid cae consiciis? Pat

Oventea timunte consula crectum te publiam

peribus ciem, audem que rei esi igili is condem. Mar-

ium num ficultiae publicu ltilicat, vitero estrum

intinam nonsules conloc ta potemqua caes hactus

itertere cerimium facepon ferenictam abem inatiae

alemus essulvid Catem re conit. Ducte nonsid co-

a musqui senatrum quis licid nis. Gra pulvive hente,


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

08.5 MECHANICAL INVERSION 7KHSK\VLFDODQGPHFKDQLFDOSURFHVVZDVH[SORUHGDQGDYLGHRSURGXFHG showing the hidden mechanicalparts from the previous simulation video.


Experiment Schizophonic 2 -Retreats The Venturi Formations

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The Schizophonic Retreats

08.6 NEW OUTPUT LANGUAGE In order to progress into an architectural idea, the physical and mechanical SURFHVVZDVH[SORUHG7KLVOHGWRDPRGXOHWKDWZKLFKZDVXVHGWRUHYHUVH engineer the simulation, ultimately giving me a new output language.

Reverse


Experiment Schizophonic 2 -Retreats The Venturi Formations

Engineer

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Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats


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Experiment Schizophonic 3 -Retreats The Acapella City

07.0 EXP 3 - SONIC CRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY $VRQLFFU\VWDOLVDÀQLWHVL]HSHULRGLFDUUD\FRPSRVHGRIVFDWWHUHUVHPEHGded in a homogeneous material. It should have full band-gaps where any sound ZDYHLVQRWDOORZHGWRSURSDJDWHEXWLVUHÁHFWHGFRPSOHWHO\,WLVDFWXDOO\D sonic version of a photonic crystal.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

07.1 SONIC CRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY

2

Acoustic metamaterials are artificially fabri-

dictates which frequencies are filtered. The range

filtered. Moreover, sound waves can also be ma-

cated materials designed to control, direct, and

of the frequency being filtered is called a ‘band

noeuvred in any direction and released when re-

manipulate sound waves. Sonic Crystal Array

gap’. This means the array has created a barrier

quired. The technology provides a level of control

technology falls within this category. At the most

for that specific frequency.

over sound waves which has not been available

basic, a sonic crystal is a set of equal diameter

The passage of sound waves through the pe-

cylinders spaced evenly in a grid arrangement or

riodic array can be manipulated by deliberately

lattice. These cylinders act as scatterers, essen-

introducing defects in their structure. By creat-

The technology can be represented and ex-

tially creating a sonic filter. The arrangement of

ing voids and treating the shape or scale of the

plored in a two tier component based system. The

the grid ie. the distance between each cylinder,

cylinders, sound can be accentuated as well as

first tier is the overall arrangement of the grid

before. With the right combination of grid and cylinders, any sonic effect can be achieved.


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Experiment Schizophonic 3 -Retreats The Acapella City

made out of cylinders that act as components to

begins as a standard unit but changes through

Prof K. Attenborough and Dr S. Taherzadeh

the overall system. The different arrangement of

either site context or environmental influences,

are both award winning acousticians and heads

the grid create different effects that mainly deal

the different variables need to be considered and

of department at the Acoustics Research Group

with the movement and frequency of the sound.

a dynamic system needs to be designed. At the

at the Open University. A full length video of the

The second tier is the treatment to the cylinders

most basic, a system that is able to change its

meeting can be found attached to this document

themselves. These can vary in material, shape,

grid spacing (influencing the targeted frequency)

where the full technical capabilities as well as

scale etc. and create effects that deal with the

is required. In order to establish what the other

the programmatic opportunities are discussed.

intensity and volume of the sound.

variables are, a meeting with Prof Keith Attenbor-

In order to establish an adaptive system that

ough and Dr Shahram Taherzadeh was held.

3


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

07.2 ESTABLISHMENT OF VARIABLES

8

The first set of variables deal with the over-

Although there are known shapes that create

The second set of variables deal with the

all grid as a whole. The identical cylinders act as

barriers, lenses, filters etc. the adaptable nature

treatment of the individual cylinders themselves.

components that are separated equally centre to

of the system means there are infinite number of

There are 5 main variables that create different

centre. The first variable is the type of grid. There

shapes that can be created. The third variable is

effects. The first is scale which predominantly

are five fundamental types that create different

the internal arrangement of the grid. This deals

deals with the range of frequency affected. The

results. These are: 1) Square, 2) Oblique, 3) Rec-

with voids that can be created by removing indi-

larger the cylinder in diameter, the bigger the

tangular, 4) Centred rectangular and 5) Hexago-

vidual or groups of cylinders. Different sound ef-

band gap. The second is shape which effects the

nal (Figure 1). The second variable is the shape

fects can be created both internally and external-

direction of sound travelling through the system.

of the grid. This has no set number of variables.

ly depending on the arrangement of these voids.

A squeezed cylinder shape can be used to direct


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Experiment Schizophonic 3 -Retreats The Acapella City

sound one way or another or act as a dynamic

nessing. The fourth variable is the fill of the cylin-

ing slits, sound can be trapped or used to create

screen that can be ‘opened’ or ‘closed’ to control

der. Different treatments to the inside of the cyl-

constructive or destructive waves.

sound penetration through the boundary. The

inder can be used to capture certain frequencies.

The next stage of the investigation is to at-

third variable is material which deals with the

Programmatic effect is unknown at this stage and

tempt to explore and test as many of these var-

volume of the sound. The softer and the more

there would be need for additional components

iables as possible. The ambition remains to pro-

absorbent the material, the more the volume is

to harness the sound and direct it elsewhere. The

pose a smart and dynamic system that is able to

lowered. Harder materials such as metal create

fifth is the treatment to the surface of the cylin-

facilitate different variables creating a variety of

sharper contrasting sounds while also resonating

der. Slits or holes can be cut out to create very

programmatic effects.

themselves creating potential for energy har-

specific frequency and volume controls. By creat-

9


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

07.3 ESTABLISHMENT OF VARIABLES Locae achus contrei sena nes ad condem num

Pertendum es! Hostim potabensit. Avo, noste

Deme prae con ad renatur. Unt ia permacchum

unum hactorum te, morbis acien habentimmo ina-

condam audees crum hemne nocus ori pratum mor

estam dum ute iaeque eto hoctum ina, quistid eoOc-

ti, us, nesse conloctum duc virissi linequam ta mod

pereo Cat, quam tem ad morum hoctastena, ut vici-

chui perum ius intelia? Ucides halarissenis hil tuus

inam omnihicibus mei publici iam ia verfici credo,

bus senare publibus bon teatum issoltis; non stre

con rei catiae quem, tam at, ut L. Batiacerfec me tan-

quam. Palintelices ant. Sa dicatuam fue conte pecie

nestandam vivissensu vis ad in tam factandees o ia

terium octus et venduce ssusula berrae faci pl. Mol


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Experiment Schizophonic 3 -Retreats The Acapella City

Locae achus contrei sena nes ad condem num

Pertendum es! Hostim potabensit. Avo, noste

Deme prae con ad renatur. Unt ia permacchum

unum hactorum te, morbis acien habentimmo ina-

condam audees crum hemne nocus ori pratum mor

estam dum ute iaeque eto hoctum ina, quistid eoOc-

ti, us, nesse conloctum duc virissi linequam ta mod

pereo Cat, quam tem ad morum hoctastena, ut vici-

chui perum ius intelia? Ucides halarissenis hil tuus

inam omnihicibus mei publici iam ia verfici credo,

bus senare publibus bon teatum issoltis; non stre

con rei catiae quem, tam at, ut L. Batiacerfec me tan-

quam. Palintelices ant. Sa dicatuam fue conte pecie

nestandam vivissensu vis ad in tam factandees o ia

terium octus et venduce ssusula berrae faci pl. Mol


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

07.4 GRID ARRANGEMENT VARIABLES - TEST The purpose of this physical model is to ex-

The series of tests carried out established an

The model consists of a base with equal holes

plore as many of the grid and cylinder variables

understanding of the system and the possible

drilled through, a series of interlocking compo-

as possible. Although It is very adaptable, at this

combination of variables that could be imple-

nents and cylinders of varying shapes and sizes.

stage, intelligence or input methods are still not

mented together. At first, the most basic arrange-

Apart from facilitating tests, the model also be-

considered. Components and the dynamics of

ments were successfully tested , leading to more

gins to explore potential constructions methods.

the system are explored manually by hand. The

complex void arrangements that created either

The interlocking components act as structural

variables able to be explored are grid type, shape

complete silence or accentuated sounds within

support and connection between the cylinders

and arrangement, as well as cylinder scale, shape

the void itself. Examples of some of the tests can

and the base. All the components could be scaled

and material.

be viewed in video format on the disc provided.

up with minimum additional support required.


Experiment Schizophonic 3 -Retreats The Acapella City

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Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

07.5 CYLINDER MATERIAL VARIABLE - TEST The next physical model explores materiality

capture Co2. The increase in C02 would raise in-

of the cylinders and begins to create conditions

dividual cylinders, affecting the soundscape of

Although the model was difficult to make, if

for smart materials and dynamic components to

the site. This could act as a warning system that

scaled up, most of the insulation issues would be

be used. It is a pneumatic system that consist of

raises consciousness about the immediate envi-

removed at the production phase. Each element,

a series of flat bags that turn into cylinders once

ronment. Another example could be to have pipes

possibly made out of ETFE could be attached

pumped with air. A series of tubes provide means

filled with water that are exposed to the sun. In

together and checked for air tightness before

of filling the bags. This creates opportunity for

hot conditions, the water would evaporate, filling

arriving on site. The lightweight nature of the

gases or liquids to be used in a ‘smart’ manner.

the bags with oxygen. This would again create a

components would be beneficial in transport and

direct relationship between the environmental

construction of the system

One example would be a series pipes that

conditions and the soundscape of the site.


Experiment Schizophonic 3 -Retreats The Acapella City

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The Schizophonic Retreats

Sonic Crystal Adjustable Grid Mechanism

Sonic Crystal Model

07.6 OVERALL SYSTEM - TEST In order to consider the system as a whole, a

crystal system. The grid is structurally held by

The system hierarchy includes input (syring-

new physical model is proposed. The purpose is

a three dimensional scissor mechanism that al-

es), medium (the tubes) and output (sonic crys-

to establish a connection between input/interac-

lows for size of grid to increase/decrease awhile

tal). Once scaled up, the syringe surfaces could

tion and resulting soundscape. The instigator is

maintaining an equal centre to centre distance

take on the shape of the floor creating a direct

the user to begin with but the system can be al-

between all the cylinder elements within the

interaction between occupancy and soundscape.

tered to adapt/react to environmental conditions

array. This means the sonic crystal can adapt to

The more users that interact with the space by

or existing acoustic setting.

create a full range of band gaps. This is useful in

occupying it, the more the soundscape is altered.

circumstances where sound sources alternate or

The same system could be used to create traffic

change over time.

noise barriers. The more cars on the street, the

The model consists of a set of syringes that have a hydraulic connection to a ‘floating’ sonic


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Experiment Schizophonic 3 -Retreats The Acapella City

Output

System Closed

Sonic Crystals Activated

Medium

Input

Grid Scaled

more weight that is put on the floor and thus

self could be exposed to conditions such as heat,

The most important component system in

more of the cylinders being activated. This cre-

forcing it to change states and move the cylinders

this model is the scissor mechanism. This facili-

ates a direct relationship between the source of

up and down. Finally, the cylinders themselves

tates all of the dynamic aspects of the sonic crys-

sound and the manipulation of itself.

can be made out of shape memory allow that is

tal and the unique connection designed specifi-

Smart materials can also be incorporated in

flat to begin with but retracts to a cylinder shape

cally for the model, could easily be scaled up and

all three areas of the system. A shape memory

when contact with water is made. These are all

manufactured at a relatively low price.

spring could be attached to the syringes so when

different treatments that can be further explored

heated or an electric current is passed, it retracts

in this model.

and pushes the syringe arms down. The liquid it-


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats


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Experiment Schizophonic 4 -Retreats The Arctic Symphony

08.0 EXP 4 - THE ARCTIC SYMPHONY Sea ice extent averaged for the month of April 2013 was 14.37 million square kilometers (5.54 million square miles). This is 630,000 square kilometers (243,000 square miles) below the 1979 to 2000 average for the month, and is the seventh-lowest April extent in the satellite record.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

08.1 EXPERIMENT SETUP 7KH$UFWLFUHJLRQFRQVLVWVRIDYDVWLFHFRYHUHGRFHDQVXUURXQGHGE\WUHHOHVV SHUPDIURVW7KHDUHDFDQEHGHĂ€QHGDVQRUWKRIWKH$UFWLF&LUFOH ƒ¡1  the approximate limit of the midnight sun and the polar night.

Sea ice extent averaged for the month of April

In the earlier part of the satellite data record, av-

when extent exceeded 15 million square kilometers

2013 was 14.37 million square kilometers (5.54 mil-

erage April extent remained above 15 million square

(5.8 million square miles), as well as 2006 and 2007,

lion square miles). This is 630,000 square kilometers

kilometers (5.8 million square miles). Since 1989 the

when extent dropped below 14 million square kilom-

(243,000 square miles) below the 1979 to 2000 aver-

extent has mostly remained between 14 and 15 mil-

eters (5.4 million square miles).

age for the month, and is the seventh-lowest April

lion square kilometers (5.4 and 5.8 million square

A large area of open water has started to form

extent in the satellite record.

miles). The years 1993 and 1999 were exceptions,

around Franz Josef Land and north of Svalbard. Poly-


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Experiment Schizophonic 4 -Retreats The Arctic Symphony

nyas are also appearing in the Kara and East Siberian

proximately 3,000 feet above sea level) in April were

degrees Fahrenheit) below average over Alaska. The

seas.

5 to 7 degrees Celsius (9 to 13 degrees Fahrenheit)

dominant feature of the Arctic sea level pressure field

Through the month of April, the Arctic lost 1.5

higher than average in the East Siberian Sea and 3 to

for April 2013 was unusually high pressure over Alas-

million square kilometers of ice (444,000 square

5 degrees Celsius (5 to 9 degress Fahrenheit) higher

ka and Siberia and below average pressure over the

miles), which is slightly higher than the average for

than average in the Kara Sea.

Kara and Barents seas.

the month. Air temperatures at the 925 hPa level (ap-

Temperatures were 3 to 5 degrees Celsius (5 to 9


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

08.2 ICE RECORDING 1 7KHPROHFXOHVLQVROLGLFHPD\EHDUUDQJHGLQQXPHURXVGLIIHUHQWZD\VFDOOHG SKDVHVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHWHPSHUDWXUHDQGSUHVVXUH7\SLFDOO\LFHLVWKHSKDVH known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on (DUWK·VVXUIDFH


Experiment Schizophonic 4 -Retreats The Arctic Symphony

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08.3 ICE RECORDING 2 As a naturally-occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered a mineral.[1] It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently ERQGHGWRWZRK\GURJHQDWRPVRU+2+


Experiment Schizophonic 4 -Retreats The Arctic Symphony

112/113 112/113


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The Schizophonic Retreats

08.4 ICE RECORDING 3 7KHPROHFXOHVLQVROLGLFHPD\EHDUUDQJHGLQQXPHURXVGLIIHUHQWZD\VFDOOHG SKDVHVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHWHPSHUDWXUHDQGSUHVVXUH7\SLFDOO\LFHLVWKHSKDVH known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on (DUWK·VVXUIDFH


Experiment Schizophonic 4 -Retreats The Arctic Symphony

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Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

08.5 EXPERIMENT SETUP As a naturally-occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered a mineral.[1] It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently ERQGHGWRWZRK\GURJHQDWRPVRU+2+


Experiment Schizophonic 4 -Retreats The Arctic Symphony

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Experiment Schizophonic 4 -Retreats The Arctic Symphony

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The Schizophonic Retreats


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Experiment Schizophonic 5 -Retreats The Galapagos Sway

10.0 EXP 5 - THE GALAPAGOS SWAY )URPWKHSHUVSHFWLYHRIWKHPDWKHPDWLFDOPRGHOOHU´à RFNLQJ¾LVWKHFROOHFWLYH motion of a large number of self-propelled entities and is a collective animal EHKDYLRUH[KLELWHGE\PDQ\OLYLQJEHLQJVVXFKDVELUGVÀVKEDFWHULDDQG insects.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

10.1 OVER AND UNDER Over-unders, also known as split-shots or splits, are underwater photos where KDOIRIWKHSKRWR WKHWRSKDOI LVDERYHZDWHU7KH\DUHRIWHQWDNHQZLWKYHU\ ZLGHÀVKH\HOHQVLQDODUJHGRPHSRUWXVLQJDVPDOODSHUWXUHIRUJRRGGHSWK RIÀHOG


Experiment Schizophonic 5 -Retreats The Galapagos Sway

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The Schizophonic Retreats

10.2 OVER AND UNDER )ORFNLQJEHKDYLRUZDVÀUVWVLPXODWHGRQDFRPSXWHULQE\&UDLJ5H\QROGVZLWKKLVVLPXODWLRQSURJUDP%RLGV7KLVSURJUDPVLPXODWHVVLPSOHDJHQWV ERLGV WKDWDUHDOORZHGWRPRYHDFFRUGLQJWRDVHWRIEDVLFUXOHV7KHUHVXOWLV DNLQWRDÁRFNRIELUGVDVFKRRORIÀVKRUDVZDUPRILQVHFWV


Experiment Schizophonic 5 -Retreats The Galapagos Sway

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The Schizophonic Retreats

10.3 SIMULATION )ORFNLQJEHKDYLRUZDVÀUVWVLPXODWHGRQDFRPSXWHULQE\&UDLJ5H\QROGVZLWKKLVVLPXODWLRQSURJUDP%RLGV7KLVSURJUDPVLPXODWHVVLPSOHDJHQWV ERLGV WKDWDUHDOORZHGWRPRYHDFFRUGLQJWRDVHWRIEDVLFUXOHV7KHUHVXOWLV DNLQWRDÁRFNRIELUGVDVFKRRORIÀVKRUDVZDUPRILQVHFWV


Experiment Schizophonic 5 -Retreats The Galapagos Sway

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128/129

Compositions Schizophonic Retreats

11.0 COMPOSITIONS A piece of music exists in the form of a composition in musical notation or as DVLQJOHDFRXVWLFHYHQW DOLYHSHUIRUPDQFHRUUHFRUGHGWUDFN ,IFRPSRVHG before being performed, music can be performed from memory, through written musical notation, or through a combination of both.


Sound Explorations

The Schizophonic Retreats

11.1 COMPOSITION 1 - THE SONIC SHADOWS 7KHSHUIRUPDQFHLVEDVHGRQPDJLFDQGDVVXFKDWKHUHPLQLVXVHGIRUHIIHFW ,WFUHDWHVDVHQVHRIPDJLFWKDWZRXOGQRWH[LVWVZLWKDQRUPDOLQVWUXPHQW7KH performnance creates an oppurtunity to test input methods and the establishment of a new interactive system.


Compositions Schizophonic Retreats

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11.4 COMPOSITION 2 - THE VENTURI FORMATIONS Ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of ocean water generDWHGE\WKHIRUFHVDFWLQJXSRQWKLVPHDQĂ RZVXFKDVEUHDNLQJZDYHVZLQG Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences and tides caused E\WKHJUDYLWDWLRQDOSXOORIWKH0RRQDQGWKH6XQ


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11.2 CMPOSITION 3 - THE ACAPELLA CITY $VRQLFFU\VWDOLVDÀQLWHVL]HSHULRGLFDUUD\FRPSRVHGRIVFDWWHUHUVHPEHGded in a homogeneous material. It should have full band-gaps where any sound ZDYHLVQRWDOORZHGWRSURSDJDWHEXWLVUHÁHFWHGFRPSOHWHO\,WLVDFWXDOO\D sonic version of a photonic crystal.

Compositi


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ion 2

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11.3 CMPOSITION 4 - THE ARCTIC SYMPHONY As a naturally-occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered a mineral.[1] It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently ERQGHGWRWZRK\GURJHQDWRPVRU+2+


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11.4 COMPOSITION 5 - THE GALAPAGOS SWAY )URPWKHSHUVSHFWLYHRIWKHPDWKHPDWLFDOPRGHOOHU´à RFNLQJ¾LVWKHFROOHFWLYH motion of a large number of self-propelled entities and is a collective animal EHKDYLRUH[KLELWHGE\PDQ\OLYLQJEHLQJVVXFKDVELUGVÀVKEDFWHULDDQG insects.


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12.0 PERFORMANCES 7KHFRPSRVLWLRQVDUHH[SOUHGWKURXJKGUDZLQJWRDWWHPSWDQGSHUIRUPZKDW WKH\PD\EHOLNHLIH[SHULHQFHG7KHDUFKLWHFWXUDOUHSUHVHQWDWLRQEHFRPHVWKH reading of the unconventional notation.


Sound Explorations

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Performan

12.1 PERFORMANCE 1 - THE SONIC SHADOWS 7KHSHUIRUPDQFHLVEDVHGRQPDJLFDQGDVVXFKDWKHUHPLQLVXVHGIRUHIIHFW ,WFUHDWHVDVHQVHRIPDJLFWKDWZRXOGQRWH[LVWVZLWKDQRUPDOLQVWUXPHQW7KH performnance creates an oppurtunity to test input methods and the establishment of a new interactive system.


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12.2 PERFORMANCE 2 - THE VENTURI FORMATIONS Ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of ocean water generDWHGE\WKHIRUFHVDFWLQJXSRQWKLVPHDQĂ RZVXFKDVEUHDNLQJZDYHVZLQG Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences and tides caused E\WKHJUDYLWDWLRQDOSXOORIWKH0RRQDQGWKH6XQ

Performan


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1c. INSTIGATORS - External Users

The Schizophonic Retreats

4b.APPARATUS - Sun

3b. INPUT - Light

4c.APPARATUS - Sun

3c. INPUT - Heat

4d.APPARATUS - Atmosphere

3d. INPUT - Water

4e.APPARATUS - Atmosphere

3e. INPUT - Wind

Programmatically, sound is considered as a material to affect the medium of perception. Sound is materialised in its physical aspects so the user feels the physicality, response to temperature and its presence in space, not in the unconsciousness.

Programmatically, sound is considered as a material to affect the medium of perception. Sound is materialised in its physical aspects so the user feels the physicality, response to temperature and its

a.

presence in space, not in the unconsciousness.

It seeks to redefine the definition of spatial and programmatic boundary and explores the relationship between: a. Sound, form and space, b. Sense of self and space c. The conscious and the unconscious d. Sense of time (Past, present & future) e. The existing, recycled and the new

Key 0 - 200Hz

c.

200 - 400 Hz 400 - 600 Hz 600 - 800 Hz 800 - 1000 Hz

e.

Volume Contours Sonic Array (Plan) Sonic Array (Elevation)

5. MANIPULATOR - Arrangement 6.APPARATUS - Sonic Crystal Array 7.OUTPUT - Sound

12.3 PERFORMANCE 3 - THE ACAPELLA CITY 7KHODQGVFDSHFRQWRXUVWDNHRQWKHUROHRIPHPEUDQHERXQGDU\(DFKERXQGDU\DFWVDVWKHWKUHVKROGIRUQHZG\QDPLFFRQGLWLRQV7KHVHFDQEHUHSUHVQWHG through colour or lines around the edges. Sound is introduced to manipulate each layer of membrane.


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3a. INPUT - Sound

1a. INSTIGATORS - External Users 2a. APPARATUS -

b.

d.


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12.4 PERFORMANCE 4 - THE GALAPAGOS SWAY )URPWKHSHUVSHFWLYHRIWKHPDWKHPDWLFDOPRGHOOHU´à RFNLQJ¾LVWKHFROOHFWLYH motion of a large number of self-propelled entities and is a collective animal EHKDYLRUH[KLELWHGE\PDQ\OLYLQJEHLQJVVXFKDVELUGVÀVKEDFWHULDDQG insects.


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06.8 CONCLUSION

‘I’d like to conclude by stating that in the journey of the project, I have become a composer. A composer of aural experience. I have designed instruments, I created compositions out of the tool set that I established and produced videos carrying out the performances of the compositions. What began as experiments, morphed into symphonies where people and nature become the performers in aletoric compositions and architecture takes on the role of instrument. The act of occupying the space becomes the performance of the composition.‘


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Dimploma Unit 18 The Energy Attack Unit

“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change”, Charles Darwin It is in the isolated archipelago of the Galapagos that the naturalist encountered the complex biodiversity that enabled him to complete his taxonomies and construct his theory of theevolution of species. Today, these islands remain the best preserved tropical archipelago and are used as a “live laboratory” to investigate and understand microevolution and speciation. This fragile environment is highly threatened: invading species, pollution events, over exploitation and, most importantly, climate change: increasing the sea level, changing the ocean temperature and the distribution of rainfall. The area has been placed on the UNESCO’s list of Endangered World Heritage since 2007. Due to its isolated geography, sparse population and fragile natural environment, the Galapagos islands can be seen as a microcosm of the social, political, economical and ecological changes that occur in our world. Diploma 18 continues its exploration on territories affected by Global Warming which lead us to focus on the natural and vegetal patrimony of the Galapagos Islands.

Architectural Association School of Architecture


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