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RCT11 Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims

“Torture must always be fought ”

Annual Report 2011

Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

CONTENTS Torture must always be fought


Rehabilitation 2011


A year with Spring sensations


RCT behind a great deal of new research


A year of fighting against torture


HR as a strategic ally


RCT Publications 2011


Donations and pledges of support 2011


Accounts 2011


ANNUAL REPORT 2011 Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) Borgergade 13 P.O. Box 2107 DK-1014 Copenhagen K Phone.: +45 33 76 06 00 Fax: +45 33 76 05 10 e-mail: SE-nr. 69 73 51 18 Giro BG Bank nr. 1199-0007383940 Dansk Bank nr. 3001 4310821209 Direction Karin Verland (editor-in-chief) Anders Bernhoft Simon Kratholm AnkjĂŚrgaard Layout Cadwalk ISBN: 978-87-90878-43-6 ISSN: 2245-4608

Annual Report 2011

Torture must always be fought By Karin Verland, Director General

The terrorists have won a giant victory. They have succeeded in bringing division into our own home. They have succeeded in making democratic countries use torture in the fight against terrorism, thereby turning good into evil. We who still believe that torture does not solve any problems have been dealt a blow. We who meet the victims of torture every day know what it does to human beings to be placed in a powerless position and then have so much pain and anxiety inflicted on them that they either lose their lives or never become whole human beings again.


Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

Torture must always be fought

Debate in Denmark

What is torture?

Last year, the issue of torture was again debated in

Not so long ago I spoke to a politically active man

Denmark. The debate emerged from a UN report on

from Zimbabwe. Shortly before our meeting, someone

systematic torture in Afghan prisons to which the Danish

had poured boiling oil on his face with the purpose of

army hands over prisoners and from a case concerning the

disfiguring him for life. This way the torturers would

Iraq war where Denmark is accused of having handed over

always be able to recognise him if he returned to his

prisoners to torture. Both cases show that a long road still

village. It is my experience that Danes do not know what

lies ahead, even for a country that wants to be exemplary

torture is. They do not know that persons subjected to

in its observance of human rights. RCT participated

torture are beaten up, kicked in the head, jumped on, have

actively in the domestic debate, in the media as well as

the soles of their feet beaten with metal pipes, are tortured

through in-person meetings with politicians and ministers.

with electric shock to their genitals, are raped with truncheons or broken glass or hung by the arms causing

Too many Danes are pro-torture

their shoulders to dislocate.

On the occasion of the Human Rights Day on 10 December,

They do not know that torture destroys tendons and joints

RCT had commissioned an opinion survey among the

and inflict life-long chronic pain on the victim of torture.

Danes. We wanted to get an idea of the population’s view

They do not know that it causes nightmares, concentration

on torture. We were not surprised to learn that almost

difficulties, learning difficulties, anxiety and depression.

one in four Danes found that torture in certain cases is

They do not know that it causes fear of authorities and

acceptable. Since then, this figure has grown to 31 percent

distrust and that the trauma is often “passed on” from

in a new opinion survey; something which cannot merely

mother and father to son and daughter. Torture destroys

be ascribed to statistical uncertainty. When our politicians

people completely, physically as well as mentally.

are hesitant, uncertainty is created among the Danes. This proves that if standards are good, double standards

A ticking bomb

are twice as good. We need to have courageous politicians

When torture supporters are asked to explain why torture is

with guts enough to say no to torture. If they don’t, they

a good way of getting information, they use examples from

contribute to undermining the fight against torture and

Hollywood movies. That is what we call “the ticking bomb”

to defeating the intentions of the UN Convention Against

scenario. So far there is no evidence that an imminent terror

Torture. The Convention calls upon Denmark to prevent

attack has been prevented through the use of torture. And

torture and to always uphold the absolute prohibition

if torture really is that effective, how come it took ten years

against torture.

to locate Osama bin Laden? We know from our research that torture is an extremely ineffective tool of investigation and we are supported by i.a. present and former directors of military intelligence. But why is torture such an ineffective tool? Well, there are five very good reasons: 1) Victims of torture cannot give reliable information due to dissociation, i.e. they cannot distinguish between reality and fantasy in the torture situation 2) Victims of torture will say anything to avoid torture 3) Hardened terrorists and fanatics purposely give false clues to gain time and to inform on enemies 4) Innocent victims give a lot of information, which wastes the authorities’ time 5) The torturers do not know when the information given by the victim is correct. So when should they stop torturing the victim?

Annual Report 2011

Modest progress


Even though we do experience progress in the

In fragile states with inequality among the

fight against torture and organised violence, we

citizens we see how assaults from the state lead

still have far to go. It is still RCT’s assessment that

to violence in the population as well. This is a

approx. 60 percent of the world’s population live

vicious circle that makes it even more dangerous

in countries where there is a risk of torture. Even

to live in Guatemala now than during the actual

though there are a lot of countries where torture

civil war. Rumour has it that in Honduras they

is rare, torture is still a widespread tool. Just look

are trying to solve the problems by burning down

at Syria where torture is practically increasing

prisons with the prisoners still inside. At RCT we

exponentially with the opposition against the

work to prevent these assaults. We do research in

regime. In many Asian countries torture is a part

the prevention of organised violence and we use

of everyday life.

our research results to take active initiatives to help make everyday life safer for the citizens.

North Africa RCT has launched a major prevention and

Torture is the problem, not the solution

rehabilitation project in North Africa. The Arab

If we are ever going to succeed in putting an end

Spring has brought hope to those who had none.

to torture, we need to start by putting our own

But the road to societies without torture and

house in order and set a good example. We must

organised violence is long and winding. Even

not stoop to the dictators’ and fanatics’ level

though the dictators are gone, the new regimes

and use torture. Nor must we use information

adopt the bad habits of the old regimes. It is

obtained through torture in legal proceedings

reported that the situation in Egypt is worse now

in Denmark or deportation cases. We must set

than under Hosni Mubarak.

a good example and lead the way. Torture is not part of the solution. It is part of the problem.

“Torture is the problem, not the solution” 5

Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

Rehabilitation 2011 By Gordon Wildschiødtz, Consultant Psychiatrist and Director of the Rehabilitation Department

The central work in the Rehabilitation Department continues to focus on the interdisciplinary rehabilitation of victims of torture and severely traumatised persons. Rehabilitation is an intensive and longterm process, which imposes natural limits on the patient flow. The department has focused on shortening the treatment processes so that the treatment is completed within approx. ten months. RCT’s new referral procedure with preliminary assessments involving the physical presence of the client within a few weeks has proven to be highly effective when it comes to identifying the clients who do not need the full interdisciplinary treatment offered by RCT. A natural consequence of this procedure has been that we receive a larger share of severely traumatised clients, which is in line with RCT’s unique function as a national centre in Denmark specialising in rehabilitation of traumatised refugees with particularly complex problems. Thanks to the new referral procedure, those who do not need interdisciplinary rehabilitation can now move on to alternative treatments more quickly. The new procedure means that RCT has succeeded in cutting the waiting list from 146 to less than 50 clients. And as the annual client flow is now approx. 125, we expect that no one will have to wait more than six months for treatment in the future.

Annual Report 2011

Special focus on urgent needs

Contributes to international work

In order to meet a need for urgent treatment we

Finally, the Rehabilitation Department also

have established an urgent treatment option

contributed to the international work in e.g.

where the client can get treatment within two

Jordan and Cambodia by sending psychologists

to six weeks. This group of clients particularly

and physiotherapists with a view to sharing our

includes persons who are absent from work due

pain school and physiotherapeutic programmes

to an industrial injury or clients who have lost

with our partners. Building capacity with our

their job in connection with a worsening of e.g.

partner organisations constitutes an important

PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) symptoms.

part of RCT’s development work as we can

We have also accepted clients for urgent

transfer competencies to local people this way.

treatment when children in the family have been

With these competencies they will be able to

at risk. The urgent treatment is provided by our

carry out the work without foreign assistance in

individual teams and in more complicated cases

the future.

by our family team. Increased monitoring Throughout the years, RCT has worked with very meticulous medical, psychological, physiotherapeutic and social diagnosing of the individual client in order to assess her or his individual need for treatment. Various monitoring systems have been developed to enable us to monitor the effect of the treatment provided. As several of these computerised monitoring systems have now become outdated, we chose to review our entire monitoring programme. Through finetuning and optimization, at the start of 2012, the RCT will be able to introduce a new monitoring procedure which means that monitoring starts with the preliminary assessment and ends when the treatment is completed ten months later. The monitoring data are secured in generally used and recognised database systems so that they can be used in the day-to-day rehabilitation work at the clinic. In addition, it will enable us to assess the effect of the rehabilitation. In parallel with this monitoring of effects, the Research Department has launched

“The new procedure means that RCT has succeeded in cutting the waiting list from 146 to less than 50 clients�

a project that also focuses on evaluating the work performed by the department. We will have the first results within a year.


Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

A year with spring sensations The Arab Spring played a big role for RCT in 2011. Among other things, RCT opened a new office in Tunis. Unfortunately, the positive developments in the Middle East and North Africa form a sharp contrast to the negative developments in Central America. By Jan Ole Haagensen, Director of the International Department

Annual Report 2011

For RCT, the year 2011 was very much devoted

Increased regionalisation and

to North Africa where especially young people

South-South Cooperation

lead the way in revolutions in Tunisia, Egypt

In the Arab regions, they seem to become much

and Libya. This development spread in ever-

better at finding local solutions to local problems;

widening circles to the rest of the North African

RCT is a partner in the work to monitor the

and Middle Eastern regions. In some countries,

treatment of prisoners as well as in the work to

the rulers have succeeded in keeping the fire

train health professionals in the rehabilitation of

under control, but the fire is still strong in

torture survivors.

Bahrain and Yemen and hopefully it is only

In Africa, we draw on local resources more often

a question of time before the regime in Syria

and we use their experience. In Asia, RCT supports


the Asian Human Rights Commission in its efforts to involve the elected representatives of the

Torture was part of everyday life under the

people in order to achieve the necessary political

previous regimes so considerable future efforts

support. In this region, certain countries have

will be needed to ensure rehabilitation of the

spent vast resources on educating and training

victims of torture as well as to strengthen the

people in the legal sector, but if the political will

state structures so they won’t use torture in the

is absent and torture is accepted in all spheres of

future. The latter takes place in close dialogue

society as a necessary means, it is an uphill battle

with police, prison authorities and legal system.

because we will need to focus on creating political

Therefore, RCT has entered Libya, Tunisia and

will. This is, for instance, the case in India where

Egypt with the support of the Danish Ministry of

we work with the People’s Vigilance Committee

Foreign Affairs. To begin with, our activities are

for Human Rights to create public pressure. This

coordinated from our newly established office in

is quite a challenge considering the fact that the

Tunis. This is a daunting task so we collaborate

country has a population of more than 1.2 billion.

with other international organisations in the

It sounds like a difficult task and it may take

field, including our umbrella organisation IRCT.

some time, but it is not impossible.

We want to draw on Arab experts and especially


to document what has happened with a view to subsequent prosecution of those who authorised the torture as well as those who performed it. This will have a significant preventive effect in the


future. Our work also centres on contributing to the development of legislation and institutions to ensure that torture stops and that the practice of

Albania Tunesia

torture is not resumed.



All this requires unambiguous political support from the rulers, but unfortunately this support Guatemala suggest that torture is now even more widespread

than under Hosni Mubarak. In Libya, the Libyan people first need to gather and build a state



is not always forthcoming. HondurasReports from Egypt

Sierra Leone Sri Lanka


Ecuador with an efficient and democratic government. In

Tunisia, the development is more promising.



Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

A year with spring sensations Progress in the Balkans The Balkan Region is also struggling with huge challenges and do not always develop as planned, but we can see that the countries are making some progress. RCT’s partner in Albania, Albanian Rehabilitation Centre for Trauma and Torture (ARCT), has consequently helped support the Albanian Ombudsman during a period where the political system was not working and the parliament was not able to agree on much. ARCT has made formal agreements with the Ombudsman and the Albanian prison services, which have lead to noticeable improvements, particularly in the health area. For instance, prison doctors now have access to medical records that can be used to document torture and Disintegrating Central American states

to ensure that the prisoners get the necessary

In Central America, Honduras seems to be

treatment. Moreover, ARCT has played a key

heading for a meltdown and things are not

role in amending a number of prison acts

looking much brighter in Guatemala, El Salvador

concerning the treatment of prisoners. With its

and Nicaragua. In Honduras, state institutions

medical expertise and huge commitment, ARCT

have degenerated to such an extent that the

contributes to ensuring that Albania’s national

citizens can no longer tell the police from

visiting mechanism works and continues to

criminal gangs.

develop for the prevention of torture. ARCT’s work has been recognised at highest levels; at the

Last year the country had the dubious honour of

beginning of 2012, the country’s president, Bamir

being proclaimed the most dangerous country

Topi awarded the Medal of Gratitude to Adrian

in the world. In 2011, the murder rate was 86

Kati, executive director of ARCT.

murders per 100,000 inhabitants. In a Danish perspective this corresponds to more than 4,700 murders a year in Denmark, instead of the 44 murders we had in 2010. The majority of people killed are adolescent boys and young men. Inspired by the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) global Violence Prevention Alliance - of which RCT is a part - our partners work to find practices and strategies that have proven effects in other, preferably Latin-American, countries and which can be reproduced locally. The next step in the process is to get the local decision-makers to support these strategies so that they achieve legality as well as legitimacy.

Annual Report 2011

RCT behind a great deal of new research In 2011 RCT left an important mark on the research in torture and organised violence. Several new projects were launched – and a number of results were published. By Edith Montgomery, Director of the Research Department

In terms of health and social sciences 2011

conditions. More intensive symptoms such as

was an exciting year for RCT. The Research

anxiety and depression and a higher degree

Department initiated a number of new projects,

of impairment of functional capacity were

while other projects were completed and the

associated with increased response to pain in

results published. This way RCT maintains its

connection with an experimentally induced

position as the leading expert and knowledge

pain in the lower leg and increased prevalence

centre in the world within research in torture

of the clinical neck-shoulder pain. Sensory

and organised violence.

hyper sensitivity was seen in an area far from the clinical pain area. Most of RCT’s patients

In the area of rehabilitation, the Research

experience pain in large parts of the body so this

Department commenced and completed a

phenomenon probably also applies to this group.

qualitative interview study of the expectations

An important intervention in case of chronic pain

of 15 victims of torture with regard to their

is pain relieving treatment. In collaboration with

participation in a rehabilitation programme. In

the Lund University RCT is doing further work

addition, a study was initiated comparing torture

in this area in the form of a study of the effect

victims’ experiences and the physiotherapist’s

of acupuncture on chronic pain, which may help

objective assessment of functional capacity with

improve the treatment of torture survivors’ pain.

chronic pain. Also a pilot project with objective

The work of identifying relevant indicators for

measurement of the patients’ walking pace was

rehabilitation processes continued in 2011, i.a.


by means of a large database from the Umeå

Chronic pain continues to be an important focus

University with 20,000 patients who have

area in RCT’s research. A study completed in 2011

undergone pain rehabilitation.

in collaboration with the Linköping University indicates that central pain mechanisms are involved in clinical, chronic neck-shoulder pain


Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

RCT behind a great deal of new research Populations and communities

Consolidation of the work with the Global Prison

A number of new activities were implemented under

Network continued and a thematic issue of the

our populations and communities strategy in 2011.

journal Focaal has almost been completed.

In this regard particularly the following two projects

We have also continued to work on developing

should be emphasised; an EU-funded research

the army as a future, strategic focus area. In this

project focussing on narratives from Kurdish torture

connection we have done some analytical work aimed

survivors in Denmark and a research project with

at establishing a dialogue between various conceptual

funding from the Danish Council for the Humanities

frameworks regarding torture and the army.

which focuses on narratives and healing among

The research programme ”Violent organization of

genocide survivors in Cambodia.

political youth” was formally completed in 2011, and

In a number of countries we continued our data

three doctoral theses are almost completed as well.

collection and field work with the purpose of

Each project makes its own unique contribution to a

examining the biopsychosocial consequences of

deeper understanding of the underlying dynamics of

torture and organised violence. In addition to field

violence in Bangladesh, Nepal and Kenya.

work in connection with the above projects in

In the Philippines a formal collaboration agreement

Cambodia and Denmark, we also continued our work

was concluded between RCT, Balay and the University

with “Crime prevention among traumatised refugee

of the Philippines to support a research unit

families in Denmark” and “Psychosocial interventions

comprising up to four MA students and focusing on

for survivors of torture and organised violence in

violence, suffering and human rights.

Latin America.” The work with an epidemiological survey of


torture continued with preparations for field work

The most prominent development in the

in Kurdistan and Kosovo, and in North Africa in

Documentation Centre’s work in 2011 was the

collaboration with the Birzeit University in Palestine.

intensified and formalised collaboration with

A number of research results were published in

RCT’s Communication Department where the

various ways, of special importance are a doctoral

Documentation Dept. has played a central role in

thesis presenting 20 years of RCT research on children

relation to RCT’s new website as a supplier and editor

and young people exposed to torture and organised

of information about important new publications

violence, a monograph in Danish concerning Danish

and bibliographical data in general.

soldiers on missions in the Balkans and Iraq and a

At the same time the Documentation Centre and

publication regarding the mechanisms used to give

the Documentation Department made an ongoing

words to, normalise and tone down violence.

effort to increase the synergy between the Centre’s database and RCT’s website. And it works. A

Perpetration and reform

comparison of the last four months of 2010 and

A grant from the Danish Social Science Research

2011, respectively, shows an increase in the number

Council enabled us to start a new project under the

of visitors of more than 100 percent in 2011. At

research programme ‘Confinement, violence and

the same time the number of visitors where the

reform’ which deals directly with one of RCT’s central

user does not just read one page and then leaves

research areas; the study of practice in prisons and

the website has increased by almost 40 percent.

detention centres. The project involves three of RCT’s

The Documentation Centre’s thesaurus project

international partners and has ground-breaking focus

“Thesaurus of terminology related to torture and

on the prison as an institution that practices violence

organised violence” reached the implementation

and NGOs as reforming institutions. The project

stage in 2011. Data files with the contents of the

is very much at the cutting edge of international

thesaurus were sent to the Centre’s system provider,

research on prisons in the South.

Reindex, at the end of 2011, and the preparatory technical work of incorporating the thesaurus in the Centre’s database was commenced.

Annual Report 2011


Rehabilitation Mechanisms and treatment of symptoms after torture and organised violence

Living in limbo? An ethnographic study of institutions,

Falanga torture, disability, pain mechanisms and behavioural consequences

Symbolic reparation for victims of human rights

Mechanisms for chronic muscular pain

Violence and everyday life in Columbia

Stimulation treatment for chronic pain Sleep disturbances in victims of torture and organised violence Effects of rehabilitation programmes on activity and participation after torture and organised violence Indicators for rehabilitation processes Expectations of victims of torture in relation to the rehabilitation process Monitoring instruments for rehabilitation processes Effect study of interdisciplinary rehabilitation of victims of torture and organised violence Controlled trials of psychotherapeutic intervention Populations and communities

interventions and poor black Zimbabwean migrants in South Africa violations in Cambodia

Kurdish torture survivors in Denmark Long-term effects of extreme stress Danish sailors – the war sailor syndrome Perpetration and reform Institutions that practice torture and human rights abuse State and non-state detention practices in Sierra Leone State and non-state violence in South Africa: Policing, vigilantism and gangs Asymmetric armed conflict – the profound transformation of global conflict and violence on the military institution and its soldiers

Refugee families

Confinement and violence in India

Psychosocial stress factors in refugee mental health -

Mobilisation of young combatants in the Mano River

family perspectives


Health and well-being of asylum-seeking children and

Networks that practise torture and organised violence

refugee children in the Nordic countries Attachment narratives in refugee children - a method study Crime prevention among traumatised refugee families: Implementation of network meetings in Danish municipalities Prisons and refugee families: Youth crime and traumatised refugee families and their meeting with the system of justice and social authorities Violence in local communities

The violent organisation of political youth Youth mobilisation in Manila: Electoral politics, crime and authority in Bagong Silang Mungiki in Nairobi, Kenya. Between violent youth politics and traditionalist sect Mobilisation and social navigation in student politics at Dhaka University, Bangladesh Political activism in the context of Nepal’s democratic transition: Mobilisation, hope and survival among youth in Kathmandu

Influence of violence on social and gender identity in Latin America Epidemiological study of public violence and access to justice in Guatemala Epidemiological study of torture and political violence in conflict settings 13

Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

A year of fighting against torture By Dorrit Rée Akselbo, Director of the Communication Department

2011 was an exciting and at times busy year for the newly established Communication Department. In the first months of the year, much of the work in the Communication Department focused on Denmark’s first examination by the UN Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review (UPR). In this connection RCT met several times with representatives of the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which represented the Danish government in the examination, and worked closely with 11 other NGOs to make a joint submission on the human rights situation in Denmark. The examination produced 133 recommendations from the Human Rights Council. Unfortunately, the government only accepted a disappointing 84 of the recommendations. RCT was particularly disappointed that Denmark would not stop using diplomatic assurances as a way of circumventing the absolute prohibition against deporting people to countries where they risk being subjected to torture.

Minister of Defence Nick Hækkerup

Annual Report 2011

Stop handing over prisoners

One in every four Danes in

in Afghanistan

favour of torture

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan still cause

At the end of the year RCT polled the Danes

scandals that have led to a public debate with

on their attitude towards torture. The torture

RCT as an eager contributor. In October it was

barometer did not indicate stormy weather, but

revealed that prisoners were systematically

the acceptance of the use of torture in certain

tortured in a number of prisons and detention

cases was worrying; a total of 23 percent on a

centres run by the Afghan police and the Afghan

country-wide basis. This discouraging result has

security service, National Directorate of Security

prompted RCT to demand increased focus on

(NDS). Together with the Danish Institute for

human rights in our educational institutions and

Human Rights and Amnesty International,

a clear prohibition against torture in the Danish

RCT demanded that Denmark stop handing

Criminal Code. As the legislation is today, torture

over prisoners to Afghan authorities as this is

is not per se a specific offence. Instead torture is

contrary to the UN Torture Convention, a demand

packed away as an aggravating circumstance in

Denmark’s Minister of Defence, Nick Hækkerup,

connection with sentencing.

refused to meet. RCT continues to work actively to ensure that Denmark does not try to circumvent its state responsibility by resorting to similar sharp borderline practices.

“As the legislation is today, torture is not per se a specific offence” 15

Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

A year of fighting against torture

New website 2011 was also the year when RCT launched its

One of the reasons why Karin Verland was

new website, which is available in Danish and

chosen for the position as RCT’s new Director

English. The website is intended to contribute

General is that RCT’s Board wants to enhance

to the global fight against torture and inhuman

focus on external and internal communication.

treatment through knowledge sharing and

Shortly after taking up office as Director

exchange of experience. We want to ensure

General, Karin Verland chose to make the

that the knowledge available in the area,

communication unit under Planning and

e.g. regarding research and proven methods,

Support an independent department reporting

is collected and shared. Therefore, RCT has

directly to the Management. The department

aimed to make the new website more dynamic,

consists of a director, a head of press and a web

relevant and ensure that its content is easily


accessible. One of the functions of the new dynamic website is RCT’s electronic newsletter, which is so far only published in Danish. We are still giving the website the finishing touches and the Communication Department will be very pleased to receive positive as well as negative feedback from the users.

Annual Report 2011

HR as a strategic ally By Lene Jelbert, Director of the HR Department

At the end of 2011 the Human Resources (HR) Department got the role as a strategic ally in RCT. The function was previously a purely administrative support function in connection with drawing up contracts, salary grading, recruitment, etc. The function is now an independent department on a par with the other departments in the organisation and also participates in the management work on an equal footing with the other departments. Furthermore, HR functions as a sparring partner and consultant in all staff-related issues.


Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

HR as a strategic ally

Professional and personal competencies

New tool for employee

RCT is a knowledge intensive organisation entirely

development interviews

dependent on the many professionals who

During the past months HR has focussed on

have widely differing backgrounds in terms of

developing and implementing a new tool for


employee development interviews, which

In order to live up to RCT’s vision and objective

couples future target areas with target-oriented

of a world without torture, it is of decisive

development of competencies. The interview is

importance that the employees always have the

conducted on the basis of a mind map where

competencies required to achieve this objective.

focus is on present as well as future tasks, job

This requires a target-oriented development

satisfaction, relations, etc. The targets for the

of competencies. RCT will now be expanding

coming years are coupled with the need for

the competency concept from being only about

competency development. Success criteria are

professional skills to also include social and

agreed on, thus enabling manager and employee

personal competencies. RCT solves many tasks

alike to keep track on whether or not the targets

in collaboration with other organisations and has

are achieved. A midway employee development

partners at many different levels in the societies of

interview is also introduced to ensure a close

many different cultures. A good employee needs to

dialogue as well as to be able to act and

be able to form part of these relations and have a

reprioritise if required considering the ever-

personality conducive to creating good and lasting

changing world we live in.

relations and results.

Annual Report 2011

Programme for future managers

Focus on job satisfaction

Another of HR’s projects is a programme for new

Job satisfaction and working environment remain

managers. This programme has been developed

important focus areas. Particular focus has been

for professionals, who go from being experts to

placed on stress prevention. We have had theme

also having managerial responsibilities, to help

days and reflection fora that have i.a. focussed on

them balance professionalism and the need for

stress, conflicts, etc. We will keep working with

management and leadership. The programme

this important target area in 2012.

will be structured around various theoretical inputs that are linked to practice. We expect the programme to be launched sometime during the coming year. New welcome programme Feeling welcome as a new employee is very important. We have developed a new introduction programme which is based on a buddy system where the buddy takes the new employee through the introduction programme, offering assistance and advice on anything and everything. The overall introduction to the entire organisation is now planned as two half-days where the department directors each present their own department.


Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

RCT Publications 2011

Peer-reviewed articles Harlacher U, Persson AL, RivanoFischer M, Sjölund BH: Using data from Multidimensional Pain Inventory subscales to assess functioning in pain rehabilitation. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 2011, 34 (1): 14-21. Jørgensen PS, Leth I, Montgomery E: The Children’s Rights Convention in Denmark: a status report on implementation. Early Education and Development, 2011, 25 (2): 839862. Kold C: The repeated glimpse of a military ‘vivid present’: methodological implications of intertwining things and bodies with minds and words: findings from a Danish field study. Res Militaris: European Journal of Military Studies, 2011, 1 (2): 25 p. Montgomery E, Patel N: Torture rehabilitation: reflections on treatment outcome studies. Torture: Journal on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture, 2011, 21 (2): 141-145. Nyberg V, Novo M, Sjölund BH: Do Multidimensional Pain Inventory Scale score changes indicate risk of receiving sick leave benefits 1 year after a pain rehabilitation programme? Disability and Rehabilitation, 2011, 33 (17-18): 15481556. Nyberg V, Sanne H, Sjölund BH: Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation: purpose, design, implementation and characteristics of referred patients. Journal of rehabilitation medicine, 2011, 43 (1): 50-57. Persson AL, Garametsos S, Pedersen J: Computer-aided surface estimation of pain drawings: intraand inter-rater reliability. Journal of Pain Research, 2011:4: 135-141.

Annual Report 2011

Prip K, Persson AL, Sjölund BH: Selfreported activity in tortured refugees with long-term sequelae including pain and the impact of foot pain from falanga: a cross-sectional study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2011, 33 (7): 569-578.

for Torture Victims (RCT), 2011.

Sjörs A, Larsson B, Persson AL, Gerdle B: An increased response to experimental muscle pain is related to psychological status in women with chronic non-traumatic neckshoulder pain. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 2011, 12:230: 26 p.

Modvig J, Jensen BT, Nielsen CV (ed.): Klinisk socialmedicin og rehabilitering. Copenhagen: FADL’s Forlag, 2011.

Books, reports and book chapters Birkeland SA: Danmark i krig. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 2011. Fernando B: Gyges’ ring: the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka. Hong Kong: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC); Copenhagen: Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT), 2011. Gonzales M (coord.), Modvig J, Ronsbo H, Dinesen C (RCT investigators): Violencia en Guatemala: estudio estadístico en cinco departamentos: Chiquimula, Guatemala, Petén, Quetzaltenango y San Marcos,. Ciudad de Guatemala: ODHAG, 2011. Jakobsen SF, Jensen S: Fra bekymring til handling i arbejdet med unge og radikalisering. Copenhagen: Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT), 2011. 15 p. Jefferson AM: Comparisons at work – exporting ‘exceptional’ norms. In: Ugelvik T, Dullum J (ed.): Penal exceptionalism?: Nordic prison policy and practice. London: Routledge, 2011: 100-117 Jensen S, Polatin P, Naidoo D: Violence and community activism in Vrygrond, South Africa: study report (RCT International Publication Series; no. 1). Copenhagen: Rehabilitation and Research Centre

Modvig J, Bøvith I: Socialmedicin. In: Kristensen JK, Lippert E, Mørkeberg C, Vahr S (ed.): Sundhedsdansk. Copenhagen: Munksgaard Danmark, 2011: 91-96.

Modvig J, Nielsen CV: Torturofre. In: Modvig J, Jensen BT, Nielsen CV (ed.): Klinisk socialmedicin og rehabilitering. Copenhagen: FADL’s Forlag, 2011: 213-225. Modvig J, Nielsen CV, Jensen BT: Journalen i klinisk socialmedicin og rehabilitering. In: Modvig J, Jensen BT, Nielsen CV (ed.): Klinisk socialmedicin og rehabilitering. Copenhagen: FADL’s Forlag, 2011: 43-51. Montgomery E: Langtidsfølger. In: Vitus K, Nielsen SS (ed.): Asylbørn i Danmark: en barndom i undtagelsestilstand. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag, 2011: 125-136. Nielsen CV, Modvig J: Funktionsevne. In: Modvig J, Jensen BT, Nielsen CV (ed.): Klinisk socialmedicin og rehabilitering. Copenhagen: FADL’s Forlag, 2011: 22-31. Nielsen CV, Modvig J: Klinisk socialmedicin og rehabilitering. In: Modvig J, Jensen BT, Nielsen CV (ed.): Klinisk socialmedicin og rehabilitering. Copenhagen: FADL’s Forlag, 2011: 11-21. Nordin L: Refleksioner over et vellykket terapiforløb: ”Jeg har ikke tænkt mig at tale om mine traumer”. In: Svennevig M: Bag de blå bjerge. Copenhagen: Epigraf, 2011: 73-76. Six-Hohenbalken M, Weiss N (eds.): Violence expressed: an anthropological approach. Farnham: Ashgate, 2011.

Social- og Integrationsministeriet, RCT: 14 cases on handling radicalisation. (Preventing extremism: a Danish handbook series). [Copenhagen]: Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, 2011. Social- og Integrationsministeriet, RCT: 14 eksempler fra arbejdet med radikalisering. (Forebyggelse af ekstremisme : en håndbogsserie). [Copenhagen]: Social- og Integrationsministeriet, 2011. . Doctoral theses Montgomery E: Trauma, exile and mental health in young refugees. Doctoral thesis, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2011. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2011, 140 (suppl. 440): 1-46. Conference presentations and papers Agger I: Culturally adapted approaches to healing of trauma for torture survivors in Cambodia. Human Rights and Traumatology: 12th European Conference on Traumatic Stress, 2011, June 2-5, Vienna, Austria. Harlacher U, Jacobsen L, Nordin L: Single subject design as research tool in exposure treatment for complex PTSD. Human Rights and Traumatology: 12th European Conference on Traumatic Stress, 2011, June 2-5, Vienna, Austria. Jefferson AM: Confining institutions and practices in Sierra Leone. 39th Annual Conference of the European Group for the Study of Deviance and Social Control, 2011, September 3-7, Chambéry, France. Kold C: Iterations of fire. The ‘local’ in global understandings of war and peacemaking. Anthropological and inter-disciplinary perspectives: PACSA-PRIO Cyprus Centre Joint Conference, 2011, September 1-2, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Kold C: Words of peace – practice of war. 11th ERGOMAS Conference, European Research Group on Military and Society, 2011, June 1317, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Montgomery E: Coping with trauma and exile : the role of social relationships. 15th European Conference of Developmental Psychology, 2011, August 23-27, Bergen, Norway. Mouritsen T: Towards an interdisciplinary approach: family therapy and community empowerment through processual network meetings in cases of refugee parents suffering from complex PTSD. Human Rights and Traumatology: 12th European Conference on Traumatic Stress, 2011, June 2-5, Vienna, Austria. Persson AL, Prip K, Sjölund BH: Three sensory profiles in the foot soles years after torture - a controlled QST study. 7th Congress of the European Federation of IASP Chapters (EFIC) - Pain in Europe VII, 2011, September 21-24, Hamburg, Germany. Rønsbo H, Paniagua W: Harm and remedy: the psycho-socialist movement and the effects of failure. • American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting, 2011, November 15-21, Montreal, Canada. • Anthropological and interdisciplinary perspectives: PACSA-PRIO Cyprus Centre Joint Conference, 2011, September 1-2, Nicosia, Cyprus. • The clinic and the court: understanding harm and remedy. Anthropology of Health and Illness Seminar, University of Edinburgh, 2011, May 26-27, Edinburgh, Scotland Wang, S.J.: Multi-country epidemiological study to assess organized crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations at the household and population level. ISSHR Capacity Building Workshops and Conference, 2011, October 6-9, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Weiss N: Marks on bodies, traces on souls: testimonies of Kurdish torture survivors. Workshop ‘Traces of violence and legacies of conflict: combining material evidence and narrative exchange for an anthropology of violent encounters’. American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting, 2011, November 15-21, Montreal, Canada. Weiss N: Public suffering, private pain: constructions of victimhood among Kurdish activists at home and in exile. Fafokonferansen, 2011, March 2, Oslo, Norway. Articles in professional journals and specialist magazines (non-peerreviewed) Engberg M: Tvangsindlæggelse fra almen praksis. Practicus, 2011, 35 (204): 15-17. Jakobsen SF: How to behave: advice from IDPs. Forced Migration Review, 2011, (37): 23-24. Jensen BS, Nordin L, Harlacher U, Sjölund BH: Hvordan er kvaliteten i de danske MTV-rapporter? (Debate / Feature article). Ugeskrift for Læger, 2011, 173 (23): 1676 Magnussen T: Mubaraks bødler. Nyhedsbrev: Partnerskab for Dialog og Reform, 2011, March: 8-9. Rasmussen J: Domesticating vigilantism in Africa. T.G. Kirsch, T. Grätz (eds.). Oxford: James Currey, 2010 (Book review). Journal of Modern African Studies, 2011, 49 (4): 685-686. Wendt E, Rytter T: A unique regional initiative: the Asian Alliance Against Torture and Ill-Treatment. Article 2, 2011, 10(3): 2-5. Østlie J-E: Å bygge opp igjen et menneske (Interview with Bente Midtgaard). Fontene, 2011, (9): 38-41.


Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT)

Donations and pledges of support 2011 RCT has gratefully received the following donations/ pledges of support from Danish foundations and endowments: Where no purpose is specified, the amount has been donated to RCT’s general work. BHI Fonden DKK 40,000 for a revised, global field manual on rehabilitation of torture victims Aase og Ejnar Danielsens Fond DKK 100,000

Novo Nordisk Foundation DKK 85,000 The Obel Family Foundation DKK 25,000 Scandinavian Tobacco Group (STG) Gavefond DKK 30,000 for legal counselling for RCT’s employees (primarily doctors and social workers) and users Else og Andreas Simonsens Fond DKK 5,000

Danske Banks Fond DKK 25,000

Sports good fonden DKK 10,000 for the research project ”I kamp for Danmark”

Lillian og Dan Finks Fond DKK 20,000 for publication of the thesis ”Trauma, exile and mental health in young refugees”

Research contributions

FLS Industries A/S Gavefond DKK 20,000 Fonden af 17.12. 1981 DKK 50,000 for “Crime prevention among children and young people in traumatised refugee families and implementation of network meetings in Danish municipalities” Hagens Legatet DKK 5,000 for legal counselling for RCT’s employees (primarily doctors and social workers) and users Hotelejer Andreas Harboes Fond DKK 10,000 for legal counselling for RCT’s employees (primarily doctors and social workers) and users Ernst og Vibeke Husmans Fond/ Frantz Hoffmanns Mindelegat DKK 20,000 for a revised, global field manual on rehabilitation of torture victims Generalkonsul Einar Høyvalds Fond DKK 25,000 for the research project ”I kamp for Danmark” Lauritzen Fonden DKK 40,000 for furniture and equipment for treatment of torture survivors

Annual Report 2011

Centre for Aftrican Studies, University of Copenhagen DKK 24,948 Other gifts Christianshavns KFUM DKK 5,500 Danish Nurses Orgainization (DNO) DKK 10,000 WILPF, Denmark DKK 1,000 Lærerstandens Brandforsikring DKK 7,500 Contributions from private individuals DKK 122,327 Although much of RCT’s national and international activity in 2011was funded by Danish Regions and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, one of the criteria for the receipt of public funding is that other RCT activities must be privately funded. The donations listed above have, therefore, been invaluable to the work of RCT, and RCT would like to express its gratitude to the donors for this financial support as well as for all other support. It is of great importance to our clients, the torture victims, that RCT enjoys the financial support of the Danish people.


Resultatopgørelse, RCT 1. januar - 31. december 2011

Total income (in 1.000 DKK)


Expenditures: RCT’s policy and organisational development

Project Expenditures in 2011 (in 1.000 DKK)

Individual projects 590

Rehabilitation, Jordan


Rehabilitation 18,916

KARAMA, Jordan


Prevention and advocay


MENA, North Africa


Information and Communication


Human Rights, Sri Lanka


Research and documentation



TOV and research projects in the South


Planning and support Total Expenditures

3,962 82,727

Projects in the South, within the framework agreement with the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs CSVR, South Arica


Total Income


Zimbabwean torture survivors, South Africa


Total expenditures


CAPS, Sierra Leone


Result operations


Prison Watch, Sierra Leone


Others, West Africa


Income financing Expenditures financing Net result financing

Net result of the year

533 -5 528


CPTRT, Honduras


ODHAG, Guatemala


CaPreVi, Latin Amercia




Human Rights, Sri Lanka

AHRC, Hong Kong/Sri Lanka BALAY, Philippines

207 2,053 1,672

OPCAT, Asia PVCHR, India


Øvrige, India


TPO, Cambodia Prgramme work, Cambodia

332 33

ARCT, Albania


KRCT, Kosovo



Total Expenditures



Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) Borgergade 13 P.O: Box 2107 DK-1014 Copenhagen K Phone.: +45 33 76 06 00 Fax: +45 33 76 05 10 e-mail:

RCT Annual Report 2011  
RCT Annual Report 2011  

Torture must always be fought