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EDITORIAL BOARD

Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine

Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Year: 2015 Scientific Review of the Romanian Distribution Committee

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Ion Ababii, Chişinău

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Alexandru Nedelea, Suceava

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Doiniţa Ciocîrlan, Bucharest

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Ovidiu Folcuţ, Bucharest

William Perttula, San Francisco

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SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL

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Andreea Apetrei, Iasi Adalbert Lucian Banyai, Bucharest George Bobîrnac, Bucharest Roxana Codita, München Stefano Duglio, Turin Larisa-Diana Dorobat, Geneve Marinela-Filofteia Hostiuc, Bucharest Darius Ilincaş, London

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CONTENTS page 8

Editorial: Investing for the future, and getting real value on the basis of a long-term road map Theodor Valentin PURCĂREA page 10

The Information Society Towards the Knowledge Based Society Driven by the Information and Communications Technologies From the Internet of Things to the Internet of Trees (Part 2) Victor GREU page 20

Welcome to Carpathian Delta! Doripesco’s Participation at TuttoFood, Expo Milano 2015 Ruxandra COC page 36

Road Map for the Store of the Future, World Premiere, May 4, 2015, at SHOP 2015, Expo Milano 2015 Theodor Valentin PURCĂREA page 46

Public Relations – an Essential Communication Tool in Marketing and Media Environment George Cosmin TĂNASE page 50

Léon F. WEGNEZ (by courtesy of) – From Ethics to Ethical Trade, “Distribution d’aujourd’hui,” 56ème page 54

WPA 2015 Bucharest, a Love of Humanity, by Emphasizing on the Basic Values of Solidarity and Reciprocity Theodor Valentin PURCĂREA


EDITORIAL: INVESTING FOR THE FUTURE, AND GETTING REAL VALUE ON THE BASIS OF A LONG-TERM ROA MAP IN OUR EVER-CHANGING WORLD THERE IS ALWAYS PLACE FOR INVESTING FOR THE FUTURE. OF COURSE, NOT FORGETTING THAT – AS WE WILL SHOW LATER IN THIS ISSUE – THE PURPOSE OF THINKING ABOUT THE FUTURE IS TO RAISE PEOPLE’S HOPES.

According to a recent McKinsey Global

8

Institute (MGI) report – “A Window of

11 growth drivers in three areas: invest-

Opportunity for Europe” – to achieve its

ing for the future (nurturing ecosystem

aspirations, Europe needs scaling and

for innovation; effective education to

speeding reform, mostly at the national

employment; productive infrastructure

level, and stimulating investment and

investment; reduced energy burden;

job creation throughout the region. (La-

supporting urban development), boost-

baye, Smit, Windhagen, Dobbs, Mischke,

ing markets and productivity (pub-

and Stone, 2015) MGI report identified

lic-sector productivity;

Romanian Distributtion Committee Magazine / June 2015 / www.distribution-magazine.eu


order to get the most out of Industry 4.0 competitive and integrated markets in

cluding that the dynamism of Europe’s

services and digital; further openness

economy and society can be renewed

to trade), and mobilizing the workforce

only by a coordinated effort at all lev-

(enhanced

flexibility;

els. As two McKinsey’s representatives

grey and female labour-force partici-

recently noted: “A confluence of trends

pation; pro-growth immigration). Im-

and technologies promises to reshape

plementing European best practice in

the way things are made”. (Baur and

these three key areas can deliver growth

Wee, 2015) They underlined the need

aspirations, MGI report authors con-

to prepare for a digital transformation in

technologies (defined as the next phase in the digitization of the manufacturing sector), and to get past square one with labour-market

a digital business model.

In the same period of time, other McKinsey’s representatives (Catlin, Scanlan, and Willmott, 2015) attracted the attention that as the companies expect digital initiatives to deliver annual growth and cost efficiencies, this specific journey to companies’ digital maturity (McKinsey developed a simple metric for the digital maturity of a company, so-called its Digital Quotient - DQ) requires both: • a whole-hearted commitment from a company’s leadership; • a sustained investment in people, capabilities, technology, and cultural change. In a recent interview, (Catlin, 2015) the leader of McKinsey’s DQ initiative, Tanguy Catlin, made some interesting remarks about the importance of properly understanding: • the consumer journey from the moment the customer thinks about purchasing (through purchase, usage, and repurchase)and how digital (which it applies to every single function: HR, finance, marketing, distribution, product development, technology) can enhance all of those experiences. • that digital is breaking all barriers such as protecting company’s core position, company’s market share, and company’s customers; • digital investments need longer term, and that means having long-term road maps.

Our readers will see later in this issue that “Expo Milano 2015” and “SHOP 2015” confirmed the opening of an intercultural journey offering ideas and shared solutions by better understanding the need of driving convenience, service, and relevant personalized experiences through the use of digital store technology. And as knowledge gives us choices, while considering that choices about the future cannot be made without knowledge of the past, we were focused on the “prologue” of the “store of the future”, and used the window of opportunity represented by the “SHOP 2015” to launch an invitation to working together to build the foundation for the “Road Map for the Store of the Future” Project.

Theodor Valentin Purcărea Editor - in – Chief

References • Eric Labaye, Sven Smit, Eckart Windhagen, Richard Dobbs, Jan Mischke, and Matt Stone - A window of opportunity for Europe, Report, McKinsey Global Institute, June 2015, available at: http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/europe/A_window_of_opportunity_for_Europe?cid=mckgrowth-eml-alt-mgi-mck-oth-1506 • Cornelius Baur and Dominik Wee - Manufacturing’s next act, McKinsey & Company, June 2015, available at: http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/manufacturing/Manufacturings_next_act?cid=other-eml-alt-mip-mck-oth-1506 • Tanguy Catlin, Jay Scanlan, and Paul Willmott - Raising your Digital Quotient, McKinsey Quarterly, June 2015, available at: http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/strategy/ Raising_your_Digital_Quotient?cid=Digital-eml-alt-mkq-mck-oth-1506 • Barr Seitz - What it takes to build your Digital Quotient, An interview with Tanguy Catlin, McKinsey & Company, June 2015, available at: http://www.mckinsey.com/ insights/organization/what_it_takes_to_build_your_digital_quotient


Prof. Eng. Ph.D.

Victor GREU

T H E I N F O R M AT I O N S O C I E T Y T O WA R D S T H E K N O W L E D G E BASED SOCIETY DRIVEN BY THE I N F O R M AT I O N A N D C O M M U N I C AT I O N S T E C H N O L O G I S FROM THE INTERNET OF THINGS TO THE INTERNET OF ‌TREES (Part 2)

10

In Calarasi City, on the left shore of Borceam a Danube branch Romanian Distributtion Committee Magazine / June 2015 / www.distribution-magazine.eu


Abstract: The paper analyzes the Internet of things (IoT) evolution, in the context of the information and communications technologies (ICT) exponential development, as the main factor of the information society (IS) transformation toward knowledge based society (KBS). For starting the analysis of the IoT evolution a life example was taken, where, after 40 years of carrier evolution, people who benefited from a high level of knowledge, in a special class of mathematics at the high school, had also a special opportunity which also had a remarkable role in leveraging their capacity of progress/success: the connectivity provided by the teacher in the high level working atmosphere of that class. The example conclusion is that connectivity and the access to a knowledge core are the main features for IoT model and premises. The analysis covered the definition sphere, the technological frame and the expansion consequences estimation for the IoT amazing evolution, as part of the ICT exponential development in IS/KBS. The analysis results include the evaluation of IoT, as the most prominent wave in Internet evolution and a global infrastructure (network of networks) for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting practically everything by deploying „sensors” from land to water and space, from industry to home, from trees to cows and from the skin to the heart of individual. Among the IoT expansion consequences, the IoT will provide a huge amount of data that could be turned into information and then in knowledge.

1.

Keywords: Internet of things, communications and information technology, information society, knowledge based society, sensors networks, conectivity, industrial Internet of things, global infrastructure, cows monitoring. The most complex part of the analysis led to the conclusion that only after refining information we can get new knowledge and then include it in the wisdom heritage of humankind, irrespective the application field of IoT. The refined knowledge contributes, as an added value, to the individual education as leveraging his intellectual capacity and eventually the creative potential which then is coming back to support IoT/ICT/IS/KBS development closing … the circle. The author concludes that the analysis provided just an estimate of the visible circle, but, as we are going forward, the real circle is changing and further analysis is necessary (i.e. to be continued). JEL Classification: L63; L86; M15; O13; O33

A 40 years period to remember - How knowledge and connections can leverage

people’s progress and success

When we were writing on Internet of ...TREES [3] it was, of course, just a metaphor, but it was too a (first) part of a reality we are already facing. Here we have to be more precise and specify that the reality we have mentioned is a huge evolution process, where Internet of Things (IoT) is developing with an exponential pace ... on Earth [7][8][11][13] [15][17]. Without forgeting „precision”, sometimes it could be useful to consider the significance and role of metaphor in people’s lives, because humankind would have not arrived to the phase of IoT if they would not had the courage to dream. By the way, about 40 years ago somebody dreamed about connecting the people’s dreams by ... Internet. “Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn design TCP during 1973 and later publish it with the help of Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in December of 1974 ... Most people consider these two people the inventors of the Internet” [18].


As a pure coincidence, me and other colleagues have

very interesting, as everyone was, more or less,

celebrated this month (June 2015) ... 40 years since

beneficiary of a high level of knowledge, mainly on

graduating (in 1975), in Calarasi, at No.2 High school, a

mathematics, due to our good professor Dumitru Petre,

„special class of mathematics”.

we all also had benefit from the „special” medium

What this would have to do with IoT?

of logical, strict and consistent working atmosphere,

I think apparently not very much, but the point of this

coordinated by our teacher, every (long) day,

paper is to understand what could be, on long term, the

beyond usual high school limits (including 2 years at

consequences of the „little things” changing everyday

mathematics national olympic tournaments levels).

around us.

The main consequence of that atmosphere was the

It is interesting how people could generally change, over

creation of the high level connections between us (then

many years, with respect to many points of view.

we have met every 5 years since 1975) and with the

When we have to count 40 years (i.e. averaging more

scientific/technical core of knowledge!

than half of one long life) it is worth to see which features

Now just change us with things in the above sentence

changed much and which less, but very relevant it would

and we will get close to one of the definitions (main

be if we would succeed to understand what and why the

features) of tomorrow IoT!

changes significances would be.

This is also the explanation that not only the leaders of

In a shorter form, we observed that even after a such

the class highly succeeded, but also others, because

long time, everyone of us (colleagues) is mainly the

they benefited from that „drain”, from that connections

same person if we ignore much or less of the aging

with the class „core”!

natural changes.

Therefore, from this example we can now better

But the main observation is that, irrespective the

understand which could be the role and the

adverse situations we all had to manage, from young

consequences of the IoT development, but these

engineers, economists or teachers to bussiness

premises would not be precisely presented if we do

men, university professors or just retired, everybody

not observe a dramatic difference in the comparison

succeeded to get over obstacles and reach a high or at

we suggest: the huge amount of data and the amazing

least decent position in the actual information society

speed and potential of the IoT connections.

(IS).

An other fair mention is to be done, due to the crucial

Of course we all expressed our appreciation for our

fact that IoT is not going to be an alternative to the

former teachers, as everyone of us had a life carrier

people’s communications and potential, but a complex

full of satisfaction and the knowledge they gave us

extention which will include humankind, body and

supported our progress and succes in life. More than these usual aspects, I observed something 12

„soul”, as it IoT will have „sensors” from land to water and space , from industry to home, from trees to cows

Romanian Distributtion Committee Magazine / June 2015 / www.distribution-magazine.eu


and from the skin to the heart of

As a matter of fact, the evolution

what is the rest and especially think

individual!

of IS/KBS is strongly influenced by

twice about what is ... „good”!

Perhaps „potential” is the IoT

the way ICT products and services

A more optimistic approach of the

feature where we have to first

are implementing the actual

same dilema could sound like this:

extend the analysis, as it is supposed

performances of ICT and on the

lets deeply and slowly analyze, then

to bring so much from a diversity of

other hand are generating premises

realistically design all the „good” that

points of view.

for higher levels of performance and

could be too fast offered by IoT/ICT!

The reality is that the IoT potential

new technologies [10] [12].

is a such huge developing sphere,

Here we just arrived in the complex

2.

as it will rapidly cover practically

circle of ICT development, where,

rising wave of Internet of Things, as

all the Earth, foccussing of course

as we already have mentioned

... Even Cows Will Have Sensors

on all humankind activity but

[14], refined criteria and knowledge

exceeding it for reasons we have

must be identified for a stable

In order to present and analyze,

already analyzed [14], as Earth and

development of IS/KBS and Earth

obviuosly in a short form, the

humankind surviving are facing

evolution balance.

main aspects of the IoT evolution

dramatic challenges as climate

With other words, the expantion

processes, eventually including its

changes, resources fading or social

of IoT is tight linked with the

estimated consequences, it is worth

balance.

exponential development of ICT

to identify the IoT roots.

Before enlarging the IoT sphere

in IS/KBS (including Internet), but

As it is pointed in [2], the

analysis we have to also recall the

the point is given by the amazing

Massachusetts Institute of

technological context, i.e. the main

level of performance, complexity

Technology (MIT) initiated in 1999 a

factor of this enlargement.

and disemination of the IoT starting

working group for networked radio

It could be surprising, but behind

phase, which could determine an

frequency identification (RFID) and

the IoT development, besides the

impredictible chain of consequences, emerging sensing technologies,

information and communications

either good or bad!

involving seven research universities

technologies (ICT) prominent role,

It could appear that our approach

located across four continents

we have to observe the whole

is a little too pesimistic, but when

selected then to design the

context of the information society

something is going to flood all

architecture for IoT.

(IS) toward knowledge based society

around and inside us, from body to

(KBS), where ICT is the driving force

the entire environment, it is wiser

prominent architects of Internet [2],

but their expansion consequences

to analyze all potential implications,

we consider, for the chronological

must more deeply analyzed [12][14].

starting with the good but asking

approach, among other IoT

Watching the exponentially

As Cisco is one of the


definitions, what Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG) expressed: IoT is simply the point in time when more “things or objects” were connected to the Internet than people. Cisco IBSG estimates IoT was “born” sometime between 2008 and 2009.

Remembering the essential fact that IoT is a process and considering other opinions too, IoT is developing,

according with most of definitions, after 2010. On the other hand, most of definitions [17][11] point the connecting feature of IoT, while [4] expressed: „IoT is generally thought of as connecting things to the Internet and using that connection to provide some kind of useful remote monitoring or control of those things. We think that, technically, the essence of IoT is given by its connectivity, but as a functional and global effect on IS/ KBS, IoT is a revolutionary new phase of Internet providing new ICT services for IS/KBS optimization. This approach is also confirmed, at least as pointing the technological support, by [4]: „IoT creates an intelligent, invisible network fabric that can be sensed, controlled and programmed” and more than this [2]: „IoT represents the next evolution of the Internet, taking a hability to gather, analyze, and distribute data that we can turn into information and, ultimately, wisdom. In this context, IoT becomes immensely important”. Sometimes, to be more expressive when speaking about the importance of ICT products and services for the IS/ KBS, I show my smartphone to the students and say: here is implemented most of the humanity scientific and technical progress. In a similar approach, I was glad to see the essence of Internet in [2] as: „the Internet is one of the most important creations in all of human history”. Then, coming back to IoT, but on the same high level of analysis as we have mentioned in Section 1(all around and inside us): „IoT will change everything—including ourselves”. Now while the IoT definitions and premises are more than clear, we know for sure what we are talking about! The main point is still standing: if now we are seeing just the tip of the aisberg? This is a very difficult question to be answered, but it is worth to try an estimate by a systemic approach. One of the most qualified systemic and complete evaluation is made by European Union (EU) specialists [1], starting from identifying and classifying the main IoT development resources as: Enabling technologies for the Internet of Things, such as sensor networks, RFID, M2M (machine to machine), mobile Internet, semantic data integration, semantic search, IPv6, etc. are considered in [5] and can be grouped into three categories:(i) technologies that enable “things” to acquire contextual information, (ii) technologies that enable “things” to process contextual information and (iii) technologies to improve security and privacy. The first two categories can jointly understood as functional building blocks of required building “intelligence „into “things”, which are indeed the features that differentiate the IoT from the usual Internet. The third category is not a functional but rather de facto requirement, without which the penetration of the IoT would be severely reduced. 14

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Recalling the conclusion from the Section 1 and integrating the above 3 main groups of technologies, it is essential to add the connectivity technologies enabling the forwarding of the acquired data mainly to or through Internet, but not exclusively, finally IoT being a network of networks. The next step in estimating the IoT is identifying a standardization and technical frame, as the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is qualified to provide[1], “considering the wide background and required technologies, from sensing device, communication subsystem, data aggregation and pre-processing to the object instantiation and finally service provision”. ITU-T Study Group 13, which leads the work of the ITU on standards for next generation networks (NGN) and future networks, formulated the following frame for IoT [6]: “IoT:A global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies. This way we just arrived to the technical dimension of the “airbag” and the confirmation of our above role of IoT in IS/KBS processes - a global infrastructure for the information society (network of networks). How much this infrastructure could be developed as applications area is another difficult question, but this time, surprisingly, we have got an easier job because, as a traveler on top of Everest, any way we choose will get us at a lower energy potential, but not necessary safer! This is true in our case too, because we theoretically could deploy IoT at a global scale anywhere, but it is not sure that this approach will provide safe (mature) solutions in every concrete application, unless we … deeply and slowly analyze, then realistically design all the „good”that could be too fast offered by IoT/ITC - as above mentioned! In a simpler expression, from this step further, every new IoT application (category) is limited only by human imagination … but not exclusively! Thereby, we have to implement IoT whenever and wherever it is necessary and effective, carefully taking into account the corresponding criteria. It is obvious that selecting criteria is entering in a relative area, but there is something that we clearly must recall. As IoT is a “global” infrastructure, it is mandatory to develop every of its steps using global level criteria of selection, meaning not only group interest/profit criteria, but IS/KBS refined knowledge and strategy criteria. Coming back to concrete applications fields, there is a large agreement [2][4][6][7][8] that these include environment, cities, buildings, vehicles, clothing, human body (health or other purposes), food, plants, animals, portable devices and other objects that could associate more and more information with them, but could also have the ability to sense, communicate, network and produce new information.

Speaking of animals, perhaps an example will spread a possible doubt, as there IoT will be a usual

application [2]:


In the world of IoT, even cows will be connected. A

criteria (but not exclusively, by our opinion).

special report in The Economist titled “Augmented

Business” described how cows will be monitored.

this case, as we also consider fair, some proposals for

Sparked, a Dutch start-up company, implants sensors in

solving the dilemma are added:

the ears of cattle. This allows farmers to monitor cows’

As a bright side, we have to mention that, in

“All stakeholders need to work together in three

health and track their movements, ensuring a healthier,

important areas. Industries,

more plentiful supply of meat for people to consume. On

governments and academia need to collaborate on long-

average, each cow generates about 200 megabytes of

term R&D to solve fundamental technology challenges

information a year.

related to security, interoperability and management of

systemic risks. They need to conduct joint lighthouse

It is no doubt that one of the most dramatic

influences will be produced by IoT in the industrial

projects to demonstrate the real benefits and raise

field of applications, considering the industry global

the profile of the Industrial Internet among the general

importance for IS/KBS.

public”.

We also consider [16] [14] that this is the way for the

This opinion is confirmed by the prestigious

Davos Forum, where World Economic Forum’s IT

general approach of such complex processes associated

Governors agreed that [9]:

with the ICT exponential development, in order to

“Industrial Internet (of Things), this latest wave of

optimize IS/KBS evolution.

technological change will bring unprecedented

That is the way our actual paper is oriented too, as step

opportunities, along with new risks, to business and

by step we have arrived to the last, but most important

society. It will combine the global reach of the Internet

phase of the IoT development analysis, aiming

with a new ability to directly control the physical world,

the “global” meaning of the above mentioned “new

including the machines, factories and infrastructure that

information”.

define the modern landscape. However, like the Internet

Here it is also the adequate level where we can detail

was in the late 1990s, the Industrial Internet is currently

the analysis of the complex circle of ICT development

in its early stages. Many important questions remain,

we have pointed in the first section of the paper.

including how it will impact existing industries, value

Although we have already approached this difficult

chains, business models and workforces, and what

analysis [12], the new context of IoT is rising new

actions business and government leaders need to take

challenges by the data deluge it will generate at

now to ensure long-term success”.

planetary scale.

The essence of this approach is how to best manage

The above text clearly express both “good and

bad” of IoT from industry point of view, where its impact

the huge amount of data IoT will provide and use the

will probably be the strongest, by material and financial

results in order to control both vertical and horizontal

16

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development of IoT applications.

other analysis.

Naturally, from above we step to the next difficult question: what means “best manage”?

3.

Conclusions

Now we have to face the most difficult part of the “circle” and deeper analyze the logical segment from the

In order to analyze the IoT evolution we have started

resulted data to ICT/IS/KBS development.

from a life example, where, after 40 years of carrier

Starting from the above [4] evaluation (data that we

evolution, people who benefited from a high level of

can turn into information and, ultimately, wisdom. In

knowledge (in special class of mathematics at the high

this context, IoT becomes immensely important) and

school) had also a special opportunity which also had a

recalling our previous analysis [10][12], it is important

remarkable role in leveraging their capacity of progress/

to observe and add that only after refining information

success: the connectivity provided by the teacher in the

we can get new knowledge and then include it in

high level working atmosphere of that class.

the wisdom heritage of humankind, irrespective the

The conclusion was that connectivity and the access to a

application field.

knowledge core are the main features for IoT model and

Perhaps the most subtle phase of these complex

premises.

processes, where the IS/KBS really get a huge progress,

The paper analyzed the definition sphere, the

is the benefit that refined knowledge contributes with,

technological frame and the expansion consequences

as an added value, to the individual education while

estimation for the IoT amazing evolution, as part of the

leveraging his intellectual capacity and eventually the

ICT exponential development in IS/KBS.

creative potential which then is coming back to support

The analysis results include the evaluation of IoT, as the

IoT/ICT/IS/KBS development closing … the circle!

most prominent wave in Internet evolution and a global

Before closing the (actual) analysis, we have to fairly

infrastructure (network of networks) for the information

recognize that we were touching just an estimate of the

society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting

visible circle, but, as a Morgana illusion, as we are going

practically everything by deploying „sensors” from land

forward, the real circle is changing and further analysis

to water and space, from industry to home, from trees

is necessary (to be continued)!

to cows and from the skin to the heart of individual.

Thinking at changing circles, we have to re-think

Regarding the IoT expansion consequences, the IoT will

fur future IoT what will mean, at the optimization criteria

provide a huge amount of data that we can turn into

level, for example, the new energy and carbon dioxide

information and then in knowledge.

circle or the privacy-security circle, when we will have

The most complex part of the analysis led to the

to manage over 50 billion Internet connections/devices

conclusion that only after refining information we can

just in 2025! These are issues which need of course

get new knowledge and then include it in the wisdom


heritage of humankind, irrespective the application field of IoT. More than this, the refined knowledge contributes, as an added value to the individual education while leveraging his intellectual capacity and eventually the creative potential which then is coming back to support IoT/ICT/IS/KBS development closing … the circle! In the same time, the analysis provided just an estimate of the visible circle, but, as we are going forward, the real circle is changing and further analysis is necessary (to be continued)!

References [1] Ovidiu Vermesan, Peter Friess, Internet of Things: Converging Technologies for Smart Environments and Integrated Ecosystems, 2013 River Publishers. [2] Dave Evans, How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything, Cisco White Paper - The Internet of Things, April 2011. [3] Victor Greu, The information society towards the knowledge based society driven by the information and communications technologies - from the Internet of Things to the Internet of …trees (Part 1), Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 6, Issue1, Year 2015. [4] Jim Chase, The Evolution of the Internet of Things, White Paper-Strategic marketing Texas Instruments, September 2013. [5] Analysys Mason, Imagine an M2M world with 2.1 billion connected things http://www.analysysmason.com/about-us/news/insight/M2M_forecast_Jan2011/ [6] *** Next Generation Networks — Frameworks and functional architecture models — Overview of the Internet of things, International Telecommunication Union — ITU-T Y.2060 — (06/2012) [7] *** Internet of Things — An action plan for Europe, (PDF). COM(2009)-278 final, Commission of the European Communities -18 June 2009. [8] *** Internet of Things — ITU 2005 Report, www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/opb/pol/ S-POL-IR.IT-2005-SUM-PDF-E.pdf [9] *** Industrial Internet of Things: Unleashing the Potential of Connected Products and Services, World Economic Forum’s IT Governors launched the Industrial Internet initiative at the Annual Meeting 2014 in Davos, Switzerland, January 2015. [10] Victor Greu, The cognitive approaches of the communication and information technologies – a leverage for the progress of knowledge based society, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 3, Issue2, Year 2012. [11] *** The Internet of Things, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/internet-things, 27/02/2015 [12] Victor Greu, The Exponential Development of the Information and Communications Technologies – A Complex Process Which is Generating Progress Knowledge from People to People, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 4, Issue2, Year 2013. [13] Bari N., Mani G., Berkovich S., Internet of Things as a Methodological Concept, Computing for Geospatial Research and Application (COM.Geo), 2013 Fourth International Conference on. [14] Victor Greu, Searching the right tracks of new technologies in the earth race for a balance between progress and survival, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 3, Issue1, Year 2012. [15] Mark Harris, The Internet of Trees, IEEE Spectrum, Mar.2014. [16] Greu, Context-aware communications and IT – a new paradigm for the optimization of the information society towards the knowledge based society (Part 2), Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 5, Issue4, Year 2014. [17] *** More Than 30 Billion Devices Will Wirelessly Connect to the Internet of Everything in 2020, ABI Research, London, United Kingdom - 09 May 2013, www.abiresearch.com/ press/more-than-30-billion-devices-will-wirelessly-conne/ [18] *** http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001016.htm

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Ruxandra COC D eve l o p m e n t D i re c to r, D O R I P ES CO

We l c o m e t o C a r p a t h i a n D e l t a ! Doripesco’s participation at Tu t t o F o o d , E x p o M i l a n o 2 0 1 5

Abstract:

Romania participated at TuttoFood 2015with a national pavilion, Romanian dishes promoted on this occasion being distributed in two stands. Doripesco, which has six certified traditional food products, is a family business developed with passion and devotement, with love for profession and respect for nature, and it was Romania’s only representative on fish products. On the occasion of its successful participation at Tutto Food 2015 Doripesco proved again its art of food products offering. TuttoFood, Expo Milano 2015, was a good opportunity to meet new potential partners and create authentic and lasting brand awareness for Doripesco products.

Keywords:

TuttoFood, Expo Milano 2015; fish products; marketing strategy; brand awareness

JEL Classification: L26, L66, M31, Q22

Doripesco’s successful participation at Tutto Food 2015

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Romania’s participation at the Expo Milano 2015 was significant (four years ago Romania being the first country in the European Union to announce its participation), more companies choosing to promote themselves by participating at this important event. On the other hand, let us remember that at the end of April, just before the opening ceremony, the United Nations expressed its proud of being at EXPO Milano 2015 to highlight the cause of food security, as showed by the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in his welcoming video message (which was screened in the UN Garden close to Pavilion Zero where visitors are introduced to the challenging UN theme for Expo 2015, “The Zero Hunger Challenge • United for a sustainable world.”

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From 3 to 6 May 2015 took place, within the generous framework offered by the Expo Milano 2015 (considered to be a true platform for the exchange of ideas and shared solutions on the theme of food – RDC Magazine, Volume 6, Issue 1, Year 2015), TuttoFood 2015, the International Exhibition for Food Industry, the largest specialty food event in Italy. (Doripesco, Press release, May 2015) Romania participated at this important International Exhibition with a national pavilion funded by the Ministry of Economy, Department of Foreign Trade and International Relations under the export promotion program. (DCE, Press release May 6, 2015) Regarding the Romanian pavilion (887 square meters) at the Expo Milano 2015 universal exhibition (from 1st May to 31st October 2015), this was focused on the topic of “In harmony with nature/Living with Nature”, being: “a contemporary interpretation of a traditional Romanian house where visitors are invited to discover, through modern audio-video presentation, innovative technological solutions, and the promotion of healthy eating patterns, based on agricultural ecologically made products, its natural resources and ecological solutions adopted to promote the country’s sustainable development” (the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was the coordinator of the process of Romania’s preparation and participation - Press release, 02/26/15).

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omanian dishes promoted on this occasion were distributed in two stands totaling 318 square meters in the Hall 6 RHO of Fiera Milano exhibition complex. Romanian producers (AGRO COSM FAN SRL, ANDROMI COM SRL, ANGST RO SRL, ARTENSAS DEL SUCRE SRL, AVICOLA GAESTI SRL, AVICOLA LUMINA SA, CAROLI FOODS GROUP SRL, CERTINVEST SRL, COSM FAN CARMANGERIE SRL, DIANA SRL, DORIPESCO EXPORT SRL, EUROPROD SA, KANDIA DULCE SA, NATURAL SRL, ORLANDO IMPORT-EXPORT 2001 SRL, PAN FOOD SRL, PERLA HARGHITEI SA, POP INDUSTRY SRL, ROSTAR LOGISTIC INVESTMENT SRL, SCANDIA ROMANIA SA, SERGIANA PRODIMPEX SRL, TIGRINO GRUP SRL, TIP TOP FOODS INDUSTRY SRL, VASCAR SA, VLADALEX IMPEX) exposed: fish dishes, meat and meat products, canned food, bakery, confectionery and sweets, nuts and candied fruits, juices and mineral water, beer, etc. Brasov City (Kronstadt; founded in 1211 by the Teutonic Knights on an ancient Dacian site) was represented at this international event by two brands: Doripesco and Sergiana. Moreover, Doripesco’s products and services were also presented at Romania’s Pavilion at the EXPO Milano 2015 exhibition.

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According to Romanian Association for Food Promotion (APAR) 2014 represented the highest level of Romanian exports of agricultural products, exceeding the threshold of EUR 5.57 billion, representing a share of 10.62% of the total national exports. The 5.47% increase of the Romanian food exports compared to 2013 maintains the sector on the third position in the export structure of Romania, after the machine building industry and the textile, clothing, leather and footwear industry. Doripesco company in Brasov (a family business developed with passion and devotement, with love for profession and respect for nature) was Romania’s only representative on fish products. On the occasion of its successful participation at Tutto Food 2015 Doripesco proved again its art of food products offering, its unique style of increasing customers’ desire and of impressing customer’s diners, its know-how in making the difference to customers’ experience of meals, by harmonizing eating, nutrition and health.


Doripesco (which has six certified traditional food products: carp roe salad, smoked trout, Transylvanian trout, Doripesco Wand, Silvercarp Roll and fish pastrami) delighted its guests with Romanian traditional products from fish (such as: delicious carp roe salads, smoked trout and carp products, pulp and trout fisherman), and also with delicious fish specialties, and healthy diet: fish with vegetable stew mushrooms, trout with sautéed spinach, vinaigrette and trout stew. Romanians living in Italy (which hosts the largest Romanian community outside our country’s borders) were truly captivated by Doripesco products (they were missing their “home-sweet-home cuisine”).

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As regards the Italian consumers of fish products which visited Doripesco’s exhibition stand, the most sought products were trout with sautéed spinach and fish with mushrooms Zacusca, dietary products, designed for fine tastes. Despite Doripesco products can be already found in certain areas of Italy, Doripesco is intending to develop existing partnerships and find and acquire new customers. FISHING FOR A DREAM” (Humanitarian Project) We at Doripesco also know, one hand, that we can influence consumers’ tastes and preferences, and on the other hand, that a friendly atmosphere at fishing is one of the most popular outdoor recreational activities. A conversation about life from the point of view of a fishermen is always challenging, at least for the simple fact that a fishermen always knows… the weather forecast, and how to turn accordingly any day into a good day, in which, for example, all participants to a fishing contest (always a special time) felt not only more competent, getting a fishing trophy, but also happy to contribute to an humanitarian response to


an identified challenge. But Doripesco also understood that as its business has evolved to meet the challenges of the relevant marketplace, it needs to give something back for humanitarian purposes, for instance, by engaging with an humanitarian project – such as “FISHING FOR A DREAM”, an innovative project (which proved Doripesco’s ability to cope in order to improve the quality of humanitarian response to identified challenges) – and organizing something accordingly. And after some years of working together with other responsible partners and supporting such kind of projects, Doripesco is happy to see the development of its knowledge, critical understanding and key practical skills necessary to co-create and implement solutions which help communities facing social, economic and environmental challenges.

Conclusion Planning Doripesco’s participation at such an important event as Tutto Food, Expo Milano 2015 was about knew what we wanted to achieve, considering: our objectives providing direction for every aspect, including growing our business and increasing our brand awareness (the ultimate goal of any marketing strategy); our previous attendances to such important events; the type of visitors we wanted to attract to our stand etc. Doripesco knows that marketing and sales is a continuum, and once the company has developed a brand, it can work on ways to build awareness of it through a right marketing plan based on company’s target audience and budget to raise awareness about Doripesco brand. We know that Doripesco’s continued success depends on creating a community around our brand (as one of the basic principles of brand awareness), and we are struggling accordingly. From this strategic point of view, TuttoFood, Expo Milano 2015, was a good opportunity to meet new potential partners and create authentic and lasting brand awareness for Doripesco products. References Theodor Purcarea - Expo Milano 2015, TUTTOFOOD 2015, and SHOP 2015. Respecting the Past and Welcoming the Future, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 6, Issue 1, Year 2015, pp. 18-35 Doripesco, Press release, May 2015 DCE, Serviciul Comunicare şi Relaţii Publice, Bucureşti, 6 mai 2015, Press release, Retrieved from: http://dce.gov.ro/presa_2015/mai/6_mai_comunicat_targ_Tutto_Food_Milano.pdf, 6/15.2015 Romania’s Participation in Milan Expo 2015, Press release, 02/26/15, Retrieved from: http://www.mae. ro/en/node/30935, 6/14/2 26

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ROAD MAP FOR THE STORE OF THE FUTURE, WORLD PREMIERE, MAY 4, 2015, AT SHOP 2015, EXPO MILANO 2015 Theodor PURCĂREA

Abstract “Expo Milano 2015” confirmed the opening for an intercultural journey offering ideas and shared solutions, and “SHOP 2015” was challenging indeed to reflect at the retail space as a crucial factor influencing the customer’s feelings, at the necessary increased focus on integrating retailers’ various channels, while considering the impact of the converged lifestyle which has empowered consumers, and step by step better understanding the need of driving convenience, service, and relevant personalized experiences through the use of digital store technology. ” “SHOP 2015” was also a true opportunity to launch an invitation to work together to build the foundation for the “Road Map for the Store of the Future” Project.

Keywords:

Road map; Store of the future; Channel integration; Omni channel shoppers

JEL Classification: L81; L86; M31; O14; Q55

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An interesting arch over time

Two recent news have portrayed indirectly an interesting arch over time formed by a painting – the “Carousel of the Distribution” by Jean WEGNEZ (painting displayed for the first time at the end of 2004 in the Conference Room of the famous “Palais d’Egmont”, Brussels) – and a “Road Map of the Store of the Future” by Theodor PURCAREA (road map presented as a world premiere on May 4, 2015 at the opening of the “SHOP 2015” Conference, at Expo Milano 2015, see photo below). On May 5, 2015, within the generous framework offered by “Forum Art Business”, the European Retail Academy – ERA (thanks to ERA President Prof. Dr. Bernd HALLIER, who is also publisher of “Culture and History of Commerce” and “Collectors and Sponsors of Commerce”) – was pleased to announce the opening of a painting exhibition (that took place from May 17 to May 31, 2015) by the distinguished Belge Jean WEGNEZ at Cercle Artistique de Spa (“the water city”).

You can see below the painter’s brother, Léon F. WEGNEZ (Secretary General, International Association of the Distributive Trade, A.I.D.A. Brussels), and Florian POPA (Vice-President of the Commission of Public Health of the Romanian Senate, and President of SANABUNA International Congress) in front of the painting representing the “Carousel of the Distribution” (both being Honorary Members of the Romanian Distribution Committee). Léon F. WEGNEZ, was recently quoted by Theodor PURCAREA at the opening of the “SHOP 2015” Conference, Expo Milano 2015 (see photo below).


“SHOP 2015” - an inspired and inspiring Conference On May 8, 2015, we reconfirmed that “Expo Milano 2015” was a clear invitation for responsible and accountable way of doing business, representing a new opening for an intercultural journey offering ideas and shared solutions, and that TUTTOFOOD, the International Food and Agriculture Show (which started two days after the official opening of “Expo 2015”) offered a generous framework for the works of “SHOP 2015” Conference that invited to reflect on: ● the retail space as a crucial factor influencing the customer’s feelings; retailers, who should consequently develop a strategy that defines their ideal retail footprint; ● businesses, which need to continue placing an increased emphasis on integrating their various channels; ● virtualization, which is disrupting power relationships between companies, customers, and employees; ● convergence of technology, which will lead to convergence of competition; ● the competition in offering customers consistent experiences whether they interact with a brand in-store, online or via mobile, by delivering them content in a fast and seamless way across all these channels, while also not forgetting that the foundation of retailing is understanding what customers want and need, and consequently developing a deep understanding of the decision journey that the new shoppers undertake; ● the fact that, in the future, those retail stores that drive convenience, service, and relevant personalized experiences through the use of digital store technology will succeed.

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On this special occasion of the works of “SHOP 2015” Romania’s Friend Riccardo Garosci, President MIUR School and Food Committee EXPO 2015, attracted the audience’s attention by arguing that today’s children are the consumers of tomorrow who will change the market, and they need to be equipped with food and nutrition education as a result of the collaboratively working with organizations and institutions. Theodor Purcarea, President of the Romanian Distribution Committee, was part of an international delegation invited by the Italian Trade Agency, comprising representatives from Belgium, Egypt, Romania and the United States of America. He approached the topic of “Distribution, the challenge of the super agility. From following the trends to actually doing something about them.”


Moderators of the workshops were: Oddone Sangiorgi (SHOP 2015; Consorzio FIA), Fabrizio Venturini (General Manager Comufficio and President of the Technoshop business network), Sergio Benini (CEO IBS Group), Marina Bassi (Deputy Editor GDO Week), Maria Grazia Turri (University of Turin) and Ilaro Ghiselly (Supply expert). They kept the listeners engaged, clearly summarized the panelists’ key findings, and opened the debate to the floor. Discussions were lively, allowing the clarification of questions and concerns. We remember with pleasure the significant contribution to debates or the valuable exchange of views with Alain-Jean Tusseau (Founder Alvicom), Dr. Marco Torrani (President of ASSOMAB), Eugenio Casucci (Senior Consultant, E. C. Consulting), Gabrielle Noberasco (Vicepresident NOBERASCO), Fabrizio Molinari (Head of International Division, NOBERASCO), Matteo Ciappina (Area Manager Europe Asia Africa, MAGESSE) and many others.

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Mike Neal is Co-Founder and CEO of DecisionNext (which is headquartered in San Francisco, California with offices in Australia and France). He is known for his involvement in applying innovative science to solving merchandising and supply chain challenges. Together with Sarah Xhauflaire (Field Operations EMEA of DecisionNext), Dominique Barbet and Benoit Koutny (both Partners PKHA) they pledged for a new connected supply chain for the long term – “Next Food Alliance” (a new business model based on sustainability values and involving all partners in the Food Value Chain) – considering the rising demand for food, the limited natural resources and the inefficiency in the system (nudging consumers to more efficient items having reduced impact on the planet; enlighten supply chain will closely follow consumers). They argued that this can be achieved by using science (mathematical models), rethinking the consumer role (the consumer as a partner; recovering trust; new ways to access products; review economical model; new consumer experience), and collaborating accordingly (making space for strategy, building capability and culture conducive to strategy, and making this strategy visceral, experiential engagement being essential in this sense).


On May 8, 2015, we also underline: • the valuable contribution to the opening and the debates brought by Jalal Abu Ghazaleh, CEO of Gourmet Egypt, and by the young Team Manager, Product Development, Gourmet Egypt Food Store, Eslam Atef;

• that Romania’s Friend Riccardo Garosci, President MIUR School and Food Committee EXPO 2015 (Mr. Garosci was the European Raporteur for „Green Book for European Commerce” in 1996-1997), visited Romania’s food productions exhibition stands at Tuttofood.

• the significant contribution to the success of the program brought by the representatives of the Italian Trade Agency (ITA): Marinella Loddo (Director ITA Milan Office), Francesca Zadro (Area Manager Center North-West Italy, ITA), Maria Carmela Ottaviano (Manager Intersectorial and International Projects Office, ITA ) and Alessandra Capobianco (Intersectorial and International Projects Office, ITA).

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Focused on the… “Prologue” of the “Store of the future” According to Freeman J. Dyson (Professor Emeritus of Physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton; author of seven books, for example: “Disturbing the Universe”, Sloan Foundation Science Series, Publisher: Basic Books, April 15, 1981): “The purpose of thinking about the future is not to predict it but to raise people’s hopes”. While in the opinion of the “Father of Management”, Peter Drucker: “Trying to predict the future is like trying to drive down a country road at night with no lights while looking out the back window”. On the other hand, William Shakespeare said that: “What is past is prologue”. While much more later, William Faulkner added that: “You must always know the past, for there is no real Was, there is only Is”. And as knowledge gives us choices, but choices about the future cannot be made without knowledge of the past, being focused on the… “prologue” of the “store of the future”, I considered that “SHOP 2015” will be a true opportunity to launch an invitation for working together to build the foundation for the “Road Map for the Store of the Future” Project. That is why I reminded our readers in the last issue of this journal (Purcarea, 2015) that: ▪ 24 years ago I wrote (after visiting the “Store of the future” model in Chicago, in 1991, within the framework offered by a Food Marketing Institute/NAWGA Program) two articles (published in the „Journal of Businesses”, No. 18-19/1991, National Institute „Virgil Madgearu”, Romanian Ministry of Commerce; in the same journal I also introduced the new concept of “Category Management”) on the so-called „Smart Store 2000”. I also reminded that the „Smart Store 2000” was conceived in 1989 as a way of: finding out what things inhibit stores and manufacturers and cut into their profits, and to train employees and test new technology; showing that beyond the already existing use of „islands of technology” in different shop formats, it was time that technology gives business the scale to address the future. At that time, this “supermarket of the future” (as envisioned by Andersen Consulting in cooperation with IT services companies and food industry leaders, and targeting the practicing of an evolutive marketing based on new technologies applied in retail) was a first research-and-development center for concepts (such as: touchscreen computers for checkout clerks; hand-scanners consumers can use at home etc.) and technologies (put together in this store) that will maximize the market potential and deliver the product to the customer at the lowest possible cost, making shopping more enjoyable and easier for consumers; ▪ In my book entitled „Business Management”, Expert Publishing House, June 1994 (which was distributed in Romania Privatization Public Awareness Campaign, according to “The Final Report Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu within Eastern Europe Enterprise Restructuring and Privatization Project,” U. S. Agency for International Development, April 1995, Tohmatsu, May 1, 1995 - pdf.usa id.gov/pdf_docs/PDABL817.pdf


p. 19), I referred, for example, to different trends including the convergent evolutions of trade in Europe concerning the sector and its concentration, the sales formats and their organization, the operators and their strategies, and also referring again to some evolutions starting with the “Smart Store 2000” . On the other hand, it is worth remembering that the Romanian Distribution Committee (CRD) organized already in 1996 the first National ECR Symposium, in partnership with Valahia University in Targoviste, and in 1999, on the occasion of the third National ECR Symposium (also organized by C.R.D. a Point of view was elaborated (“Modern distribution and information technology as a strategic resource”) and sent to the Parliament, the Government and the academic environment, also taken into consideration by the media. This happened in the context in which in the previous period of time, in the world, working groups were constituted for the development of a global standard in the distribution field, the executive management being ensured by the representatives of the ECR and VICS leadership (“Voluntary Industry Commerce Standards”), as well as of some prestigious transnational distributors and producers. And as Keynote Speaker at the opening of the “SHOP 2015” Conference, Expo Milano 2015, I also remembered one of my “ECR approaches” within an historical international event reflected in “Gazette du Palais”, no. 26-28, 28 Janvier 2003, Paris (please see: http://holisticmarketingmanagement.ro/chambre-de-commerce-et-dindustriede-paris-le-13-fevrier-2002-lefficacite-de-la-politique-de-la-concurrence/). In the last issue mentioned above I also underlined some of the different approaches as shown on the “Road Map”, not forgetting to remember the opinion expressed recently by Léon F. Wegnez, General Manager, Royal Belgian Committee for Distribution (and Secretary General of the International Association for the Distributive Trade - AIDA Brussels) in the prestigious “Distribution d’aujourd’hui” (“Distribution today”): “Whatever the evolution of the modern distribution, whatever the concepts of shops that engender, the achievement of purchases will keep this ludic character it carries within it, inherently, whether perceived or not by the buyers seeking time and that kind of satisfaction always bringing the acquisition of what is desired. The pleasure purchase, in varying degrees, remained a reality, and this is a distribution task to make it possible and to concretize it.” Walking in wisdom: believing in constant improvement and change As Keynote Speaker at the opening of the “SHOP 2015” Conference, Expo Milano 2015, I provided an agenda for discussion on how to address the challenges we face and giving the participants the opportunity to share ideas, visions, and possible solutions. The contents of my agenda was as follows: Evolving and Reinventing the Supply Chain; Where We Are Today… facing “The eight essentials of innovation”; The 21st Century Retail Customer, and the Pillars of the Modern Commerce; Understanding the Buyer’s Journey, and the Shoppers of the Future; What Will the Bricks and Mortar Shop of the Future Look Like; Continuous Development of the Retail Market in Romania; Romania, an attractive country in terms of further investment; Best serve TODAY’s omnichannel shoppers, being ready for THE FUTURE… STORE! Within this generous framework I highlighted some current ideas, such as: the four global forces breaking all the trends (Dobbs, Manyika and Woetzel, 2015); the findings of “The Consumer Conversation Report”, the new report from Econsultancy and IBM showing a huge gap between marketers’ intentions and their customers’ satisfaction - Q1 2015 (King, 2015); consumers have not only become more comfortable with personalization, they now expect it, according to the seventh annual Personalization Consumer Survey commissioned by MyBuys and conducted by the e-tailing group; the five steps of putting a “person” in personalization, a key way to break through the noise (Lemieux, 2015); more retailers learn to adopt personalization technology: Accelerating Business Growth Using Real-time Personalization (Navot, 2015); Omni-channel means orchestrating experiences around the customer (Thompson, 2015); Facebook urges brands to refer to its Page post best-practices to stay afloat (Natividad, 2015); biggest challenges and metrics for marketers’ success in 2015 (LinkedIn and Salesforce Marketing Cloud); all digital marketers will need to be actively engaging on five potential disruptors (Schottmiller, 2015); the real need of understanding the buyer’s journey: visitor, qualified lead, buyer (ioninteractiv.com, 2015); the eight essentials of innovation (de Jong, Marston and Roth); how will be the bricks and mortar shop of the future (Spybey, 2015); what will the shop of 2025 look like? (think-space.co.uk, 2015); Lessons to learn from South Korea’s mobile-retailing boom (Hwang, McInerney and Shin); Predictions 2015-2020. The Great Disruption and the Forces of Reconfiguration - the four key elements of Kantar Retail’s framework (Kantar Retail, 2015). Consequently, it’s time to begin to envision the store of the future by extrapolating the actual trends in order to best serve today’s Omni channel shoppers! And summarizing some of the findings of this “rich 44

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journey” (balance store productivity & shopper optimization; track and manage the customer journey so as to be able to predict what he is going to do at every step along; deliver a consistently high-quality experience across each of the channels, by ensuring context, connectivity, and content; ensure that advanced mobile technology contributes to the emotional and interactive experience; trigger impulse purchases through well-crafted offers; consider the hallmarks of a great retail experience: greet at the door, help find a product, answer questions, help check-out, help post sale; make shopping fun and easy, not just cheap; innovate and enable better collaboration and teamwork), I finally recommended: Be ready for THE FUTURE… STORE! Be aware of it and enjoy each step along this journey! References Theodor Purcarea - Expo Milano 2015, TUTTOFOOD 2015, and SHOP 2015. Respecting the Past and Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 6, Issue 1, Year 2015, pp. 19-36

Welcoming the Future, Romanian

Richard Dobbs, James Manyika, and Jonathan Woetzel - The four global forces breaking all the trends, Book Excerpt, McKinsey Global Institute, an edited excerpt from No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends, to be published on May 12 by PublicAffairs, available at: http://www.mckinsey. com/insights/strategy/The_four_global_forces_breaking_all_the_trends?cid=other-eml-alt-mgi-mck-oth-1504 Cindy King - LinkedIn Elevate: This Week in Social Media, April 18, 2015, available at: http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/linkedin-elevate-news/?awt_ l=3Z9UPF&awt_m=3Zt42IL.ifr.ILT&utm_source=Newsletter&utm_medium=NewsletterIssue&utm_campaign=New MyBuys Study: Half of Consumers Admit They Spend More When Retailers Personalize the Shopping Experience, News Editor, Feb 26, 2015 , available at: http://customerthink.com/mybuys-study-half-of-consumers-admit-they-spend-more-when-retailers-personalize-the-shopping-experience/ Roz Lemieux - Put the ‘Person’ in Personalization in Five Steps, April 24, 2015, available at: http://www.marketingprofs.com/articles/2015/27535/put-the-person-in-personalization-in-five-steps#ixzz3YEuWQqts Yaniv Navot - How Online Retailers Can Accelerate Business Growth Using Real-time Personalization , Apr 15, 2015, available at: http://customerthink.com/ how-online-retailers-can-accelerate-business-growth-using-real-time-personalization/ Bob Thompson (Founder/CEO, CustomerThink Corp.) - Digital experience research findings, Seamless Experiences: Building Loyalty by Orchestrating End-ToEnd Customer Journeys, March, 24 -26, 2015, dxsummit_032615 Angela Natividad - SocialSkim: Facebook Eyes Your Phone Calls, Plus 13 More Stories in This Week’s Roundup, April 24, 2015, available at: http://www.marketingprofs.com/chirp/2015/27537/socialskim-facebook-eyes-your-phone-calls-plus-more-stories-in-this-weeks-roundup#ixzz3YEzw1X6K The 2015 State of Marketing (a report on senior-level marketers published by LinkedIn and Salesforce Marketing Cloud; a survey conducted online from October 28, 2014, to November 25, 2014, and sent to full-time marketers in Salesforce Marketing Cloud’s Paul Schottmiller - Digital Disruptors for Retail Marketers in 2015, Retail Online Integration, February 20, 2015, Available at: http://www.retailonlineintegration. com/article/digital-disruptors-retail-marketers-2015/1 content-across-buyers-journey, available at: http://apps.ioninteractive.com/newsletter/legacy/interactive/content-across-buyers-journey/chapter-1-beyond-pass-failcontent-2286V4-17343PO.html Marc de Jong, Nathan Marston, and Erik Roth - The eight essentials of innovation, McKinsey Quarterly, April 30, 2015, available at: http://www.mckinsey.com/ insights/innovation/The_eight_essentials_of_innovation?cid=mckgrowth-eml-alt-mkq-mck-oth-1504 Kat Spybey - The shop of the future, 9 April 2015 , available at: http://www.drapersonline.com/news/shopwatch/the-shop-of-the-future/5073539.article The stores of the future? 16 mar. 2015, available at: http://think-space.co.uk/?p=2062#sthash.kDKG9aap.dpuf Heeyoung Hwang, Paul McInerney, and Jun Shin - Learning from South Korea’s mobile-retailing boom, McKinsey & Company, May 2015, available at: http:// www.mckinsey.com/insights/consumer_and_retail/Learning_from_South_Koreas_mobile-retailing_boom?cid=other-eml-alt-mip-mck-oth-1504 Kantar Retail - Predictions 2015-2020. The Great Disruption and the Forces of Reconfiguration. The Retail and Shopper Specialists, Boston, 4 February 2015, available at: http://www.kantarretail.com/kantar-retail-unveils-reconfigure-retail-strategies-to-drive-competitive-advantage/


Public Relations an Essential Communication Tool in Marketing and Media Environment

ABSTRACT TRADITIONALLY, PUBLIC RELATIONS (PR) ARE AN ACTIVITY WHICH IN MOST COMPANIES HAS BEEN STRUCTURALLY SEPARATED FROM MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS. IT ORIGINATED IN THE FUNCTION OF ‘PRESS AGENT’, THE MAIN ACTIVITY OF WHO WAS TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN THE COMPANY’S POINT OF VIEW AND MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE COMPANY’S ACTIVITIES. GRADUALLY, PRESS AGENTS BECAME A VITAL PART OF THE COMPANY’S COMMUNICATIONS EFFORTS TARGETED AT VARIOUS PUBLICS OR STAKEHOLDERS, AND THE ACTIVITY OF ‘PRESS RELATIONS’ EVOLVED INTO THE ‘PUBLIC RELATIONS’ FUNCTION. STAYING IN TOUCH AND CREATING GOODWILL WITH ALL TYPES OF AUDIENCES HAS BECOME AN EXTREMELY SOPHISTICATED AND COMPLEX TASK. THIS IS ILLUSTRATED BY THE FACT THAT IN MOST COMPANIES THE PR FUNCTION DIRECTLY REPORTS TO THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO). HOWEVER, NOT ONLY DO THE TYPE AND NUMBER OF TARGET GROUPS OF PR EXCEED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS TARGET GROUPS, BUT ALSO THE NATURE OF THE OBJECTIVES IS QUITE SPECIFIC, AS WELL AS THE TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS USED, ALTHOUGH SOME OF THE LATTER ARE SIMILAR TO THOSE USED IN MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS.

Keywords: COMPANY ENVIRONMENT, MEDIA EXPOSURE, PROMOTIONAL MIX, BRAND-BUILDING, TARGET GROUPS, SPONSORSHIP, CORPORATE IMPACT, COVERAGE

JEL Classification M31, L81, L82

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George Cosmin TĂNASE


PR is more complex than marketing communications, due to the variety of objectives and target groups it has to take into account. PR also plays a vital role in integrating the company’s communications efforts. Integrated communications at the corporate level imply the creation of synergies between all communications tools, especially marketing communications and corporate communications. PR is a very important component of the latter. There are different definitions of public relations, which all stress one or more important aspects of this communications tool. Essentially, PR is a communications tool that is used to promote goodwill towards the firm as a whole. It is the projection of the personality of the company, the management of reputation. PR is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain good relationships, mutual understanding, sympathy and goodwill with publics, audiences or stakeholders. It is those efforts that identify and close the gap between how the organization is seen by its key publics and how it would like to be seen. Publicity is the term used to describe the free media coverage of news about the company or its products, oft en as a result of PR efforts. Publics are, besides customers and potential customers, groups of people that the company is not directly trying to sell products to (that is why these groups are sometimes called secondary target groups), but that are perceived as influencing opinions about the company. As such, publics can be considered as a component of the external company environment. The relations with these publics should be positive because they can be vital to the company’s survival and success. Essential in most definitions of PR is that it is a two-way form of communication: the company learns from its publics and conveys information to them. Furthermore, like any other communications activity, PR should be a planned effort. It is also a major component of a successful integrated communications activity, since it covers a range of activities that can be linked to other elements of the communications mix, such as the following: 1. Creation and maintenance of corporate identity and image, by communicating the company’s philosophy and mission through corporate advertising, open days, etc. 2. Improving the company’s standing as a good corporate citizen, by means of activities such as arts and sports sponsorship or community programes. 3. Maintaining good relations with the media, both for disseminating good news and in times of crisis. 4. Attendance at trade exhibitions and the organization of contacts with suppliers and intermediaries. 5. Looking after internal communications, with the purpose of involving employees in the strategic priorities of the company. PR is different from marketing communications in the strict sense of the word in a number of ways. Marketing communications tend to be commercial and short-term. Few marketers will jeopardize short-term benefits for the sake of long-term returns. Although PR executives recognize the importance of customer satisfaction and profits, and in that sense support core marketing communications efforts, their main concern is the long-term goodwill towards, and reputation of, the company as a whole. They want people to respect their organization. As a result, marketers will always

have to keep PR people focused on marketing objectives. On the other hand, PR professionals will have to challenge marketing people in terms of the effects of their actions on a broader public. The role of PR people is also to stress the importance of non-marketing audiences for the well-being of the company in the long run. Good PR lays the groundwork, and creates the platform for successful marketing communications. The relation between corporate and marketing reputation is illustrated by the fact that most people seem to believe that a company that has a good reputation would not sell bad products, that old-established companies make the best products and that they would never buy products made by a company they have never heard of. Although advertising, sales efforts and direct mailing on the one hand, and PR – more specifically the publicity generated by PR activity – on the other, can both have a similar influence on the reputation of a company and its products, there are a number of important differences between the two types of instruments. PR targets important stakeholders and difficult-toreach audiences such as opinion leaders, financial analysts and investors. Many of them are not interested in advertising or direct mailing, and even avoid it or are very skeptical towards it. Furthermore, they are shielded from salespeople by their assistants. On the other hand, they are oft en interested in news and may be reached indirectly by the media exposure generated through PR activity. PR professionals can advise companies on important trends and on the consequences of corporate activities on marketing effectiveness. PR can present the company as a good citizen and, as such, contributes to the corporate image and reputation. PR plays an important role in guiding the company through crises without too much damage to its reputation. Often, advertising and sales promotions are strictly regulated by governments. PR offers the opportunity of more message flexibility. PR is often relatively cost-effective because the media coverage generated is free. Getting media coverage often enables the company to reach a variety of audiences and a large number of people at a fraction of the cost that would have been required in an advertising campaign. The most important advantage of PR and the resulting media exposure over marketing communications tools may be that the former is generally considered to be more objective and therefore more believable in the perception of target groups. News is also generally more exciting, or is presented as such. Marketing communications, on the other hand, are paid for by the company, and the public are aware of that. This results in a certain cynicism about the bias in the message. As a result, PR is capable of breaking through the communications clutter more effectively. The major weakness of PR is the lack of control over the content of the press coverage of news releases. Evidently, the media have other priorities and other sources, and the published story may be quite different from the information disseminated by the PR department. The context and style of the original message may be substantially changed or completely lost. In advertising, for instance, the company has full control over the content of its communications. With PR, journalists act as gatekeepers: if a story is perceived as having not enough ‘news value’ it may not be published, especially in a period in which there is other important news to cover. The timing of ads and sales promotions is fully controlled by the company. The effectiveness of PR is hard to measure. Oft en,


exposure measures, such as the amount of media coverage, are used, but they hardly say anything about the long-term effect of PR efforts on company goodwill or sales. Measuring the effectiveness of advertising is oft en more straightforward. PR is of growing importance for companies. In the USA, three out of four companies have a PR department. The number of people working in PR is estimated to be 145 000. The growth of the PR industry is estimated to be in double digits. In recent years, the PR market has grown by approximately 10% per year. There are a number of trends that make PR an increasingly important communications tool. The maintenance of good employee relations is considered to be increasingly vital. This implies effective communications between management and employees. Corporate branding is of growing importance. PR plays a crucial role in corporate communications and, consequently, corporate brand-building. Growing consumer awareness leads to a stronger involvement of the public in the activities of companies, thereby increasing the need for proactive PR activity and crisis management. More and more ‘singleissue’ publics, such as animal liberation groups and consumer and environmental pressure groups, that use confrontation as a tactic, are emerging, and are seriously challenging the PR skills of companies. PR is an important tool in gaining an understanding of these changes, being aware of the influence of government regulations on marketing activity and laying the groundwork for effective market entry. PR departments are increasingly confronted with the need to operate globally and draw up international PR campaigns. PR activity is becoming increasingly specialized. In the past, PR firms tried to solve all the PR problems of a company. Nowadays, there is a growing trend of specialization and niches in the PR support that companies need and, as a result, in the way in which PR companies or departments have to organize themselves. PR suffers from a bad reputation stemming from the era in which PR activity was mainly associated with press conferences, manipulating the media and fancy parties for stakeholders. And although PR professionals view their activities as having strategic and corporate impact, many marketers classify PR as little more than a tactical ingredient of the promotional mix. Attracting and keeping high-quality personnel and improving the image of the PR profession have become priorities for PR executives and management in general. Measuring the effect of PR is a difficult task. PR departments will have to upgrade their function into a strategic tool for top management and, consequently, will have to develop the tools to prove their effectiveness in supporting the company’s long-term profit base. PR, as with all other forms of marketing communications, will have to adapt to the opportunities and threats and, more generally, the environment created by new technologies such as business television, the Internet and smart telephony. Good PR is based on a PR plan that contains the same fundamentals as any other communications plan. Target groups or audiences have to be defined, and the objectives and messages to be conveyed have to be determined. Communications channels, tools and instruments have to be put in place, and timing and a budget have to be decided on. The PR plan has to be implemented, and its effectiveness has to be measured. Different types of PR can be defined. Depending on the type of PR, different target groups, objectives and tools can be distinguished.

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Media public relations Since the media are the most important intermediate public, developing and maintaining good contacts with radio, TV and the (trade) press are oft en extremely important. All the objectives to be met by end-publics are also important in media PR: to inform, build favorable attitudes, create a positive image and a reservoir of goodwill, and to ensure coverage of marketing-related news. Indirectly, media PR is aimed at generating favorable publicity about the company, its products and brands and, more generally, all events and projects that support the image of the company and its marketing objectives. Good media PR can result in positive comments during the introduction of a product, can create goodwill for the company’s activities and can generate publicity for a range of organizational events, activities and sponsorship programs. In the aftermath of the A Class moose test problems when a Mercedes A-Class model overturned while undertaking a traditional moose test, Mercedes was able to neutralize the bad publicity quickly by means of careful PR campaigns directed at the specialized press. Obtaining media attention for sponsorship projects can generate publicity that is, in terms of media exposure, worth much more than the initial investment in the event. In times of crisis, the media are a crucial audience in order to avoid or neutralize negative ‘fallout’ from the event that caused the crisis. Bad handling of media relations caused the Perrier problem (benzene in Perrier mineral water) to evolve into a major wave of bad publicity that resulted in enormous image and commercial damage to the brand and the company.

Marketing public relations Marketing PR is directly related to selling products and/or supporting brands. As such, it is a part of marketing communications for which oft en product or brand managers are responsible. Marketing PR can be used to support the launch of a new product, for instance by inviting the trade press to test-drive a new car, or to see to it that a new CD gets enough ‘airplay’. It can also be used to support and revive existing products, for instance by means of creating an event when the 50th shop is opened, or after the first 100 000 cars of a certain model have been sold. Sponsorship and special events can be used as PR tools to improve the relationship with suppliers and distributors, by offering free tickets for sports or arts events. Restaurants may invite journalists from the specialized press to encourage them to write a positive article and, as a result, boost sales. All these examples illustrate that marketing PR is an activity that is largely integrated with both corporate PR and other tools of the communications mix. Depending on the problem and the objective, publics will have to be divided into primary and secondary audiences. Public relations efforts will be more intense towards primary target groups. Launching a new product, for instance, will generally imply more efforts towards the marketing PR target groups, the media and the general public than towards financial audiences or the government. Furthermore, an individual can belong to more than one public at a time. As a result, consistent PR communications across audiences is vital to avoid conveying contradictory messages to the same members of different publics.

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Conclusions At the end of the last year it was underlined that press releases will evolve, real-time marketing will become more widespread, and visual content, specifically educational content, will be all the rage. (Greene, 2014) Within the context of an outlook for 2015 there were identified five challenges for PR agencies: agreeing with clients precisely which aspects of PR agencies’ work needs to be measured, making sure brands get the best from their relationship with influencers; incorporating online video seamlessly into communications campaigns; maintaining customer interest in our clients’ owned media and providing a consistent multi-platform service. (Gray, 2014) According to a PR Newswire’s representative (starting with Julius Caesar, and being recognized as a profession thanks to George V. S. Michaelis in Boston in 1900 with the establishment of his Publicity Bureau, the PR profession has constantly evolved, including by shifting online at the beginning of the 21st century, PR - marketing objectives are becoming their key KPIs - marketing and social media being treated interconnected), in 2015: PR will reach a point where hard-core technology skills will be just as important as people skills, if not more so; everyone will do PR, PR and reputation being vital for business of all sizes. (arcticstartup. com, 2015) PR is the management of reputation. It is about building and maintaining long-term goodwill vis-à-vis a large variety of audiences and stakeholders. Depending on the nature of these stakeholders, different types of PR can be distinguished. Marketing PR is directed towards marketing audiences and mainly supports marketing communications objectives. Corporate PR, such as public affairs, financial and media PR, supports corporate image and corporate reputation. A special type of PR activity is internal PR by means of which employees and shareholders are informed and/or motivated to co-operate in achieving the goals of the marketing and corporate communications plans. A broad variety of tools and media are used in PR, ranging from personal and oral communications in internal PR, to press releases, corporate advertising, direct mailing and annual reports in corporate PR. A specific task of PR is communicating in times of crisis. Building goodwill by means of pre-crisis PR is essential to limit the fallout from a crisis situation, although PR activity during the crisis is equally important.

References [1]

Anthonissen, P. (2008), Crisis Communication: Practical PR Strategies for Reputation

Management and Company Survival. London: Kogan Page. [2]

Meerman Scott, D. (2008), Th e New Rules of Marketing and PR: How to Use News Releases, Blogs,

Podcasting, Viral Marketing and Online Media to Reach Buyers Directly. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. [3]

Ruff , P. and Stittle, J. (2003), Managing Communications in a Crisis . Aldershot and Bunlinston,

VT: Gower. [4]

Schenbler, I. and Herrling, T. (2003), Guide to Media Relations . Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Pearson Prentice Hall. [5] Tench, R. and Yeomors, L. (2006), Exploring Public Relations . Harlow: Pearson Education. Van Ruler, B., Vercic, T. and Vercic, B. (2008), Public Relations Metrics: Research and Evaluation . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [6]

Wilcox, D. and Cameron, G.T. (2008), Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics . Harlow: Pearson

[7] Greene, B. - 7 Public Relations Trends to Watch in 2015, 12/19/2014, Retrieved from: ww.prnewsonline.com/water-cooler/2014/12/19/what-will-pr-look-like-in-2015/ [8] Gray, D. - 5 Trends in Public Relations to watch out for 2015, Retrieved from: http://www.ecco-network.com/news/5-trends-in-public-relations-to-watch-out-for-2015/ [9] Getting Your Message Out: Public Relations Trends for 2015, 09 February, 2015, a sponsored post for PR Newswire, Retrieved from: http://arcticstartup.com/article/ getting-your-message-out-public-relations-trends-for-2015


Sharing with our distinguished Readers a well-known source of usable and useful knowledge… Prof. Dr. h. c. Léon F. WEGNEZ is an Honorary Member of the Romanian Distribution Committee, and distinguished Member of the Editorial Board of our “Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine“. According to the announcement made by the European Retail Academy (ERA), the distinguished Léon F. Wegnez is the 2015 “Man of the Year” (the distinguished personalities who have been honored by ERA in the last four years were: Romano Prodi, Klaus Toepfer, Robert Aumann, and Mikhail Fedorov). Knowing our distinguished readers’ thirst for knowledge, we offer you, by courtesy of this remarkable personality, a short selection from “Distribution d’aujourd’hui”, 56ème année, Janvier-Février 2015, Brussels, and also from “La Vie Diplomatique”, March-April-May 2015, Brussels (official organ of the Diplomatic Club of Belgium).

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WPA 2015 Bucharest, a love of humanity, Abstract

by emphasizing on the basic values of solidarity and reciprocity

The WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress took place at the Palace of the Romanian Parliament, and reconfirmed the wisdom of Hippocrates, whose words give us a distinct impression as to the substance of this innovative and transdisciplinary scientific event. WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress also occasioned the meeting again between Professors Eliot Sorel and Bernd Hallier. They both embraced from the very beginning the real serious challenge with “Health, Nutrition, Fitness and Wellbeing� (SANABUNA) requiring a more rapid adaptation to changing economic trends and new thinking, pledging for this philosophy of action about how shared intention and action should be understood, demanding something from all of us to all of you.

Keywords:

Innovation; Transdisciplinarity; SANABUNA

JEL Classification: I; L81; Q01

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The WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress took place at the Palace of the Romanian Parliament, and reconfirmed the wisdom of Hippocrates, whose words give us a distinct impression as to the substance of this innovative and transdisciplinary scientific event. WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress also occasioned the meeting again between Professors Eliot Sorel and Bernd Hallier. They both embraced from the very beginning the real serious challenge with “Health, Nutrition, Fitness and Wellbeing” (SANABUNA) requiring a more rapid adaptation to changing economic trends and new thinking, pledging for this philosophy of action about how shared intention and action should be understood, demanding something from all of us to all of you. Keywords: Innovation; Transdisciplinarity; SANABUNA JEL Classification: I; L81; Q01 The innovative scientific event “WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress on Primary Care Mental Health: Innovation and Transdisciplinarity” (24-27 June, 2015) took place at the Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest, Romania.
The goals and objectives of this joint initiative (of the World Psychiatric Association in collaboration with the Romanian Association of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest, Politehnica University of Bucharest, the National Society of Family Medicine and the Romanian Public Health and Health Management Association) are already well-known. The WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress (Congress President: Dinesh Bhugra, UK; Co-Chair Scientific Committee: Helen Herrman, Australia; Co-Chair Scientific Committee: Eliot Sorel, USA; Co-Chair Organizing Committee: Masatoshi Takeda, Japan; Co-Chair Organizing Committee: Aurel Nireștean, Romania) reconfirmed the wisdom of Hippocrates, whose words give us a distinct impression as to the substance of this innovative scientific event: “Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also a love of humanity.”

It is worth mentioning that on June 23, 2015, on the eve of the WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress launch, the Romanian Health Minister Nicolae Banicioiu had a fruitful meeting with the participants at this significant International Congress: Florian Popa, Vice-Chair of the Romanian Parliament Public Health Commission; Dinesh Bhugra, President World Psychiatric Association; Michael Kidd, President, World Association of Family Doctors (WONCA); Eliot Sorel, Co-Chair Scientific Committee, WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress; Victor Purcarea, Special Assistant to Rector Ioanel Sinescu, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest. On this occasion were identified and agreed upon for further exploration and possible implementation several potential collaborative projects. The WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress Website also includes Professor Fernando Lolas (Chile) quote on “Medicine” (considering the practical implications of a sound theoretical framework) defined as: “a science of actions, or praxeology, differently constituted in different historical periods but with a permanent emphasis on the basic values of solidarity and reciprocity.”( wpa2015bucharest.org)


WPA 2015 Bucharest International Congress also occasioned the meeting again between Professors Eliot Sorel (USA) and Bernd Hallier (Germany). They both participated in the planning meeting of “Health, Nutrition, Fitness and Wellbeing” (SANABUNA 2011) International Congress as a responsible partnership in the context of the knowledge society and sustainable development. They both embraced from the very beginning the real serious challenge with “Health, Nutrition, Fitness and Wellbeing” (SANABUNA) requiring a more rapid adaptation to changing economic trends and new thinking, pledging for this philosophy of action about how shared intention and action should be understood, demanding something from all of us to all of you. (Purcarea, 2014) Professor Eliot SOREL (Honorary President of the SANABUNA International Congress: “Health, Nutrition, Fitness and Wellbeing”) is an internationally recognized global health leader, educator, health systems policy expert and practicing physician (Founder of the Conflict Management & Conflict Resolution Section of the World Psychiatric Association and of the World Youth Democracy Forum at the Elliott School of International Affairs of the George Washington University). He is a true ambassador of the Romanian country brand, a catalyzer in promoting Romania’s culture, being truly linked to his native “holy” land (Falticeni, Bucovina). Professor Bernd Hallier is the President of the European Retail Academy (also President of EuCVoT, Member of the Astana Economic Scientists Club etc.; Former Managing Director EHI Retail Institute, Germany, Chairman of the Advisory Board of EuroShop, Chairman of the Board of the Orgainvent, Trustee of EHI Retail Institute at GLOBALG.A.P.) We recently saluted the team’s international initiative - of Prof. Dr. B. Hallier and Marie-Christin Hallier - related to “Mental Health aspects: Art Therapy and Alternative Medicine”. Marie-Christin Hallier reminded us recently that Art Therapy has three options, and Self-Portraits in Art Therapy might be a first step for participants/patients to get an insight into himself/ herself and might be followed by a second step: changing life.

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References Theodor Purcarea, Health Value for Sustainable Development, a Real Challenge, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 5, Issue 3, Year 2014 The Practical Implications of a Theory for Medicine, Retrieved from: http://www.wpa2015bucharest.org/ThePractical-Implications-of-a-Theory-for-Medicine, 6/26/2015


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