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Status of the Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca in Macedonia between 2004 and 2013

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


HABITATS

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Ovce Pole (central Macedonia) is open and hilly terrain with the elevation ranging between 150 and 400m. The region consist of dry grasslands, arable lands and small forests of oak species In these areas, Imperial Eagle nests are mainly located in poplar trees (Populus alba) along small rivers and streams and also on oak(Cvercus ceris) on the hills.

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


The second habitat is typified by a more rugged and forested terrain along Vardar river valley. This habitat consists of hill pastures, arable lands and gardens. The mass cutting of poplars along river, forces eagles to nest in high-voltage pylons.

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


BREEDING DISTRIBUTION

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


1

Negotino

old

21

Tripatanci

old

43

Zubovce

old

2

Crveni Bregovi

old

22

Vakaf

active

44

Nikuljane

active

3

Dzidimirci

old

23

Topolovik new

old

45

Mamutchevo

old

4

Luda Mara

old

24

Topolovik old

old

46

Popovica

old

5

Crna Reka

old

25

Zubovce

old

47

Lepopelci

active

6

Bregalnica

old

26

Makresh

old

48

Saramzalino

active

7

Gradsko

active

27

Mamutchevo

old

49

Nogaevci

active

8

Kochilari

old

28

Karatmanovo

old

50

Makresh

old

9

Karaslari

active

29

Nogaevci

old

51

Bajlovce

active

10

Chuloshevo

old

30

Farma Chichevo

old

52

Sokolarci

active

11

Sojaklari

old

31

Dubrovo

old

53

Kocilari

old

12

Kjoseleri

old

32

Dubrovo

active

54

Dorfulija

active

11

Bogoslovec

old

33

Koreshnica

active

55

Dzidimirci

active

12

Erdzelija

active

34

Patetino

active

56

Krushevica

old

13

Sudic

old

35

Puzderci

active

57

Gradsko

old

14

Stamulovci

active

36

Crnilishte

old

58

Gradsko

old

15

Mechkuevci

active

37

Mamutchevo2

active

59

Topolnica

old

16

Orel

active

38

Novo Selo

active

60

Shtip

old

17

Dolno Djugance

active

39

vrba Gradsko

old

61

Klechevce

active

18

Preodski Nivi

active

40

Palikura

active

62

Murgash

old

19

Sveti Nikole

active

41

Mushinci

old

63

Makresh

active

20

Shupli Kamen

active

42

Kocilari

active

64

63 breeding territories 29 active breeding couples Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Activ nests Reserve or abandoned nests Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Year

Occupied nests

Successful nests

Number of fledged young

Young per successful nest

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

17 17 17 20 16 19 25 29 29 27

17 17 11 20 16 19 25 29 29 23

23 23 13 29 23 26 35 40 40 25

1,35 1,35 1,18 1,45 1,44 1,37 1,40 1,38 1,38 1,09

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2004

2005

2006

2007

Occupied nests

2008 Successful nests

2009

2010

2011

Number of fledged young

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila

2012

2013


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


In the past Imperial Eagles were considered to be migratory. Recent observations demonstrate that breeding pairs , even some of the young eaglets, are wintering in their breeding territories or around rubbish dump of big cities.

On the feeding place in Ergelija

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


DIET

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


THREATS

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


- Breeding habitat loss - Feeding possibility - Poisoning - Electrocution - Disturbance Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Breeding habitat loss Breeding habitat loss is one of the main threats. The illegal tree felling are serious threats. The majority of nests are in poplar trees, which are usually the only remaining tall trees in the lowland areas.

The mass cutting of poplars significantly reduces the number of suitable nest sites.

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Feeding possibility Very important threat is abandonment of pastures due to the decrease of livestock numbers. This in turn contributes to the decrease in hunting possibilities because grazing keeps the grass short.

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Poisoning Poisoning is a potential threat since there are cases of poisoned vultures in Ovce pole. Poisoning is incidental and is the part of fight of poor farmers with wolves. But unfortunately, the victims are always vultures and other birds of pray.

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Electrocution There is several evidence of an Imperial Eagle dying due to electrocution. The power line network in Macedonia includes many dangerous structures for birds. There are several cases of other raptors being killed or injured from collisions or electrocutions, so this threat can be serious problem and cannot be ignored.

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Disturbance

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


CONSERVATION

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


In Macedonia, the Imperial Eagle is strictly protected. Poisoning, shooting or trapping are completely forbidden. Nevertheless it is necessary to implement more serious conservation measures for their protection.

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


In 2012 are placed 25 nest platforms on the high-voltage pylons in Ovce pole which will help in increasing of nesting possibilities.

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


The feeding place in the area of Ovce pole were operate regularly until 2009

The most regular visitors on this feeding place are Imperial eagles in groups from 4-10 birds, especially juveniles during winter. Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


This year team of MME-Hungary placed 5 satellite transmitters on eaglets

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Thank you for your attention

Emanuel Lisichanets NCA - Aquila


Status of the Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca in Macedonia between 2004 and 2013