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The habitat and food of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) during breeding season in the Northwestern China Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30970340, 31272291)

By Roller MaMing Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No 818 Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang, China 2010-2013


Contents 1, Overview ( project, basic information, research objectives, etc.) 2, Progress & main research (reproductive biology, habitat and food, etc. ) 3, Protection and management.


Overview We investigated the nest dispersion, density, egg characters and the diet of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the northwestern China from 2004 to 2013. In our survey areas we studied on a total of 38 nest sites belonging to 16 home ranges, giving a minimum density of 1.4 breeding pairs per 1000 km2 in breeding season. Across its range, all nests were located either on rock faces, clay cliffs or shallow caves. In all metrical nests, the average external diameter was 198.4±8.2 cm × 159.3±14.2 cm, inner diameter was 91.1±4.4 cm, nest height was 125.9±15.3 cm and the depth was 12±1.7 cm. The female lay 1 to 2 eggs and the spawning interval were 3 to 4 days. In the extensive study for Karamay, we found that the foods of golden eagles included 7 species of mammals, 10 birds and 2 reptiles, and the main prey were Desert Hares (Lepus capensis). A total of 7 species of mammals, 5 birds, 1 reptile were preyed by Golden Eagles in Alataw and Biezhentaw Mountains, and the main foods were Gray Marmots (Marmota baibacina) and Long-Tailed Ground Squirrels (Citellus undulatus). Through the investigation, both the breeding population and breeding ranges of the golden eagle were much less than before and the effective long-term conservation should execute right now. Overview


Subspecies and geographical distribution of the Golden Eagle in China Map 1. 华西亚种( A.c.daphanea ) 2. 东北亚种( A.c.kamtschatica )

MaMing & Ding P.2010. Breeding ecology and survival status of the Golden Eagle in China. Raptors Conservation, 19 : 75-87.


The main research sites (2010-2013)


Nesting ecology Found in various parts of Xinjiang, such as the alpine steppe and forest edge areas.  The golden eagle breed in about 60-70% of the counties in Xinjiang.  Across its range, all nests were located either on rock cliffs (n=34, 89.5%) or shallow caves (n=4, 10.5%), we didn’t find any nest on big tree.  The number of nest is different in each home region, an average of 2.38 ± 0.41 (n = 16).  The outer diameter of nest is 198.4 ± 8.2 × 159.3 ± 14.2 cm, inner diameter is 91.1 ± 4.4 cm, height 125.9 ± 15.3 cm, depth 12 ± 1.7 cm (n = 3).  In Tianshan Mountains, the nest position toward the southwest (SW slope) or southeast (SE slope); while Karamay mostly to northwest (NW slope). 

Nesting


Site selection   

In Karamay, we found seven nesting areas, with about 16 nests; In Tianshan, there were nine nesting areas, with about 22 nests; We recorded 17 ecological factors, such as the elevation, cliff high, direction, disturbance, etc.

region

Karamay

Tianshan

Point

7

9

Nest

16

22

Nest selection


Nest selection 

The number of nest is different in each home region, an average of 2.38 ± 0.41 (Mean ± SE, n = 16). Young birds in the nest

Empty

Nest site


Habitat selection   

Nesting on the cliff’s platform (n = 34,89.5%) or small cave (n = 4,10.5%). Nest-type is oval (n = 26, 68.4%), or cylindrical shape (n = 12, 31.6%) The nest structure was made by many dry twigs, with an amount of skins, feathers, broken cloth and other debris. outer diameter /cm

inner /cm

height/cm

depth/cm

198.4±8.2×159.3±14.2

91.1±4.4

125.9±15.3

12±1.7

Habitat


Basic data Variable data Elevation /m Cliff high /m Nest high /m Slope index Cliff index Nest to bottom/m Nest to top/m Nest index Slope / ° Distance from water/m Distance from road /m Distance from highway/m Distance from resident /m

Data

Tianshan (n=22)

Karamay (n=16)

2140.1±37.0 187.5±14.4 137.6 ±11.0 0.74±0.02 131.7±12.9 84.6±8.8 46.5±7.5 0.66±0.03 87.5±0.5 174.9±32.9 210.6±44.5 4029.5±1305.9 1750.2±390.2

1216.4±48.8 107.3±5.8 83.3±4.7 0.78±0.03 80.7±6.6 56.8±4.9 24.1±3.3 0.71±0.03 80.8±1.4 2207.6±611.0 252.1±52.1 4252.8±1147.6 12190.3±1461.2

T Test

R Test -5.19* * -3.87* * -4.08* *

-1.01 NS -2.85* * 2.50* 2.42* -1.20 NS -3.87* * 3.17* * 0.78 NS 0.52 NS 4.66* *


To different direction of the nest site 80 Tianshan Karamay

百 分 比

60

40

20

0 N  

NE

E

SE

S

SW

W

NW

向 position toward the In Tianshan Mts., the巢nest southwest (SW slope) or southeast (SE slope); In Karamay they were mostly to northwest (NW slope).

Direction


Pictures


Eggs data     

Lay eggs: in early April Clutch size: 1-2 eggs; interval: 3-4 days L diameter : 80.19±3.69 mm S diameter : 61.72±1.36 mm Weight of egg: 162 g

Eggs


Hatching Parents together hatch for 41-45 days, but female took a longer incubation time, it’s an average of 77.4% of the total incubation time. 100 坐

60 40

比 (%)

80

20 0

Hatch

雄鸟

雌鸟 金雕


Breeding behavior  

Behavior include rest, leave, change, preening, look around, and other acts. 。 Incubation stage, egg weights loss rate of 7.41%. Early

Medium

Late

Total

Sit nest (min)

797.50±3.50

811.50±4.50

792.00±2.00

800.33±3.99

Change times

2.00±0.00

3.33±0.67

2.00±0.00

2.57±0.37

Time (min)

4.50±2.25

2.44±0.82

4.83±1.97

3.63±1.15

Interval (min)

85.00±3.00

105.17±32.16

159.33±62.67

116.27±23.91

Open times

8.50±1.50

9.50±0.50

6.50±1.50

8.17±0.79

Time (min)

4.76±0.80

2.67±0.29

6.69±1.54

4.28±0.49

Breeding data


Daily rhythm 

In the incubation period, the behaviors of daily change with a certain regularity.

100

坐 巢

90 80

百 分 比

70 75

休息 张望

60 45 30 15 8

理羽 凉卵 换孵 其他

6 4 2 0

06:00-07:00

Daily rhythm

09:00-10:00

12:00-13:00

15:00-16:00

18:00-19:00

21:00-22:00


Nestling at different stages Nestling at different stages 37 days

62 days

3 days

48 days

72 days

19 days

52 days

78 days


Feeding Period of brooding is 69-78 days;  Left the nest in the end of July or early August. 

Feeding


Food (1)  

In Tianshan Mts, it’s marmots and squirrels. In Karamay, it’s based on rabbits & gazelles. 灰旱獭

草兔

长尾黄鼠

鹅喉羚

Food of eagle (1)


Food (2) 

Tables Prey items in the diet of breeding season of Aquila chrysaetos in Karamay and Tianshan Mts., the northern Xinjiang, China


Food (3)


Bird-watching

data


Population sizes and trends in Karamay In 2004-2006, it is 1.30-1.67 nest / 1000 km 2 ;  In 2010-2011, it ’s only 繁殖对 0.37-0.56 (巢) nest/1000 km 2 . 

Population


Threatened         

Habitat loss; Over-grazing; Illegal hunting Steal eggs, Catching young; Oil exploration Wind power High-voltage lines; ……

Threat to eagles


Falconry Festival

Falconry Festival in China


Festival 2010


Play eagle in the tourist areas


Changes in the number of Golden eagles in the falconry festival of Aheqi County

Ma Ming. 2013. Government-sponsored falconry practices, rodenticides, and land development jeopardize Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in western China. Journal of Raptor Research, 47 (1):76-79.


The products of Golden eagle on markets


Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis in China Migration species;  Over-wintering;  Some breeding;  Feeding & food;  Population size;  Threatened. 


Steppe Eagle in China



Two eggs of steppe eagle in the nest

Steppe eagle


Story on Steppe Eagle in China

Story of Steppe Eagle in China


Steppe eagle in China

The Journal of Raptor Research, 47(1): 12-13.


Steppe eagle in China

Steppe eagle in China


 Bird-watching

data


Eagle Culture in China

Eagle Culture


References Cheng T. 1987. A Synopsis of the Avifauna of China. Beijing: Science Press. Ferguson-Lees J, Christie DA. 2001. Raptors of the World. London: Christopher Helm. Karyakin IV, Nikolenk EG, Barashkova AN, et al. 2010. Golden Eagle in the Altai-Sayan Region, Russia. Raptors Conservation, 18: 82-152. Ma M, Ding P, Li WD, et al. 2010. Breeding Ecology and Survival Status of the Golden Eagle in China. Raports Conservation, 19: 75-87. Ma M, Wu YQ, Dixon A, et al. 2006. Protection on Saker Falcon in the West of China. Supported by WWF-China and NSFC Programs. Ma Ming, Tong Zhang, Peng Ding, et al. 2012. Golden Eagle in the North-Western China. Raptors Conservation, № 25: 70-78. Ma Ming. 2013. Government-sponsored falconry practices, rodenticides, and land development jeopardize Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in western China. Journal of Raptor Research, 47 (1):76-79. Watson J. 1997. The Golden Eagle. London: Poyser. 高玮 . 2002. 中国隼形目鸟类生态学 . 北京 : 科学出版社 . 国家林业局 . 2009. 中国重点陆生野生动物资源调查 . 北京 : 中国林业出版社 . 马鸣 . 2011. 新疆鸟类分布名录 . 北京 : 科学出版社 . 梅宇 , 马鸣 , Dixon A, 等 . 2008. 中国西部电网电击猛禽致死事故调查 . 动物学杂志 , 43(4): 114-117. 苏化龙 . 1988. 金雕—处于濒危状态中的大型猛禽 . 动物学杂志 , 23(5): 36-40. 王家骏 . 1984. 世界猛禽 . 上海 : 上海科学技术出版社 . 许维枢 . 1995. 中国猛禽 : 鹰隼类 . 北京 : 中国林业出版社 . 赵正阶 . 2001. 中国鸟类志 : 上卷 , 非雀形目 . 长春 : 吉林科学技术出版社 . 郑光美 , 王岐山 . 1997. 中国濒危动物红皮书 : 鸟类 . 北京 : 科学出版社 .

References


Thanks for your attention !

THE

END

Ming Ma, Tong Zhang, Peng Ding, Kedeerhan Bayahen, Rui Xing, Xumao Zhao, Yahui Huang. 2012. Golden Eagle in the North-Western China. Raptors Conservation, № 25: 70-78.


“The Habitat and Food of the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos During Breeding Season in Northwestern C  

Презентация на конференции «Орлы Палеарктики: изучение и охрана»

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