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‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ‪2010 - 2009/7‬‬

‫ﺘﻬﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺒﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺼﺩﻱ ﻤﺭﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺭﻗـﻠﺔ‬

‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‬ ‫ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪(IAS/IFRS‬‬ ‫ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‬ ‫ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﺇﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﺻﺼﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎﺀ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ ﺇﺯﺩﻭﺍﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠـﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ )ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺟﺮ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﺪﻗﺔ‬ ‫ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ )‪ (E.G‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ ﺍﳋﺼﺨﺼﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﱪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﲑﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬

‫‪ Etude de quelques paramètres économiques chez les chameliers algériens‬‬ ‫‪ - http://rcweb.luedld.net‬ﺇﻳﺪﺍﻉ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ - 2002/110 :‬ﺭﺩﻣﺪ ‪ISSN : 1112-3613 :‬‬


‫ﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺼﺩﻱ ﻤﺭﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺭﻗـﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺘﻬﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺒﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻊ ‪22001100//22000099 -- 0077‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺍﻟﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻊ‬


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‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺻﺪﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﺭﻗـﻠﺔ‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻮﻃﺮﻓﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﲪﺪ )ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ(‬

‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ‪ :‬ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﲞﱵ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﺍﻟﻨﺸـﺭ ‪ :‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺷﻌﻮﰊ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻓﻮﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺃﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﻗـﺎﺩﺓ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺳﲑﺟﻴﻮ ﺑﺮﻧﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺃﻧﻜﻮﻧﺎ ‪ -‬ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﰐ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﻕ )ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﴰﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﳏﻔﻮﻅ ﺍﲪﺪ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻗﺪﻱ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺗﻮﻣﻲ ﺻﺎﱀ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﻄﻴﻒ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﻨﺔ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺭﺍﺗﻮﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻠﻒ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﲞﱵ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﺮﺍﻕ ﳏﻤﺪ )ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺩﺍﺩﻱ ﻋﺪﻭﻥ )ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﻮﺍﻁ(‬

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‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻣﺪﺍﱐ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻠﻐﻴﺚ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻗﻮﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﳏﻤﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﻮﺍﻁ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻗﻮﻱ ﺑﻮﺣﻨﻴﺔ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻧﻮﻓﻴﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻓﺮﺣﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﻮﺍﻁ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻋﺰﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﻋﻤﺮ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺷﻌﻮﰊ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻓﻮﺯﻱ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻣﺼﻴﻄﻔﻰ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻄﻴﻒ )ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ﺑﻐﺮﺩﺍﻳﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺸﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﲪﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬

‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺻﺪي ﻣﺮﺑﺎح ‪ -‬ورﻗــﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ‪http://rcweb.luedld.net :‬‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ ‪rcweb@luedld.net :‬‬

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‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪ - 1‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪ ،‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺎﳉﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ – 2‬ﺗﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺎ ﺑﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫‪ Microsoft Word‬ﺑﻨﺴﻖ ‪) RTF.‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،Traditional Arabic :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺳﻪ ‪ ،14 :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻂ‬ ‫‪ ،Times New Roman :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺳﻪ ‪ ،(12 :‬ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻰ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪ 15‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻼ ؛ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﻠﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ 5‬ﺃﺳﻄﺮ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ )ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻂ ‪ ،Traditional Arabic :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺳﻪ ‪ ،(12 :‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ )‪ (Les mots clés‬؛ ﻭﻧﻨﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ )‪ (La ponctuation‬؛ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ‪ 2.54‬ﺳـﻢ ﻭﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ‪ 2.6‬ﺳﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ‪ 1.5‬ﺳﻢ ؛ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﻄﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ 0.88‬ﺳﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﲢﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻫﺰ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ )ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،Article_modèle.dot :‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،(Article_modèle_Fr.dot :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ )ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺷﻜﻼ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻟﺐ( ؛ ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿـﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻉ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪.Article_Standard.pdf‬‬ ‫‪ - 3‬ﺗﺮﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﺑﻨﺒﺬﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻋﻨـﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﻳـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳍﺎﺗﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﺲ )ﺇﻥ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ( ؛ ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺣﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 4‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺛﻘﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺐ ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‪" ،‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ"‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‪" ،‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ"‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‪" ،‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ"‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ )ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ(‪.‬‬‫‪ - 5‬ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪) ،‬ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺒﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻼ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 6‬ﳛﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺔ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ( ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺱ ﲟﻀﻤﻮ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﺑﺮﺩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ُ - 7‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﻣﻀﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺳﲑ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ ‪http://rcweb.luedld.net/pa.htm :‬‬

‫‪ -9‬ﻧﻨﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﻼﻡ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪ - 10‬ﺗﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻼﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪rcweb@luedld.net :‬‬ ‫†‪ -‬ﳝﻜﻨﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ ‪http://rcweb.luedld.net :‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪2010-2009 / 07‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ‬

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‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﻣﻌﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﺎﺱ & ﻋﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻤﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﻴﺪﻳﺶ ﳏﻤﺪ & ﺳﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﻲ‬

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‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺧﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ‬

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‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪ ،(IAS/IFRS‬ﺯﻏﺪﺍﺭ & ﺳﻔﲑ‬

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‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﳋﻨﺎﻕ‬

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‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﻱ ﳏﻤﺪ ﳊﺴﻦ‬

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‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ )ﺩ‪.‬ﺡ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﺣﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﺓ‬

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‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ – ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ ،-‬ﻣﻮﻻﻱ ﳋﻀﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‬

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‫ﺇﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﺻﺼﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺯﺭﻗﻮﻥ‬

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‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻢ ﻏﺮﰊ‬

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‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎﺀ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺻﺎﱀ‬

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‫ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺷﺤﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲤﺠﻐﺪﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬

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‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻭﻱ‬

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‫ﺇﺯﺩﻭﺍﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠـﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ )ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺝ‬

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‫ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻳﻜﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ & ‪.‬ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻲ ﺯﻳﻨﺐ‬

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‫ﺃﺛﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺩﱄ ﺷﻮﻗﻲ‬

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‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺟﺮ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻉ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺳﻲ ﺳﻬﺎﻡ‬

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‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﲞﱵ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ & ﺷﻌﻮﰊ ﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﺯﻱ‬

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‫ﺃﺛﺮ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ )‪ (E.G‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺸﺎﻭﻱ‬

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‫ﺍﳋﺼﺨﺼﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﱪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﲪﻴﺪﺓ ﳐﺘﺎﺭ‬

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‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﲑﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‬

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‫ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ‬

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‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻌﺰﻭﺯ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ‬

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‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻣﺴﺪﻭﺭ‬

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‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ ﻋﻔﺎﻑ‬

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‫ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺸﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬

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‫‪Etude de quelques paramètres économiques chez les chameliers algériens,‬‬ ‫‪Abdekader ADAMOU & BAIRI Abdelmadjid‬‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﳏﻤـﺪ ﻋـﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻴــﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺻﺪﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﺎﺡ‪-‬ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺭﻫﺎﻧﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﲡﺎﻩ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴـﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻨﺬ ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﺗﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﻬﺪ ﺗﻐﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺎ ﻭﻣﺬﻫﻼ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺴﲑﻱ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ‪ .‬ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳌﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﶈـﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﻲ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺟﺘﺎﺣﺖ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ "ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ" ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ؟ ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﳏﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﺭﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺇﻃﻼﻋﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﺍﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺘﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﺭﺟﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻷﻱ ﻏﻤـﻮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﺘﺒـﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ )ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳـﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‪(... ،‬؛ ﻭﺳﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ "ﺍﶈﻴﻂ" ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ "ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ" ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﳏﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﺪﺛﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ؛ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﲜﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﲢﺪﺩ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ "ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ"‪ ،(Parties prenantes) 1‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1-1‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﻔﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟـﻞ ﺩﻓـﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺩﻣـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،2‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺍﺑﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ"‪ ،(Les mesures réglementaires) 3‬ﻭ"ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰﻳﺔ" )‪ (Les mesures incitatives‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻇﻬﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ 4‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ "ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻋﻴـﺔ" )‪.(Approches volontaires‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺗﻪ‪ .5‬ﻭﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫‪11‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﻫﻢ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.6‬‬ ‫‪ -1-1-1‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ )‪ (Normes‬ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺳﺘﻘﻊ ﲢﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﰲ ﺗﺴﺪﻳﺪ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ‪:7‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ )‪ :(Normes de qualité d’environnement‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻤﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺛﺎﱐ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ )‪ (CO2‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮ؛‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻹﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ )‪ :(Normes d’émissions‬ﲢﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻹﻧﺒﻌﺎﺙ ﻣﻠﻮﺙ ﻣﻌﲔ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﳏﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ؛‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ )‪ :(Normes de produit‬ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﱰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ )‪(Recyclage‬؛‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ )‪ :(Normes des procédés‬ﲢﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟـﺐ ﺇﺳـﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻒ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ )ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ(‪.8‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺇﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﳕﻮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ "ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ" )‪ (Externalités‬ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ )‪ (Mesures institutionnelles‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻨﻊ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻧﺸـﻄﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻷﻱ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .9‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺩﻓﻌـﺖ ﲟﺆﺳﺴـﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻠـﺐ ﻣﻮﺍﺀﻣـﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Harmonisation internationale‬ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺸـﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻀـﺎﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ "ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻀـﺎﺭﺓ" ‪(Concurrence‬‬ ‫)‪ dommageable‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻹﺳﺘﻴﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺀﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﲤﻮﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ )ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ( ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺻﺮﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪ .10‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﲤﻮﻗﻊ "ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ" ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺸﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺻﺮﺍﻣﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﺭﺍﺩﻉ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻔﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻭﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺇﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ "ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﳑﺘﺜﻞ"‪ (Comportement conformiste) 11‬ﻳﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﺪﺩﻩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ‪ 12‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲜﻬﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﰲ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.13‬‬ ‫‪ -2-1-1‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﺘﺠﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﺘﲔ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺪﳘﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ "ﺑﻴﻘﻮ" ‪(Arthur Cecil‬‬ ‫)‪ Pigou‬و"ﻛﻮﺍﺯ" )‪.(Ronald Harry Coase‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ -1-2-1-1‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ "ﺑﻴﻘﻮ"‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺗﺎﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ(‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ )ﺍﻹﺗﺎﻭﺍﺕ( ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺎﺕ )ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻣـﻮﺍﻝ ﺗﻘـﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ "ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ" )‪ .((Les pratiques propres‬ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ "ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ‪-‬ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﻓﻊ"‬ ‫)‪ (Principe pollueur-payeur‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﻘـﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﺗﺎﻭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲨﻊ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﶈﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ؛ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ )ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﲢﻔﻴﺰﺍ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧـﺎﺕ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲝﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺣﺬﺭ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻒ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﳍـﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﻔـﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺇﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺿﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ "ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ" )‪(Taxes de financement‬؛‬ ‫ ﺍﳋﻔﺾ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺿﺮﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨـﻮﻉ ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ "ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﶈﻔﺰﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ" ) ‪ ،(Taxes incitatives à la source‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﳌﺒـﺪﺃ "ﺍﳌﻠـﻮﺙ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻊ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺴـﻤﺢ ﺑــ "ﺇﺳـﺘﺪﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﺛـﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴـﺔ" ) ‪Internalisation des‬‬

‫‪ ،(externalités‬ﺃﻱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ )ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ( ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ )ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ(‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺧﺎﺻـﻴﱵ‬ ‫"ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ" )‪ 14(Incertitude‬ﻭ"ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ" )‪ 15(Incomplétude‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﺑﺄﻗﻞ "ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﲨﺎﻋﻴﺔ" )‪.16(Coût collectif‬‬ ‫‪ -2-2-1-1‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ "ﻛﻮﺍﺯ"‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ "ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ" )‪ ،(Biens environnementaux‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺨﺼﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ؛ ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﳛﺪﺩ ﳍﺎ ﺳﻌﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﻢ ﺇﺳﺘﻐﻼﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬ ‫"ﺣﻘﻮﻕ )ﺭﺧﺺ( ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ" )‪ (Droits à polluer‬ﻭﺍﳊﺼﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳـﻮﺍﻕ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻳﻞ "ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ" ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻠﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ "ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ" ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻟﻪ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺣـﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻳﺘﺠﺰﺃ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻌﺮ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺰﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻠﻜﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺇﺿﺎﰲ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ "ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ" ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌـﻮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺭﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ‪ .17‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﲨﺎﻋﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ )ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻹﻧﺒﻌﺎﺙ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ( ﳚﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

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‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﺎ ﲢﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺇﻧﺘـﻬﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺷﻜﻞ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺎﱄ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻸﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃـﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﻲ‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﲤﻨﺢ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﺼـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3-1-1‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺈﺿﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ "ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ" )‪ (Auto-organisation‬ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻳﺜﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ )ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ( ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪:18‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ )‪ :(Les systèmes volontaires publics‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻓﺎﺗﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺗﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺨﺮﻁ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﺑـﻞ ﺍﻹﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣـﻦ "ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻـﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ"‬ ‫)‪ (Ecoétiquetage‬ﺃﻭ "ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻢ )ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ( ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ" )‪ (Ecolabel, Ecocertificat‬ﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﺩﻓﺎﺗﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻫﺬﻩ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑـ‪" :‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ" )‪ ،(Performance environnementale‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﺠﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﲤﻜﻦ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ" )‪ (Agences nationales de normalisation‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ "ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ" )‪.(Reconnaissance‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺔ ‪(Les accords environnementaux‬‬‫)‪ :négociés‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺗﱪﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟـﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﲏ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ؛ ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ )ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺭﺳﻮﻡ( ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲟﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻭﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ )‪ :(Les accords privés‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺗﱪﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ )ﺃﻭ‬‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ( ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﺮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﳎـﺎﻭﺭﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﻣـﻦ ﳝﺜﻠـﻬﺎ‬ ‫)ﲨﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲨﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻨﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻳﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿـﻊ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ )‪ :(Les engagements unilatéraux‬ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﱪﻧﺎﳎﻬـﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺷـﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ" )‪ (Autoréglementation‬ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﲢﺪﺩ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣـﻞ ﻣـﻊ ﳐﺘﻠـﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‪:‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺗﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ؛‬ ‫ƒ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻓﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ؛‬ ‫ƒ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ ﻳﻘﺒﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻗﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﺳـﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﱪﻫﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺪ ﻃﻮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫"ﻃﻠﺐ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ" )‪ (Demande Verte‬ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﳕﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻋﻴﺔ( ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺃﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻭﻟـﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ "ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪-‬ﻣﻴﺰﺓ" )‪ (Cout-avantage‬ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻓﺸﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺃﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻮﻗـﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ؛ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ‪.19‬‬ ‫‪ -2-1‬ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺿﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ؛ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺗﻀـﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺎﺕ ﺃﻣـﺎ ﻣﺸـﻜﻠﺔ ﻣـﺪﻯ ﺷـﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Légitimité‬ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ؛ ﰒ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀـﻐﻮﻁ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺣﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﺎﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﰲ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻌﻴﺔ )‪ (Sociétales‬ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ؛ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻠﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﰲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻮﺯﻋﲔ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﲨﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1-2-1‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ؛ ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ "ﻭﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ" ) ‪Agences‬‬ ‫‪ (de notation‬ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ" )‪ (Indices éthiques‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﻋـﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﺴـﺎﳘﲔ ﺑــ"ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴـﺌﻮﻟﺔ"‬ ‫)‪ (Pratiques responsables‬ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﺎﳌﻲ ﻣﻮﺣﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﳐـﺎﻃﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲰﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﳍﻢ ﻟﻺﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﻀﻐﻄﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑـ"ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ" )‪ ،(Investissement responsable‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋـﻦ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻳﻮﱄ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭ"ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﳋﻀـﺮﺍﺀ" )‪(Fonds verts‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺇﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺜﺒـﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ "ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ" )‪ (Audits environnementaux‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﲣـﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ .20‬ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﲡﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﳎﱪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼـﺔ ﺗﺘﻨـﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﳎﻬﻮﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻟﻄﻤﺄﻧﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻬﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻴﻤﺘـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2-2-1‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﻨﻜﺎﺭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﻳﻠﺠﺌﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ )ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ (...،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳـﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﻲ؛ ﻭﰲ‬ ‫‪15‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

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‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺔ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ‪21‬؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3-2-1‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ؛ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﻭﻥ ﳌﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﻭﻥ ﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ .22‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﺕ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺿـﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ؛ ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ" )‪(Valeur écologique‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲰﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻔﺰ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺻﺪﻳﻖ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ؛‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4-2-1‬ﺍﳌﻮﺯﻋﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻣﺞ ﺍﳌﻮﺯﻋﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﲔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻭﻻﺋـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻮﺯﻋﲔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﳉﺬﺏ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﺎ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﻠﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺗﱪﻫﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻟﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗـﺒﲏ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻊ ﲟﻨﺤﻬـﺎ ﻋﻼﻣـﺔ‬‫)‪ (Marque‬ﺍﳌﻮﺯﻉ؛‬ ‫ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺜﺎ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﺎ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ؛‬‫ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﻳﺪ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ "ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ )ﺍﻟﻀﺠﻴﺞ(" )‪(Pollution sonore‬؛‬‫ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ )ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‪(... ،‬؛‬‫ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﻴﻒ‪.‬‬‫‪ -5-2-1‬ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺸﺂ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﲡﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻟـﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻄﻬـﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺪﺩ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻀﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌـﻮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻦ ﱂ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺑﻞ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲢﺘﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺜﲏ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺷـﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﺼﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﲢﺪ ﻭﺗﻀﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺿـﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪.23‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ -6-2-1‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑـﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺎﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣـﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﻤﻘﺔ ﻟﻸﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻛﺸﺮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻷﻱ ﻧﻘﺎﺵ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﳏﺘﻤﻠﺔ‪.24‬‬ ‫‪ -7-2-1‬ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﻬﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫"ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ" )‪(Les externalités industrielles‬؛ ﻭﺑﺎﺗﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .25‬ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﲢﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻻ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲢﺴﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﲟﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ؛‬‫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻫﺠﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗـﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺸـﺂﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰﺓ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻋﺮﻗﻠﺔ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ؛‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﻋﺎﻭﻯ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺎﻛﻢ ﺿﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪.‬‬‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﲨﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﻭﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ( ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺐ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻫﻴﺐ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠـﻬﺎ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺋﺰ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﲢﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪.26‬‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺭﺑﻂ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8-2-1‬ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲡﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﻄﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭﲤﺜﻴﻠﻪ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺍ ﰲ ﲢﺴﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﲟﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺇﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺳﺘﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﲟﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺳﺘﺨﺴﺮ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻹﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴـﺌﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺘﻔـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻛﻬﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﻞ ﺷﱴ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﳚﱪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﳏﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﲔ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳍﻴﺌـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﻨﺢ ﺇﻋﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭﰲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3-1‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻺﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻗﺘﻨﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪17‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

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‫‪ -1-3-1‬ﺍﶈﻔﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ؛ ﻓﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﺞ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴـﻮﻳﻘﻲ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺎ ﻭﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺷـﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻴـﻞ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻚ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻈﻬﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪.27‬‬ ‫‪ -2-3-1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ )‪(Différenciation concurrentielle‬‬

‫ﻣﻊ ﺇﺷﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ "ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ" )‪ .(Concentration du marché‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﺰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲣﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳑﻴﺰﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻊ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ "ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ" )‪ .(Eco-produits‬ﺍﳊﺼﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺳﺘﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺷﺮﳛﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﳉﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﻔﻘﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3-3-1‬ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺪﺭ ﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻃﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓـﺮﺹ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ‪ ،‬ﰎ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻋﺎﺋﻘﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ "ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺭﺗﺮ" )‪ (Hypothèse de Porter‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ "ﻣﺎﻳﻜﻞ ﺑﻮﺭﺗﺮ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﺪﻭﺍ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ "ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔـﺔ" ) ‪Technologies‬‬ ‫‪ (propres‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺗﺜﻤﲔ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ .28‬ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺖ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4-1‬ﺃﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ )‪(Ethique des dirigeants‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﺪﻳﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺷـﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻔﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﳛـﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻣـﺎ ﺗﺴـﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪ .29‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻫﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﳌﺪﻯ ﲡﺬﺭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪:30‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺫﻭ "ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻲ" )‪ (Environnementalisme réformiste‬ﻳﻮﻇﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ؛ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ "ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ"؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺫﻭ "ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻜﺎﱄ" )‪ (Environnementalisme radical‬ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤـﻴﻂ ﺍﳊﻴـﻮﻱ‬‫ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ؛ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌـﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ "ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﲤﺎﺷﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﳚﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﺒﲏ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .31‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻌﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ‪‬ﺪﺩ ﺇﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﱪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋـﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺠﺬﺭﺓ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ -5-1‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻔﻴﺔ )‪(Facteurs de contingence‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺢ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻔﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺒﲏ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺼﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﰲ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1-5-1‬ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺈﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸـﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﲟﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ؛ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻟﺴﺒﺒﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺗﺮﺙ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﺘﺎﺩﺍ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎ ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﺮﻭﻧـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋﻜـﺲ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺜﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳـﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺻﺒﻐﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺎﺩﺕ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺧﻄﺌﻬﺎ ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻋﺘﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﲑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻃﺮﺩﻳﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ؛ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸـﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺼﺪﻕ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﻐـﻴﲑ ﺳـﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻳﻀـﺎ ﺗﻐـﻴﲑﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﻳﲔ ﻭﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ‪.32‬‬ ‫‪ -2-5-1‬ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ )ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ‪(...،‬؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﳒﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﲤﻴﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻷﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺗﺸﻮﻫﺖ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳒﻤﺖ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،33‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻀﺮﺭ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﺎﺭﺛﺔ "ﺗﺸﺮﻧﻮﺑﻴﻞ" ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1986‬ﻡ؛ ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﳒﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺄ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3-5-1‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ؛ ﻓﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﲡﺪ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺃﻗﻞ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺗﺒﲏ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﺒﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ‪:34‬‬ ‫ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲡﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ( ﻣﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺟـﺪﺍ ﻭﻟﻴﺴـﺖ‬‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻫﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺑﺈﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﳛﺘﺬﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻷﻥ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ؛‬ ‫ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺴـﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ؛‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺛـﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

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‫ﺑﺈﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ "ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺍﺕ" )‪ ،(Modèle des ressources et des compétences‬ﳒـﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﳑﻴﺰﺓ ﻛﻘﺼﺮ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4-5-1‬ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ )‪(Affiliation internationale‬‬

‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﳎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻭﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻛﺈﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻀـﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﲤﺎﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺼﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲰﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ )‪ (Filiales‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺇﻧﺘﻤﺎﺋﻬـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻌـﺎﺕ ﺻـﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Groupes industriels‬ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻧﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺑﺘﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺻـﺮﺍﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻮﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﻤﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺸـﻂ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.35‬‬ ‫‪ -5-5-1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ )‪ (Innovation‬ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﻺﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﻨﺖ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻫﺠﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺳـﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺇﻧﺘـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳑﻜﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜـﺎﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪36‬؛ ﻓﺒﺈﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ "ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﻨـﺪﻣﺞ )ﺃﻭ ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﳎـﺔ(" ‪(Integrated‬‬ ‫)‪ Management System / Système de Management Intégré‬ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﲝﻴﺚ ﳚﻤﻊ ﺑـﲔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6-5-1‬ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﲟﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺳﺘﺜﻤﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪ 37‬ﻻ ﻳﻔﻜﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﺮﻗﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺟﺰﺀﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﺻـﻨﺎﻑ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ -1-2‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻋﻲ" )‪(Comportement écodéfensif‬؛ "ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺜﻞ" )‪ (Comportement écoconformiste‬ﻭ"ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻲ" )‪.(Comportement écosensible‬‬ ‫‪38‬‬

‫‪ -1-1-2‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ ﻣﺎﱄ ﲝﺖ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﳌﻦ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﺞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﳚﺐ ﲡﻨﺒﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼـﻠﺤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺃﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ -‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﻭﻫﻲ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺿـﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺃﻱ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ( ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﺷﻲ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﺻـﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﲡﺎﻫﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2-1-2‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺜﻞ )ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻳﺮ(‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻻ ﻣﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻤﻠـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ؛ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﺄﻣﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳜﻔﺾ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺪﻣﺞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﳑﺘﺜﻞ ﻫﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺮﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3-1-2‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ "ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺒﺎﻗﻲ" )‪ .(Proactif‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﺞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﺪﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻘـﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻜـﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﻭ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺳﺘﺒﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﳓﻮ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﺩ( ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺒـﺄ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﺟﺄ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻗﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻌـﻼ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ )ﺃﻱ ﺗﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

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‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ؛ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .39‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﱪﻳﺮ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﻨﺎﺹ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺇﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﳓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻩ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻭﻳﻨﻤـﻮ‬‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﺮﺩ ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻊ؛ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻟـ"ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ" )‪ (PNUE‬ﺻﺪﺭ ﰲ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪2008‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺣﺠـﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺑـ ‪ 1370‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺳﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ ‪ 2740‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2020‬ﻡ‪40‬؛‬ ‫ ﲢﺴﲔ "ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ" )‪ (Qualité du site‬ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴـﺔ‪،‬‬‫ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ؛‬ ‫ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪ -2-2‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻘـﺎﺭﺑﺘﲔ ﻹﺩﻣـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪" :41‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ" )‪ (Approche additive‬ﻭ"ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ" )‪.(Approche systémique‬‬ ‫‪ -1-2-2‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻛﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﻣﻜﻤﻼ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺫﻭ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻤـﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺰﳍﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳝﻴـﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺣﱴ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈـﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺋﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ؛ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﳑﺘﺜﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﳊﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﺎ ﻟﻺﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ؛ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌـﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ )ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﺍ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ( ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻷﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2-2-2‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﳉﺬﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺃﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻺﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺗﻐـﻴﲑﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﺍ ﻟﻺﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺳﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻧﻈﺎﻣـﺎ ﻓﺮﻋﻴـﺎ ﻟﻨﻈـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ "ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ" )‪ ،(Eco-fonction‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ؛ ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳـﻌﺮ ﺁﻟـﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻌﻄﻰ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﻭﺍﻉ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﲤﻜﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﲢﻔﻴﺰﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﲤﺎﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻗﺘﻨﺎﺹ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺇﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺭﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻹﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻹﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻮﻥ ﲞﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻲ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﺮﺍ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺳﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺩﻭﺍﻓـﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﲝﻮﺙ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫‪" -1‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ" )‪ (Stakeholders Théory / Théorie des parties prenantes‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﺒﻨﺎﻩ "ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲪﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ" )‪.(Shareholder Théory / Théorie des actionnaires‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ "ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ" ﺃﻭ "ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﺓ"‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﲟﻌﺎﳉﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌّﺎﻟﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ "ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ" ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ )‪.(Command and control‬‬‫‪ -4‬ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺈﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ؛ ﰒ ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﻮﱄ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻖ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﺎﺀﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺷﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻘﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﻃﻤﻮﺡ ﺷﻌﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻺﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﻬﺪﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪- Persais E, La relation entre l’organisation et son environnement : le cas de l’écologie, Revue‬‬ ‫‪Française de Marketing, n°167, 1998, pp 27-41.‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪- Bonnieux F & Desaigues B, Economie et politiques de l’environnement, Dalloz, Paris, 1998, pp‬‬ ‫‪124-125.‬‬ ‫‪23‬‬


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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲟﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﲝﻴﺚ‬‫( ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻷ‬Technologie propre) "‫ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ "ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ‬-8 ‫ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬،(Technologie de/en bout de chaîne) "‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ؛ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ "ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ .‫ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ‬،(End-of-pipe Technology) "‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ "ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ 9 - Salamitou J, Management environnemental : application à la norme ISO 14001 révisée, Dunod, Paris, 2004, p24. 10 - Raspiller S & Riedinger N, Les différences de sévérité environnementale entre pays influencent-elles les comportements de localisation des groupes français ?, Economie et prévision, N°169, Paris, 2005, pp197-210.

.‫( ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ‬2 ‫ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ )ﺭﻗﻢ‬-11 ‫ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ‬،‫ ﺇﻥ ﺇﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺟﻴﺪ‬-12 .‫ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ 13 - Chiroleu-Assouline M, Efficacité comparée des instruments de régulation environnementale,

Notes de synthèse du SESP (Ministère de l'Ecologie, de l'Energie, du développement durable et de l'Aménagement du territoire), n° 167, Paris, 2007, p6. ‫( ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺎﻏﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﱐ ﻫﺎﻳﺰﻧﱪﺝ‬Le principe d'incertitude) "‫ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ "ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ‬-14

‫ ﻭ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺘﲔ ﻣﻘﺎﺳﺘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ؛ ﺃﻱ‬،‫ﻡ‬1927 ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ .‫ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺘﲔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺿﺌﻴﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻮﺭﺕ‬‫( ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﰎ ﺑﺮﻫﺎ‬Théorème d'incomplétude) "‫ "ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ )ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ( ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ‬-15 .‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﲔ ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ‬،‫ﻡ‬1931 ‫ﻏﻮﺩﻝ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ 16 - Beaumais O & Chiroleu-Assouline M, Economie de l’environnement, Bréal, Paris, 2001, pp78-83.

،(2008/10/25 ‫ )ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻉ‬،‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻂ‬،‫ ﺃﻱ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ‬:‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﳝﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻜﻮ‬-17 http://www.unesco.org/most/sd_arab/Fiche3a.htm

18

- OCDE, Les approches volontaires dans les politiques de l’environnement : Efficacité et

combinaison avec d’autres instruments d’intervention, OCDE, Paris, 2003, pp20-21. 19 - Bürgenmeier B, Economie du développement durable, De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2éme édition, 2005, pp138-140. 20 - Persais E, Op-cit, pp30-31. 21 - Boiral O, Protéger l’environnement naturel et la santé des travailleurs, Revue Internationale de Gestion, Volume 22, N°4, Montréal, 1997, p51. 22 - Chauveau A & Rosé J.J, L’entreprise responsable, Editions d’organisation, Paris, 2003, p11. 23 - Folus D, Apports de l’assurance et des marché de capitaux à la gestion des risques environnementaux, XIIème Conférence de l’AIMS, Carthage, Juin 2003, pp10-12 24 - Lanoie P & Laplante B, Des billets verts pour des entreprises vertes, Revue Internationale de Gestion, Volume 17, N°4, Montréal, 1992, pp41-47. 25 - Laville E, L’entreprise verte, Village Mondial, Paris, 2002, p71.

‫ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﳎﺎﻟﺲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬،‫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‬-26 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﱪﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ )ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﺴﻼﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬ .‫ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ( ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎ‬ 24


2010 - 2009 / 07 ‫ ﻋﺪﺩ‬- ‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬

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27

- Boiral O & Jolly D, Stratégie, compétitivité et écologie, Revue Française de Gestion, N° 89, Paris, 1992, pp80-95. 28 - Lanoie P & Tanguay G.A, Dix exemples de rentabilité financière liés à une saine gestion environnementale, Cahier de recherche CIRANO, N°05-98, Montréal, 1998, p3. 29 - Chauveau A & Rosé J.J, Op-cit, pp278-280. 30 - Butel-Bellini B, l’intégration de la donnée écologique dans la gestion de l’entreprise : une analyse contingente au niveau des sites de production, Thèse de Doctorat en sciences de gestion, IAE, Université des sciences et technologies de Lille, 1997, pp192-194. 31 - Boiral O, Environnement et gestion, Les Presses de l’Université Laval, Laval, 2007, p299. 32 - Ibid, pp180-181. 33 - Gallez C & Moroncini A, Le manager et l’environnement, Presse polytechniques et universitaires Romandes, Lausanne, 1ére édition, 2003, pp1-2. 34 - Persais E, Op-cit, pp36-37. 35 - Froger G & Andriamahefazafy F, Les stratégies environnementales des organisations internationales dans les pays en développement : continuité ou ruptures ?, Mondes en développement, Volume 31, N°124, Bruxelles, 2003, pp49-76

.222‫ ﺹ‬،2002 ،‫ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬،‫ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬،‫ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ‬،‫ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬،‫ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺍﻭﻱ‬-36

‫ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ‬-37 .‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ 38 - Butel-Bellini B, Op-cit, pp141-150 ‫ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﻢ( ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ )ﻛﱪ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬-39 .‫ﳎﺎﻝ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ‬ 40 - PNUE, Information Presse, Programme des Nations Unies pour l'environnement (PNUE), En ligne, (Page consulté le 15/12/2008), http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=545&ArticleID=5929&l=fr 41

- Butel-Bellini B, La prise en compte de la protection de l’environnement dans le management

de l'entreprise, Journée d’étude AIMS : Développement durable et entreprise, Angers (France), 2003, pp8-9.

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‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺑﻮﻣﻌﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﺎﺱ‪ ‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﻄﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﻄﻴﻒ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻒ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ ﲜﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻏﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﻠﻔﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺣﲔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﺪ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﺎ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍﹰ ﻫﺎﻣﺎﹰ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺎﹰ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﳌﻌﺎﳉﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﲰﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﲤﻜﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺋﻖ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﻬﺪﻧﺎ ﺇﺣﺮﺍﺯ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻃﺮﺃﺕ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻭﻟﻮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺳﻨﺪﺍ ﺩﺍﻋﻤﺎ ﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﻞ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻃﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺗﺘﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺳﺒﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ؛‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ؛‬ ‫‪.5‬ﺳﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻄﺎﳌﺎ ﺭﺑﻂ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ‬

‫ﻛﺒﲑ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ .1‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺘﺼﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫‪27‬‬


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‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﻩ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﻧﻘﻠﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﲏ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﲰﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1987‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﳉﻨﺔ )‪ (Brundtland‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ "ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪ ،"2‬ﻓﻬﻲ "ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ."3‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻧﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻄﺮﺩﺓ ﲤﻜﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺣﺪ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﺼﻠﺔ ﳚﲏ‬ ‫ﲦﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲡﲏ ﲦﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪.4‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﺔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻄﺮﺩ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﴰﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﲝﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻄﺮﺩ ﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻼ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺣﲔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺣـﺪ‬ ‫ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﺎ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻠﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺘﺪﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺇﳕﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.5‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺭﻳـﻮ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺻﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻖ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳛﻴﻮﺍ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺋﺎﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪ ."6‬ﻓﻼ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻔﺸﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻬﻠﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻚ ﻓﲑﻭﺱ ﻧﻘـﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﲟﻼﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﲝﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻼﻳﲔ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻬﻢ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ .7‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺎﺭﻏﲔ ﺗﺸﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ " ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ."8‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴـﺔ ﻭﺗﺴـﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻏﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑـﺄﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻠﻮﻏﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻋﺎ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﻩ ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳉﺴﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳـﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﲰﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺍﺭﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻱ ﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﲢﺴﻦ ﻣﻄﺮﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻣﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .1-3‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺩﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﳎﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻤـﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒـﺪﺃ ﺃﻥ ﻫـﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ )ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ )ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ(‪.9‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻛـﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪،‬‬‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻘـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (1‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﲢﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺸﻴﺔ‪ ،10‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻟﻸﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺸﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻧﻘﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺺ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻘﻠﺔ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ(‪ .11‬ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻘﻠﺔ ﻣﺜﻠﺖ ‪ %28‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.122002‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺗﻐﲑﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(3‬ﳒﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﻛﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻧﻨﺴﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ 13‬ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻔﺘﺮﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻮﲪﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜـﻦ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔـﺎﻉ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺮ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﳝﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻛـﻞ ﺳﻨـﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺀ ‪ 30000‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ %50‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺸـﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴـﺔ‪ .14‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )ﺭﻗﻢ ‪،(2‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳉﻨﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪29‬‬


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‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﻠﻎ ‪ %10.5‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ .2006‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻳﺔ ‪ 60‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺲ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻋﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺎﺷﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻼﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ‪ 35‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 60‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(3‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‪ ،‬ﺍﻥ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ‪ %4.38‬ﻭ‪ %2.10‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺳﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ %31‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ %12.5‬ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‪.‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺗﻜﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺿﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2-3‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1970‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫" ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ ﻟﻌـﺪﻡ ﺍﳌـﺮﺽ"‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 1970‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻋﺎ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﲤﺜﻞ "ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠـﺔ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌـﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠـﻲ‪ ."15‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻋﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﺍ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2000‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﺑـ "ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ‪ ،2000‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺻﺤﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ" ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﻧﺸﺮﻩ ﰲ ‪ 24‬ﺟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ .2000‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻬـﺎ‪ ،16‬ﻭﺿـﻊ ﺃﻧﻈﻤـﺔ ﺻﺤﻴـﺔ ﺗﺴﻤـﺢ ﺑﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑـﺔ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘـﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ "‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .1-2-3‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ " ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﳎﻬﻮﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺪﻓﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻌـﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋـﺎﺕ‪ ."17‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .1-1-2-3‬ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﻒ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻌﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻴﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺪﻑ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﲔ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺻﺤﻲ؛ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﺼﺤﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ) ‪Espérance de Vie Corrigé de‬‬ ‫‪ .(l’Incapacité‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ "ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ"‪ .‬ﻓﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫‪30‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺴﻲﺀ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺟﺪ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﻛﺎﻟﺸﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻰ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻛﺤﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﻘﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﲑﺍﺕ )‪ .(Paludisme, Schistosomiase‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳒﺪ ﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﻠﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺴﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2-1-2-3‬ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑـ " ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ ."18‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻘﺎﺱ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺟﺪ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻘﺒﲔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﲢﻔﻴﺰﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺧﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺣﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺠﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺣﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻨﻒ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﲔ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﺣﺘـﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺿـﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ ﻭ ﳜﺺ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﻧﺸﻐﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻄﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴـﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤـﻲ ﻟﻼﻧﺸﻐﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺿﻰ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻼ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ "ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ" ﺃﻗﻞ ﺇﳊﺎﺣﺎ ﻣﻦ "ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﺘﻔﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﲞﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3-1-2-3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺯﻋﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫"ﺗﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻓﻌﻨﺎ" ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﺎﺩﻻ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ " ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳑﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﻢ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ ."19‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻏﲑ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳚﺐ‬ ‫‪31‬‬


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‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻫﺪﻓﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑﺓ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺮﺿﻬﻢ ﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2-2-3‬ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﲢﺘﻞ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(5‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﺘﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 72‬ﻭ‪ 37‬ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻓﺘﺤﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 45‬ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 81‬ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ )ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ .(4‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆ ﺑﲔ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻠـﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒـﺔ ‪ 84‬ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ‪ 192‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻀﻮﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ .110‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 91‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ .75‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻄﻴﻒ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻨﻬﻮ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻻﺯﻟﺖ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ "ﺑﺎﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ‪ ،‬ﻧﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ"‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ‪.20‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸﲑ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺱ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ‪ 98‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺘﺒﻮﺃ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 114‬ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ‪ 192‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺛﺮﺕ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ – ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1-4‬ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺬﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺿﻌﻒ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .1-1-4‬ﺿﻌﻒ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻛﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (6‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺼﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴـﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﺃﲨﻊ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ‪ %13.1‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﻟﲑﺗﻔﻊ ﺇﱃ ‪ %15.2‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ .2003‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ %9‬ﻭ‪ .%15.2‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ %10.8‬ﺇﱃ ‪ %11‬ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1999‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ .2003‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺻﺮﻓﺖ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ %13.1‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﲡﻬﺎ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ‪ ،%3.8‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﺗﲔ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﻧﻔﺎﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ‪ %5‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﻧﻈﲑﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺣﱴ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺼﻴـﺐ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (7‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 1999‬ﺇﱃ ‪.2003‬‬ ‫ﲝﺴﺐ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺃﲨﻊ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ‪ 5711‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2003‬ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺑـ ‪ 5035‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰒ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺑـ ‪ 3204‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ‪ 241‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2003‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺍﺣﺘﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 900‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻄﺮ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ‪ 862‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2003‬ﻭﺗﺼﻞ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ‪661‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺑـ ‪ 573‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ‪ 71‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 1999‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2003‬ﺑﺎﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ 171‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪.%70.66‬‬ ‫‪ .2-1-4‬ﻗﻠﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ‪ 30416000‬ﻧﺴﻤﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2000‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 31848000‬ﻧﺴﻤﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،21%4.07‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪.%2.8‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2000‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺿﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺳﻮﺀﺍ ﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻮﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %55‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫‪2003‬‬

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‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ،%22‬ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻠﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺤﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(8‬‬

‫‪ ،%20‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﻮ ‪ %2‬ﻭﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ‬

‫‪،%1‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ‪ 13‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2008‬ﰲ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻪ ﺑﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻮﺗﻔﻠﻴﻘﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .22‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻨﺠﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2-4‬ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪:23‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﰐ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻁ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﳉﻔﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﶈﺮﻭﻣﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﳏﺴّﻦ ‪ %15‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2004‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲤﺜﻞ ‪ %13‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.242002‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ )ﻣﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻷﲰﻨﺖ ﲟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪،‬ﻣﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻳﺖ ﺑﺘﺴﻤﺴﻴﻠﺖ ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﲰﺪﺍﻝ‬‫ﺑﻌﻨﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ...‬ﺍﱁ (؛ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ﺑﻠـﻎ ﺣﺠـﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ 325100‬ﻃﻦ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‪25‬؛‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻃﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻮﻏﺮﺍﰲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺣﻀﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﺮﺕ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﺣﺎﺩﺍ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‪ 26‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ‪ ....،‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3-4‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ‪ :‬ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ (2007) 27‬ﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ ،104‬ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 0.733‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2005‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 108‬ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2002‬ﲟﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫‪ ،280.704‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (9‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪ .2005/1975‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 51‬ﺣﺴـﺐ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪2005‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ،29%21.5‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ‪ .30%21.5‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ‪ %2‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ )‪ (2005-1990‬ﻭ‪ %14.4‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﺸـﻮﻥ ﺑـ ‪ 2‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ .31‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺟﻴﲏ‪ 32‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ ‪،35.5‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻮﻥ ﲢﺖ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2007‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ‪ %22.6‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ )‪ (2004‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ %12‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ .1988‬ﻓﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﳏﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻧﺪﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫‪34‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺸﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‪ .33‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .5‬ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪:‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 84‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﻟﻸﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺸﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﻨﻘﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻨﻘﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﲢﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 45‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 81‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﲰﺔ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﺑﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﲝﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻱ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﻦ ﻣﻄﺮﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:34‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻣﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻟﻸﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳍﻀﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻃﲑ؛ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻔﻞ‬‫ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺑﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ‪ 26‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻭﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻭ ‪ 8‬ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻋﻼﺝ ﻭ‪ 4‬ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 92‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺝ؛‬ ‫ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺧﺎﺭﻃﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ؛‬‫ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﻻﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﻴﺴﺔ ﻭﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺰﻳﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:35‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺴﺴﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻟﻸﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﺮﺑﻮ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ؛‬‫ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ؛‬‫‪35‬‬


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‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

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‫ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﲟﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﲝﻮﺙ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻗﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻷﻥ ﲡﺎﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﻖ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺒﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﱪﺍﻣﺞ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﻳﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪.... ،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ؛‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻜﻴﻔﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﳋﻔﺾ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ؛‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ؛‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻒ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﻼ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ؛‬‫ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ؛‬‫ ﺇﺫﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻟﻠﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ؛‬‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺃﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‬‫ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ؛‬‫ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺳﻨﺪﺍ ﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺩﺍﻋﻤﺎ ﳍﺎ؛‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼّﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻑ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻹﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ؛‬‫ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﹼ‬‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻃﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺮﺿﲔ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺬﻭﻥ ﻭﳏﺮﻛﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﺳﻴﺦ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ – ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬‫ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪36‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﻭﻣﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻭﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻏﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﱪﳎﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻔﺬﺓ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﲝﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺛﺮﺕ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻒ ﳐﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺛﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺯﺣﻒ ﺍﻻﲰﻨﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺻﺤﻲ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻖ اﻟﺠﺪاول‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(1‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫‪ 1990‬ﻭ‪2005‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬

‫‪1990‬‬

‫‪1992‬‬

‫‪1995‬‬

‫‪1997‬‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪2005‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬

‫‪67.157‬‬

‫‪67.916‬‬

‫‪68.649‬‬

‫‪69.138‬‬

‫‪70.22‬‬

‫‪70.94‬‬

‫‪71.734‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬

‫‪2.8‬‬

‫‪2.9‬‬

‫‪3.1‬‬

‫‪3.3‬‬

‫‪3.5‬‬

‫‪3.5‬‬

‫‪3.4‬‬

‫‪Source: Conseil National Economique et Social, Rapport National sur Le Développement Humain,‬‬ ‫‪Algérie 2006, p.21‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(2‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬

‫‪2006‬‬

‫ﻛﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ‬

‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫‪18-0‬‬

‫‪2.9‬‬

‫‪2.4‬‬

‫‪2.6‬‬

‫‪24-19‬‬

‫‪3.4‬‬

‫‪3.0‬‬

‫‪35-25‬‬

‫‪3.6‬‬

‫‪5.1‬‬

‫‪3.2‬‬ ‫‪4.3‬‬

‫‪59-35‬‬

‫‪12.7‬‬

‫‪24.3‬‬

‫‪18.5‬‬

‫‪ 60‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ‬

‫‪42‬‬

‫‪60.4‬‬

‫‪51‬‬

‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫‪8.4‬‬

‫‪12.6‬‬

‫‪10.5‬‬

‫‪Source: Ministère de la Santé, Office National des Statistiques, Suivi de la situation des Enfants et‬‬ ‫‪des Femmes, Rapport 2007, p.32.‬‬

‫‪37‬‬


‫____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(3‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻨﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬

‫‪2006‬‬

‫ﻛﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻦ‬

‫‪18-0‬‬

‫‪24-19‬‬

‫‪34-25‬‬

‫‪59-35‬‬

‫‪60+‬‬

‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ‬

‫‪0.06‬‬

‫‪0.13‬‬

‫‪0.57‬‬

‫‪7.82‬‬

‫‪31.15‬‬

‫‪4.38‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬

‫‪0.16‬‬

‫‪0.23‬‬

‫‪0.42‬‬

‫‪4.13‬‬

‫‪12.52‬‬

‫‪2.10‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬

‫‪0.22‬‬

‫‪0.26‬‬

‫‪0.46‬‬

‫‪2.91‬‬

‫‪10.59‬‬

‫‪1.70‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮ‬

‫‪0.7‬‬

‫‪0.8‬‬

‫‪0.91‬‬

‫‪1.80‬‬

‫‪3.09‬‬

‫‪1.20‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬

‫‪0.24‬‬

‫‪0.26‬‬

‫‪0.31‬‬

‫‪1.65‬‬

‫‪6.98‬‬

‫‪1.100‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬

‫‪1.27‬‬

‫‪0.26‬‬

‫‪0.31‬‬

‫‪1.65‬‬

‫‪6.98‬‬

‫‪1.11‬‬

‫‪Source: Ministère de la Santé, Office National des Statistiques, Suivi de la situation des Enfants et‬‬ ‫‪des Femmes, Rapport 2007, p.32.‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(4‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪2005‬‬

‫ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫‪110‬‬

‫‪84‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫‪91-90‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬

‫‪52-50‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫‪99‬‬

‫‪75-74‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫‪81‬‬

‫‪114‬‬

‫‪Source: OMS: Rapport sur la Santé Dans Le Monde 2006, Organisation Mondiale de la Santé,‬‬ ‫‪Genève,, p.175‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(5‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪0.992‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬

‫‪0.994‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬

‫‪0.984‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪0.961‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫‪0.936‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬

‫‪0.916‬‬

‫‪16‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬

‫‪0.907‬‬

‫‪25‬‬

‫ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪0.902‬‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪0.906‬‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫‪0.894‬‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬

‫‪0.879‬‬

‫‪27‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬

‫‪0.886‬‬

‫‪30‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫‪0.867‬‬

‫‪29‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪0.882‬‬

‫‪41‬‬

‫ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪0.836‬‬

‫‪37‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫‪0.838‬‬

‫‪38‬‬


‫_________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬

‫‪0.829‬‬

‫‪42‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫‪0.824‬‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪0.829‬‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬

‫‪0.812‬‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪0.824‬‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬

‫‪0.810‬‬

‫‪53‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬

‫‪0.813‬‬

‫‪52‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪0.785‬‬

‫‪72‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫‪0.774‬‬

‫‪81‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪0.701‬‬

‫‪75‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬

‫‪0.770‬‬

‫‪83‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪0.698‬‬

‫‪82‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‬

‫‪0.761‬‬

‫‪87‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‬

‫‪0.683‬‬

‫‪91‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪0.733‬‬

‫‪91‬‬

‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪0.664‬‬

‫‪94‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‬

‫‪0.723‬‬

‫‪103‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬

‫‪0.637‬‬

‫‪97‬‬

‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪0.719‬‬

‫‪108‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪0.628‬‬

‫‪149‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫‪0.519‬‬

‫‪134‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫‪0.524‬‬

‫‪Source: OMS: Rapport Mondial sur la Santé dans le Monde, Pour un système de Santé Plus‬‬ ‫‪Performant, Genève 2000,, pp175-174.‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(6‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗـﺞ ﺍﶈﻠـﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟـﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﻭﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺳﻨـﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨـﺔ ‪2003‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫‪1999‬‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪3.7‬‬

‫‪3.5‬‬

‫‪3.8‬‬

‫‪3.5‬‬

‫‪3.5‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪4.6‬‬

‫‪4.7‬‬

‫‪4.9‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪5.1‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪5.5‬‬

‫‪5.6‬‬

‫‪5.7‬‬

‫‪5.6‬‬

‫‪5.4‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫‪4.3‬‬

‫‪4.2‬‬

‫‪4.7‬‬

‫‪4.5‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫‪4.7‬‬

‫‪3.9‬‬

‫‪4.2‬‬

‫‪4.2‬‬

‫‪4.1‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻣﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬

‫‪3.8‬‬

‫‪3.2‬‬

‫‪3.7‬‬

‫‪3.4‬‬

‫‪3.3‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬

‫‪3.6‬‬

‫‪2.8‬‬

‫‪2.9‬‬

‫‪3.3‬‬

‫‪2.7‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪5.2‬‬

‫‪5.4‬‬

‫‪5.9‬‬

‫‪5.8‬‬

‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪11.3‬‬

‫‪11.7‬‬

‫‪11.7‬‬

‫‪10.8‬‬

‫‪10.2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬

‫‪1.9‬‬

‫‪1.7‬‬

‫‪1.6‬‬

‫‪1.8‬‬

‫‪2.7‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬

‫‪13.1‬‬

‫‪13.3‬‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫‪14.7‬‬

‫‪15.2‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬

‫‪9.3‬‬

‫‪9.3‬‬

‫‪9.4‬‬

‫‪9.7‬‬

‫‪10.1‬‬

‫ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪10.8‬‬

‫‪10.6‬‬

‫‪10.8‬‬

‫‪10.8‬‬

‫‪11.1‬‬

‫‪Source: OMS: Rapport sur la Santé Dans Le Monde 2006, Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Genève, pp.199-201.‬‬

‫‪39‬‬


‫____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(7‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﲟﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ – ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫‪1999‬‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪61‬‬

‫‪63‬‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫‪75‬‬

‫‪89‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪56‬‬

‫‪54‬‬

‫‪57‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪72‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪122‬‬

‫‪114‬‬

‫‪118‬‬

‫‪120‬‬

‫‪137‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫‪329‬‬

‫‪372‬‬

‫‪387‬‬

‫‪373‬‬

‫‪366‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻣﺎﺭﺕ‬

‫‪681‬‬

‫‪704‬‬

‫‪737‬‬

‫‪650‬‬

‫‪661‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬

‫‪773‬‬

‫‪816‬‬

‫‪808‬‬

‫‪871‬‬

‫‪862‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫‪71‬‬

‫‪63‬‬

‫‪71‬‬

‫‪55‬‬

‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪578‬‬

‫‪574‬‬

‫‪582‬‬

‫‪566‬‬

‫‪573‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫‪12‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫‪23‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬

‫‪4335‬‬

‫‪4588‬‬

‫‪4934‬‬

‫‪5324‬‬

‫‪5711‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬

‫‪2730‬‬

‫‪2404‬‬

‫‪2425‬‬

‫‪2637‬‬

‫‪3204‬‬

‫ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪3881‬‬

‫‪3572‬‬

‫‪3774‬‬

‫‪4220‬‬

‫‪5035‬‬

‫‪Source: OMS: Rapport sur la Santé Dans Le Monde 2006, Organisation Mondiale de la Santé,‬‬ ‫‪Genève, pp.199-201‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ .(8‬ﻋـﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴـﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳـﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪2000‬‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴـــﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ 2000‬ﻭ‪2003‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬

‫‪35115‬‬

‫‪224‬‬

‫‪34770‬‬

‫‪217‬‬

‫‪33319‬‬

‫‪187‬‬

‫‪31004‬‬

‫‪177‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪962‬‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫‪600‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫‪13087‬‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪13465‬‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪13236‬‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪13466‬‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬

‫‪6416‬‬

‫‪31‬‬

‫‪2661‬‬

‫‪32‬‬

‫‪5960‬‬

‫‪32‬‬

‫‪6046‬‬

‫‪32‬‬

‫ﻋﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬

‫‪3393‬‬

‫‪392‬‬

‫‪3132‬‬

‫‪395‬‬

‫‪4244‬‬

‫‪412‬‬

‫‪3517‬‬

‫‪359‬‬

‫ﻋﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫‪450‬‬

‫‪38‬‬

‫‪494‬‬

‫‪42‬‬

‫‪470‬‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫‪439‬‬

‫‪30‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪36‬‬

‫‪Source: Office National des Statistiques, www.ons.dz/santé‬‬

‫‪40‬‬


2010 - 2009 / 07 ‫ ﻋﺪﺩ‬- ‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(2005-1975) ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬.(9) ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ 2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

1975

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬

0.733

0.702

0.672

0.652

0.613

0.562

0.511

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬

Source: Human Report Development (2007-2008), United Nation Development Programm, New york,

: ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ .15.‫ ﺹ‬،1997 ‫ ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬،‫ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬1 2 Gélinier., O, Simon., F-X., Billard., J-P, Muler., J-L, Développement durable: Pour une entreprise compétitive et responsable, éd:ESF, 3ème éd, Paris 2005, p.21. 3 Gélinier., O, Simon., F-X., Billard., J-P, Muler., J-L, (2005), Ibid, p.19. .16.‫ ﺹ‬،‫ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬،(1997)‫ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬4 .11.‫ ﺹ‬،2001‫ ﺟﻴﻨﻴﻒ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‬،‫ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬5 .46.‫ ﺹ‬،1992 ،‫ ﺭﻳﻮ ﺩﻱ ﺟﺎﻧﲑﻭ‬،‫ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬6 .5.‫ ﺹ‬،2007 ‫ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‬28 ‫ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ‬،2202 ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬،‫ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺎﻅ‬،‫ ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﻛﺎﻇﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﺐ‬7 .8.‫ ﺹ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬،(2007) ،‫ ﻛﺎﻇﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﺐ‬8 9 Castiel., D, Economie de la Santé : Quel Avenir, 2d : Management Société, Paris 1999, p.83. 10

Conseil National Economique et Social (2006), Ibid, p.23. Kadar,M, Système et politique de Santé Au Magreb, Le 02 Juin 2003, le guide de la médecine et de la santé en Algérie, www.santémaghreb.com.. 12 Kadar,M, (2003), Ibid. 11

‫ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬.2000 ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬%11 ‫ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲤﺜﻞ‬،2004 ‫ ﺳﻨﺔ‬%15 ‫ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﺎﺀ ﳏﺴﻦ‬13 .239.‫ ﺹ‬،(2009-2007) ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ 14

Kourta., D, El, Concer: l’une des causes essentielles des décès en Algérie, El Watan, 10 avril 2005.

15

Santé et services sociaux, La Santé dans une perspective de Développement durable, Mémoire présenté au ministère de l’environnement dans le cadre de la consultation publique sur le Plan de Développement durable du Québec, Février 2005, p.17. 16 OMS: Rapport Mondial sur la Santé dans le Monde, Pour un système de Santé Plus Performant, Genève 2000, p.8. 17 OMS (2000), Ibid, p.9. 18 OMS (2000), Ibid, p.85. 19 OMS (2000), Ibid, p.86. 20

Kourta., D, (2005), Ibid.

21

www.ons.dz/santé.

23

. 2008 ‫ ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‬13 ‫ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ‬22 Kadi., A, La Gestion de l’Eau en Algérie, Journal des Sciences Hydrauliques, Vol 42, n°2, Avril 1997, p.196. .www.pogar.org ‫ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻲ‬24

25

Samir., R, L’urgence de la mise en place en Algérie d’une stratégie pour une gestion efficace des déchets dangereux et la lutte contre la pollution industrielle, l’Expression jeudi 17 août 2006

– ‫ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺭﻱ‬،‫ ﳐﱪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬، ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬: ‫ ﻋﺰﻭﺯ ﻛﺮﺩﻭﻥ ﻭ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‬26 .15، 14‫ ﺹ‬، 2001 ‫ﻗﺴﻨﻄﻴﻨﺔ‬ 27

Human Report Development (2007-2008), United Nation Development Programm, New york, p.245. Human Report Development (2004), United Nation Development Programm, New york, p.141 29 Human Report Development (2007-2008), Ibid, p.254. 30 Human Report Development (2004), Ibid, p.148. 31 Human Report Development (2007-2008), Ibid, p.254. 28

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‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪ 32‬ﻳﻘﻴﺲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺟﻴﲏ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ 0‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ 100‬ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪Kadi., A, (1997), p.196.‬‬

‫‪33‬‬

‫‪ 34‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪ 13‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪. 2008‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬

‫‪Kaid Tlilane., N, Espace, Emploi et Environnement: Cas de l’Algérie, Laboratoire Economie et Dévelopement,(2005),‬‬ ‫‪Université Abderrhmane Mira, p.7.‬‬

‫‪ 36‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﱵ ‪ 2000‬ﻭ‪ 2001‬ﰎ ﲡﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ ‪Bental maghnia‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻠﻤﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪ /.‬ﻣﻜﻴﺪﻳﺶ & ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃ‪ /.‬ﺳﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺗﻠﻤﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ‪ :‬ﺪﻑ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﳊﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ ‪ ، Bental Maghnia‬ﺪﻑ ﺗﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ‪،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‪(Fuzzy set theory) 1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪LINGO‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺫﺭ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﲡﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣـﺔ ﻛ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻴﺘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺬﺑﺬﺑﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻌـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﲰﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﻘـﺪ ﻓﺮﺻـﺎﹰ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﺮﺑﺢ ‪،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،...‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺇﱄ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺗﻜـﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻃﺎﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻃﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﺬﺑﺬﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ )‪ ،(Aggregate production planning‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﻰ ) ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ‬ ‫ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌـﺔ ‪ Bental maghnia‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳـﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺿﻞ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﲟﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ‪-:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ؛‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺃﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ؛‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ؛‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ‪.Bental maghnia‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ‪:‬‬ ‫"ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺧﻄﻂ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ‪ 6‬ﺇﱃ ‪18‬ﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺒﺄ ﺑﻪ"‪ ،3‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺗﺤﺪ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺎﻣﻼ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‬

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‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪- : 4‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ؛‬ ‫• ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺟﺪﺩ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺮﳛﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻛﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﲔ )ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺇﻋﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ (...‬ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺢ )ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪ (....‬؛‬ ‫• ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﰲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ؛‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ؛‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ‪ ،‬ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻩ ﲟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺃﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺬﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻤﺬﺟﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1955‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ‪ Holt, Modigliani , Mûth and Simon 5‬ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﰎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﲣﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﻌﻴﺔ ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1955‬ﲤﻜﻦ ‪6 Bowman‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﻠﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ )ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ(‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺟﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‪،‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﻴﺔ ) ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ (‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻡ ‪7 Hess and Hanssmann‬ﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﻠﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲤﻜﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1960‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ‪،‬ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ‪،‬ﻟﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،8Buffa and Miller (1979‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫)‪ ، Hackman and Leachman (1989)10 ،Elsayed and Boucher (1985‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ‪Johanson and Montgomery‬‬ ‫‪ (1974)11‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪12 (1981) Khoshnevis‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ Eilon(1975)13‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ )‪ (Subcontract‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻻ ﺗﻌﱪ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺟﺪﺍ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺿﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﻑ ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺪﺓ )ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-3‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺳﻨﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭﻻ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺧﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺘﲔ ﻭﳘﺎ ‪-:14‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ؛‬ ‫• ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ؛‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ : vit‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪ i‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ؛‬ ‫‪ cit‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪ i‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t + 1‬؛‬ ‫‪ : rt‬ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : d it‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪ i‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : K it‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪ i‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ I oi :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪ i‬؛‬ ‫‪ : Pit‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪ i‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : I it‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪ i‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : H t‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪45‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‬

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‫‪ : Ft‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺮﳛﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : I it .Min‬ﺃﺩﱏ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﳐﺰﻭﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪ i‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : Wt‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : WMin‬ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : WMax‬ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬؛‬ ‫‪ : N‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ؛‬ ‫‪ : T‬ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﲏ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ؛‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ‪ :‬ﺗﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ؛‬ ‫‪T‬‬

‫‪T‬‬

‫‪T‬‬

‫‪t =1‬‬

‫‪t =1‬‬

‫‪t =1‬‬

‫‪T‬‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫‪MinZ 1 = ∑∑ (vit Pit ) + ∑ (rtWt + ht H t + f t Ft ) + ∑ (cit I it ) + ∑ ( H t + Ft ) .‬‬ ‫‪i =1 t =1‬‬

‫ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪:‬‬

‫‪Pit + I i ,t −1 − I it = d it‬‬ ‫‪I it ≥ I it .Min‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Wt − Wt −1 − H t + Ft = 0‬‬ ‫‪WMin ≤ Wt ≤ WMax‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Pit − K it * Wt ≤ 0‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Pit , I it ,Wt , H t , Ft ≥ 0‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻘﺎﺋﺺ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺪﺓ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ...‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1965‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪15L. Zadeh‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ )‪ ،( fuzzy set théory‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﴰﻠﺖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1978‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ 16 Zimmerman‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺑﺮﳎﺔ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ )‪ ، (Membership functions‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ‪ 17‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ،1‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:18‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪⎧1.........if .....z i ≤ z i′‬‬ ‫‪⎪ u‬‬ ‫‪⎪ z − zi‬‬ ‫‪f i ( z i ) = λ = ⎨ iu‬‬ ‫)‪...if ....z i′ < z i < z iu ..................(1‬‬ ‫‪′‬‬ ‫‪z‬‬ ‫‪z‬‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫‪i‬‬ ‫‪⎪ i‬‬ ‫‪⎪0.............if ....z ≥ z u‬‬ ‫‪i‬‬ ‫‪i‬‬ ‫⎩‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ : z i′‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ؛‬ ‫‪ : z iu‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ؛‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ )‪ Zimmerman(1978‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ‪: 19‬‬ ‫‪Max..λ‬‬

‫‪st‬‬

‫) ‪λ ≤ (z iu − z i ) (z iu − z i′‬‬ ‫‪Cx ≤ c‬‬ ‫]‪λ ∈ [0..1‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ : λ‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻭﻫﻲ ﳏﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﲔ ‪ 0‬ﻭ ‪ 1‬؛‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻓﺈﻥ ‪ Zimmermann‬ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ λ‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ) ‪Degree of‬‬

‫‪ (satisfaction of the decision maker‬ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﳏﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﲔ ‪ 0‬ﻭ ‪ 1‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟـﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ‪ ،%100‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﺭﺍﺽ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ، %100‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺻﻔﺮﺍ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺍﺽ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 1‬ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ‪ z i′ < z i < z iu‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ‪ λ‬ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ، ( z iu − z i ) z iu − z i′‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻈﻢ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ، λ‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪Bental‬‬ ‫‪.Maghnia‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ‪: Bental Maghnia‬‬

‫‪ .1-5‬ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴـﺔ ‪ :Bental Maghnia‬ﲣﺘﺺ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ ‪ Bental Maghnia‬ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻭﺣﻔﺮ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪.....‬ﻭﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Bentonite‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻧﺘﻮﻧﻴﺖ )‪(BEN‬‬ ‫‪Terre Décolorante‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺭﺍﻧﺖ )‪(TD‬‬ ‫‪Carbonate de calcium‬‬ ‫• ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ )‪(CAL‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‬

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‫ﻋﺎﻣﻼ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ )‪3×8‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ(‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪175‬‬ ‫ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻋﺪﺍ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﺣﻴﺖ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺭﺍﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻈﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ‪68‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﻘﺴﻤﲔ ﺇﱃ ‪ 3‬ﺃﻓﻮﺍﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﳚﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﰲ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 1‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،CAL،TD،BEN‬ﻭﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﺘﺬﺑﺬﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ‪ 4 ،3 ،2‬ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ( ﻟﻜﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺪﺭﺑـ ‪ 24‬ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺗﺬﺑﺬ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻣﻠﺤﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﲰﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴـﺔ ‪ ،Bental maghnia‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪ Bental maghnia‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪-:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ 6‬ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ )‪ 6‬ﺃﺷﻬﺮ( ؛‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﳚﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ؛‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ )‪ (BEN ,TD,CAL,‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ 1‬ﻫﻲ ‪-:‬‬ ‫‪I 10 = 1856.25.Tons.of .BEN‬‬ ‫‪I 20 = 1029.Tons.of .TD‬‬ ‫‪I 30 = 1860.Ton.of .CAL‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ )ﺷﻬﺮ( ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﳐﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ 500‬ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ؛‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﰎ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺁﺧﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺮﳛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪ht = 5178.DA :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ‪ f t = 4155.DA‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ؛‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ rt = 2694.706.DA 21‬؛‬ ‫‪ .7‬ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ )ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ(‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬ﻫﻮ ‪ 55‬ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ) ‪ ( WMin = 55‬؛‬ ‫‪ .8‬ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬ﻫﻮ ‪ 68‬ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫) ‪ ( WMax = 55‬؛‬ ‫‪ .9‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ 1‬ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻫﻮ ‪ 68‬ﺃﻱ ) ‪ ( W0 = 68‬؛‬ ‫‪ .10‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ 6000 :‬ﻃﻦ ؛‬ ‫‪48‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ، 2‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.2-5‬ﳕﺬﺟﺔ ﻭﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪ Bental maghnia‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻧﻀﺮﺍ ﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪ Bental maghnia‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪T‬‬

‫‪T‬‬

‫‪T‬‬

‫‪t =1‬‬

‫‪t =1‬‬

‫‪t =1‬‬

‫‪T‬‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫) ‪MinZ ≅ ∑∑ (vit Pit ) + ∑ (rtWt + ht H t + f t Ft ) + ∑ (cit I it ) + ∑ ( H t + Ft‬‬ ‫‪i =1 t =1‬‬

‫≅ ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ = ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ؛‬ ‫ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ‪:‬‬

‫‪I 10 = 1856.25‬‬ ‫‪I 20 = 1029‬‬ ‫‪I 30 = 1860‬‬

‫‪W Min ≤ Wt ≤ W Max‬‬ ‫‪≤ 6000‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪it‬‬

‫‪∑I‬‬

‫‪I it ≥ 500‬‬

‫‪W0 = 68.‬‬

‫‪Pit − K it × Wt ≤ 0‬‬ ‫‪Pit + I i ,t −1 − I it = d it‬‬ ‫‪Wt − Wt −1 − H t + Ft = 0‬‬

‫ﺣﱴ ﻧﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟـﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬـﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫‪22‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ‪،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﱪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺣﺪﺩ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ )‪ 36000000‬ﺩﺝ ﻭ ‪39000000‬‬ ‫ﺩﺝ ( ﻛﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ، 5‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪⎧1...........if ....z ≤ 36000000‬‬ ‫‪⎪ 39000000 − z‬‬ ‫⎪‬ ‫⎨ = )‪f i ( z‬‬ ‫‪...if ...36000000 < z < 39000000..........2‬‬ ‫‪⎪ 3000000‬‬ ‫‪⎪⎩0.............if ....z ≥ 39000000‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ (2‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪W Min ≤ Wt ≤ W Max‬‬ ‫‪≤ 6000‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪it‬‬

‫‪∑I‬‬

‫‪I it ≥ 500‬‬

‫)‪Zimmerman (1978‬‬

‫‪Pit − K it × Wt ≤ 0‬‬

‫‪Max.z = λ‬‬ ‫‪Subject...to‬‬

‫‪Wt − Wt −1 − H t + Ft = 0‬‬

‫‪λ ≤ (39000000 − z ) 3000000‬‬

‫‪Pit + I i ,t −1 − I it = d it‬‬

‫‪I 10 = 1856.25‬‬

‫‪t = 1.,2.,......,6‬‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ‬

‫‪i = 1.,2.,3‬‬

‫‪Pit , I it ,Wt , H t , Ft ≥ 0‬‬

‫‪I 20 = 1029‬‬ ‫‪I 30 = 1860‬‬ ‫‪W0 = 68‬‬

‫‪49‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‬

‫_________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ Wt , H t , Ft‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻵﱄ ‪ ،LINGO‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ،3‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪ 3‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ λ = 0.8642‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﺭﺍﺽ )ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ( ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ‪%86.42‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺑـ ‪ 36407350.00‬ﺩﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺳﻠـﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﺎﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻃﻮﱠﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺜﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ )‪.Zimmerman(1978‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ ‪ Bental Mghnia‬ﲟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﲰﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺁﺧﺬﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﰒ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ،LINGO‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﺼﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊـﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﳌﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﳏﻘﻘﺎ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺃﺩﱏ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﳏﺘﺮﻣﺎ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺜﺎﻻ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻛﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪ ،...‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻻ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﰲ ﺿﻞ ﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ )‪، (Fuzzy multi- objective mathematical programming‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﰲ ﲝﻮﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪.2‬ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠـ‪BEN‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸـﻜﻞ ‪ .1‬ﺃﺣـﺪ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ‬

‫‪f i (zi ) = λ‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪zi‬‬

‫‪z iu‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠـ‪BEN‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪z i′‬‬

‫‪Source :Reay-Chen Wang , Tien-Fu Liang , "Aggregate‬‬ ‫‪production planning with multiple fuzzy goals", International‬‬ ‫‪Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology ,Vol 25,‬‬ ‫‪2005,PP 589–597.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪. 4‬ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠـ‪CAL‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ .3‬ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠـ‪TD‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﲟﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﲟﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸـﻜﻞ ‪ . 5‬ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪Bental Maghnia‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪.1‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ CAL،TD،BEN‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬

‫‪BEN‬‬

‫‪TD‬‬

‫‪CAL‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻦ )‪(CAP‬‬ ‫‪45‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪55‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪:‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪3900000‬‬

‫‪3600000‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ )ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ(‬

‫‪51‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻬﻤﺔ‬

‫_________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ 2‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻠﺐ ‪،‬ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪،‬ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪K it‬‬

‫‪cit‬‬

‫‪vit‬‬

‫‪d it‬‬

‫اﻟﻔﺘﺮة‬

‫‪17.794‬‬ ‫‪15.367‬‬ ‫‪18.602‬‬ ‫‪16.985‬‬ ‫‪17.794‬‬ ‫‪17.794‬‬ ‫‪3.883‬‬ ‫‪3.353‬‬ ‫‪4.059‬‬ ‫‪3.706‬‬ ‫‪3.883‬‬ ‫‪3.883‬‬ ‫‪14.558‬‬ ‫‪12.573‬‬ ‫‪15.220‬‬ ‫‪13.897‬‬ ‫‪14.558‬‬ ‫‪14.558‬‬

‫‪208.796‬‬ ‫‪208.796‬‬ ‫‪208.796‬‬ ‫‪208.796‬‬ ‫‪208.796‬‬ ‫‪208.796‬‬ ‫‪848.721‬‬ ‫‪848.721‬‬ ‫‪848.721‬‬ ‫‪848.721‬‬ ‫‪848.721‬‬ ‫‪848.721‬‬ ‫‪139.149‬‬ ‫‪139.149‬‬ ‫‪139.149‬‬ ‫‪139.149‬‬ ‫‪139.149‬‬ ‫‪139.149‬‬

‫‪3293.493‬‬ ‫‪3293.493‬‬ ‫‪3293.493‬‬ ‫‪3293.493‬‬ ‫‪3293.493‬‬ ‫‪3293.493‬‬ ‫‪21646.608‬‬ ‫‪21646.608‬‬ ‫‪21646.608‬‬ ‫‪21646.608‬‬ ‫‪21646.608‬‬ ‫‪21646.608‬‬ ‫‪1296.109‬‬ ‫‪1296.109‬‬ ‫‪1296.109‬‬ ‫‪1296.109‬‬ ‫‪1296.109‬‬ ‫‪1296.109‬‬

‫‪1177.225‬‬ ‫‪923.021‬‬ ‫‪883.342‬‬ ‫‪1071.99‬‬ ‫‪1379.269‬‬ ‫‪1315.222‬‬ ‫‪128.620‬‬ ‫‪163.777‬‬ ‫‪164.617‬‬ ‫‪166.005‬‬ ‫‪193.317‬‬ ‫‪206.662‬‬ ‫‪1164.191‬‬ ‫‪463.447‬‬ ‫‪659.034‬‬ ‫‪425.240‬‬ ‫‪78.967‬‬ ‫‪478.221‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬

‫) ‪BEN ( P1t‬‬

‫) ‪TD ( P2t‬‬

‫) ‪CAL ( P3t‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪ 3‬ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠـ‪ 6‬ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪BENTAL‬ﻣﻐﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﲔ‬

‫‪Ht‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺢ ‪Ft‬‬

‫‪2008‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ‬

‫‪BEN‬‬

‫‪TD‬‬

‫‪CAL‬‬

‫‪BEN‬‬

‫‪TD‬‬

‫‪CAL‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1856.25‬‬

‫‪1029‬‬

‫‪1860‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﻧﻔﻲ ‪2008‬‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪679.025‬‬

‫‪900‬‬

‫‪695.809‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ ‪2008‬‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪2008‬‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪743.996‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪267.638‬‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫‪736.603‬‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1074.857‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪659.038‬‬

‫‪605.228‬‬

‫‪571.986‬‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪2008‬‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1154.980‬‬

‫‪94.019‬‬

‫‪425.24‬‬

‫‪774.505‬‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻱ ‪2008‬‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺟﻮﻥ ‪2008‬‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1209.992‬‬

‫‪193.317‬‬

‫‪78.967‬‬

‫‪605.229‬‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫‪1209.992‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫‪206.662‬‬

‫‪478.221‬‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫‪500‬‬ ‫‪ 36407350.00‬ﺩﺝ‬

‫‪500‬‬

‫‪Wt‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ‬

‫‪λ‬‬

‫‪0.8642‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬

‫‪LINGO‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺣـﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌـﺮﺍﺟﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﳌﺒﻬـﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ Fuzzy‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺿﺒﺎﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﻣﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﻮﺷﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 2‬ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ LINGO‬ﻫﻮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﳐﺘﺺ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪- Reay-chen Wang , Tien-Fu Liang"Applying possibilistic linear programming to aggregate production‬‬ ‫‪planning",international journal of production economics,vol 98, 2005,pp 328-341.‬‬

‫‪52‬‬


2010 - 2009 / 07 ‫ ﻋﺪﺩ‬- ‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4

- Geoff Buxey, " Strategy not tactics drives aggregate planning " , International journal of production economics (2003) ,vol 85 , p 331-346 5

- Holt , C.C , F. Modigliani and H.A.Simon , "Linear Decision Rule for production and Employment Scheduling " Management Science , vol 2 , 1955 , PP1-30.

6

- Bowman .E.D , "Production Scheduling By the Transportation Method of Linear programming", Opérations Research Society; 1955,pp 100-103.

7

- Hanssman , F. and S.W.Hess , " A Linear programming Aproach to production and Employment Scheduling", Managament Science , I . 1960 , PP46-51. 8

- Buffa . Elwood. S and Jeffery G . Miller , " Production and Inventory Systems : Planning and Control" , 3 rd Edition , Homewood Illinois : Richard D . Irwin .Inc ., 1979, p 197.

9

- Elsayed. A and Thomas O. Boucher, " Analysis and control of production Systems " , New jersey : Prentice-Hall, 1985, p 240.

10

- Hackman, Steven T., And Robert C. Leachman,"A General Framework for Modelling Production”, Management Science , Vol.35 , N°4, 1989, pp.478-495. 11

- Johanson , Lynwood A. and Douglas C.Montgomry, "Operations Research in production planning, Scheduling and Invontory Control" , New York : John Wiley , 1974, pp356.

12

- Khoshnevis, Behrokh, Philip M.Wolfe, and M.Palmer Terrell, "Aggregate planning Models Incorporating Productivity- an Ovrview " , International Journal of Production Research , Vol.20 , N°5 , 1981, pp 555 – 564. 13

- Eilon , Samual, " Five Approaches to Aggregate Production Planning" , AIIE Transactions , Vol. 7 , N°2 , 1975.

15

.Bental maghnia ‫ﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺔ‬‫ ﻷ‬، ‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﻨﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﲔ‬14 - Zadeh, L. A.. “Fuzzy sets". Information and Control,vol 8 , 1965, PP 338–353.

16

- Zimmermann, H.J, " Fuzzy programming and linear programming with several objective functions", Fuzzy Sets and Systems,vol 25 , 1978 , PP 175-182.

.‫ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺩﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ‬، ‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ‬17

18

- Reay-Chen Wang , Tien-Fu Liang ., " Aggregate production planning with multiple fuzzy goals International" , Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology ,Vol 25, 2005, PP 589–597.

19

- Zimmermann, H.J.1978 ,op-cite.p 183. .‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺔ‬

‫ﰎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ‬

-20

‫ ﰎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﳏﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰒ ﺃﺧﺬ‬-21 .‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﻢ‬ .597-589 ‫ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺹ‬Reay-chen Wang, Tien-Fu Liang , 2005 ‫ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬-22 53


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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﻲ – ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﺳﻬﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻧﻘﺪ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﻗﺖ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﺗﺴﻮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﺨﻠﺺ ﻻﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺗﺒﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﻮﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻛﻬﺎ )ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ( ﺃﻭ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﱪﺭ ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ –ﻫﺪﻑ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪ -‬ﻣﺮﻫﻮﻥ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺎﺱ ﲟﺪﻯ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ . création de la valeur‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﲑﻱ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ ،‬ﳛﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻱ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻔﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ )ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﻌﲔ( ﲟﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻟﻴﺘﺴﲎ ﳍﺎ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﺘﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﲑﻱ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﱴ ﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺭﺑﻄﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﺴﺨﲑﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ )ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪.(...،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺮﻯ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺘﺒﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺼﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﳑﺰﻭﺟﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺳﺘﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﳏﻮﺭﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ،La création de valeur‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺿﻤﻦ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﲔ – ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫)ﻫﲑﳚﻮﺍﻳﻦ‪ (1993 ،‬ﻭ)ﻛﺎﰊ ﻭﻫﲑﳚﻮﺍﻳﻦ‪ - 1(2001 ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ La droite de valeur‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻖ ﻣﻨﻪ‪2‬؛‬‫ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪.‬‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻭﲰﻌﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ‪ EVA3‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﻗﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﻤﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﻓﺲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ‪.4‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻨﻈﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ )ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ( ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﳏﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪5‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﳏﻴﻄﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﺍ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺎ ﰲ‪:6‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳋﻄﻂ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ؛‬‫ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ؛‬‫ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﻟﻸﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﳍﺎ ﳎﺎﻻ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﰲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ‬ ‫ﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍ ﳍﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ )ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ( ﻓﻘﻂ ﳓﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳝﺜﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﺮﺓ ﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ _1-1‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ‪ : ROI7‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ" ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ" ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ .8‬ﻭﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﳏﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻮﻑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ؛ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ /‬ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺛﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻠﺨﺼﺔ ﺿﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ؛ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.9‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺪﺳﲔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳒﺪﻫﻢ ﻻ‬ ‫ﳝﺎﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،10‬ﻭﳒﺪﻫﻢ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪56‬‬


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‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﱄ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻓﻌﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺣﺪﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،11‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻬﻢ )ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﳛﻮﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺻﺎﳊﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺃﺧﺬﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ )ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻕ( ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ؛‬ ‫ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﲣﺺ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ؛‬‫ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻓﺮﺹ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﲝﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺑﲔ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺪﻭ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻳﺘﻔﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ )ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ( ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﲢﺴﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﻢ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ )ﻛﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ‪ .(...،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺗﻘﺪﳝﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﳛﻈﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻭﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺴﺒﺒﲔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:13‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ) ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ(‬‫ﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺭﲝﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ )ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ( ﻭﺭﲝﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﻢ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳒﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻵﻧﻴﺔ )ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﺪﺓ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ )ﺩﻭﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ( ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ‪-‬ﻭﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‪ -‬ﲢﺴﺐ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪.14‬‬ ‫‪57‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺟﺤﺎﻓﺎ ﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻓﻌﻬﻢ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﺓ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺋﺪ؛ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻋﺎﺋﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻀﻴﻴﻊ ﻓﺮﺹ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﲑﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﻴﺎﺯﺓ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻜﺜﻒ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪.15‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ" –ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﻛﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ )ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﺮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻖ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺪﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪.16‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ 17‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪-‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ .18‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ ﲟﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ .19‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻟـ"ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ" ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺑـ"ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ"‪.‬‬ ‫‪ _2-1‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ"‪ RI20‬ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻛﺪ "ﺳﻠﻮﻥ" ‪ Sloan‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺳﻨﻮﺍﰐ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ"‪ 21‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻭﺷﻴﻮﻋﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪،22‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺑﺢ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻈﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ "ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻚ"‪ ،23‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪ 24‬ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻖ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ )ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ(‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺸﲑﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺇﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ "ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻚ" ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻘﺐ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ" ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻻﺫﻋﺔ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﳏﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ "ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ" ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﲟﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺝ ﺷﻬﺮﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﻣﺴﲑﻱ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ " ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ"‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ" ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﲢﻤﻴﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،25‬ﰲ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺭﻗﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﺑﺢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﶈﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.26‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻗﺪﱘ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﺬ "ﺁﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﲰﻴﺚ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﳌﻼﻛﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺣﺎ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻮﻙ‪ .27‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻫﺘﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ‪-‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻭﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ "ﺑﺮﻳﻨﺮﺍﻳﺶ"‬ ‫‪ ،Preineich‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ 28‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،29‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ )ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻼﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ( ﻣﻄﺮﻭﺣﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻗﺴﻄﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﳒﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻄﺮﺣﻬﺎ‬ ‫)ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ(‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ )ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ( ﺳﻨﺼﻞ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳛﺴﺐ ﻟـ"ﺑﺮﻳﻨﺮﺍﻳﺶ‪ "1930 ،‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪-‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،-‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﻫﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ‪ Réconciliation‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ )ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ( ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺿﺢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﺹ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،30‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﻟﺘﻌﻄﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺧﺼﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺘﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ "ﺑﺮﻳﻨﺮﺍﻳﺶ" ﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‪.31‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻴﺲ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ" ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲝﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﳍﺎ‪ ،32‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﲢﻤﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺐﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﳌﺴﺆﻭﱄ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﰱ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،Contrôlabilité33‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻣﻄﺒﻘﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﳑﺜﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ" ﰲ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ )ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ( ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ )ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﻌﲔ( ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.34‬‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﲝﺴﺎﺏ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺮﻋﺔ ﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ )ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ( ‪ Entités décentralisées‬ﰲ ﻇﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﳍﺎﻡ‪ .35‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﻮﻥ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﺞ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﲟﺎ ﳛﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .36‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﱪﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ" ﻫﻮ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﻭﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﰲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲰﺢ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻐﺔ ﳏﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ .37‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ ﺛﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺧﻠﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺗﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﻷﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺎﻟﺖ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺣﻘﻘﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪38‬‬

‫‪ :1-2‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪ _1-1-2‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺣﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﻮﺭ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ " ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫‪39‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﺚ ﻭﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ"‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﲤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ )ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ" ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﲑﻱ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻭﺣﺪﺍ‪‬ﺎ )ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻭﻥ ﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ -،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ -‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ"‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ"‪ -‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﺎﺋﺾ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ EVA‬ﻟـﺴﺘﺎﺭﻥ ﻭﺳﺘﻴﻮﺍﺭﺕ‪J.M.Stern et G.B.Stewart‬‬

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‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ "ﺟﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻥ ﻭ ﺝ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺳﺘﺎﻭﺍﺭﺕ" ‪– Joel Stern et G.Bennett Stewart‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻣﻪ "ﻣﻮﺩﳚﻠﻴﺎﱐ ﻭﻣﻴﻠﺮ‪ ،F.Modigliani et M.H.Miller "1961 ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ "ﻭ‪.‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﻛﻜﻠﻴﻨﻎ ﻭ ﻡ‪.‬ﺱ‪ .‬ﺟﻨﺴﻦ" ‪ W.Mecling et M.C.Jensen‬ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻟـ"ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻥ ﻭﺳﺘﻮﺍﺭﺩ" ﰲ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻗﺮﻥ "‪ .41‬ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻭﻳﻀﻴﻒ "ﻛﺎﰊ ﻭﻫﲑﺟﻮﺍﻳﻦ‪ "2001 ،‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ "ﻣﻮﺩﳚﻠﻴﺎﱐ ﻭﻣﻴﻠﺮ‪.42"1966 ،1961 ،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ‬ ‫‪ .43Incitation‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺴﲑﻱ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻟﺒﺬﻝ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﺑﻂ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ ،44‬ﻓﻴﺘﺠﺴﺪ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﻓﻖ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﻴﺴﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺖ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﲑ )ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ( ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻓﻖ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﳑﺜﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .45‬ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺏ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ"‪ ،‬ﻃﺒﻌﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ"‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺑﻞ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ )ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﱐ( ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ )ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ( ﺃﻭ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﻐﺰﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻊ؛ ﻣﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ 46‬ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:47‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ = ﺻﺎﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ – )ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ × ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ(‬ ‫‪48‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ = )ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ – ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ(× ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﻓﻨﺎ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﳒﻠﻮﺳﻜﺴﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ"‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺻﺎﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ‪ NOPAT‬ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‬ ‫)ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ‪ WACC‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺤﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﰲ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﶈﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ‪ .49‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻮﻥ ‪-‬ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫ﻋﻬﺪ ﺁﺩﻡ ﲰﻴﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ )ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ( ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻛﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ‬ ‫‪61‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‪ ،50‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪-‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ – ﲝﻴﺚ ﳛﺴﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﲢﻔﻴﺰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .51‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺭﺑﻄﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺘﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻱ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ‪ .MVA52‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ"‬ ‫‪ EVA‬ﲢﺴﺐ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ )ﺳﻨﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ "ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ‪ MVA‬ﲢﺴﺐ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﳊﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،53‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:54‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬

‫‪MVA = ∑ EVA tt‬‬ ‫) ‪t =1 (1+ k‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪:‬‬

‫‪= (ret − k t )× C t‬‬

‫‪t‬‬

‫‪EVA‬‬

‫‪ :EVAt‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪t‬؛‬

‫‪ :Ct‬ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪t‬‬

‫‪ : Ret‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪.t‬‬ ‫‪ :Kt‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺤﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪.t‬‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺘﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:55‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬

‫‪∑ (EVA‬‬ ‫) ‪1+ k‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬

‫‪t=1‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪t0‬‬

‫‪=C‬‬

‫‪to‬‬

‫‪V‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪ :Cto :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺘﺮﻳﺔ )ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ( ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺻﻴﻐﱵ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ‬‫ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ‬‫‪56‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ)ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ( ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺘﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ(‪ ،57‬ﻭﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳒﺪﻫﻢ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺣﻮﻥ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻓﺎﺋﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ،Goodwill‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻼﻙ‪ ،58(...،‬ﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ .59‬ﺣﻴﺚ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ،60 Fair value‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪ 61‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.62‬‬

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‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 -2009/07‬‬

‫ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻴﺴﺎ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﰲ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﺻﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻜﺴﻲ‪:63‬‬

‫) ‪= EVA t + ∆ C (1 + k t‬‬

‫‪t‬‬

‫‪CFD‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:64‬‬ ‫∞‬

‫‪∑ (EVA‬‬ ‫) ‪1+ k‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪t0‬‬

‫‪=C‬‬

‫‪VM‬‬

‫‪t=1‬‬

‫‪ :2-1-2‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ :1-2-1-2‬ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺒﲔ ﻭﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬

‫‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:65‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬ ‫‪-4‬‬ ‫‪-5‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺛﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺑﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﲪﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﳊﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻼﻙ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﲪﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳒﺪ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﳋﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،Stratégie/Finance66‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻜﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﰲ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.67‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﺮﺗﻪ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﳓﻮ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﺑﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻲ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ :2-2-1-2‬ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ : 68‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:69‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﳋﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳝﺜﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﳛﻤﻼ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﲢﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﳍﺎ‪.70‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﻔﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﻼﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ MEDAF‬ﰲ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﲑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪ EVA‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ "ﺑﻴﺘﺎ" ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .71‬ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﲢﺖ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﻻﺣﻈﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺻﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﺒﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎﻡ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ‪- ،‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺿﻴﺎﻉ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪ ،72‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ‪ ، EVA‬ﻭﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺭﻳﻊ ﰲ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،73‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺩﻭﱄ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻪ‪.74‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪-‬ﻛﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻗﺼﲑ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻨﺠﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﲟﺨﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑ ‪ ،Risque du court-termisme‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻗﺪ ﳜﻔﺾ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﳌﻜﻔﺂﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ .75‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻳﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﲤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‪ ،76‬ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ –ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺎ‪ -‬ﺗﺴﻴﲑﺍ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .77‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺘﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻭﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﳍﺎ‪ .78‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﺓ ﲢﺪﺩ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳊﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ‪ Start up‬ﳋﻀﻮﻉ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ‪.79‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪-‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪ -‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻷﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻨﺪﺳﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺮﻛﺰﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .80‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺩ "ﺳﺘﻮﺍﺭﺕ"‪ 81‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﺑﻄﻪ ﲟﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Stern, Stewart & Co‬ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ "ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ" ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﶈﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪ .82‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻘﺴﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ‪-‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ ﳍﺎ‪،-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ‪.83‬‬

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‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻻﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ؛ "ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ" ﻭ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ "ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ"‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﻮﺭ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﱐ ﳍﺎ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻭﺗﺴﻮﻳﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻳﻬﺎ ﻛﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﲟﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪) ...،‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ( ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ‪) ...،‬ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ(‪،84‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﲡﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻣﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﻭﺩ ﲟﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻸ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻏﺎﺕ )ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺋﺺ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ _2-2‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﳌﺎﻛﱰﻱ ‪ :‬ﰎ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﲔ ﻫﺎﻣﲔ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ -‬ﻭﳘﺎ‪:85‬‬ ‫ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﳌﺎﻛﱰﻱ ‪1994 ،McKinsey‬؛‬‫ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻓﻠﺘﻢ‪-‬ﺃﻭﻟﺴﻦ‪.861995 ،‬‬‫ﻗﺪﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ "ﻣﺎﻛﱰﻱ" ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﺘﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:87‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ= ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪ + Explicite88‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺮ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﻪ )ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ(‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ _1-2-2‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺎﳓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ )ﻣﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﻨﲔ(‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻸﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪ 89(NOPAT‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﳍﺎ ﳐﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻼﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺝ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ )ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ( ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰﺓ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:90‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ )ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ(= ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ‪ +‬ﳐﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻼﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻭﻧﺎﺕ – ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ – ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺃﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﻋﺸﺮ )‪ (10‬ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ )‪ (15‬ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ‪ Les entreprises cycliques‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ‪ ،91‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﲝﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ؛ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺇﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻗﺼﺪ ﳕﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ )ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻛﺴﺎﺩ( ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺛﻼﺙ )‪ (03‬ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ )‪ (05‬ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ‪ Sous- evaluation‬ﺃﻭ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‪.92‬‬

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﻳﻘﺮ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺑﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻋﺸﺮ )‪(10‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ)‪ (15‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻨﺼﺤﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪‬ﺎﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‪:93‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﳝﺘﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻛﺄﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺎ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﻭﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﻳﺔ(؛‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻭﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﺴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻛﻨﻤﻮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ )ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ( ﻭﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ .94‬ﻭﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﲏ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﺳﻴﻨﺎﺭﻳﻮﻫﺎﺕ )ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻔﺎﺅﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺸﺎﺅﻣﺎ ( ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﲝﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﺎﺭﻳﻮﻫﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ _2-2-2‬ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﳊﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﺄﺗﻰ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﳌﺎﳓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﳑﺜﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻨﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﲢﺴﺐ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺤﺔ ﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫) ‪k ct = k et × (E t /V t )+ k dt × (1−τ )× (D t /V t‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ :Kct‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺤﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪، t‬‬ ‫‪ :Vt‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪(Vt= Et+Dt) t‬‬ ‫‪ :Et‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ :Dt‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺿﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ :Ket‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ t‬ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪MEDAF‬؛‬ ‫‪ :Kdt‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺿﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ؛‬

‫‪τ‬‬

‫‪ :‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ _3-2-2‬ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ)ﺍﻷﻓﻖ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﲟﺎ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ –ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻈﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺺ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻋﻈﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ "ﻣﺎﻛﱰﻱ" ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ %56‬ﻭ‪ %125‬ﰲ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﰎ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﺘﻐﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑﺜﻤﺎﱐ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ .95‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ‬

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‫ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﻬﺎ )ﲤﺘﺼﻬﺎ( ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ "ﻣﺎﻛﱰﻱ" ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ .96‬ﻭﺳﻨﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺯﻣﲏ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺟﺪﺍ)‪ 75‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲡﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ؛‬‫‪ -‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬

‫)‬

‫‪/ (k c − g‬‬

‫‪t+1‬‬

‫‪V t = CFD‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ :Vt‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ :CFD t+1‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ؛‬ ‫‪ :Kc‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺤﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ )‪(WAAC‬؛‬ ‫‪ :g‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻼ‪‬ﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ )ﻣﻊ ‪. (g<kc‬‬‫ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻤﻮ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،97‬ﻭﲢﺴﺐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪:‬‬

‫) ‪Vt = (REt +1 × (1 − g / r )) / (kc − g‬‬

‫‪ :RE t+1‬ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ (NOPLAT‬ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ؛‬ ‫‪ :g‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻼ‪‬ﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻟـ ‪ RE‬؛‬‫‪ :r‬ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﰲ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﰲ‪.‬‬‫ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ‪-‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ -‬ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻻ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻂ ﻟﻜﻼ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺴﺒﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﲔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳋﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﲟﺆﺷﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﲝﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ )‪ (15‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪-‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻭﻫﺎ‪ .-‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻭﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲰﻲ ﺑﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﲔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﳍﻤﺎ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﳘﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ "ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﻮﺍﺭﺕ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ" ﻟﻪ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﻠﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﲢﺖ ﺍﺳﻢ "ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ"‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﰎ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻩ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﲡﺪ ﺟﺬﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪67‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ "ﻣﺎﻛﻴﱰﻱ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ" ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﻜﻤﻪ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﲢﺴﺐ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ )ﳏﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،(...،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻗﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺷﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻗﺮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﰒ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -(1‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬

‫‪- G.Hirigoyen, "Nouvelles approches du lien stratégie finance", in : Revue française de gestion, N°92, Janvier-février‬‬ ‫‪1993, PP : 64-73.‬‬ ‫‪- J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, "La création de valeur de l’entreprise", 2e édition, Economica, Paris, 2001, PP : 15-32.‬‬ ‫‪ -(2‬ﺳﻨﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻟﻦ ﻧﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬

‫‪- J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, La création de valeur de l’entreprise, Op.cit, PP : 15-20.‬‬ ‫‪ -(3‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ "ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ‪Myers,‬‬ ‫‪ 1996‬ﲝﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ‪ ، Metric wars‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Boston Consulting Group s Holt Value Associates‬ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،CFROI‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Alcar‬ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﻮﻣﺔ ‪ DCF‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪Marakon‬‬ ‫‪ Associates‬ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﻮﻣﺔ ‪ ، DEP‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ KPMG Peat Marwich‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪Economic‬‬ ‫‪ . Value Management EVM‬ﰲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪- R. Myers, The metric wars, CFO; The magazine for chief financial officers. in:‬‬

‫ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪" ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﻪ ﳌﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ"‪ ،‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،56:‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،200 ،‬ﺹ‪.101:‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪) - A.D.Chalandler, Organisation et performance des entreprises .In : A. Nabet , "Les systèmes de gestion par la‬‬ ‫‪valeur : une analyse de leur impact sur les logiques de contrôle de deux groupes français", Thèse de doctorat en‬‬ ‫‪sciences de gestion, Non publier, Université Paris 09 dauphine, 2001, P :85-86.‬‬

‫‪ -(5‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﺪﻱ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﻗﺼﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬

‫‪-F.Pierre et E.Besançon, "Valorisation d’entreprise et théorie financière", Edition d’organisation, Paris, 2004, PP :14‬‬‫‪61.‬‬

‫‪ -(6‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.101:‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪) - ROI : Return On Investment.‬‬ ‫‪-A. Nabet , Op.cit, P :86.‬‬ ‫‪)- H.Bouquin, "Le contrôle de gestion", 4e édition, PUF, 1998, P : 258.‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪)- R.Teller, "Le contrôle de gestion- pour un pilotage intégrant stratégie et finance", Les essentiels de la gestion,‬‬ ‫‪Editions‬‬ ‫‪management et société, 1999, P : 109.‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪)- Idem.‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪)- A. Nabet Op.cit, P :88.‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪)- RN.Anthony et J.Dearden, Management control systems :text and cases,. in: Idem.‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬ ‫‪)- H.Bouquin, Op.cit, P : 261.‬‬ ‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪)- R.Teller, Op.cit, P : 109.‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫)ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ(‪)- Idem.‬‬ ‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪)- RN.Anthony et J.Dearden, Management control systems :text and cases, in: A. Nabet ,Op.cit, P :89.‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪9‬‬

‫‪ -(18‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.105:‬‬

‫‪19‬‬

‫)ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ(‪)- H.Bouquin, Op.cit, P : 264.‬‬ ‫‪)- RI : Residual Income.‬‬ ‫‪)- Sloan, My years with General Motors, 1993.‬‬ ‫)ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ(‪)- A. Nabet, Op.cit, P :89.‬‬ ‫‪23‬‬ ‫‪)- Id.‬‬ ‫‪24‬‬ ‫‪)-H.T.Johnson & R.S.Kaplan, Relevance lost. The rise and the fall of management accounting,. in: P.Zarlowski,‬‬ ‫‪"Pilotage par la valeur: étude théorique et analyse d’un exemple de mise en œuvre", Thèse de doctorat en science de‬‬ ‫‪gestion, Non publier, Université Paris Dauphine, 1996, P: 149.‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪22‬‬

‫‪68‬‬


‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 -2009/07‬‬ ‫‪ -(25‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.105:‬‬ ‫‪ -(26‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.105:‬‬ ‫‪-(27‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.106-105 :‬‬

‫‪28‬‬

‫‪)- G.Prenreich, The fair value yield of common stock, . In: M.Bromwich & M.Walker, "Residual income past and‬‬ ‫‪future", Management accounting research, Vol 9, P: 393.‬‬ ‫‪29‬‬ ‫‪)- A. Nabet , Op.cit, P :89.‬‬ ‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪)- M.Bromwich & M.Walker, Op.cit, P: 396.‬‬ ‫‪31‬‬ ‫‪)- Id.‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬ ‫‪)- A. Nabet , Op.cit, P :89.‬‬ ‫‪33‬‬ ‫‪)- K.A.Merchant, How and why firms disregard the controllability principle .In: Ibid, P :91.‬‬ ‫‪34‬‬ ‫‪)- P.Zarlowski, Op.cit, P: 150.‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫‪)- A. Nabet , Op.cit, P :89.‬‬

‫‪ -(36‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.100-99:‬‬

‫‪)- H.Bouquin, Op.cit, P : 269.‬‬ ‫‪)- EVA : Economic Value Added.‬‬ ‫‪)- A.Nabet , Op.cit, P :94.‬‬

‫‪ -(40‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻣﲔ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﺍﺩﻓﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬

‫‪37‬‬ ‫‪38‬‬ ‫‪39‬‬

‫‪- P.Zarlowski, Op.cit, P: 149.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﻤﺎ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﺍﺩﻓﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻷ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﳝﺜﻼﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺣﺴﺎ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﲣﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫‪)- AL.Ehrbar, Economic Value Added: The real keyto creating wealth,. in:‬‬

‫‪41‬‬

‫‪)- J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, La création de valeur de l’entreprise, Op.cit, P : 13-14.‬‬ ‫‪)-A.Nabet, Op.cit, P :93.‬‬

‫‪42‬‬ ‫‪43‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.106:‬‬

‫‪ -(44‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ EVA‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ‪ Stern, Stewart & Co‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﻛﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻟـﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‪www.eva.com:‬‬

‫‪-G.B.Stern, "The quest for value", New York, Harper Business,1991.‬‬ ‫‪45‬‬ ‫‪)- A.Nabet , Op.cit, P :95.‬‬ ‫‪46‬‬ ‫)ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ(‪)- H.Bouquin, "Comptabilité de gestion", Sirey, Paris, 1997, P : 280.‬‬

‫‪-(47‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.107:‬‬

‫‪- A.Nabet, Op.cit, P :95-96.‬‬

‫‪- ( 48‬ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ )ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ(‪:‬‬

‫‪EVA® = NOPAT- Charge du Capital. EVA® = NOPAT – (WACC * CE). EVA® = [(NOPAT/CE) – (WACC)] * CE.‬‬ ‫‪Avec : NOPAT (Net Operating Profit After Tax), WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital), CE (Capital‬‬ ‫‪Employed),‬‬ ‫‪ROCE (Return On Capital Employed).‬‬ ‫‪49‬‬ ‫‪)- A.Black, P.Wright et J.Bachman, Gestion de la valeur actionnariale, Dunod, Paris, 1997, P :65.‬‬

‫‪ -(50‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.107:‬‬

‫‪)- A.Nabet , Op.cit, P : 96.‬‬ ‫‪)- MVA : Market Value Added.‬‬

‫‪51‬‬ ‫‪52‬‬

‫‪ -(53‬ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻥ ﻭﺳﺘﻴﻮﺍﺭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ MVA‬ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺳﻨﻮﻱ ﻷﻟﻒ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ‪ »The Stern Stewart Performance 1000 »:‬ﰲ ﳎﻠﺔ "ﺑﻨﻚ ﺃﻭﻑ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ" ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺸﺮ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﳎﻠﺔ ‪ Fortune‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ Sunday Times ،‬ﰲ ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ‪ Capital ،‬ﰲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ Financial Post‬ﰲ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﰲ‪ - :‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.107:‬‬

‫‪- T.Copeland, T.Koller et J.Murrin, "La stratégie de la valeur : L’évaluation d’entreprise", Traduit par V.Phalippou‬‬ ‫‪(Valuation Measuring and Managing the value of companies), Edition d’Organisation Paris, 2002, P : 154.‬‬ ‫‪54‬‬ ‫‪)- J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, La création de valeur de l’entreprise, Op.cit, P :23.‬‬ ‫‪55‬‬ ‫‪)- Id.‬‬ ‫‪56‬‬ ‫‪)- A.Nabet , Op.cit, P : 96.‬‬ ‫‪ -(57‬ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺘﺮﻳﺔ( ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳌﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﲟﻘﻴﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺐ ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺮﺑﻂ ﺣﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﰲ‪ :‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.126:‬‬ ‫‪ -(59‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.139-125:‬‬

‫‪)-Voir: A.Nabet , Op.cit, P : 96.‬‬

‫‪)- Y.Bernheim, Etat-Unis : information sur les justes valeurs,. in : A.Nabet , Op.cit, P : 96-97.‬‬

‫‪69‬‬

‫‪58‬‬

‫‪60‬‬


‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ :‫ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‬،(‫ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬-(61

- R. Demestère, "Pour une vue pragmatique de la comptabilité", In : Revue française de gestion, N° 157, 04/2005, PP : 109-113. 63 64

.127 :‫ ﺹ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬،‫ ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‬-(62

)- J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, La création de valeur de l’entreprise, Op.cit, P : 26. )- Id.

.140-139 :‫ ﺹ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬،‫ ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‬-(65 ‫ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬،‫ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺣﻴﺰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬-(66 :‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‬

L.Batsch, "Finance et stratégie", Economica, Paris, 1999. G.Hirigoyen, "Stratégie et finance : approche par la création de valeur", Encyclopédie de gestion, 2e édition, Economica, Paris, 1997, PP : 3064-3092. - G.Hirigoyen, Nouvelles approches du lien stratégie finance, Op.cit, PP : 64-73.

-

:‫ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‬-(67

- A.Nabet , Op.cit, PP : 99-101.

‫ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﳋﺼﻮﺹ‬،‫ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬،‫ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﳏﺪﻭﺩﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬-(68 :‫ﺇﱃ‬

-

J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, La création de valeur de l’entreprise, Op.cit, PP : 81-99.

:‫ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‬،‫ ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬-(69 .146-139:‫ ﺹ ﺹ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬،‫ ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‬-

-

A.Nabet, Op.cit, PP : 97-99. M.Albouy, "Théories, applications et limite de la mesure de la création de valeur", in : Revue française de gestion, Janvier-février 1999, P :88-89. - J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, La création de valeur de l’entreprise, Op.cit, PP : 81-99. 70 )-G.Charreaux et P.Desbrieres, "Gouvernement d’entreprise : création de valeur au-delà des actionnaires", Les cahiers de l’audit, N°3, Quatrième trimestre 1998. P :13. 71 )- M.Albouy, Théories, applications et limite de la mesure de la création de valeur, Op.cit, P :89. 72 )-I.Shaked, A.Michel et P.Leroy, "Pourquoi L’EVA s’est imposée", L’Expansion management review, Septembre 1998, P : 56. 73 )- A.Nabet , Op.cit, P : 96-97. 74 )- E.Salustro, "Vers l’adoption de règles communes", L’Expansion management review, Septembre 1998, P :81.

.144-143 :‫ ﺹ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬،‫ ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‬-(75

76 77

)- M.Albouy, Théories, applications et limite de la mesure de la création de valeur, Op.cit, P :89-90. )- A.Nabet , Op.cit, P : 99. 78 )- J. Stern, "Le père de l’EVA répond de critiques", L’Expansion management review, Septembre 1998, P : 87. 79 )- C.Hoarau et R.Teller, "Création de valeur et management de l’entreprise", Collection Entreprendre, Vuibert, Paris, 2001, P :107. 80 )- P.C.Brewer, G.Chandra and C.A.Hock, Economic Value Added (EVA): Its uses and limitations, . in:

.145 :‫ ﺹ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬،‫ ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‬-

81

)- G.B.Stewart, "EVA : fact or fantasy", Journal of applied corporate finance, Vol7, 1994, P:76 82 )- D.Hqnsen and M. Mowen, Cost Management; accounting and control,. in:

.142 :‫ ﺹ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬،‫ ﻫﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﱄ‬-

83

)- R. Lowenstein, Rethinking the latest economic elixir,. in:

84 85

)- A.Nabet , Op.cit, P : 98. )- J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, La création de valeur de l’entreprise, Op.cit, PP : 21-30.

.104 :‫ ﺹ‬،‫ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‬-

:‫ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‬،‫ ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬-(86

-87Ibid, PP : 26-30. )- T.Copeland, T.Koller et J.Murrin, Op.cit, P : 154.

‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬-(88 .‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬،‫ﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

)- Net Operating Profit After Tax. )- J.Caby et G.Hirigoyen, La création de valeur de l’entreprise, Op.cit, P: 21. )- T.Copeland, T.Koller et J.Murrin, Op.cit, P : 270. )- Id. )- Ibid, P : 270-271. )- Ibid, P : 271. )- Ibid, P : 311-312. )- Ibid, PP : 313-317.

.‫ﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺗﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻤﻮ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻻ‬-(97

70


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ‪ :‬ﺑﻮﺧﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻠﺨﺺ ‪ :‬ﺑﺬﻟﺖ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺟﻬﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺧﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈـﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﳉﺬﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﱃ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻄﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺾ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺩ ﳍﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴـﺘﺪﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺸﻒ ﺗﺪﻧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﺿ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1995‬ﻭﺣﱴ ‪ ،2006‬ﻭﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻟﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ -‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ ‪ -‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ ‪ -‬ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻓ ﹰﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻸﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻣﻨﺎ ‪ -‬ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ -‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ "ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﲰﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻮﻥ ﻋﺮﺏ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴـﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻇﻒ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳐﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﺗﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ"‪(1).‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬

‫ﲣﻔﻴﻒ ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﻲ ﺗﻘـﻮﻡ‬

‫ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ "ﻋﺐﺀ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﺮﺍﺕ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻀﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺴﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫‪71‬‬


‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‬

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‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﳌـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﻃﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺼﺒﺖ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ )ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﺜﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﺰﺕ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺇﳘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﲡﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ – ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺑﻀﻌﻒ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺇﳘﺎﻝ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪(2).‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺄﻣﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻻﺣ ﹰﻘﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻷﻥ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﺭ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻷﺑﺴﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻳﱪﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋـﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴـﺔ ﻭﺗﺸـﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺘـﺎﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﳕﻮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿـﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣـﻞ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﰊ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺣﺎﺳﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﳘﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ %28‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ‪ 17.58‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2006‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﲦﺎﻧﲔ ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺑﺴـﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺗﺮﻳﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺮﻳﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻳﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻮﺡ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﺬﺍﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳـﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻃﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺩﻋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺳـﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﺿـﺤﻨﺎ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ؛ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸـﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ %71‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﳐﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %48‬ﰲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ %35‬ﰲ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ %32‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ %30‬ﰲ ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ %28‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ %20‬ﻗﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ %18‬ﰲ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﻧﹰﺎ ﻛﺒ ‪‬ﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ‪ ،%15‬ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ‪ ،%12‬ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ‪ ،%10‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ ‪(3).%8‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ %53‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨـﺎﱄ ‪17.5‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %45‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﲝﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﻤﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺗﻮﻧﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪72‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﻕ ﻋﺮﰊ ﳑﻴﺰ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻄﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﱂ ﺗﻌﻬﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺔ ﻣﺘﺪﻧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻣـﺎ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺠﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻣﻼﺣﻆ ﻳﺘـﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﰲ ﺣـﺪﻭﺩ ‪ %8‬ﺇﱃ ‪ %10‬ﺳـﻨﻮ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻛﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻠـﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻮﺍﺋﺾ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ )ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪.(%20‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ ‪ -‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﲟﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺧﺺ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻒ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1995‬ﻭﺣﱴ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪2006‬‬ ‫ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1.43‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1995‬ﺇﱃ ﳓﻮ ‪ 17.5‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2006‬ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﺒﻠـﻎ‬ ‫‪ ،%1124.8‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2005‬ﳓﻮ ‪ 38‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﻠﻐﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﺮﺻﺪﻫﺎ‪(4).‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻤﻲ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1995‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2006‬ﳓﻮ ‪ 82‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫)ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ "‪ ("1‬ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1995‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ - 2006‬ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ -(1‬ﻳﻼﺣـﻆ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1.43‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1995‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 2.09‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1996‬ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺴﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺼـﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﺮﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 1997‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳔﻔﺾ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪ 1.58‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟـﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺗـﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻌﺎﺵ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ ،1998‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ‪1.58‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1997‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 2.31‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1998‬ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ‪.%46‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ ،2000 - 1999‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺍﲡﺎ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺪﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2001‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ‪ 11‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪ 2001‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺷـﻬﺪ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 2005‬ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﳓﻮ ‪ 38‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺾ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺫﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻠﻴـﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪73‬‬


‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‬

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‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻃﻔﺮﺓ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻆ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻑ ‪-‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻭ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‪) .‬ﻭﺳـﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻮﺩ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻬﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2005‬ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺰﻳـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜـﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺷـﻬﺪ‪‬ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2005‬ﺇﺫ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ ‪ 28.8‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ )‪ %75.8‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺧﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .(2005‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪ 2005‬ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺗﺰﺍﻳـﺪ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻹﺩﺭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛـﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﻭﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣـﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻐﺘﺮﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﰲ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2005‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻃﻔﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﺖ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2006‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .2005‬ﻓﻮﻓ ﹰﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻎ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﳍﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2006‬‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 17.57‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ 37.26‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2005‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %50.5‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪.2005‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺰﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻬﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 2005‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻄﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﺣـﺪﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2006‬ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻨـﺬ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪) 1995‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ "‪"1‬ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ( )ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2005‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻃﻔﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﻨﺎﻩ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻄﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺟﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪(5):‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﲢﺴﻨﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﺫﺑـﺔ ﻟﻼﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﲢﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲤﺜﻠﺖ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺧﻴﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪74‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻼﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻋﻤﻼﻗـﺔ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄـﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﳌـﻮﺍﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﻜﻚ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﲔ ‪ ،2005‬ﻭ‪ 2006‬ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳋﺼﺨﺼﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﺠﻌﺖ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻴﻌﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﲤﻠﻴﻜﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺑﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﻓﻨﺪﻱ ﻭﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ؛‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺟﺬﺑﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺼﺨﺼﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪.‬‬

‫* ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑـﻨﻈﲑﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻬ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺗـﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﲢﺪﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻴﻀﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻌﺒﺖ ﺩﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﰲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫* ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ‪/‬ﺃﻳﻠﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺠﻤﺎﺕ ‪ 11‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ‪/‬ﺃﻳﻠﻮﻝ ‪ 2001‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻇﻬـﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻷﻭﺳـﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳒﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﺤﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﳑـﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺍﻟﻄﻔﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻄﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﱪﻣﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺛﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﲑﺓ ﻟـﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻂ ﻭﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺜﻤﺮﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺟﺰ ًﺀًﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺑﻨﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺰ ًﺀًﺍ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺟﻬﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺗﻀﺎﻓﺮﺕ ﻟﺘﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺟﺎﺫﺑﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )‪ 60‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ( ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﲝﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪1200‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪) .‬ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﻌﻮﺩ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺣﲔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪75‬‬


‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‬

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‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ ‪ -‬ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻓ ﹰﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻸﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﳍﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻓ ﹰﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻸﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‬

‫‪ ،2006‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﺕ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 7563‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ‪ %43‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ )ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲦﺎﱐ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ‪ 2905‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﳓﻮ ‪ %17‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ )ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻬﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺳـﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ اﺳ ﺘﺤﻮذت ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ(‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 2715‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﲝﺼﺔ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﳓﻮ ‪) %15‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻬﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺒﻊ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 1794‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪) %10‬ﺗﻮﺟﻬـﺖ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲦﺎﱐ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ( ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 783‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪ ،%4‬ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 646‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪ .%3.7‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷـﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ‪ %93.3‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪) 2006‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(2‬‬ ‫‪ - 2‬ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ، (3‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،2006‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﺗﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺣﺼﺘﻬﺎ ‪ 4837‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﲟﺎ ﻧﺴـﺒﺘﻪ ‪ %27.5‬ﻣـﻦ ﺇﲨـﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﺍﺧﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﺮ )‪ 3265.4‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪ %18.58‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ(‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗـﻮﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﲝﻮﺍﱄ )‪ 2366.8‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪ ،(%13.47‬ﰒ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ )‪ 2335‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼـﺔ ‪ ،(%13.29‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﺴـﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫)‪ 2004‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪ ،%(11.40‬ﰒ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ )‪ 1097.6‬ﻣﻠﻴـﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼـﺔ ‪ ،(%6.25‬ﰒ ﺍﻟـﻴﻤﻦ ﲝـﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫)‪ 858.3‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪ ،(%4.88‬ﰒ ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ )‪ 461.4‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪ ،(%2.63‬ﰒ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﲝـﻮﺍﱄ )‪350.1‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﺔ ‪.(%1.99‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ - 2005‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻃﻔﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2006‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺳﺖ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﻣﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ(‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ( ﺗﺮﺍﺟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ‪ 153.8‬ﻣﻠﻴـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2005‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 2366.8‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2006‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 363.1‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺇﱃ ‪ 3265.4‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻣﻦ ‪ 203.9‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺇﱃ ‪ 858.3‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﻈﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ‪ -‬ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪ %80‬ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1995‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.2006‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺣﺎﺯﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ )‪-1995‬‬ ‫‪ .(2006‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺧﻠﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺛﻘﺘـﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻨـﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻘﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﺸـﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘـﺔ ﺍﳌﻠـﻚ ﻋﺒـﺪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺎﻃﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪76‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻓﻘﺮﹰﺍ ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺑـ ‪ .%10‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻂ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﺮ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ -‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ‪ -‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﲔ ‪ ،2005‬ﻭ‪ ،2006‬ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻠﻮﻏﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﺸﲑ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﰊ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1995-1974‬ﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ ‪ 670‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 56 :1‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻳﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠـﻪ ‪ 56‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪(6).‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺳﻮﺀﹰﺍ ﲝﻠﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2002‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﱂ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻲ ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .400:1‬ﻭﺗﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺳﻮﻳﺴـﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺫﺑﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﻐﺎﻓﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺟﺎﺫﺑﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﻥ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪ -‬ﻭﺑﺼـﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻮﻳﺴـﺮﺍ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻕ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺟﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻃﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻫﺠﺮﺓ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﻋﺰﻭﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﺘﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺾ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻤـﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺁﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻀﻄﺮ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﲑﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺗﲔ ﺍﳋﺎﻧﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺫﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﺭﻳﺢ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﳊﺼـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺳـﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪77‬‬


‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‬

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‫ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﺮﺻـﻮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻭﺟﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﺳﻄﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻯ … ﺍﱁ‪ .‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﱃ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﻃﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻀﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﺠـﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻣـﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﳊﺠﺰ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻟﻨﻘـﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﺠـﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳـﻮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻛﺎﻑ ﳉﺬﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺗﻄـﻮﺭ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻇﻞ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋـﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺯﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (18‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺔ‬‫ﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﹰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﻏﲑ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺑﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﻪ ﺗﻌﻮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﳛﺠﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻒ ﺣﺎﺋ ﹰ‬‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻓﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ‬‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺼـﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊـﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺟﻨـﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻕ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺿﺮﺑﺖ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1997‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺠـﺮﺓ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﱂ ﺗﺆﺩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕـﺎ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﺭﺝ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻋـﻮﺩﺓ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣـﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻣﻨﺎ ‪ -‬ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻫﺠﺮﺓ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻼﺀﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻹﺑﻘـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺬﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺬﻟﺖ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻱ ﺟﺪﻭﻯ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﺬﻝ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﹰﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻋﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﻭﻃﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﲢﻮﻟﺖ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺇﻳﺪﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻓﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﻄﺮﺓ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻳﺪﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪(7).‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺧﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺀﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣـﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ -‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﺫﺑﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺬﻟﺖ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﳒﺪ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺳﻠﻜﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺟﻬﺰ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﺸﺌﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﲡﻬﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻼﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺠﺰ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺺ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺻﺎﰱ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌـﺎﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺭﺩ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﲤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺗﺒﲏ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺟﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﻏﺴﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺑﺬﻝ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲢﺴﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻇـﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳊـﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﲡﻬﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﱯ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺗـﺮﻭﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﲡﻬﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍﹰ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺸـﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ( ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻮﺗﻨﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﲟﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ -‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧـﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﲨﻌﺖ ﳓﻮ ‪ 4000‬ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ‪ 15‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸـﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻈﻢ‪(8).‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿـﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺑﲔ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﳉﺬﺏ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﳉﺬﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺯ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪79‬‬


‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‬

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‫‪ -1‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ )ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ( ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﺘﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺻﺎﺩﻗﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺛﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺗﲔ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺒﲑﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (1‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1995‬ﺇﱃ ‪2006‬‬ ‫‪1995‬‬

‫‪1996‬‬

‫‪1997‬‬

‫‪1998‬‬

‫‪1999‬‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬

‫‪2005‬‬

‫‪2006‬‬

‫‪1.43‬‬

‫‪2.09‬‬

‫‪1.58‬‬

‫‪2.31‬‬

‫‪2.18‬‬

‫‪1.81‬‬

‫‪2.64‬‬

‫‪2.91‬‬

‫‪3.84‬‬

‫‪5.95‬‬

‫‪37.26‬‬

‫‪17.57‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﳌﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬

‫‪2006-1995‬‬

‫ﺍﻟـﻌـﺮﺑﻴـــﺔ ﺍﻟـﺒـﻴـﻨـﻴــﺔ‬

‫‪81.62‬‬

‫ﺣـﺠـــــﻢ ﺍﻻﺳــــﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟـﻔـﺘـﺮﺓ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪" ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ"‪ ،2006 ،‬ﺹ‪157‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (2‬ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪2006‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼـﺪﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠــــﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺗـﻮﻧـﺲ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0.2‬‬

‫‪2617.2‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫‪53.2‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2324.1‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1000.0‬‬ ‫‪99.0‬‬

‫‪25.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺗـﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪19.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﳉـﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪0.0‬‬

‫‪1.1‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫‪793.7‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0.2‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪759.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪40.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳـﺎ‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪48.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪8.1‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪7.1‬‬

‫‪7.5‬‬

‫‪4.3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳـﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻠـﺴﻄﲔ‬ ‫ﻗـﻄـﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻌـﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟـﺴـﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻟـﺒـﻨـﺎﻥ‬

‫‪238.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪20.6‬‬

‫‪870.0‬‬

‫‪401.3‬‬

‫‪2733.8‬‬

‫‪25.5‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪3.3‬‬

‫‪56.2‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪24.0‬‬

‫‪2.5‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫‪555.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪138.9‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0.4‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪16.0‬‬

‫‪7.8‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪37.0‬‬

‫‪9.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1.0‬‬

‫‪12.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪224.0‬‬

‫‪80‬‬

‫ﻟﻴـﺒـﻴﺎ‬

‫‪25.8‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺟــﻤﺎﻟ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬

‫ﻣـﺼـــﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟـﻤﻐـﺮﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤــﻦ‬

‫‪11.3‬‬

‫‪10.6‬‬ ‫‪155.6‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪7.4‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪7563.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪183.5‬‬

‫‪5.2‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪50.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2.1‬‬

‫‪243.6‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪36.6‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪842.2‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2715.2‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0.6‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2.0‬‬

‫‪0.4‬‬

‫‪196.8‬‬

‫‪0.4‬‬

‫‪16.4‬‬

‫‪0.1‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪53.9‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2905.5‬‬

‫‪24.0‬‬ ‫‪783.1‬‬

‫‪31.9‬‬


‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳـﺖ‬

‫‪94.5‬‬

‫‪29.4‬‬

‫‪20.0‬‬

‫‪76.0‬‬

‫ﻟـﺒﻨـﺎﻥ‬

‫‪0.2‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0.0‬‬

‫‪168.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪163.0‬‬

‫‪1400.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2.3‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪11.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﻣـﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐـﺮﺏ‬

‫‪6.9‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪6.2‬‬

‫‪242.0‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴـﻤﻦ‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1.9‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪4.0‬‬

‫‪381.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬

‫‪1097.6‬‬

‫ﻟـﻴﺒﻴﺎ‬

‫‪3.3‬‬

‫‪40.0‬‬

‫‪49.0‬‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪58.5‬‬

‫‪113.0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1793.6‬‬

‫‪153.0‬‬

‫‪7.1‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪7.0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪498.3‬‬ ‫‪15.8‬‬

‫‪9.6‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0.2‬‬

‫‪645.9‬‬

‫‪0.2‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪6.1‬‬ ‫‪89.0‬‬

‫‪858.3‬‬

‫‪17575.7‬‬

‫‪1.5‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪350.1‬‬ ‫‪3265.4‬‬ ‫‪461.4‬‬ ‫‪2335.0‬‬ ‫‪2004.0‬‬ ‫‪4837.0‬‬ ‫‪2366.8‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ"ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ"‪ 2006‬ﺹ ‪ ،156‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ)‪(10‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (3‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ‪2006‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻀﺎﻑ ﺑﻴﻨﻴًﺎ ﲟﻼﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴـﻌـﻮﺩﻳـﺔ‬

‫‪4837‬‬

‫‪%27.5‬‬

‫ﻣــﺼـــﺮ‬

‫‪3265.4‬‬

‫‪%18.58‬‬

‫ﺗــﻮﻧــﺲ‬

‫‪2366.8‬‬

‫‪%13.47‬‬

‫ﻟــﺒـﻨـﺎﻥ‬

‫‪2335‬‬

‫‪%13.29‬‬

‫ﺍﻟــﺴــﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫‪2004‬‬

‫‪%11.40‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪1097.6‬‬

‫‪%6.25‬‬

‫ﺍﻟــﻴــﻤــﻦ‬

‫‪858.3‬‬

‫‪%4.88‬‬

‫ﻟــﻴـﺒـﻴـﺎ‬

‫‪461.4‬‬

‫‪%2.63‬‬

‫ﺍﻟـﻤـﻐـﺮﺏ‬

‫‪350.1‬‬

‫‪%1.99‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺳﻴﺪﻱ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺳﺎﱂ‪".‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤـﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ‪2007/10/1‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻠـﻲ ﻟﻄﻔـﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻋﲔ ﴰﺲ‪،‬ﺹ ‪124:‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ‪،‬ﺹ‪125:‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺣﺮﰊ ﻋﺮﻳﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻣﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1998‬ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﲑﻣﻮﻙ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ 1998/11/25-23‬ﺣـﻮﻝ " ﻣﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ" ﺍﺭﺑﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﺹ )‪.(4‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،2006‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ "ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪132:‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺡ ﺧﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻲ‪" ،‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪.2005 ،23‬ﺹ‪36:‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪" ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ"‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،95‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩﺍﻥ ‪ ،476-475‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‪/‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪ .2004‬ﺹ‪30:‬‬ ‫‪81‬‬


‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‬

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‫‪ -8‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ( ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪– 20‬‬ ‫‪ ،2004/9/22‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ ‪.754 – 753‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪(IAS/IFRS‬‬ ‫ﺩ‪.‬ﺯﻏﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﲪﺪ & ﺍ‪.‬ﺳﻔﲑ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻔﺎﺀ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﰲ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻭﺷﻜﻞ ﻭﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﺢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﻳﺼﺎﻝ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﳏﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻮﻕ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﲡﻬﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺪﻑ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ) ‪.( IAS/IFRS‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻓﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻛﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﳑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﳓﻮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﲔ ﲣﺺ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﳏﺎﺳﱯ ﻋﺎﳌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -I‬ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ‪-‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ -‬ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻓـﺮﺍﻍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻮﺣﺪ ﻟﻺﻓﺼﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻣﺎ ﺳﺎﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒـﻊ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺀﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻭﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺻﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ)‪ .(1‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﻓﺼـﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺎ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﻣﺘﺨﺬﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪(IAS/IFRS‬‬

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‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻼﳘﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﴰﻞ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﻪ "ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻀﻠﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﺗﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ")‪ .(2‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -II‬ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌـﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ)‪:(3‬‬ ‫ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﻬﺗﻢ‪ :‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻤﻬـﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴـﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟـﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﻠـﻒ ﻃﺒﻴﻌـﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺼﺢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺗﻨﻈـﻴﻢ ﻭﺇﺻـﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻌـﺎﻳﲑ‬‫ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳒﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﳉﻨﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪ ،(IASB‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ﲢـﺎﻭﻝ ﲢﺴـﲔ ﺟـﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﺢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -III‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺘـﱪ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻠﺤـﻖ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﲢﺖ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺼﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺣﺠﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ)‪ .(4‬ﻓﻴﺠﻮﺯ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﺴﺮﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﱪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-IV‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﲔ ﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳊﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻭ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﺒﺌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ)‪.(5‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﺎﻥ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺍﲡﻬﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻨﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﱯ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻢ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻏﻲ ﰲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪ 17‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭ‪ 14‬ﺟﺪﻭﻻ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﻣﻮﺍﻛﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﺮﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ) ‪.( IAS/IFRS‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﺮﺱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺘﺮﺽ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲪﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳛﻈﻰ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻌﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺼﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ)‪ .(6‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﳏﺎﺳﱯ ﻋﺎﳌﻲ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -V‬ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﺣﺴﺐ) ‪(SCF‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪ 2010/01/01‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺟﻬﻮﺩﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﻀﲑ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻗﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻀﲑ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﲢﻀﲑ ﺍﶈﺘﺮﻓﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﲔ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﲤﻜﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪- 85 -‬‬


‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪(IAS/IFRS‬‬

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‫‪ -1-V‬ﲢﻀﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﲢﻀﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳜﻀﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻷﺟﻞ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﲟﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪07‬‬ ‫–‪ .(7)11‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﲟﺴﻚ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﳏﺎﺳﱯ ﻣﺒﺴﻂ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﳋﺰﻳﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳛﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ)‪ (8‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،19/90‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﲟﻮﺟﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭﳐﺮﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﻌﻰ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﳏﺎﺿﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻠﺘﻘﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳜﻀﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﺯﻣﲏ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺟﺪﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﱪﳎﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﲟﺮﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻌﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﲏ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2-V‬ﲢﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﰎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﻭﺛﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﳚﺐ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺜﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲢﺪﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﳒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ) ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ( ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ )ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ‬‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ (‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻴﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‬‫ﻫﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﺐ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﲑ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺷﻲ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ)‪ ،(9‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻼﻙ ﻭﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﺞ ﻣﺪﺧﻼ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺯﺓ؛‬‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﺟﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ؛‬ ‫‪- 86 -‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ ﻓﺎﺋﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻱ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﻣﱪﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺆﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﱯ ﺍﳋﺎﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪ -3-V‬ﲢﻀﲑ ﺍﶈﺘﺮﻓﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﲔ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ )‪ (CNC‬ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺠﻨﺪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻭﲢﻀﺮ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ)‪:(10‬‬ ‫ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻭﲤﻜﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻻﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻮﻑ ﲤﺲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻬﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻣﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﲔ )‪ (IFAC‬ﺪﻑ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺧﱪﺍﺀ‬‫ﳏﺎﺳﺒﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ؛‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ ﻭﺍﶈﺘﺮﻓﲔ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻤﺲ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻖ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﲔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﱪﺍﺀ ﳏﺎﺳﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﳏﺎﻓﻈﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﳏﺎﺳﺒﲔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﻲ ﺣﺜﻴﺜﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﺢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺒﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ؛‬‫ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬‫‪ -VI‬ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺟﺪ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻭﺑﺎﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﻦ ﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻃﺒﻌﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺷﺎﺩ ﺑﻨﺺ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ )‪ ،(IFRS1‬ﻭﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺗﺒﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﻄﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺒﺎﻗﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪. 2005/01/01‬‬ ‫‪ -1-VI‬ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ)‪:(11‬‬ ‫‪- 87 -‬‬


‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪(IAS/IFRS‬‬

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‫‪ -‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﻔﺎﻓﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ؛‬

‫‬‫‪ -‬ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ؛‬

‫ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ)‪ (IFRS1‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ ،( IFRS‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪:(01‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ )‪(SCF‬‬

‫ﺑﺪاﻳﺔ أول ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬

‫ﻓﺘﺮة اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬

‫‪2009/01/01‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ اﻷول ﺣﺴﺐ) ‪(SCF‬‬

‫‪2009/12/31‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬

‫‪2010/12/31‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫‪ ‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﳕﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺐ ) ‪.(SCF‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ)‪ ،(12‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ‪ 2010/01/01‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻫﻮ ‪2010/12/31‬؛‬‫‪- 88 -‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻫﻮ ‪ 2009/01/01‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ‬‫ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ‪.2010/12/31‬‬ ‫‪ -2-VI‬ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪ 2010/01/01‬ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻀﻊ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻼﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻺﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳒﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ )‪ (IFRS1‬ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺭﺟﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﲰﺎﺡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ)‪ (13‬ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺇﻋﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺻﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑـ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺭﺟﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ؛‬‫ ﲢﻤﻴﻞ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ) ‪(SCF‬؛‬‫ ﻋﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ) ‪ (SCF‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ )‪ (IFRS1‬ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲟﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ؛‬‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﻛﺄﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ؛‬‫ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻋﺘﺮﻑ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ )‪ (PCN‬ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ) ‪(SCF‬؛‬‫ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺮﻑ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺃﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﻛﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﺄﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﺤﻖ‬‫ﺑﺎﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﲏ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﺕ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﳏﻞ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻪ؛‬‫ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺭﺟﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻻ ﲰﻴﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ )‪ (PCN‬؛‬‫‪ -‬ﻣﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻱ ﻣﺆﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ) ‪.(SCF‬‬

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‫ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪(IAS/IFRS‬‬

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‫‪ -VII‬ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺗﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ)‪ ،(14‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻨﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ )‪ (IFRS1‬ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﺼﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﺓ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ) ‪ (SCF‬ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ؛‬‫ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ؛‬‫ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲟﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺣﱴ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭ‬‫ﺗﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ؛‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ)‪.(15‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺭﺟﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ )‪ (IFRS1‬ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺭﺟﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﻜﺒﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﱪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻤﻮﺡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ )‪.(IFRS1‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺄﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﲣﺪﻡ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻻ ﻣﻔﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺮﺷﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﺴﺠﻞ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﱂ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪. 2010/01/01‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻨﺤﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺩﻗﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﺸﺎﻥ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﳏﺘﻮﺍﻩ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﺸﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﺸﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﳊﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 32‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪.‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ، 2010‬ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺮﺭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫‪- 90 -‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ .2009/01/01‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﲔ ﻭﻣﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﲔ ﻭﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﲰﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﺒﲏ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲟﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﺻﻔﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ) ،‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .( 2004 ،‬ﺹ‪.17 :‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻳﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪ .(2005 ،‬ﺹ‪.578 :‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪596-586 :‬‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﱐ‪" ،‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ"‪ ،‬ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﻣﺪﻗﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪،‬ﻣﻠﺘﻘﻰ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،2007 / 12/ 5-4‬ﺹ‪.15:‬‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﺃﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻟﻄﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪) ،‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪ (2004 ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.348 – 347 :‬‬

‫)‪ (6‬ﺃﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻟﻄﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.349 -348 :‬‬

‫)‪ (7‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،11‬ﺍﳉﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،74‬ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،04‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪.2007 / 11 / 25‬‬ ‫)‪ (8‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،23‬ﺍﳉﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،19‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪2009 / 03 / 25‬‬

‫‪(9) Des robert,J,F. Méchin,F. Puteaux,H. normes IFRS et PME.(Paris :DUNOD,2004),pp :219-220.‬‬ ‫‪(10)Lamine Hamdi,M, "La profession comptable au Maghreb" ,(Algérie-Libye-Maroc‬‬‫‪Mauritanie-Tunisie), document de séminaire,2006,pp :12-13.‬‬ ‫‪(11) Journal Officiel de L’union Européenne. L 111/5 -17/04/2004.‬‬ ‫‪(12) JOURNAL OFFICIEL DE L'union européenne. L 111/7 -17/04/2004.‬‬ ‫‪(13) Pascale delvaille , norme comptable internationales ( généralités – présentation et évaluation dans le comptes‬‬ ‫‪individuels), (INTEC .2005/2006/) P :61.‬‬ ‫‪(14) DFCG, Norme IAS /IFRS (que fait il faire comment s'yprendre), 2éd(d’organisation 2004/2005), p.551‬‬ ‫‪(15) DFCG, op.cit,.P.553.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﳋﻨﺎﻕ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻣﻼﻳﺎ )ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ(‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ‪ :‬ﺍﻥ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﻭﻓﺮ ﺣﻈﺎﹰ ﳌﻮﺍﻛﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ " ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ " ﺍﺣﺪ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻻﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﱃ ﳏﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺧﺰ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺳﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺎﰐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻳﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‪ ،‬ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﺒﲑ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﳘﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻼﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﺕ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻳﻮﻓﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻳﻔﺴﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ ﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪ " ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ " ﺍﺣـﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺠـﺰ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺎﺫﻳﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻓﺮﺿﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﱃ )ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ( ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﲞﺼﺎﺋﺼﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ‪‬ﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺧﺰ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺳﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﱃ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﺘﺎﰐ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﺎﺫﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﳏﺎﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ) ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳘﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺘﻠـﻚ ﺍﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻳﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ﻛﺎﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳉﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﶈـﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴـﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻌـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻻﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﲑﺍ ﺟـﺎﺀ ﺍﶈـﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻫﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 1‬ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳒﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﳘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 1-1‬ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻣﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ) ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﱪﺓ( ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ) ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ( ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻣﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ) ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﱪﺓ( ﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ) ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴـﺔ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻫﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2-1‬ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲡﺴﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﰐ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

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‫• ﻳﻌﺪ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ "ًﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ " ﻛﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺫ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﳌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺎﹰ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻳﻌﺪ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ) ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﱪﺓ ( ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 3-1‬ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﺘﺄﻃﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻧﻴﹰﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ) ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ (‪ ،‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ )ﰲ ﻛﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 4-1‬ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﳎﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ )ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ (‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﳌـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺪ ﲟﺠﻤﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﺣﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﲟـﺎ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺏ ) ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﱪﺓ (‪:‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ )ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ( ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻻﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺮﻳﱯ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ )ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ( ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻇﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏ ‪‬ﺎ]‪.[1‬‬

‫‪ 5-1‬ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﻪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ) ‪ ( 0.05‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ )ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳـﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ )‪ ( 0.05‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ )ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ( ﻭﺑﲔ ) ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿـﻴﺔ (‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 6-1‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ )ﳎﺘﻤﻊ( ﻭﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫‪ 1-6-1‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﲑﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ) ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ( ﻭﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﴰﻠﺖ ﺍﺭﺑﻊ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻻﳘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨـﻬﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﻠﻴﺔ ) ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ (‪.‬‬ ‫‪: 2-6-1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ :‬ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﺳـﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻻﻧﺴﺠﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﰎ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ )‪ (81‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻉ )‪ (6‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (5‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﻣﻠﺊ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻱ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ) ‪ ( 70‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫ‪.‬‬ ‫‪94‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ 3-6-1‬ﻭﺻﻒ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻻﻫﻢ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﺍﱃ ﺍﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﻧﺎﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ) ‪ ( 30‬ﺍﻱ ﳝﺜﻠﻮﻥ ) ‪ ( %43‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ) ‪ ،( 70‬ﺍﻣـﺎ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 40‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﳝﺜﻞ ) ‪ ،( %57‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺎﺙ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻮﺯﻉ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ) ‪ ( 27‬ﺳﻨﻪ ﺍﱃ ) ‪ ( 62‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ) ‪ ( 1‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺔ‬

‫) ‪ ( 40-31‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ) ‪ ( %30‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻱ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﺮﻳﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺰﻭﻥ ﺣـﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺔ‬ ‫) ‪.( 40-31‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﺑﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﲪﻠﺔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ) ‪ ( 54.3‬ﺍﱃ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﲪﻠﺔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟـﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﻩ ) ‪( 45.7‬‬

‫ﺑﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﻠﺔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳊﺪﺍﺛﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻣـﻦ ) ‪( 10‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ )‪ (30‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻳﺘﻮﺯﻋﻮﻥ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ) ‪ (10‬ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﺸﻜﻠﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ) ‪.( %37‬‬

‫‪7-1‬ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫• ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﺮﻗﺖ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﻟﻼﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﰲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2‬ﺍﻻﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ‬ ‫‪ 1-2‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﺣﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸـﺒﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳـﺮﻯ‬

‫) ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻼﱐ‪ [2] (2003 ،‬ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ" ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﻴـﺖ ‪،‬ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﺍﻧﻴـﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﻴﺔ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ"‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ" ﻓﻀﺎﺀﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﲟﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﲑ ]‪ .[3‬ﺍﻱ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﱪ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺗﻘﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻗﺎﻣﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ )ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ( ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺼـﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻻﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1-1-2‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻨـﺎﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳚﺎﰊ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻻﳒﺎﺯ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﺍﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻭﺍﻻﻛﺎﺩﳝﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺎﺫ ) ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺱ (‪ :‬ﺗﻐﲑ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺱ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﺑـﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻮﺟـﻪ‬

‫ﻭﻣﺼﻤﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ]‪ .[4‬ﻭﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺱ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻢ‬ ‫‪95‬‬


‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﱃ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﻬﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ )ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ(‪ :‬ﳝﺘﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻓﺎﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻛﺜـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍﹰ ﻟﺘﺤﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ]‪ ،[5‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ]‪.[6‬‬

‫• ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﲢﺪﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳛﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻬﻨﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﳚﺎﺑﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻭﻻ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺗﻄـﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﳎﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﹰﺎ ]‪.[7‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﺼﻒ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ (‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻗﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪Virtual Class room‬ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺟـﺪﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﺎﹰ ﺧﺎﺻﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ )‪(Turoff ,2008‬‬

‫]‪[8‬ﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ " ﻓﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﲤﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﺳـﻂ ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ ﺍﺗﺼـﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻌﺘﻤـﺪﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ"‪ .‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﳝﻴﺰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺍﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻮﻑ ﻟﺘﻀﻢ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ ‪ Curriculum‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻣﺘﻼﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﲔ ﻭﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻣﺞ ﺑﲔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺮﺭ ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺗـﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻭﺍﺳـﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﻮﱘ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ]‪.[9‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪ Education Multimédia‬ﺍﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺍﱃ " ﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴـﻬﻢ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ"]‪ .[10‬ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺎﻃﺐ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﻼﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ‪،‬ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﻮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﳏﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪2-1-2‬ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﺎﳌﻴﹰﺎ ]‪ .[11‬ﺍﺿـﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺗﻌﺰﻳـﺰ ﺍﻟـﺘﻔﻜﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ]‪.[12‬ﻣﻊ ﳏﺎﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜـﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺍﻍ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺹﺓ]‪.[13‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤـﺔ‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻤﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎﹰ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺎﹰ ‪ Educational Model‬ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺻﺪﻗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻻﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻣﻼﺋﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻻﳕﻮﺫﺝ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻤﻲ ]‪ [14‬ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻭﺭﻳﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﺓ ﺗﺘﻼﺋﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪Entrepreneurial‬‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﻳﺴـﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺑﺴـﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﱃ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻭﺍﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺳـﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ .‬ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﲏ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪﺓ ﺷﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﲰﻌﺔ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﳍﺎ ﺣﺪ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ]‪.[15‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﻨﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺪﻋﻢ ﻓﲏ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﱄ ﻗﻮﻱ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﲑ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﻯ]‪ ( Limon , 2002) [16‬ﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻗﺪ ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺴـﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲣﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼـﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻳﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﻪ ﺍﱃ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪ Customized Learning‬ﻭﺍﻣـﺘﻼﻙ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﹰﺎ ) ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﻪ ( ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ ﺗﻘـﺪﳝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻳﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﱵ ﻭﺍﳌﻜـﺎﱐ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ]‪.[17‬‬ ‫‪ 2-2‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ :‬ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳝﺜﻠـﻮﻥ ﺭﺍﺱ ﺍﳌـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻬﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺼﺮﺍﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺗﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﻟﻠﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺬﻛﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺴﻌﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺍﱃ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻋﻘﻮﻝ ﺧﱪﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺼﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻬﻴﺌﺎﺓ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﰎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻳﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻻﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1-2-2‬ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ Knowledge Base‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺰﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ ]‪ .[18‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ‪ ،‬ﺧﱪﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﻮﺍﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺤﻮﺍﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ Knowledge Acquisition Facility‬ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋـﱪﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﲔ ]‪ .[19‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﻮﺍﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ]‪. [20‬‬

‫• ﻣﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‪ :‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﻣﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ Inferences engine‬ﻋﻨﺼـﺮ ﺍﻟـﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺎﻡ ‪ Reasoning‬ﻭﺗﺴـﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍﹰ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ]‪ [21‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﱃ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪97‬‬


‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

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‫• ﺍﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ‪ Explanation Facility‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ]‪ [22‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺗـﺰﻭﺩ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻔﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻟﲔ)‪.(How) (Why‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ User interface‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺗﺴـﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ]‪.[23‬‬

‫• ﻣﺎﻛﻨﺔﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‪ :‬ﳚﺮﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﺄﻥ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ‪ The Development engine‬ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ]‪.[24‬‬

‫• ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ Refining System Knowledge‬ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺣﻪ ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﻠﻪ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﱃ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2-2-2‬ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻌﺘﱪﻣﻦ ﳏﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﺩﺧـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﺍﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﱪﻣﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ Knowledge Engineer‬ﲟﻌﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻳﺴـﺘﻨﺒﻂ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺼﻤﻢ ﺍﳕﻮﺫﺟﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ‪‬ﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺒﲑ ]‪ ،[25‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻛﻤﺮﺷﺪ ﻟﻠﺨﺒﲑ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﺸﻔﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻔﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺍﳋﺒﲑ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ‪ The Expert‬ﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻐﺬﻯ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻧﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﱃ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﰲ ﲤﺜﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍ ﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ‪ The User‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 3-2-2‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﺳﺎﺱ ﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ Knowledge Acquisition‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻭﺗﺸﻔﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﺸﺬﻳﺒﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤـﻌﺮﻓﺔ ]‪. [26‬‬

‫• ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻧـﻮﻉ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴـﻴﻢ ﻳﺴـﻌﻰ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻗﺎﻣـﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻣـﺎﹰ ﺻـﺤﻴﺤﺎﹰ‬

‫& ‪Validation‬‬

‫‪Verification‬ﺍﻱ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺩ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ]‪.[27‬‬

‫• ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ Knowledge Representation‬ﻫﻮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﻮﺍﺫ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺩﺧﺎﳍـﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻄﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺩﻻﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫• ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ :‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺧﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻜـﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ‪ Inference‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﻼﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻟﻸﻣﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻒ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ‪ knowledge Explanation‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﳘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻻﰐ‪ :‬ﻳﺴـﺘﻨﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳕﻮﺫﺟﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﻞ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸـﺎﺭﺓ )‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻤﻮﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ( ﻭﺗﻐﺬﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪،‬ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻳﻌﺎﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻣـﺮﺓ ﺍﺧـﺮﻯ‪) .‬ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺗﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﱃ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﰲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺬﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 3‬ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ )ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ( ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳـﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﲬﺴـﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ )ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ(‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ )ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻـﺮ ﻭﺧﺼـﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 1-3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﺣﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﺷـﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺼـﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻـﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬ﻛﺎﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ‪ Mean‬ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﰊ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻋـﻦ ﻣـﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﻧﺲ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﱵ ﺍﺩﱏ ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ‪،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﹰﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 1-1-3‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-1-1-3‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻀﻤﻦ " ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﻌﻜـﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ "ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺓ " ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉـﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (2‬ﻭﻛﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﰐ ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ) ‪ ( 3.397‬ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (2‬ﻭﲟﺪﻯ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ) ‪ ( 0.4‬ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ) ‪ ،( 7‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 2.947‬ﻭﺑﺎﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ، (1.840‬ﻭﲟﺪﻯ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ) ‪ ( 0.1‬ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ) ‪.( 6.6‬‬

‫• ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ) ‪ (3.046‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳـﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪. ( 1.668‬‬

‫‪99‬‬


‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫_________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫• ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﳓـﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﻛـﺎﻥ ) ‪( 3.452‬‬ ‫ﻭ) ‪ ( 1.909‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﲔ ) ‪( 0‬‬

‫ﻭ ) ‪. ( 6.5‬‬

‫• ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ) ‪ ( 2‬ﺍﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ) ‪( 3.230‬‬ ‫ﻭﲟﺪﻯ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ) ‪ (0‬ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ) ‪.( 6.6‬‬

‫ﻭﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺧﱪﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳـﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﱃ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺧﱪ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈـﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﺧﱪﺓ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2-1-1-3‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺕ " ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﻌﻜـﺲ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪.(2‬‬ ‫•ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ﻣـﺎ ﺑـﲔ ) ‪ ( 0‬ﻭ ) ‪ ( 6.6‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻘﻠﻴﻞ ) ‪ ( 3.173‬ﻭﺑﺎﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪.( 1.931‬‬

‫• ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (2‬ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﲔ )‪ (0‬ﻭ)‪ ،(6.6‬ﻭﲟﺘﻮﺳﻂ ) ‪( 2.647‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪.( 1.984‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ ) ‪ ( 3.732‬ﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(1.751‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿـﻴﺔ ﻭ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﳋـﱪﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﲟﺘﻮﺳﻂ ) ‪ ( 4.012‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻻﺩﱏ ) ‪ ( 0‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ) ‪.( 6.9‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺧـﱪﺓ ﺑـﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2-1-3‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻷﰐ ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ) ‪ ( 3.214‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪:‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺘﺸﺘﺖ ﺍﻛـﱪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﺫ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪. ( 1.681‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ " ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ "‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﻞ ﺍﳘﻴـﺔ" ﻟﻨﻈـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2-3‬ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳋﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ‪ :‬ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑـﲔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ﻓﺄﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺄﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﺳﻠﻮﺏ ‪ person‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ‪) .‬ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ( ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ) ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ (‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳋﻄﻲ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺫ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳋﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 1-2-3‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺙ‬ ‫• ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ) ‪(0.05) ،( 0.01‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ،(3‬ﺍﻱ ﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻣﺎﹰ ﻛﺒﲑﹰﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﱃ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (3‬ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ) ‪. (0.05) ، ( 0.01‬‬

‫‪ 2-2-3‬ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ) ‪ (4‬ﻣﺼـﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃـﺎﺕ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ) ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ ( "ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻪ " ﻭﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ) ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ( " ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ " ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻭ ﺭﻓـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ( ﻭﺍﻻﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻼ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﲔ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ 1-2-2-3‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (4‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ‪:‬‬

‫• ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻇﻬﺮﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (4‬ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ﺑﻨﻈـﺎﻡ‬

‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ) ‪ ( 4‬ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺻﻞ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ) ‪ ( 4‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ) ‪ ،( 0.01‬ﻭﺣﻘﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ) ‪(0.455‬‬ ‫ﻭﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ) ‪ ،( 0.01‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴـﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫• ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ( 4‬ﺍﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ) ‪ ،( 0.01‬ﳑﺎ ﺗﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺰﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ) ‪ ( 0.572‬ﻭﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ) ‪ ( 0.01‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﺰﺯ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﺧﱪﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﺳـﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﲔ ﺧﱪﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸـﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ) ‪ ( 0.01‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﻘﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ) ‪ ( 0.01‬ﺍﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪101‬‬


‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

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‫• ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ( 4‬ﲢﻘﻖ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻌـﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻌـﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ) ‪ ،( 0.01‬ﻭﲢﻘﻘﺖ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﺫ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ) ‪ ( 0.686‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺣﻘﻖ ) ‪ ( 20‬ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﻻﻝ ) ‪ ( 0.01‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺻﻞ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ) ‪ ( 20‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2-2-2-3‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ) ‪ ( 5‬ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ )ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ( ﻭﺑـﲔ‬

‫ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ) ‪ ( 5‬ﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ) ‪ ،( 0.01‬ﻭﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿـﻴﺔ ) ‪( 0.691‬‬ ‫ﻭﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ) ‪ ،( 0.01‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﻓﺮﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ )ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ( ﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 4‬ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺰﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻃﺮ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ) ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ ( ﻗﺎﺑﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﳌﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ )ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳـﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ( ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺧﺮﻯ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺆﺷـﺮ ﻟﺼـﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ " ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳـﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻃﺮﺩﻱ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﱃ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺛﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺍﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ " ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ " ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﲑﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺧﺰ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻣـﻦ ﺗﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﺍﻥ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳘﻴـﺔ )ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ( ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ " ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﻻﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻬﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪102‬‬


‫________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ " ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ " ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﲟﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ " ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ " ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ‪ ،‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺤﻮﺍﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﻭﲤﺜﻴﻠـﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺎﺕ–‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺯﺝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﰲ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﺷﻮﻃﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﺞ ﺍﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﲢﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺿـﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ( 1‬ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻨﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪40-31‬‬ ‫‪50-41‬‬ ‫‪60-51‬‬ ‫‪61‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻛﺜﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ‬ ‫ﺩﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪15-11‬‬ ‫‪20-16‬‬ ‫‪25-21‬‬ ‫‪30-26‬‬ ‫‪ 30‬ﻓﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻓﻮﻕ‬

‫‪103‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪42.9‬‬ ‫‪57.1‬‬

‫‪70‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪18‬‬ ‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪17.1‬‬ ‫‪30.0‬‬ ‫‪25.7‬‬ ‫‪24.3‬‬ ‫‪2.9‬‬

‫‪70‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪38‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬

‫‪54.3‬‬ ‫‪45.7‬‬

‫‪70‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪26‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬

‫‪37.1‬‬ ‫‪11.4‬‬ ‫‪12.9‬‬ ‫‪11.4‬‬ ‫‪10.0‬‬ ‫‪17.1‬‬

‫‪70‬‬

‫‪100‬‬


‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫_________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل ) ‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬

‫ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺕ‬

‫‪0.4‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪3.397‬‬

‫‪2.029‬‬

‫‪0.1‬‬

‫‪6.6‬‬

‫‪2.947‬‬

‫‪1.840‬‬

‫‪0.1‬‬

‫‪6.5‬‬

‫‪3.046‬‬

‫‪1.668‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪6.5‬‬

‫‪3.452‬‬

‫‪1.909‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪6.6‬‬

‫‪3.230‬‬

‫‪1.776‬‬

‫‪0.2‬‬

‫‪6.4‬‬

‫‪3.214‬‬

‫‪1.576‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪6.6‬‬

‫‪3.173‬‬

‫‪1.931‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪6.6‬‬

‫‪2.647‬‬

‫‪1.984‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪6.4‬‬

‫‪3.732‬‬

‫‪1.751‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪6.9‬‬

‫‪4.012‬‬

‫‪1.904‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪6.5‬‬

‫‪3.391‬‬

‫‪1.681‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫‪V1‬‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ‬

‫‪V2‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ) ‪ ( 3‬ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1.000‬‬

‫‪0.821‬‬ ‫‪1.000‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪**0.581‬‬ ‫‪*0.740‬‬ ‫‪1.000‬‬

‫‪*0.463‬‬ ‫‪**0.591‬‬ ‫‪**0.527‬‬ ‫‪1.000‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪0.434‬‬ ‫‪0.616‬‬ ‫‪*0.535‬‬ ‫‪**0.778‬‬ ‫‪1.000‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬

‫* ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪P < 0.05‬‬ ‫** ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪P < 0.01‬‬

‫‪104‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪**0.417‬‬ ‫‪**0.528‬‬ ‫‪**0.456‬‬ ‫‪**0.474‬‬ ‫‪**0.533‬‬

‫‪**0.343‬‬ ‫‪**0.458‬‬ ‫‪**0.457‬‬ ‫‪**0.505‬‬ ‫‪**0.537‬‬

‫‪**0.376‬‬ ‫‪**0.510‬‬ ‫‪**0.654‬‬ ‫‪**0.695‬‬ ‫‪**0.723‬‬

‫‪**0.480‬‬ ‫‪**0.537‬‬ ‫‪**0.609‬‬ ‫‪**0.644‬‬ ‫‪**0.656‬‬

‫‪1.000‬‬

‫‪**0.866‬‬ ‫‪1.000‬‬

‫‪**0.630‬‬ ‫‪**0.666‬‬ ‫‪1.000‬‬

‫‪**0.627‬‬ ‫‪**0.622‬‬ ‫‪**0.901‬‬ ‫‪1.000‬‬


‫________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ ( 4‬ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ‪ Person‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ) ﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ( ﻭ ) ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﻪ (‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮات اﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺮﻣﺰ‬

‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻻﻓﺘﺮاﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬

‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬

‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬

‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬

‫اﻻﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬

‫اﻟﻌﺪ‬ ‫د‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫‪**0.417‬‬

‫‪**0.343‬‬

‫‪**0.376‬‬

‫‪**0.480‬‬

‫‪**0.455‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪%100‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫‪**0.528‬‬

‫‪**0.458‬‬

‫‪**0.510‬‬

‫‪**0.537‬‬

‫‪**0.572‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪%100‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ‬

‫‪**0.456‬‬

‫‪**0.457‬‬

‫‪**0.654‬‬

‫‪**0.609‬‬

‫‪**0.609‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪%100‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫‪**0.474‬‬

‫‪**0.505‬‬

‫‪**0.695‬‬

‫‪**0.644‬‬

‫‪**0.649‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪%100‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫‪**0.533‬‬

‫‪**0.537‬‬

‫‪**0.723‬‬

‫‪**0.656‬‬

‫‪**0.686‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪%100‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬

‫اﻻهﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﲨﺎﱄ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫‪V4‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬

‫‪%100‬‬

‫* ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪P < 0.05‬‬ ‫** ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪P < 0.01‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ) ‪ ( 5‬ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ‪ Person‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ) ﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ( ﻭ ) ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﻪ (‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪V1‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫**‪0.562‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫**‪0.535‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫**‪0.686‬‬

‫**‪0.682‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫**‪0.691‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪%100‬‬

‫* ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪P < 0.05‬‬ ‫** ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪P < 0.01‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫]‪ [1‬ﺻﻨﻒ )ﻗﻨﺪﻳﻠﺠﻲ‪ ( 34 : 2002 ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ‪) :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻮﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ( ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﲟﺎ ﻳﻨﺴﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﻮﺛﺔ )ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ( ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺏ )ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﱪﺓ( ‪ ،‬ﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬

‫]‪ [2‬ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻼﱐ‪ ،‬ﺗﻴﺴﲑ‪" ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ"‪ ،‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻓﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪،2003 ،‬ﺹ‪4‬‬

‫]‪ [3‬ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‪ ،‬ﺯﺍﻳﺪ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭ ﺑﻠﺤﺒﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﲪﺪ ﳒﻴﺐ "ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 4:2002‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻂ‪http://www.ac4mit.org ،2005/5/6‬‬

‫"‬

‫"‬

‫]‪ [4‬ﻧﺸﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺣﺴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ‪119 – 117 : 2004 ،‬‬

‫]‪ [5‬ﻧﺸﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺣﺴﲔ ‪ :2004 ،‬ﺹ‪.117‬‬ ‫‪[6] Limon,C.C.," The Virtual University Customized Education in a Nutshell, in "Technology‬‬ ‫‪ Enhanced Learning,Goodman,2002:198‬‬ ‫]‪ [7‬ﻧﺸﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺣﺴﲔ ‪.118 :2004 ،‬‬ ‫‪[8] Turoff,M." Designing a Virtual Classroom", online in 14/09 /2008‬‬ ‫‪http://168.144.129.112/Articles/Designing%20a%20Virtual%20Classroom.rtf‬‬ ‫‪105‬‬


‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫_________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫]‪ [9‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ‪،‬ﻋﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﺻﻔﻲ‪"،‬ﺍﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ" ‪،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫]‪ [10‬ﺳﻼﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ‪" ،‬ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ" ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺯﻭﻱ‪،‬‬

‫‪،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ‪:1996،‬ﺹ ‪6‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ :2002،‬ص‪.107‬‬

‫‪[11] Limon , 2002 , Ibid.: 18‬‬ ‫‪[13] Holt, H.Barrett, B, Yhus, A.O. "The Glottal Virtual University. E- learning for‬‬ ‫‪Sustainable Future", UNEP, 2003, WWW.gra.Unu.edu.‬‬

‫]‪ [14‬ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ )‪ ،(2003‬ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻏﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪:‬ﺹ‪ 1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻂ‪2005/4/11‬‬

‫‪www.gulfkids.com/ar/index.php?action=show_res&r_id=68&topic_id=1294 - 222k – ‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪[14] Limon , 2002 , Ibid: 189‬‬

‫]‪ [15‬ﺍﻧﻴﺲ‪،‬ﺣﺴﲔ‪"،‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ" ‪،‬ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫‪ :2005‬ﺹ‪.237‬‬

‫‪[16] Limon , 2002 , Ibid [15] 200.‬‬ ‫‪[17]Limon, 2002, Ibid: 194-195.‬‬ ‫‪[18] Turban, E, Rainer, R.K., & Potter, R., “Introduction to Information Technology”, SOHN‬‬ ‫‪WILLY & SONS, Inc , USA , 2003. p401‬‬ ‫‪[19] McKeon, P.G & Leitch, R.A,, “Management Information Systems- Managing with‬‬ ‫‪computers”, The Dryden Press. 1993, p3-5.‬‬ ‫‪[20] Dym, C.L., Levitt, R.E., “Knowledge- Based Systems in Engineering” , Mc Graw-Hall,‬‬ ‫‪Inc,USA, 1991, p 15‬‬ ‫‪[21] Dym, C.L & Levitt, R.E., “Knowledge- Based Systems in Engineering”, Mc Graw-Hall, Inc,‬‬ ‫‪1991, p 15‬‬ ‫]‪ [22‬ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﳒﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﺮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻮﻯ ﺍﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ‪“ ،‬ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻳﻪ – ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮ” ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺋﻞ‪،‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ، 2005‬ﺹ ‪.165‬‬

‫]‪ [23‬ﻣﻜﻠﻴﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﳝﻮﻧﺪ ‪“ ،‬ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ” ‪،‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺐ ﺳﺮﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺦ ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‬

‫‪ .2000 ،‬ﺹ‪. 633‬‬

‫]‪ [24‬ﻏﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻭﺣﺠﺎﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺩﻳﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ‪" ، (1999) ،‬ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻳﻪ – ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻱ" ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻣﻄﺒﻌﻪ ﺍﻻﺷﻌﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ‪،‬ﺹ‪.483‬‬

‫‪[25] Dym, C.L., Levitt, R.E., “Knowledge- Based Systems in Engineering”, M Graw-Hall, Inc,‬‬ ‫‪1991. p17‬‬ ‫‪[26]Gains,B.R.,(1990) "Knowledge Acquisition Systems", in Knowledge Engineering ,Volume‬‬ ‫‪(1) ,Fundamentals, Deli, McGraw-Hill Publishing company,‬‬ ‫‪. p66.‬‬

‫]‪ [27‬ﺗﻮﺭﺑﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺮﺍﱘ‪،‬ﻣﻠﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺮﱘ ﻭﻭﻳﺜﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﲨﺲ ‪ "،‬ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ" ﺑﺎﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪،‬ﺹ‪662‬‬

‫‪106‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬

‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻱ ﳏﻤﺪ ﳊﺴﻦ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‪ :‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻌﻮﳌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺃﻻ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴﺰﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲡﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﳕﺎ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﱪ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﻊ ﲢﺪﻩ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲰﻴﺖ ﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ )‪ ،( Large Economic Spaces‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺗﻜﺘﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ )ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺯ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪.‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺘﲔ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ NCMSA‬ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، 1991‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ NAFTA‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ .1994‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ ﺃﻋﻴﺪﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻻﻧﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،ANDEAN‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﲡﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﳑﺜﻼ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ GAFTA‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1997‬ﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ‪ CACM‬ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺄﺳﺴﺖ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ‪ ASEAN‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪، 1992‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻴﻔﻴﻚ ‪ ، APEC‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪، 1994‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ ﻣﻊ ‪ 34‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻟﻸﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺘﲔ ) ‪ ،(FTAA‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﻟﻸﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ؟ ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﲑ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﺄﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ؟‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫" ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫" ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫" ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫" ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫"‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑﻱ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﺑﺪﺀ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻭ ﻭﺻﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺣﻘﺒﱵ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺎﳘﺖ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﳉﻴﻠﲔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫)‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻭ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻳﻀﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﲜﺎﻧﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ‪Viner‬ﻭ ‪ Balasa‬ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ ،J.EMead ,Melvin, Lipsey, Bhagwati, Gehrels‬ﻭ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‬ ‫‪107‬‬


‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬

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‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﻭ ﲢﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ‪The Basic Theory of‬‬ ‫‪ Economic Integration‬ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻤﲔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ ﺑﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪ Jhonson‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻹﳘﺎﳍﻢ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭ ﲢﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﳘﺖ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺗﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱪﻫﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺟﺰﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻘﻨﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪ :‬ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﲡﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺴﺘﻐﲏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ؟‬ ‫‪Cooper,‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻤﻮﺩ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ)‪ ،( Economic Theory of Protectionism‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﲨﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻲ ﻛﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﲪﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﱪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺗﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻌﺠﺰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻮﻛﻼﺳﻴﻜﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺃﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﲪﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﱪﺭ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻳﺮ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻣﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻟﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﲰﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺑﻀﻼﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﳍﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫‪. .1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﺠﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺑﺰﻏﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻜﺮﺓ ﻟﻺﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺘﻠﺘﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻧﺰﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺣﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺟﺘﺎﺣﺖ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﱰﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﰒ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺒﻴﻼ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ ﺑﺈﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺴﻴﻚ‬ ‫)‪ (NAFTA‬ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﳉﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺇﱃ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﲤﻴﺰﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺃﻋﻼﻫﺎ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﲔ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫)‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻐﺎﻓﻮﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺧﺒﻴﻞ ﺭﻳﻮ ﺑﺈﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﲰﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ )‪ (3‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺭﺑﻂ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻐﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺗﺼﻤﻢ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ )‪ .(Open Regionalism‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺛﲑ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺘﻞ ﺃﺑﻴﻚ )‪ ،(APEC‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻬﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫)‪(4‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻭ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫© ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ‪ :Open Membership‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻖ ﻷﻳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫© ﺷﺮﻁ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ‪ :Non-prohibition Clause‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻱ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﲡﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺘﻤﺘﺪ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫© ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ‪ :Selective Liberalization And Open Benefits‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﲡﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ‪ ،MFN‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲟﻴﺰﺓ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺗﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،Continental Trade Blocs‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﲰﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺃﻭﻻﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺗﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫• ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪109‬‬


‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬

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‫ﻭ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺑﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1994‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻫﻮﻧﺞ ﻛﻮﻧﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﺕ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ ﻭ ﺗﺎﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﺘﲔ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻤﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻜﺘﻞ)‪ .(5‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺗﲑﺓ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ %75‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (01‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺇﱃ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻛﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺇﱃ ﳓﻮ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻘﺖ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﺗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﱂ ﻳﺆﺗﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲦﺎﺭﺍ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ)‪:(6‬‬ ‫• ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻜﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﱪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﲡﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻛﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎﺟﺎ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﻛﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻟﻺﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﱪﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺤﺮﻙ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻛﻬﺪﻑ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻲ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺴﻤﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻀﻮ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ NAFTA‬ﻭ ﻋﻀﻮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲡﻤﻊ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺳﻴﻔﻴﻚ ‪ APEC‬ﻭ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 9‬ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺇﱃ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻊ ﻗﻴﻮﺩﺍ ﲪﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 9‬ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 9‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺴﺎﻳﺮ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (02‬ﻳﻠﺨﺺ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺷﻜﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﻫﺎﻣﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﻀﻠﺔ )‪:(7‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﺐ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺟﻨﺪﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲡﺎﻫﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﳍﺎ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﻳﺸﲑﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ Economic Efficiency Gains‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺣﱴ ﲤﺜﻞ ﲰﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻜﺴﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺩﺧﺎﺭ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻻ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻴﺎﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ‪ Static Gains‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﺎ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ‪Economies of Scale‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻻﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.1.3‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪:‬‬ ‫© ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻭﻓﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻓﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﻭ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ‪. Research and Development‬‬ ‫© ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(8‬‬

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‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫©‬

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‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻸﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﻟﻸﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺑﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﲡﺎﺭﻱ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﻛﱪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺿﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﳏﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ‪.‬‬

‫‪.2.3‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻒ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻓﺮﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﰲ‬ ‫)‪(9‬‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫©‬

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‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ‪ EC‬ﻭ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﻬﺖ ﺃﻭﺭﺑﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ‪ EU‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺼﻨﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺑﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺳﺎﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻧﻔﺘﺎﺣﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺗﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﻔﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺎﰐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻭ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺃﻭﺭﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺃﻭﺭﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺷﺠﻊ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﳔﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻇﻢ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﻼﻝ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻛﺸﺮﻁ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ :‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺃﻡ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ؟‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻄﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻭ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ؟ ﻭ ﻫﻞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺒﺎﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ ﲢﺼﻞ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻋﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻫﻞ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﻋﻢ ﻗﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺎﻧﺪ ﻟﻺﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ؟ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺑﻨﻌﻢ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﳌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺸﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﻀﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‪ :24‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺕ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 1994‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‪،‬ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ :05‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ " ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ" ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻈﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﲤﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﲔ ) ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ( ﻭﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳔﺮﺍﻁ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ :05‬ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻔﺘﻘﺪﻩ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﺥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﺍﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻺﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﻞ ﻳﺼﺐ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﻤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭ ﻏﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻭ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 24‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺛﺎﺭﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻲ ﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻭ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻔﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻲ)‪:(10‬‬ ‫• ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ‪ %84‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﳛﺘﻔﻆ ﻛﻞ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪113‬‬


‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫•‬

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‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﺒﲎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ % 08‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ )ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ‪ ( .....‬ﰲ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻃﺒﻌﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳛﺘﻔﻆ ﻛﻞ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﲤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻫﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻭ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫© ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﳉﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫© ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫© ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺯﺍﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳕﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺿﻠﺖ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻟﺖ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺣﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ –ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻮﻛﻼﺳﻴﻜﻲ ﻭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ -‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺇﺑﻼﻍ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 100‬ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1998‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2005‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪312‬‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﺑﻠﻐﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ‪ 170‬ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ 65‬ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺑﻼﻍ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ)‪ .(11‬ﻭ ﺑﺈﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻴﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﺭﻋﺎ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﳕﺖ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 54‬ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2006‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺎﻓﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪.(01‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺎ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ ﻟﻠﻜﺮﺓ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺘﲔ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ )ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺘﲔ( ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﲡﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺓ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ )ﻧﺎﻓﺘﺎ( ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻮ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺴﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ )ﻣﲑﻛﺴﻮﺭ( ﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ )ﺁﻧﺪﻳﺎﻥ(‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻓﻴﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪.02‬‬ ‫‪114‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ‪ ،Intra-regional Trade‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ‪ % 40‬ﰲ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﳕﻮﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ‪ % 48‬ﻋﺎﻣﻲ ‪ 2005-2003‬ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪﻩ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻳﻀﻢ ‪ 25‬ﺑﻠﺪﺍ ﻋﻮﺽ ‪ 15‬ﰲ ﻣﺎﻱ ‪ ،2004‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 3470‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 5137‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2005‬ﻟﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 7602‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻣﻊ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ‪ ،2007‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪.03‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ )ﺍﻵﺳﻴﺎﻥ( ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﳑﺎﺛﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‪ 211‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 305‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2005‬ﻭﺗﺼﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2007‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 437‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ % 44‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺴﻴﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﲑﺍ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1308‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 1634‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2005‬ﰒ ‪2040‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻣﻊ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ‪ ،2007‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ % 25‬ﻓﻘﻂ)‪.(12‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ‪ %62.8‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2007‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ‪ % 60.6‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﻭ ‪% 45‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2007‬ﻟﺘﺼﻞ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﺇﱃ ‪ % 25.7‬ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‪.03‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻮ "ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ" ﺃﻭ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﻘﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﳜﻠﻖ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺳﻮﻯ ‪ %10‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2005‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ)‪.(04‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻼﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻸﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﺓ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻓﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ –ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻴﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭ ﺃﻻ ﲣﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻓﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﻴﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﲢﻞ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻮﻥ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺻﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﳏﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ )ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻊ( ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺟﻠﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺫﻭ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪115‬‬


‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬

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‫ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ ﻷﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺍ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺸﺄ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺅﻩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ –ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪ -‬ﻳﻜﻔﻼﻥ ﻟﻸﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻛﺤﻖ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪﺕ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﲪﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻺﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻠﱯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺸﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻛﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻓﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪......‬‬ ‫• ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﲣﻀﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ ﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﻣﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﻹﳚﺎﺩ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﳌﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺒﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ)‪. (13‬ﻭ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ‪ .‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺮﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ .‬ﻭ ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﻭ ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺖ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺮﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ) ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ( ﻭ ﲬﺲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﱂ ﲣﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺟﻴﺒﻮﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫)‪(14‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻮﺭﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ(‬ ‫• ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻨﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺟﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﻏﻮﺍﻱ ﻭ ﻣﺆﲤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲤﺖ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻻﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ ، TRIPS‬ﻭ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑـ ‪ . TRIPS PLUS‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ‪.TRIPS‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺎﱂ ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻌﻨﻴﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺩ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻮ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻤﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ؟ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﳌﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻧﻄﺒﺎﻋﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺮﻉ ﳓﻮ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﻣﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺪﺭﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ‪ ،‬ﲡﺎﺭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ؟ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﱐ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻭ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1.2‬ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻜﺘﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫™ ﺃﻭﳍﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎ؟‬ ‫™ ﻭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻻ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺳﺘﺘﺤﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﻭ ﲣﻀﻊ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻠﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻭ ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻺﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻭ ﻟﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﰲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﺘﺒﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫)‪(15‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﻣﻀﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ –ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻺﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﳝﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﻣﺢ‬ ‫)‪(16‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪117‬‬


‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬

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‫ﺟﺬﺏ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﲨﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺺ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺜﻤﺔ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﳜﻠﻖ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫)‪(17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻊ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﺕ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﲔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﻓﺮﺹ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ ﳜﻔﺾ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻭ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻥ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻼﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﺰﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﺰﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.2.2‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﻃﺮﰲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳌﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﲔ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(18‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻘﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺑﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺎ ﺑﻔﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫• ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻄﻠﻊ ﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﲡﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻲ‪ Shallow Integration ،‬ﻟﺘﺸﺘﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ ‪ Deep Integration‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨﺖ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﻭ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺧﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻃﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻟﺘﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻜﺎﺯ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻞ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺃﻱ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺗﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﱪ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪ - Economic Integration process -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻘﻘﺖ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﲦﺎﺭ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ﻭﺗﺸﺎﺑﻜﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ –‬ ‫– ‪ Effeciency Gains‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺣﱴ ﲤﺜﻞ ﲰﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﺴﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻭﺍﻻﺩﺧﺎﺭ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﺍﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﺍﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪119‬‬


‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬

‫_________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻻ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻴﺎﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ‪ –Static Gains-‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﺎ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ – ‪ – Economies of scale‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻻﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ :(01‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻕ ﺃﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻴﻔﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻤﻲ‬

‫ﺩﻭﻝ‬

‫ﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﻳﱯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﴰﺎﻝ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪20‬‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‬

‫‪08‬‬

‫ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫‪48‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬

‫‪02‬‬

‫‪06‬‬

‫‪05‬‬

‫‪08‬‬

‫‪04‬‬

‫‪04‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬

‫‪07‬‬

‫‪12‬‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪29‬‬

‫‪09‬‬

‫‪09‬‬

‫‪29‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪World Bank, Global Economic Prospects, Washitington, 2005, p : 24 :‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ : (02‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ƒ‬ ‫ƒ‬ ‫ƒ‬ ‫ƒ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺣﻼﻝ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﺖ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺟﺰ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺮﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﳕﻮﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪:‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ƒ‬ ‫ƒ‬ ‫ƒ‬ ‫ƒ‬ ‫ƒ‬

‫‪S.Lawrence ,Op.cit, P18‬‬

‫‪120‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬

‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻗﻠﻢ‪.‬‬


‫________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ )‪ :(03‬ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪) 2007،2005،2003‬ﲟﻠﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭﺍﺕ‪(% ،‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪2007‬‬ ‫‪2005‬‬ ‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪437‬‬ ‫‪304.6‬‬ ‫‪211.1‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪2007‬‬ ‫‪2005‬‬ ‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪25.7‬‬ ‫‪25.5‬‬ ‫‪25.1‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‬

‫‪3470‬‬

‫‪5137‬‬

‫‪7602‬‬

‫‪60.6‬‬

‫‪64.1‬‬

‫‪62.8‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺘﺎ‬

‫‪1308‬‬

‫‪1634‬‬

‫‪2042‬‬

‫‪44.8‬‬

‫‪43.0‬‬

‫‪45.1‬‬

‫ﺍﻵﺳﻴﺎﻥ‬

‫‪Source: - ESCWA, based on IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2005; and IMF, Direction of Trade‬‬ ‫‪Statistics Quarterly,2006, p:102‬‬ ‫‪- World Trade Organisation, Annual Repport, Jenneva, 2008, p: 139.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(01‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪:‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻨﻴﻒ‪ ،2007،‬ﺹ‪.34 :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ :(02‬ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪:‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻨﻴﻒ‪ ،2007،‬ﺹ‪.67 :‬‬

‫‪121‬‬


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‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬: (03) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ 2007 ،2005 ،2003 ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ 64,1

62,8

60

50

44,8

43

40

30

45,1 2003 2005 2007

25,1

25,5

‫ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ‬:(04) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ .2003-1983 ‫ﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ -1983) ‫ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ اﻟﺠﻤﺮآﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻨﻮع اﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬ (2003

70 60,6

‫ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬: ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬

25,7

20

‫اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎت اﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎت ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة اﻷﻃﺮاف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬

10

0 ‫اﻵﺳﻴﺎن‬

‫اﻹﺗﺤﺎد اﻷوروﺑﻲ‬

‫اﻟﻨﺎﻓﺘﺎ‬

.03 ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ‬:‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‬

The World Bank, Global Economic Prospects, :‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‬ Making Regionalism Complementary, washington, 2006, p :52.

:‫ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ .23 ‫ ﺹ‬،2004‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬،‫ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬،"‫ "ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬،‫( ﺳﺎﻣﻲ ﻋﻔﻴﻔﻲ ﺣﺎﰎ‬1) .17 ‫ ﺹ‬،2001 ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻷﻫﺮﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬،"‫ "ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬،‫( ﺃﳝﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ‬2) (3) Alen Winters, "Regionalism Versus Multilateralism", Working Paper N: 1687,International Trade Division , International Economics Department, The World Bank, Washington D.C, 1996, pp:2-3. (4) J.Frank and Shang-Jin Wei, "Open Regionalism in a world of Continental Trade Blocs", IMF Working Paper WP/98/10, Geneva, 1998,p:08. (5) Lawrence Summers, "Regionalism and The World Trading System", Policy implication of trade and currency zones, Studies of Federal Bank of Kamas City, 1991, pp:295-302. (6) Panl Krugman, "The More Toward Free Trade Zones", Policy implication of trade and currency zones, Studies of Federal Bank of Kamas City, 1991, pp:6-5. (7) Laucian Cernat, "Assessing Regional Trade Arrangements: Are South-South RTAs More Trade Diverting", Study series No: 16, Division on International Trade in Good and Services, UNCTAD, New York, 2001, p:03. (8) C.Carnnen, "Regional Economic Integration", published in 26-03-2005, File/A/Regional Economic Integration, htt/www.du.edul-ccacho/curent.html,pp:1-2. (9) I bid, p:05.

‫ "ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ‬،(‫ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ )ﺍﻻﺳﻜﻮﺍ‬، ‫( ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬10) .138 ‫ ﺹ‬،2007 ‫ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‬،"2006 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬

(11) Je-Ann Crawford and Roberto V.fiorentino, "The Changing Landscape of Regional Trade Agreement", World Trade Organization", Discussion Paper N:08, 2005, p:12. (12) World Trade Organisation, Annual Repport, Jenneva, 2008, p: 139 (13) Laurence Summers, Op Cit, p:308. (14) Mariane Hmarchand, "The Political Economy of New Regionalism", The Third World Quarterly, London 2005, p:209. (15) S.L Baier, "The New Regionalism: Causes and consequences", A paper written for The Inter-American Development Bank and CEP conference, University of Notre-Dame, 2006,p:14.

.149 ‫ ﺹ‬،1998 ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬،‫ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬،"‫ ﺃﻧﺸﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬:‫ "ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬،‫( ﺣﺴﲔ ﻋﻤﺮ‬16) ‫ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬،"‫ "ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬،‫( ﲰﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﻮﺯﻱ‬17) .09 ‫ ﺹ‬،2002 ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬،‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ (18)

S.L. Bair, Op Cit, p:08.

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪-‬‬

‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﻭﺣﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﺓ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ‪ :‬ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑـ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ"‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻜـﻲ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ) ﺃﻭﻻ( ﰒ ﲢﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ)ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ( ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﺧﻼ ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ؛ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻭﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻋﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳍﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻐﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳒﺪ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﳏﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﻫﻴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩﺓ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻨﺔ ﺑﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ(‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺿﺎﻓﺖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﺔ ﻭ‪ /‬ﺃﻭ ﳏﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺗﻜﺮﻳﺲ ﺻﺮﺡ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﰐ ﻟﻪ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻭﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ؟ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ؛‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ؛‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ‪- :‬‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻜﺘﺴﻲ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿـﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﺬ ﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .1-1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺆﲤﺮ ﺭﻳﻮﺩﻱ ﺟﺎﻧﲑﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1992‬ﺃﻋﻄـﻰ ﺻـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸـﺮﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻬﻴﺊ ﻟﻸﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﴰﻠﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺑﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧـﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪123‬‬


‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫»ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻻﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼـﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻩ«‪.1‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ‪» :‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟـﱵ ‪‬ـﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗـﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ)ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ(ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺮ ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻀﻮﺏ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻧﻀﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌـﱰﻝ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﻻ«‪ .2‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻛﺮﻛﻴﺰﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ‪» :‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺯﺍﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ«‪.3‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻣﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤـﻊ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﲟﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.4‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻮﺍﺭﺉ ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﻘﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻃﺎﺭﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻛﻠﻪ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﱰﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﻨﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻮﺍﺟﺰ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻠﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺗﺂﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻃﺊ ﻭﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺸـﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻹﺯﺍﻟـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻟﻐﺎﻡ‪...‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺸﻴﻴﺪ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﻲ‪،‬‬‫ﻭﲡﻨﺐ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻴﺪﺓ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻮﺍﺯﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ(‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﲟﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﻼﺀ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪.‬ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺑﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻛـﺎﻵﰐ‪ : 5‬ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺔ ﺃ )‪ : (Category-A‬ﺗﺸـﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺧﺰﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻭﳏﻄـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﺊ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺏ )‪ : (Category-B‬ﺗﺸـﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺸـﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻭﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﶈﻮﺭﻳـﺔ ﻭ ﺇﻗﺎﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﺃﺣﺠﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔﺝ )‪ :(Category-C‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ )ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ‪ /‬ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ‪ /‬ﺻﺮﻑ ﺻﺤﻲ ( ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺩ )‪ : (Category-D‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺸـﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺗﺸﺠﲑ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﶈﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﱰﻫﺎﺕ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ....‬ﺇﱁ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺈﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‪.‬‬‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﻳﺪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻹﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2-1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻮﺭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﲤﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1978‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻲ ﺣﺎﺟـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ«‪ ،6‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ )ﳉﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻭﻧﺘﻼﻧﺪ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﱯ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ«‪ .7‬ﻭﰲ‪1987‬ﻋﺮﻓﺘـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ‪» :‬ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﱯ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ«‪ .8‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ )ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﻼﻧﺪ( ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﻬـﻮﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ "ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ" ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1987‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪» :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛـﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻗـﺪﺭﺍﺗﻨﺎ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻻ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ«‪.9‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻧﺸﺄ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻘﺪﺗﻪ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1972‬ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻛﻬﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪113‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻌـﺪﻫﺎ ﻣـﺆﲤﺮ‬‫ﺭﻳﻮﺩﻱ ﺟﺎﻧﲑﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻞ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﻥ ‪1992‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺘﺠﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ "ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ" ﲟﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﺩﺭﺟﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺟﻨـﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﻟﱪﻭﺯ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ : 1968‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﺎﺩﻱ ﺭﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲨﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺩﻋﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺟـﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﲝـﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﲣﺺ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : 1972‬ﻧﺎﺩﻱ ﺭﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺸﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﺍ ﻣﻔﺼﻼ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻳﻨﺸﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪ 2100‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺳﻮﻑ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺧﻠﻼ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸـﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺴـﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﻧﻀﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪...‬ﺍﱁ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰎ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻛﻬﻮﱂ‪ ،‬ﰎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : 1987‬ﰎ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪125‬‬


‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ : 1992‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ )ﺗﺸﺮﻧﻮﰊ ﻣﺜﻼ( ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻌﻘﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻞ ﰲ ﺭﻳﻮ ﺩﻱ ﺟﺎﻧﲑﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻀﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 100‬ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭ‪ 30‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : 2002‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪100‬ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ ﺟﻮﻫﺎﻧﺰﺑﻮﺭﻍ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀـﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ‪-:‬‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﲡﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪. 1-2‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺗﻌﲏ‪" :‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘـﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻹﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳـﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻭﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ"‪.10‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﻴﻎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﲟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2-2‬ﻣـﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳـﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 1-2-2‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪:‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﲟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪.I‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﳐﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ)ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ( ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﻢ‪...‬ﺍﱁ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﰐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﰒ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﺠﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﲢﺪﺩ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪.II‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ) ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪ ....‬ﺍﱁ( ‪.‬‬‫ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪.‬‬‫ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﰲ ﺃﻃﺮ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺧﻄﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺃﻳﺔ ﺧﻄﻂ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺮ ﺑﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ‪...‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪.III‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻭﺽ ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻯ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ‬ ‫‪.IV‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﶈﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ -‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺿﻴﻔﺖ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‪ -‬ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ﻣﺎﱄ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﺋﺘﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﲢﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﻗﺪ ﲢﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﲟﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﺋﺘﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪2.2-2‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﲢﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫‪.I‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﳍﺎ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺼﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻴﺴﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﳌﻼﺀﺓ )ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺽ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺽ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﰎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﻭﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺧﻄﺔ ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﲑ)‪ : (IBRD‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﲑ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺃﻛﱪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1945‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻨﻚ ﲤﻠﻜﻪ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ 183‬ﺑﻠﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺘﺮﺿﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺘﻌﲔ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺪﺍ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ‪ .12‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﻪ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﲪﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،1970‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺣﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ 1989‬ﰲ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﲰﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﳎﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ 189‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻘﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2002‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2001‬‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺸﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‪.‬‬‫ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺏ‪.‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻘﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﲟﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫‪127‬‬


‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1999‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ‪ 1763‬ﻗﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﺈﲨﺎﱄ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ‪52 384‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ‪85‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.13‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﳐﺼﺺ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺭ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺑﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻟﻠﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪-‬ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ‪ :‬ﳝﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻭﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺑﺮﻣﺖ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺿﻪ ﳋﻤﺲ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺛﻠﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺤﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺩ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬‫ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻬﺎ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2001‬‬‫ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ‪ 9‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﻮﺭﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺮﺓ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 561.7‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﺭﻭ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪ ،14‬ﺪﻑ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﺼﺺ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫‪ 580‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﺭﻭ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪.METAP‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺽ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺮ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻗﺎﲰﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻚ ﻟﻸﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪-2001‬‬ ‫‪ 2015‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2002‬ﻭﺗﻨﺒﺜﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺖ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 2002‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 5.6‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﺼﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ‪ 4.5‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ 250‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺎ ﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺣﺼﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪ 8‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺽ‪ .15‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻀﻮ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1999‬ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻓﺘﺢ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻣﺞ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻀﻢ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻴﺴﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ ‫‪.II‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﻌﺮ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ‪،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﳍﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺬ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺑﺴﻌﺮ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﻡ ﻷﻓﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺢ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺭﺑﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ 6‬ﻭ‪ 7‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻑ ﺻﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2002‬ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪ 10‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ 0.83‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺎ‪،16‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻡ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ 189‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻘﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻗﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪-‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ) ‪ : (FEM‬ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺳﻨﺔ‪1990‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﶈﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺼﺪﻯ ﻷﺭﺑﻊ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﺣﺮﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪AME‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:17‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺢ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫‪.III‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪: 18‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻤﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬‫ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ) ‪. (ICPA‬‬‫ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﻴﺪﺍ ‪.MEDA‬‬‫ﺏ‪.‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ)‪: (ONU‬ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬‫ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﲢﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫‪.IV‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﱪﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻭﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺳﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺣﻮﺯ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫‪129‬‬


‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪-:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﻣﻲ ﺇﱃ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1-3‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﰎ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﻠﻮﺙ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳊﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻮﺯﻉ ﰲ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1996‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ‪128‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ‪119‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ‪ 20‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺧﻄﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﻧﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﺔ ‪ ،2004-2001‬ﻳﺮﻣﻲ ﳐﻄﻂ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺑﺔ ‪ 970‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ) ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 320‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ‪ 50‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻩ ‪ 0.69‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 1998‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩﻧﺎ ﲢﺘﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﲤﺲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ‪ 09 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺝ‪.‬‬‫ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﺽ ‪ 8,2 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺝ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ‪ 5,5 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺝ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ‪ 03:‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭﺩﺝ‪.‬‬‫ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ‪ 1,7 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺝ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ‪ 1,2 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﳌﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪ ،1992‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﺮﺓ)‪ ،(TAPD‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﲡﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺟﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪2003،2002،2000‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪:19‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺇﺧﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﻴﺔ )‪ : (TEOM‬ﻭﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ‪640‬ﺩﺝ ﻭ ‪1 000‬ﺩﺝ‪/‬ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‬‫‪/‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺭﺳﻢ ﲢﻔﻴﺰﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪2002‬ﺑـ ‪:‬‬‫‪24 000‬ﺩﺝ ‪/‬ﻃﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 2002‬ﺑـ ‪:‬‬‫‪10 500‬ﺩﺝ‪/‬ﻃﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻨﺢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﻞ ﻣﻬﻠﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـﺜﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﰎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،2004‬ﻭﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻭﻋﺎﺅﻩ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺑـ ‪ 10.5 :‬ﺩﺝ‪/‬ﻛﻎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫‪130‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺏ‪.‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ )‪ : (TAPD‬ﻭﳜﻀﻊ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﱄ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻭﺉ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،2000‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺑـ ‪9000 :‬ﺩﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻭ‪20 000‬ﺩﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻱ ﻭ‪120 000‬ﺩﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪.‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﰎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،2003‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﳛﺴﺐ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 30‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﺍﺗﺎﻭﺓ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،1993‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﺗﺎﻭﺓ ﲡﱮ ﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﺼﻞ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ )ﺑﻠﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﻮﻳﺔ( ﻭﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﲤﻠﻚ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻐﻞ ﺁﺑﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺗﺎﻭﻯ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ‪ 4‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻓﺎﺗﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬‫ ‪ 2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻓﺎﺗﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻏﻮﺍﻁ‪،‬‬‫ﻏﺮﺩﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺪﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﻣﻨﻐﺎﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺩﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺑﺴﻜﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ )‪ : (FEDEP‬ﰎ ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲡﺴﻴﺪ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،2001‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 75‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 75‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﰲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ‪ 75‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﱰﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ ‪ 50‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ 20.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻓﺘﺘﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺇﲨﺎﻻ ﰲ ‪:‬‬‫ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻒ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬‫ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﻊ‪.‬‬‫ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺠﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﻣﺎ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﲤﻨﺢ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻬﺪ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻐﻄﻲ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻓﻴﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪131‬‬


‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺏ‪.‬ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻟﻺﻗﻠﻴﻢ )‪ : (FNAT‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪،1995‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺟﻪ ﳌﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑـ ‪:‬‬ ‫*ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻭﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻲ ) ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ( ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻼﻭﺍﺕ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻓﺘﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑـ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﺠﺎﻝ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺕ‪.‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ )‪ : (CEAT‬ﻭﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪.‬ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻃﺊ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻃﺊ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.2‬ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.3‬ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻃﺊ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.4‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺠﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻱ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺟﺊ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(FNPLZC‬‬

‫‪ :‬ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻩ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،2003‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬

‫ﺝ‪.‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﻮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﺒﻴﺔ )‪ : (FLDDPS‬ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻩ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،2002‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺼﺺ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺎﱄ ﺃﻭﱄ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪500 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺪﻋﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑـ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ ‪.‬‬‫ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺪﺍ ﺧﻴﻞ ﻣﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺷﻲ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪2-3‬ﻣﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻋﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﺆﲤﺮ ﺩﻭﱄ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻸﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ )‪ ،( PNAE-DD‬ﺑﻔﻨﺪﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ‪17‬ﻭ‪ 18‬ﺟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ 2002‬ﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ‪.FEM‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪.FADES‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ‪.FSD‬‬ ‫• ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪.FMA‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ‪.FIDA‬‬ ‫‪132‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ‪.BEI‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ‪.BAD‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪.BID‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﺼﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ 34 BEI‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﲤﻮﻳﻼﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺣﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2001‬ﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ 1997‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺑـ ‪ 733 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪869‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﻭ ﻟﺘﻮﻧﺲ ﻭ‪ 977‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﻭ ﻟﻠﻤﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ)‪ ،(FADES‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻛﺪ ﳑﺜﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﲑ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺢ ‪ 5.1‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺑـ ‪7 :‬ﻣﻼﻳﲔ ﺃﻭﺭﻭ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﺖ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﺎﳓﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺒﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎ ﻭﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺗﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،BID‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻗﺮﺿﺎ ﲟﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 32.07‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ"ﺑﻮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺩ ﺭﻳﻎ" ﺑﺘﻘﺮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ ﺳﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﺣﻔﺮ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻻﳒﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1975‬ﻗﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ 2.2 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪1.7‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺧﺼﺺ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ) ‪ : (CPI‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻮﺣﻈﺖ ﰲ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺮﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1995‬ﻭﺑﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺟﻬﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫"ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺽ ﲟﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 78‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪1996/09/11‬ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﻥ‪(19)1997‬ﻭﰎ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﲰﺪﺓ ‪35 : ASMIDAL‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ‪32,5: ENSIDAR‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ 10,5: MATE‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﲔ ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﰐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲟﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﲰﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳎﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺟﺎﻧﻔﻲ‪ ،2005‬ﻭﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﰐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﰎ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬‫ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﳐﱪﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﻭ ﻋﻨﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺎﳘﺖ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺮﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﲰﻴﺪﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ‬‫ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺙ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ ﻭﺍﳉﺰﻳﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮ‪ ،‬ﳏﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺑﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﲢﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺑﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺪﺩﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪133‬‬


‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪ 600 000 :‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﻠﻔﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳌﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬‫ ﳐﻄﻂ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﲤﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﲟﺴﺘﻐﺎﱎ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﺽ ﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﳍﻀﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﳏﻄﺎﺕ‬‫ﺗﻄﻬﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺭﺓ ﲟﻐﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻠﻤﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺳﻄﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ AL2821‬ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ 250‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﲟﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﰲ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﺪﻥ ﻭ‪ 22‬ﳏﻄﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ ﺭﻗﻢ‬‫‪ AL3743‬ﲟﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 110‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﰐ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﻠﻒ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻗﺪﺭ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ‪19‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﺮﺽ ﲟﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 89‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ‪.1997‬‬‫ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ‪ :‬ﻫﺒﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻼﻳﲔ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ‪20‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳊﻈﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻟﺔ ‪ :‬ﻫﺒﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻼﻳﲔ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ )‪ (PNUD‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ‪:‬‬‫ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﳉﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﻫﺒﺔ ﲟﺒﻠﻎ ‪900 000‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺗﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺑـ ‪ 1,8 :‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻫﺒﺔ ﲟﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 300 000‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ -1-‬ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺿﻨﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻛﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﲣﻠﻮ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳍﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻛﺮﻛﻴﺰﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺍﶈﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻠﻤﺲ ﺿﺂﻟﺔ ﻭﻧﻘﺺ ﻛﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻂ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻗﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﲣﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﳕﻮ ﺍﳊﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳛﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﲔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﱪﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﲜﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻮﺟﺰﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 - 2009 / 07‬‬

‫‪ %‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻲ ﺃﱄ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ‪،‬ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ %‬ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ %‬ﺇﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺇﺣﺴﺎﺳﻪ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﻱ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ %‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ – ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﲜﺪ ﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﳊﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﰲ ﻧﻔﻮﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﱰﱄ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﺕ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻋﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ :1‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬

‫ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺗﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﻭ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﻬﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﰐ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻭﺩ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﱐ )‪(GTZ‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪.‬‬‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ)‪(PNUD‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪547.600.000‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬

‫‪10.000.000‬ﻣﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫‪ 1.862.000‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ )ﲡﻬﻴﺰ ‪ 04‬ﳐﺎﺑﺮ ﻣﻴﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ‬‫‪591.296‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺮﻳﺎﻝ ‪ 12.500.000‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،1999 ،02:‬ﺹ‪.26:‬‬ ‫‪ 439.000‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-1‬ﺃﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻟﻄﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،01:‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،2005 ،‬ﺹ‪.33:‬‬ ‫‪-2‬ﺯﻳﻨﺐ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻷﺷﻮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،2003 ،‬ﺹ‪112.:‬‬ ‫‪135‬‬


_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

Le Management environnemental au .GUYONNARD Françoise Marie, WILLARD Frédirique,3 développement durable des entreprises , ADEME, France, 2005, p : 05

‫ ﺟﺎﻧﻔﻲ‬،‫ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬،25:‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬،03:‫ﻠﺪ‬‫ ﺍ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬،‫ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺑﺎﺑﻜﺮ‬-4 http://www.arab-,api.org/devbrdg/a_development_bridge.htm,03/04/2006,،2004 ..13.‫ ﺹ‬،1995 ،‫ ﻣﺼﺮ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬،01: ‫ ﻁ‬،‫ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﻋﺰﺓ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ‬،‫ ﲰﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺮﺍﻭﻱ‬-5 ،2000 ،‫ ﻣﺼﺮ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬،1:‫ ﻁ‬،‫ﺎﺀ ﺷﺎﻫﲔ‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‬،‫ﺩﻭﺟﻼﺱ ﻣﻮﺳﺸﻴﺖ‬-6 17. :‫ﺹ‬ ،1993‫ ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ‬،4: ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬،20 : ‫ﻠﺪ‬‫ ﺍ‬، ‫ ﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻦ‬،‫ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‬،‫ﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺳﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬-7 7. -6 : ‫ﺹ‬.‫ﺹ‬ 8-CHAOUCHE Yelles, ZOHRA Fatima, Utilisation des ressources naturelles et des énergie renouvelables en économie de l' environnement, Séminaire national de Economie de l'environnement et développement durable, centre universitaire de MEDIA le 06-07Juin2006, p : 01.

،‫ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬:‫ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ‬،(‫ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺯﻝ) ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬،‫ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﳕﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ‬-9 07.:‫ ﺹ‬،2004 ‫ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺯﻝ) ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲟﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬،‫ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﳕﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ‬-10 97.-08:‫ﺹ‬.‫ ﺹ‬،2004 ‫ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‬، ‫ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬،(‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ 14.:‫ ﺹ‬،2001،‫ ﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻦ‬،01: ‫ﻠﺪ‬‫ ﺍ‬،2001‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‬-11 .193:‫ ﺹ‬،2003 ،‫ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬،‫ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬،1:‫ ﻁ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﺑﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺭ‬-12 13http://www.bcie.org/spanish/oej/documentos/OEJ_PPT_133_2007_PPT_tendencias.pdf

16/06/2006, 14-SMAHI Ahmed , BENAYAD Samir, Financement du développement durable et lutte contre la pauvreté en Algérie(une voie vers la réalisation des OND), Séminaire national d'économie de l'environnement et développement durable, centre universitaire de MEDIA le 06-07Juin2006, p:07. 15-Ministère de L'Aménagement du Territoire et de L'Environnement, Rapport sur l'état et l'avenir de l'environnement (RNE) 2003,., p.p : 320. 16-Ministère Des Finances, Ministère De L'Aménagement Du Territoire et de L'Environnement, Arrête interministériel fixant la nomenclature des recettes et dépenses du fonds national pour l'environnement et la dépollution, article : n°2, Algérie, 17/06/2002, p : 01. 17-Ministère De L'Aménagement Du Territoire et De L'Environnement, L'Algérie de 2020(un projet d'aménagement du territoire intégrant les enjeux d'un développement durable), ..Algérie, date d'édition inconnu, p.p : 40-41 18-Office National de L'Irrigation et du Drainage(ONID), Projet OUD RIGH (Réalisation des travaux d'aménagement de la vallée de l'oued righ, Algérie, 2006, p : 02. 19-Ministère de l'Aménagement du Territoire et de L'Environnement, Rapport d'audit sur les opération financières relatives au projet " contrôle de la pollution industrielle", Algérie, date d'édition inconnu, p : 02.

.26 : ‫ ﺹ‬،1999 ،‫ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬،02 : ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬، ‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‬،‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬-20

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 -2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ – ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ –‬ ‫ﺃ‪/‬ﻣﻮﻻﻱ ﳋﻀﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺻﺪﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﺎﺡ ﺑﻮﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻮﻧﻮﺓ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ‪:‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻠﻘﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻠﻤﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ‪:‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻞ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﺰﺩﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻓﺮﺹ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻞ ﻭ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪,‬ﻓﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﻈﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﲢﺚ ﻭﻃﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪:‬ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ‪ ,‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪,‬ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪,‬ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ,‬ﺍﳋﻮﺻﺼﺔ‪...,‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺓ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﲢﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎ ﹰﻃﹰﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻭﻭﺛﻴ ﹰﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﻮﱘ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪,‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﻠﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﻴﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻣﻨﻔﺬ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﲟـﺎ ﻳﻜﻔـﻞ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺧﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺧﻠﻖ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‪,‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﲣﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺐﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ,‬ﻏﲑ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻇﻠﺖ ﻣﺘﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺼـﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﻈﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻧﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺩ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ؟‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻀﻠﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﰲ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻄـﺮﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-1-1‬ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺩﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻫﻲ‪:1‬‬ ‫­ ﺇﺧﻔﺎﻕ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫­ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫­ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﱪﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﲤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪.2‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﲝﺎﻻﺕ "ﻓﺸﻞ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ" ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺧﻠﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫‪137‬‬


‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ –ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪-‬‬

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‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲟﻌﲎ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﳌﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﳌﻀﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﻭﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ,‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﻴﺔ( ‪,‬ﻭ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻫﻢ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﱴ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﺎﻟﺒﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﻭ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻳﱪﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪....‬ﺍﱁ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﰲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻭ ﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﻓﻼﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻔﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺑﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻭ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﳐﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﻭ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-2-1‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪ :‬ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﳏﻮﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺗﺆﻫﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺭﻳـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺷﱴ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺛﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘـﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳋﺼﺨﺼﺔ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺰﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪,‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺧﻠﺺ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻹﳚـﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﻛـﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﺒـﺎﻁ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺈﺩﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﻴﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (1‬ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﴰﻠﺖ ‪ 50‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺟﺪﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﲝﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 15‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ‪ 5‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪11.9‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺑﲔ ‪ 3‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻭ‪ 5‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺇﱃ ‪9.9‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ‪ 3‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪138‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 -2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﻋـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ‪.3‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﰲ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ؛ ﻓﻌﱪ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻓﺮﺹ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪,‬ﻭ ﻳﻮﺻﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ) ‪ ( 2005‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻭﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﲢﻔﻴﺰ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺷـﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺭﺍ ﻳﺸﻜﻼﻥ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻓﺸﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻒ‬‫ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬‫ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫⇐ ‪ -‬ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫⇐ ‪ -‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‬‫ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺇﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﲟﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ "ﳎﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻭ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺹ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ"‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪: 5‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‪:‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺳـﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻹﲨـﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍ ﺗﻔﺎﺅﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﳑﺎ ﳛﻔـﺰﻫﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ "ﺟﺮﺗﲔ" ﻭ"ﻓﻴﻼﻧﻮﻓﺎ" )‪ (Greene and Villanueva 1991‬ﺩﻻﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭ ﲤﺘﺪ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻥ ﺑـﺎﻗﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﲰﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ‪.6‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻻﺣﻘﺔ ﻟﺬﺍ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺇﱃ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰎ ﺗﺪﺑﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺫﺍﺗﻴـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺑـﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﺠﺰﺓ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﻓﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻤﺎﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﱯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺣﲔ ﺷﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺣﱴ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﻮﻛﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﲣﻔـﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻊ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ "ﻣﺎﻛﻴﻨﻮﻥ ‪-‬ﺷﻮ" ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺗﺒﲎ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﲔ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪,‬ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸـﻮﻫﺎﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﺩﻯ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺟﺒـﺔ ‪‬ـﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫‪139‬‬


‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ –ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪-‬‬

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‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺳﺘﺆﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﻒﺀ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺭﲝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﱯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺳﻔﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﺎﻡ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪.7‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﲤﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻋﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﲢﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌـﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺳﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﻔﺾ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ "ﺑﺎﰲ" )‪ (Buffe 1986‬ﺃﻥ ﺧﻔـﺾ ﺍﻟﺴـﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﺘﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻺﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻸﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺳـﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘـﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻹﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﳋﻔﺾ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺳﺆﺍﻻ ﲡﺮﻳﺒﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ‪ :‬ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻻﺩﺧﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﻭﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺩﺧـﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻟﻼﺩﺧﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﻢ‬ ‫–ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ – ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺪﺧﺮﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻀـﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺭﺑـﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ ﺗﻮﻗـﻊ‬ ‫ﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﳊﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺩﺧﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪ ,‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺿـﺮﺍﺋﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‪ - ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ – ﺇﱃ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﳑﺎ ﻗـﺪ ﻳـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻛﺄﺛﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺡ‪ -‬ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺰﺍﲪﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ :‬ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻧﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﻔـﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜـﻮﻣﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﺺ ﳐﻄﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷـﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺭﲝﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﳑﺎ ﳛﻔﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﻔـﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜـﻮﻣﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻺﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ؟‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻹﺗﺼـﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ (...‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫‪140‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 -2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﻏﲑ ﳎﺪ ﻭ ﳛﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﲢﻤﻞ ﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﳎﺪﻳﺎ ﻭ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﺪﺗﻪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻭﻟﻴﻤﺎﻧﻮ‬ ‫)‪ (Serven and Solimano 1991‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻺﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ‪.8‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺑﻼﺱ )‪ (Blass 1988‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻜﺴـﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻧﺎﻓﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻋﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻹﻗﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻓـﻊ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﻓﺘﺰﻳﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋـﺎﺹ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻫﻜـﺬﺍ ﳒـﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﺍ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﰲ ﻟﻺﻧﻔـﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜـﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲡﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺥ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﺯ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﳏﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﲰﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻻﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﻧﻊ‪ .‬ﻓﻼ ﺿﲑ ﻣﻦ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺴـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﳎﺪﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﻜﺮﺓ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﳛﲔ ﻣﻮﻋﺪ ﺳﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺳـﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣﻨـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻧﺰﻳﻔﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﻋﺪ ﺳﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺎ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺒﻨـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻷﺭﺻﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ )‪.(sachs 1988‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺭﺻﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲣﺼﻴﺼﻬﺎ ﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺪﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﰲ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻀﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺆﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‪ :‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺨﻢ( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ )ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎﺕ(‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗـﻴﻘﻦ ﻗﻄـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺒﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻨﺪﺍﻳﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ "ﺟﺮﺗﲔ" ﻭ "ﻓﻼﻧﻮﻓﺎ" ﺃﻥ ﺧﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺳﻠﱯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﳑﺎ ﳜﻔﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻺﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪141‬‬


‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ –ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪-‬‬

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‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻷﺭﺻﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺗﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺳـﻌﺎﺭ ﳑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﻓﺘﻘﻞ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﲨـﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﳍﺎﻡ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ ﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻮﺓ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺩﺧﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ( ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺤﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﺠﺰ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺭ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺫ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ,‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺩﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﺆﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻣﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻀﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻀﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘﻨﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ –ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﱯ – ﺃﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﳍـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ ﲟﺨﺘﻠـﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 28‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳـﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ "‪"Sule. O. and Dani R. 1992‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﲢﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﺴـﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ( ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ )ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ‪ ،‬ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋـﺪﺓ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻀﺮ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﺁﺧﺬﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳜﻔﺾ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻭﺯﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻇﻬﺮ "‪ "R. S. Basi‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳـﻲ ﻳـﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﲣـﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ، %63‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﶈﻔﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﺔ ﻟﻼﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ – ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﶈﻔﺰﺓ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﲤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻛﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭﱄ ﳏﻔﺰ‬ ‫‪.10‬‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺭ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺼﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ‪ ...‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﻌﺎﻇﻢ ﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﺒﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺟﺪﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴـﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻘﺪﺭ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻷﻭﺿﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻭﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ,‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﳚـﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻧﺪﻫﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻒﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻀﺎﺭﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺜـﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻌـﺪﻳﻼ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫‪142‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 -2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻫﻲ ﲰﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ‪,‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺷﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺿـﻮﺣﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﻠـﻞ ﲢﻔﻴـﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﳒﻮ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻼ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳـﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺮﺩﺩﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪:‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳـﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﻟـﺔ ﻣـﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻗـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗـﺔ ﻭﺍﳌـﻮﺍﻧﺊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‪,‬ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺔ‪،‬ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﻜﲔ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻗﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﻳﺌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺇﺛﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺐﺀ ﻣﺸـﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﱪ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻜﺜﻒ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﺍﻹﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻋﱪ ﺗﻘﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴـﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻـﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﻈﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.11‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺋﻢ ﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋـﺎﺹ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻗﻮﻯ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺔ‪ ,‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﲔ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯ‪ -‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺎ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺭﺍﺳﺦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﻭ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﺼﻒ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺗﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ "ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺒﺔ" ﺃﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﲜﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﻓﺎﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ,‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻜﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﲡﻌﻞ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ﻭ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺭﲰﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻥ ‪ %80‬ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑ ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺭﲰﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻨـﻚ‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ‪ 0.5‬ﺇﱃ ‪ %1‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-1-3‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ :‬ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﳏﻮﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺗﺆﻫﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺭﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺷﱴ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻟﲔ ﺭﻗﻢ ) ‪2‬ﻭ‪ (3‬ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ 1990-1982‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ‬ ‫‪143‬‬


‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ –ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪-‬‬

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‫ﺃﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1986‬ﱂ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﲤﻮﻳﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﱏ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1991‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪.%6.08‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1990‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﳚﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧـﲑ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ %47.5‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2001‬ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀـﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ %23.78‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1994‬ﰒ ﺇﱃ ‪ %28.84‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2006‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‪.13‬‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﻧﺸﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪,‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻣـﺎ ﺑـﲔ ‪70‬‬ ‫‪%‬ﺇﱃ ‪ %85‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %70‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‪ ,‬ﺃﻟﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ,%75‬ﲨﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻴﻚ ‪ , %80‬ﺭﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪, 14 % 70‬ﻣﺼﺮ ‪ % 67.8‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴـﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﱂ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪.%50‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (4‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻼﻳﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2005‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺘﻪ ‪%63‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺏ‪ % 37‬ﻟﻠﻘﻄـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﳌﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻞ ‪ ,‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻳﺘﻬﻴﻜﻞ ﻭ ﻳﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ‪ 4026‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 5120‬ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪ 2004‬ﰒ ﺇﱃ ‪ 5080‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪ 2005‬ﰲ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﻘﻲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻛﱪ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﺸﺊ ﳌﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﰒ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﳍﺮﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﺻﻐﲑﺍ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‪ %90‬ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺗﺒﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﶈﻔﺰﺓ ﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻋﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺪﱐ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ( ﻭ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ( ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪ -‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ‪ -‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬‫ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ) ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ(‬‫ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ )ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ(‬‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (5‬ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪.2007-2000‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ‪‬ﳑ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﳒﺤﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ ﺑﺮﻧـﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﺻـﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ)‪ (1998/1994‬ﺍﳌﺪﻋ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻻﺕ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻀﺨﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫‪144‬‬


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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2010 -2009 / 07‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺳﺠﻼ ﻓﺎﺋﻀﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰎ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻮﻧﻴـﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴـﺔ ﻭ ﺷـﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﲢﺴﻨﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-2-3‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻷﺟﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺪﺭﺝ ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﲟﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﻭ ﺟﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺑﲔ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻣﺆﺷ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻓﺎﻋﻼ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ‪،‬ﻭﺃﺩﹰﺍﹰﺓ ﻟﺘﻔﺤﺺ ﻧﻘـﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﺩﹰﺍﹰﺓ ﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳉﺰﺋـﻲ ﺑﻐﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﺑﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (6‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 74‬ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 82‬ﰎ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 81‬ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2007‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺭﺗﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺎ ﻋﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ )‪ (P.R.S‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟـﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺨـﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ‪ (ICRG) International Country Risk Group‬