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‫جملة الباحث‬ REVUE DU CHERCHE UR

       2002 1990

       

 Les Impacts Socioéconomiques du PNDA dans la vallée de Oued Righ

ISSN : 1112-3613

2002 110

http://www.ouargla-univ.dz/rc

2007 05 05 2007


‫®‬

‫‪REVUE DU CHERCHEUR‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌـﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺼﺩﻱ ﻤﺭﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺭﻗـﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺘﻬﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺒﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫‪200‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻤﺱ ‪05‬‬ ‫‪20077//05‬‬


‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ -‬ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺻﺪﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﺭﻗـﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺧﻠﻔﺎﻭﻱ ﻓﺘﺤﻲ )ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ(‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ‪ :‬ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﲞﱵ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﺍﻟﻨﺸـﺭ ‪ :‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻗﱯ ﺁﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬

‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺃﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﻗـﺎﺩﺓ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺳﲑﺟﻴﻮ ﺑﺮﻧﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺃﻧﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻗﺪﻱ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﻄﻴﻒ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﻨﺔ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﲞﱵ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﺮﺍﻕ ﳏﻤﺪ )ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺩﺍﺩﻱ ﻋﺪﻭﻥ )ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺭﺍﺗﻮﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻠﻒ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺯﻭﻳﻨﺔ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﲪﺰﺓ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻗﱯ ﺁﺩﻡ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬

‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺳﻌﻴﺪﻱ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻣﺪﺍﱐ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻠﻐﻴﺚ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻗﺮﻳﺸﻲ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﲰﻼﱄ ﳛﻀﻴﻪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺪﻱ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻲ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻟﻌﻤـﻰ ﺃﲪـﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺳﻌﻮﺩ ﺻﺎﱀ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﻜﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺴﻜﺮﺓ(‬ ‫ﺩ‪/‬ﺷﻴﺨﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ(‬

‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺪ‪ /‬رﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ورﻗـﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻏﺮداﻳﺔ ورﻗـﻠـﺔ ‪30000‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ‪http://www.ouargla-univ.dz/rc/ :‬‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ ‪rc@ouargla-univ.dz :‬‬


‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪ - 1‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪ ،‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌ‪‬ﺎﳉﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 2‬ﺗﺮﺳﻞ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑـﺔ ﺑﱪﻧـﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫‪ Word‬ﺑﻨﺴﻖ ‪) .RTF‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،Traditional Arabic :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺳﻪ ‪ ،14 :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴـﺔ ﻓﻨـﻮﻉ ﺍﳋـﻂ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ ،Times New Roman‬ﻣﻘﺎﺳﻪ ‪ ،(12 :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ 0.8‬ﺳﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻋﻰ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ‪15‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ -‬ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﻓـﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﻴـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻼ ؛ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﻠﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻻ‬ ‫)‪ (IEEE‬ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ 5‬ﺃﺳﻄﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻂ ‪ ،Traditional Arabic :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺳﻪ ‪ ،(14 :‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ )‪ (Mots clés‬؛ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ‪ 2.54‬ﺳﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ‪ 1.5‬ﺳﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﺴـﺎﺭ ‪2.5‬‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪Microsoft‬‬

‫‪ - 3‬ﺗﺮﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﺑﻨﺒﺬﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﱪﻳـﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳍﺎﺗﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﺲ )ﺇﻥ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ؛ ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺣﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 4‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺛﻘﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺐ ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‪" ،‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ"‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‪" ،‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ"‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪ - 5‬ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 6‬ﳛﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺔ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ( ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﲟﻀﻤﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﻜﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 7‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﻣﻀﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 8‬ﺗﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻼﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗـﻠﺔ‬

‫†‪ -‬ﳝﻜﻨﻢ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ )ﻭﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ (IEEE‬ﲟﻮﻗﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪http://www.ouargla-univ.dz/rc/‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ‪‬‬

‫‪ -‬اﻟﻌﺪد ‪2007 - 05‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ – ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﺮﻳﺒﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻴﺪ‬

‫‪07‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪ -‬ﻣﱪﻭﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮ‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ – ﺃ‪ /‬ﺑﻮﻣﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‬

‫‪27‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﺩﺍﻭﺩﻱ‬

‫‪39‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺇﳍﺎﻡ ﳛﻴﺎﻭﻱ‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ‪ -‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻦ ﲪﻮﺩﺓ ﳏﺒﻮﺏ ‪ -‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﺑﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ‬

‫‪61‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ‪ -‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ‬

‫‪69‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ - 2002-1990‬ﺷﻌﻮﰊ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻓﻮﺯﻱ ‪ -‬ﲞﱵ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬

‫‪83‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﺯﻳﻖ‬

‫‪95‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﻲ‬

‫‪107‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﺑﻮﺷﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﺋﺰﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﻗﻄﺎﻑ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ‬

‫‪121‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻮﺣﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻱ‬

‫‪137‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﻭﻱ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬

‫‪147‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ‪ -‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﺣﺴﻴﻨﺔ ﺷﺮﻭﻥ‬

‫‪159‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ – ﺃ‪ /‬ﺷﻌﺎﺷﻌﻴﺔ ﳋﻀﺮ‬

‫‪167‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺑﺎﻹﳚﺎﺭ‪ -‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﲪﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻮﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫‪173‬‬

‫‪01‬‬

‫‪- Les Impacts Socioéconomiques du PNDA dans la vallée de Oued Righ‬‬ ‫‪BENZIOUCHE Salah eddine‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪14-7 .‬‬

‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺒﺩﻴل ﻤﺴﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ‪SOFINANCE‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‪ :‬ﺒﺭﻴﺒـﺵ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺒﺎﺠﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ – ﻋﻨﺎﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻛﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ‪,‬ﻣﻮﺿﺤﲔ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻲ ‪,‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫‪,‬ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﲤﻮﻳﻼ‪‬ﺎ ‪,‬ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﻴﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﲡﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﳏﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪,‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﺴﻨﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫‪ SOFINANCE‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺣﻀﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺻﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﲟﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﰒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻣﺜﻴﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻻﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ؛‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﺮﺯ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻴﻖ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﱪ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻼ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳛﻀﻰ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﺛﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲤﻮﻳﻼ ﺑﻨﻜﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﲡﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﶈﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺜﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﻘﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻂﺀ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻘﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﲣﺺ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻭﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻓﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﲟﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫‪-1‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻲ ‪,‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻋﻰ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬ ‫؛ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﻪ ‪,‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳜﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺄﻣﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ ﻳﺮﻓﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ)ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ( ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﲟﺎ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﳒﺎﺣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﺑﻞ ﳝﺘﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪ ,‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﳐﻄﻂ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ )‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ *‪ :" EVCA‬ﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﻳﻮﻇﻒ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻂ ﻣﺎﱄ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪7‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﳕﻮ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻳﻘﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ )ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ( ﺃﻣﻼ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﺋﺾ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺣﺼﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫)‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ"‬

‫ﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ) :‬ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ –‬ ‫ﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ – ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻋﺪﺓ ( ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﲦﺔ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﱪ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ : (01) :‬ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ‬

‫ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻤﻭﺍل‬

‫‪OCR‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ‬

‫)‪(3‬‬

‫ﻴﺄﺨﺫﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ +‬ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪.‬‬‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﻧﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻯ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺴﺘﻪ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪,‬ﺃﺧﺬ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺴﺐ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫"‪ "Doriot‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1946‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ "‪ "ARD‬ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﲣﺼﺼﺖ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺑﺔ ‪ .‬ﻇﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﳕﻮ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ، 1977‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺪﺙ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﺖ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺳﺴﺖ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻭﻛﺴﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1983‬ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺣﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺑﲔ ‪%300‬ﻭ‪ %250‬ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﱵ ‪1990‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪ 1993‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪ 54‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﳝﺜﻞ‪%60‬ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 200‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺰﺩ ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻗﺮﻥ ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻮﳍﺎ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ‪ %64‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﻛﻨﺘﻮﺵ ﻭ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻼﺕ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺎﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲡﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺐ ﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﻘﻘﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ‪ .‬ﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺐ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ )‪:(4‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ؛‬‫ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺑﺪﻳﻼ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﻭ ﻃﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﻟﻼﻛﺘﺘﺎﺏ ؛‬ ‫‪8‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪14-7 .‬‬

‫‪ :‬ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ‪ capital de démarrage :‬ﳝﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﳜﺼﺺ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪ ,‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻭ ﻳﺘﻔﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰒ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲡﻤﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ‪capital de développement :‬‬ ‫‪ :‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﺩﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﻪ ﺑﲔ ‪%10-‬‬ ‫‪ %5‬ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺎ ) ﻛﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‪...‬ﺍﱁ (‬ ‫ﺍﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺎ ) ﻛﺎﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺁﻭ ﻓﺮﻉ ﳑﻠﻮﻙ ﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ‪..‬ﺍﱁ(‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﱵ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﺍﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺳﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ ﺗﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻓﺸﻴﺌﺎ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ‪.‬ﻭ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲜﻼﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1980‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﺭﻋﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺇﱄ ﺗﺒﲏ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ؛ ﻓﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﳒﺤﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ ﻭ ﻫﻮﻟﻨﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺜﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﲤﻮﻳﻼ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻫﻮ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﲤﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ )‪:(5‬‬ ‫ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ؛‬‫ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ؛‬‫ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ؛‬‫‪ -‬ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹ‪‬ﺎﺽ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‪ capital–création ::‬ﻳﺘﻮﱃ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻧﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ ﲢﻴﻂ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﺏ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ‪capital d' :‬‬ ‫‪ amorçage:‬ﳜﺼﺺ ﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﲡﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺻﻌﺐ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ : ( 01‬ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﳕﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ـــ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲟﻔﺮﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﻛﺎﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺿﻌﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﱯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﳑﻜﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺹ‪92‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪capital- transmission :‬‬ ‫‪ : ou succession‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻌﻼ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻀﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﻣﻲ ﺍﱃ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﻙ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﺀ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﻋﻪ )ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪les bennes‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﰲ‬ ‫ـــ‬ ‫ﳑﻜﻨﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ ﻗﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺎﺕ‬

‫‪ marrel‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﻭ ﺭﻏﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ whitaker‬ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﺔ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺣﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﺪﺭﺍﺀ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻴﻮﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻋﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ (؛‬ ‫ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻓﻌﺎ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ؛‬‫ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﲢﻤﺴﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﺪ‬‫ﺗﻮﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻛﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻋﺮﻗﻠﺔ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪9‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﳒﺎﺣﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻝ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻓﻜﺜﲑ‬‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻲ ﲤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﻌﺪ ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻓﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻝ ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﺼﺪﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰﺓ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺌﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺣﲔ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ‪ :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺯﻉ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺴﺮﻩ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺗﺮﲝﻪ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻀﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻚ ﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﺎﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗﺐ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻮﺿﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻌﻮﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ " ﻛﺄﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻮﻣﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﳌﻴﺪﺭﺍﻝ ﺍﻛﺴﱪﻳﺲ ﻭ ﺟﻴﻨﻴﺘﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ " ﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﳎﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻘﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﺳﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﳝﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﲤﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻗﺮﻭﺽ ﳍﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻳﺼﻄﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﱪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻀﺔ ﲢﻮﺯ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﻭ ﲤﻨﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻗﺮﻭﺿﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺮﻋﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﺮ ‪capital :‬‬ ‫‪ : retournement‬ﳜﺼﺺ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﻌﻼ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﲤﺮ ﺑﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻓﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﱃ‬ ‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎﺽ ﻣﺎﱄ ﻓﺘﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﻣﻮﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ‬ ‫)‪(8‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﺬﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﺢ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻤﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(6‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻜﺔ‬‫ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪ %30-%15‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪ %2,5‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻝ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫)‪(7‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪:‬ﻋﻴﻮ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻴﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻗﺪ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﲔ ﻋﺒﺌﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ‪:‬‬

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‫______________________________________________________ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪14-7 .‬‬

‫ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻟﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ )ﻛﺎﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ (؛‬ ‫ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ‬‫ﺣﺼﺺ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﻳﻦ ) ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻧﻨﺴﻰ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺯﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﻢ ﻟﻔﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ( ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -5‬ﲡﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻭ ﲣﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﲤﺘﺎﺯ ﺑﻔﺮﺹ ﳕﻮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻛﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﴰﻠﺖ ‪ 500‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﰎ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ %80‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ : (02‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ ﻋﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻔﺆﺓ)‪(%‬‬ ‫‪%59‬‬‫‪%59 +‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ )‪(%‬‬ ‫ ‪%3‬‬‫‪%25+‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪16000‬‬ ‫‪8000‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ) ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭ (‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ )‪(%‬‬ ‫‪%9+‬‬ ‫‪%35 +‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ )‪(%‬‬ ‫‪%5+‬‬ ‫‪%12+‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺹ‪112‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ) ﻛﺎﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ( ﻭ‪ %30‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1990‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪،1980‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ 499-100‬ﺃﺟﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﲑ ﳑﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺘﻀﺢ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺆﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻨﻚ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ‪ %38‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ : (03‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﳑﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ )‪(%‬‬ ‫‪%5,3+‬‬ ‫‪%34 +‬‬ ‫‪%12 +‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ )‪(%‬‬ ‫‪%67,8+‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ )‪(%‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ )‪(%‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ )‪(%‬‬

‫‪%51,3+‬‬ ‫‪%19,9 +‬‬

‫‪%4‬‬‫‪%3,4-‬‬

‫‪%5,4 +‬‬

‫‪%3,5-‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺹ‪116‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﲑﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﺕ ‪ 1500‬ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ‪. 1996‬‬

‫ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫‪ Sofinance‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺁﻓﺎﻗﺎ ﻭﺍﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﻳﻼ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲟﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫‪11‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﳍﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺣﺼﺺ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬‫ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻒ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟﻠﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺣﻴﺎﺯﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ‬‫ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ‬‫ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻭ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‬ ‫ﳌﺴﺎﳘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ ‪ 20‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪ 2003‬ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺧﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻮﺻﺼﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﺻﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻧﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ) ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ( ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ) ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺮﻭﺽ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳚﺎﺭﻱ (‬

‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻭ ﻻ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻻﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺟﺪﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻃﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﲟﺎ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﻘﻘﺘﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﻧﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﱐ " ﻃﺎﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻭﻣﻠﻴﻪ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ " ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﺯﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺘﻮﻥ "‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﺿﺌﻴﻼ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺟﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﳏﺪﻭﺩ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﱵ‬ ‫‪ Finalep‬ﻭ ‪ sofinance‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺘﲔ ﻓﻴﻼﺣﻆ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻷ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻭﺡ ﳐﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪Sofinance‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﻛﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-2‬ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ : FINALEP‬ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﲢﺖ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1991‬ﺳﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ‪ 732‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﺟﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ ,‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﲣﻄﻲ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺟﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭ ﳏﺪﻭﺩ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ‪ Sofinance‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ‪%35‬ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﺤﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﺭﻧﺖ ﺑﻨﻈﲑﺍ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﻴﻒ ﻭ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺴﺔ ﻭ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳋﺸﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﻤﻴﺔ )‪ .(10‬ﻭ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﳐﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻧﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪Sofinance.‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Sofinance‬ﻧﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Sofinance‬ﰲ ‪ 04‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2000‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‬ ‫)‪(8‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﻔﻲ ‪ 2001‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻗﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﲑﺗﻜﺰ ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫)‪:(9‬‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻠﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ‬ ‫ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻪ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳋﺰﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺇﻧﻌﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭ ﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪14-7 .‬‬

‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺩﺝ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺩﺝ‬

‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺩﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺝ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ : (04‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫‪2002‬‬ ‫‪293.210.000‬‬ ‫‪162.892.687‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪294.704.000‬‬ ‫‪281.919.576‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪67.060.000‬‬ ‫‪379.109.891‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬ ‫‪534.517.000‬‬ ‫‪177.405.000‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬ ‫‪625.000.000‬‬ ‫‪1.078.248.000‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪Sofinance‬‬ ‫‪2005‬‬ ‫‪340.086.000‬‬ ‫‪64.500.000‬‬ ‫‪2005‬‬ ‫‪639.400.000‬‬ ‫‪1.451.919.000‬‬

‫‪Source : www.sofinance –dz.com.‬‬

‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺧﻄﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪. 1996‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬‫ﻛﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﺸﺄﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1957‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪. 1995‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻮﱃ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ ﰲ ﻓﻨﻠﻨﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1994‬‬ ‫ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ) ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ( ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺷﺎﺕ ) ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ( ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﲟﻔﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﻓﻌﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺇﳒﺎﺡ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻹﳒﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺧﻄﺮ ﺫﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﻳﻦ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺧﺎﺹ ﲟﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻭ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﻐﺾ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻴﻬﺎ ؛‬ ‫ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ‬‫ﻟﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ؛‬ ‫ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻭﻃﲏ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺳﺒﻞ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭ ﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﱴ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﻠﻖ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﺍﻩ‬

‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ‪,‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻞ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻨﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫‪,‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﳘﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫‪13‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ )ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ‪,‬ﲣﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﻴﻒ ‪,‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺴﺔ ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪,‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲟﻨﺢ ) ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ‪.(...‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﲜﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺽ ‪,‬ﻛﺄﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪ ,...‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﺜﻞ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ) ﳐﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ‪,‬ﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪,(...‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﳊﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ‪,‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻛﺒﺪﻳﻞ ‪ ,‬ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﻭﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪,‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳌﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ‪ Sofinance‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻫﻲ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺍﺿﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪,%35‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﺭﺣﻴﻢ ﺣﺴﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ‪ ,‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺣﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﲢﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ,‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺴﻜﺮﺓ ‪29,30‬‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪ 2002‬ﺹ ‪.53‬‬ ‫‪* European Venture Capital Association‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ‪ ,‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﲝﺜﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻟـ ‪ PME‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺸﻠﻒ ‪ 18,17‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2006‬ﺹ ‪.308‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﺭﻭﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺠﺎﺯﻯ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪ ,‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺸﻠﻒ ‪,18 ,1 7‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2006‬ﺹ ‪.308‬‬ ‫)‪ (4‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ‪:‬ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻤﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪,‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ‪,‬ﺍﻟﺸﻠﻒ ‪18-17‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2006‬ﺹ‪.512‬‬ ‫)‪ (5‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪ 2001‬ﺹ ‪85-83‬‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫)‪ (6‬ﺭﻭﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻴﻊ ﻭ ﺃ‪.‬ﺣﺠﺎﺯﻱ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺹ ‪ 109‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫)‪ (7‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ‪ ,‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺹ ‪77-76‬‬ ‫)‪ (8‬ﺑﺮﺍﻳﺲ ﻧﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﲤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ‪,FERTIAL‬ﻋﻨﺎﺑﺔ ‪.‬ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﻣﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺑﺔ ‪ 2006‬ﺹ ‪.141‬‬ ‫)‪documents interne du ministère de PME –PMI AlGER 2004 .(9‬‬ ‫)‪ (10‬ﺭﺣﻴﻢ ﺣﺴﲔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ‪ ,‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺹ ‪.54‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬


‫_________________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪26-15 .‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﱪﻭﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮ – ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﻛﺴﻼﺡ ﻳﻬﺪﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺑﲔ ﺩﺭﺟﱵ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺟﻨﻮﺑﺎ ﻭ‪ 37‬ﴰﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ‪ 19‬ﻏﺮﺑﺎ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ‪ 60‬ﺷﺮﻗﺎ ﻭﳝﺘﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﰲ ﴰﺎﻝ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻗﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ ﺳﺎﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﴰﺎﻻ ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﻃﻠﺴﻲ ﻏﺮﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻗﺎ ﻭﰲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﻮﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻲ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﻱ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻜﺜﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻗﺎﺣﻠﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 66‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺗﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻣﻠﻢ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﻭ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﺤﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻹﺛﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﺘﻘﺴﻴﻤﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺒﺤﺜﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﻢ‪ 1.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺎﺡ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻏﺬﻳﺔ ﺁﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﱯ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺳﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ‪ ,‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰎ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﲢﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ= )ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ‪/‬ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ(‬ ‫*‪100‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ % 100‬ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻭﳛﺪﺙ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻴﺰﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻧﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺣﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺧﺎﺿﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻌﺘﺎﻕ ﻭ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﲟﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺎ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﳏﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪,‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻝ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻟﻴﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﳕﻮ ﻣﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻠﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩﻱ ﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﻓﻴﻖ ﺃﻣﲔ ﲪﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‪-‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‪ -‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ‪. 1999‬ﺹ ‪.16‬‬ ‫‪ ,2000‬ﺹ ‪26‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳌﺎ ﺗﺰﺧﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺮﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 9.5‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (1‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1995‬ﺇﱃ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ‬

‫‪2004‬‬ ‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪2002‬‬ ‫‪2001‬‬ ‫‪2000‬‬ ‫‪1995‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫‪2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ‬ ‫‪15.8‬‬ ‫‪6.8 870041 751037 674817 662863 682726 477477‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬

‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ‪45150‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ‪9.5‬‬

‫‪56503‬‬

‫‪58101‬‬

‫‪57901‬‬

‫‪62702‬‬

‫‪67062‬‬

‫‪8.3‬‬

‫‪8.8‬‬

‫‪8.6‬‬

‫‪8.3‬‬

‫‪7.7‬‬

‫‪4.5‬‬

‫‪7.0‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 6‬ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺇ ﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2004‬ﺑﲔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 0.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫‪37.8‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫‪2.9‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺠﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫‪15.0‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 6.8‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺿﺤﻪ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻲ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺠﻲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﹰﺍ ً ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﻮ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ 2004‬ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﺑﲔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻧﺼﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 59.1‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻮﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪,‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﳏﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 0.6‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 12.5‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﲟﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، 2004‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 226‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻱ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 4.6‬ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 630‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 221‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 440‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 118‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 185‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﻋ‪‬ﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪100‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﻴﺒﻮﰐ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﻣﻮﺭﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻭﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻭﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﰲ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪﻩ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳌﻮﻗﻌﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰﻳﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1997‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫‪16‬‬


‫_________________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪26-15 .‬‬

‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺳﻮﻯ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻼﻳﲑ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1991‬ﻭﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﻟﺘﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ‪ 6‬ﻣﻼﻳﲑ ﻭ ‪ 536‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﺼﺪﺭ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1991‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (2‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1997‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻒ ﻃﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﲟﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2001-97‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2004‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2003‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫‪2078,31‬‬

‫‪319,27‬‬

‫‪2852,78‬‬

‫‪522,03‬‬

‫‪2726,97‬‬

‫‪632,65‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬

‫‪1023,99‬‬

‫‪182,07‬‬

‫‪1331,55‬‬

‫‪226,62‬‬

‫‪1315,13‬‬

‫‪221,63‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬

‫‪456,18‬‬

‫‪91,97‬‬

‫‪544,56‬‬

‫‪91,94‬‬

‫‪675,08‬‬

‫‪141,42‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫‪120,37‬‬

‫‪61,59‬‬

‫‪155,50‬‬

‫‪60,00‬‬

‫‪192,23‬‬

‫‪79,96‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ‬

‫‪1550,28‬‬

‫‪576,03‬‬

‫‪1769,37‬‬

‫‪672,96‬‬

‫‪1841,05‬‬

‫‪651,29‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ‬

‫‪1704,78‬‬

‫‪781,73‬‬

‫‪1573,48‬‬

‫‪734,56‬‬

‫‪1609,51‬‬

‫‪771,44‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ)ﻣﻜﺮﺭ(‬

‫‪345,32‬‬

‫‪91,38‬‬

‫‪503,75‬‬

‫‪123,30‬‬

‫‪481,19‬‬

‫‪114,60‬‬

‫‪484,47‬‬

‫‪563,19‬‬

‫‪406,97‬‬

‫‪493,04‬‬

‫‪492,64‬‬

‫‪639,10‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪50,18‬‬

‫‪87,40‬‬

‫‪43,71‬‬

‫‪71,12‬‬

‫‪43,60‬‬

‫‪79,07‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬

‫‪569,03‬‬

‫‪858,13‬‬

‫‪530,40‬‬

‫‪828,48‬‬

‫‪618,21‬‬

‫‪1479,84‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‬

‫‪17,19‬‬

‫‪21,12‬‬

‫‪19,27‬‬

‫‪27,92‬‬

‫‪18,18‬‬

‫‪26,68‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬

‫‪712,38‬‬

‫‪269,11‬‬

‫‪890,23‬‬

‫‪302,80‬‬

‫‪1038,43‬‬

‫‪344,31‬‬

‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ‬

‫)ﲨﻠﺔ(‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫‪3928,15‬‬

‫‪3720,92‬‬

‫‪4960,36‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 2005‬‬

‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 64.4‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 15.9‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 15.8‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، 2003‬ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ‪ 0.1‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭ ‪ 22.1‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ‬

‫ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 27.4‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻭﻋﺠﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪17‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (3‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2002‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟـــــﺔ‬

‫ﺳﻨـــﺔ ‪2002‬‬

‫ﺳﻨـــﺔ ‪2003‬‬

‫ﺳﻨـــﺔ ‪2004‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪72,01‬‬

‫‪516,79‬‬

‫‪26265‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫‪1133,6‬‬

‫‪193,12‬‬

‫‪462963‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪27275,25‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪19,76‬‬

‫‪9780,90‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪11867‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫‬‫‪31239‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫‪703445,1‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪109129,25‬‬

‫‪154551,74‬‬

‫‪137983‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪17617,18‬‬

‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪24508,63‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪25887‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬

‫‪161,99‬‬

‫‪211,91‬‬

‫‪655‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬

‫‪6290,88‬‬

‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪687,72‬‬

‫‪4940,10‬‬

‫‪6850‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬

‫‪62056,58‬‬

‫‪86292,96‬‬

‫‪103208,30‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪23263,48‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‬

‫‪4988,79‬‬

‫‪5027,01‬‬

‫‪5097‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 2005‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪:‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﺎ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 19.4‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 20‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﻳﻌﺰﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ‪ 3‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ‪ 8.6‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 8.4‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻛﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪ 2001- 1997‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻧﻮﺍﺻﺮﻱ ﳐﺘﺎﺭ ‪-‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ‪,‬ﺹ ‪.159‬‬ ‫‪18‬‬


‫_________________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪26-15 .‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (4‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1997‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻒ ﻃﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﲟﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2001-97‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ )ﲨﻠﺔ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2003‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫‪8654,54 55939,05‬‬

‫‪7518,80 47571,15‬‬

‫‪8485,44 44971,61‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬

‫‪3502,00‬‬

‫‪3534,16‬‬

‫‪3162,21 20937,94‬‬

‫‪4260,52 22004,53‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬

‫‪539,67‬‬

‫‪200,75‬‬

‫‪624,56‬‬

‫‪232,24‬‬

‫‪598,48‬‬

‫‪229,82‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫‪901,09‬‬

‫‪409,31‬‬

‫‪1017,23‬‬

‫‪400,55‬‬

‫‪1042,01‬‬

‫‪447,89‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ‬

‫‪1865,53‬‬

‫‪779,78‬‬

‫‪2016,66‬‬

‫‪790,34‬‬

‫‪2256,88‬‬

‫‪849,28‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ‬

‫‪2530,06‬‬

‫‪1125,48‬‬

‫‪2555,60‬‬

‫‪1034,52‬‬

‫‪3023,25‬‬

‫‪1150,36‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ)ﻣﻜﺮﺭ(‬

‫‪5057,82‬‬

‫‪1339,83‬‬

‫‪5730,09‬‬

‫‪1393,36‬‬

‫‪5352,82‬‬

‫‪1310,83‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪2996,11‬‬

‫‪1909,13‬‬

‫‪3204,20‬‬

‫‪2061,79‬‬

‫‪3932,08‬‬

‫‪2851,75‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪1199,12‬‬

‫‪1670,26‬‬

‫‪1466,10‬‬

‫‪1916,14‬‬

‫‪1519,25‬‬

‫‪2098,38‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬

‫‪428,54‬‬

‫‪501,25‬‬

‫‪435,76‬‬

‫‪514,76‬‬

‫‪524,21‬‬

‫‪582,07‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‬

‫‪45,11‬‬

‫‪54,45‬‬

‫‪36,54‬‬

‫‪42,32‬‬

‫‪55,87‬‬

‫‪60,24‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬

‫‪8644,22‬‬

‫‪2185,80‬‬

‫‪2513,43 10215,56‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫‪18418,25‬‬

‫‪18830,58‬‬

‫‪2947,62 10393,39‬‬ ‫‪21013,68‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 2005‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩﺓ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 12.7‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 3.5‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 1.7‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﹰﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ‪ 2.9‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ 26.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫‪.‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻼ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺿﺌﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻣﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻄﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﺑﲔ ‪ 2.1‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ 27.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﰲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 25.6‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 27.4‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪-:‬‬

‫‪19‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ)‪ (5‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2002‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻨــــﺔ ‪2003‬‬

‫ﺳﻨـــﺔ ‪2004‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟـــــﺔ ﺳﻨــــﺔ ‪2002‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪38092,94‬‬

‫‪63050,04‬‬

‫‪87198,06‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫‪1394,18‬‬

‫‪1002,64‬‬

‫‪1044,97‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪2569,48‬‬

‫‪7834,80‬‬

‫‪10488,58‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪107561,80‬‬

‫‪86881,31‬‬

‫‪28602,24‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫‪16347,05‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪18126,56‬‬

‫‪91653,48‬‬

‫‪110636,74‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪21353,00‬‬

‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‬

‫‪133,00‬‬

‫‪22391,69‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪48054,75‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬

‫‪8993,86‬‬

‫‪7826,59‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬

‫‪887,39‬‬

‫‪15228,15‬‬

‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪5283,96‬‬

‫‪17456,34‬‬

‫‪21349,68‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪2302,60‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪25056,00‬‬

‫‪44552,95‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‬

‫‪43163,74‬‬

‫‪47477,17‬‬

‫‪107793,57‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 2005‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﲔ ﻷﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬

‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﲟﻜﺎﻥ ﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ)‪ (6‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1995‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ‪.2003‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪95‬‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬

‫‪5746‬‬

‫‪6911‬‬

‫‪6805‬‬

‫‪7553‬‬

‫‪8221‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬

‫‪23457‬‬

‫‪29980‬‬

‫‪27377‬‬

‫‪29485‬‬

‫‪30048‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﱄ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬

‫‪24.5‬‬

‫‪23.1‬‬

‫‪24.9‬‬

‫‪25.6‬‬

‫‪27.4‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬

‫‪17711-‬‬

‫‪23069-‬‬

‫‪21932-‬‬

‫‪20572-‬‬

‫‪21827-‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ‪13‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬


‫_________________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪26-15 .‬‬

‫ﻭﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺳﻠﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻷﲪﺮ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﻠﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﳍﻨﺪﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳝﺘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺩﺟﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ ,‬ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺠﺰﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪2003‬ﺑﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 21.8‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 25.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ 15.7‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ 9.7‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ‪ 8.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ‪ 7.8‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻠﻎ ﺻﺎﰲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺠﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﺣﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫‪9.9‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 45.3‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (7‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1997‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻒ ﻃﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﲟﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2001-97‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2004‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2003‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫‪53860,74‬‬

‫‪8335,27‬‬

‫‪44718,37‬‬

‫‪6996,77‬‬

‫‪42244,64‬‬

‫‪7852,79‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬

‫‪2478,01‬‬

‫‪3352,09‬‬

‫‪19606,39‬‬

‫‪2935,59‬‬

‫‪20689,40‬‬

‫‪4038,89‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬

‫‪83,49‬‬

‫‪108,78‬‬

‫‪80,00‬‬

‫‪140,30‬‬

‫)‪(76,60‬‬

‫‪88,40‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫‪780,72‬‬

‫‪347,72‬‬

‫‪861,73‬‬

‫‪340,55‬‬

‫‪849,78‬‬

‫‪367,93‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ‬

‫‪315,25‬‬

‫‪203,75‬‬

‫‪247,29‬‬

‫‪117,38‬‬

‫‪415,83‬‬

‫‪197,99‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ‬

‫‪825,28‬‬

‫‪343,75‬‬

‫‪982,12‬‬

‫‪299,96‬‬

‫‪1413,74‬‬

‫‪378,92‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ)ﻣﻜﺮﺭ(‬

‫‪4712,50‬‬

‫‪1248,45‬‬

‫‪5226,34‬‬

‫‪1270,06‬‬

‫‪4871,63‬‬

‫‪1196,23‬‬

‫‪2511,64‬‬

‫‪1345,94‬‬

‫‪2797,23‬‬

‫‪1568,75‬‬

‫‪3439,44‬‬

‫‪2212,65‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪1148,94‬‬

‫‪1582,86‬‬

‫‪1422,39‬‬

‫‪1845,02‬‬

‫‪1475,65‬‬

‫‪2019,31‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬

‫)‪(140,49‬‬

‫)‪(356,88‬‬

‫)‪(94,64‬‬

‫)‪(313,72‬‬

‫)‪(94,00‬‬

‫)‪(897,77‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‬

‫‪27,92‬‬

‫‪33,33‬‬

‫‪17,27‬‬

‫‪14,40‬‬

‫‪37,69‬‬

‫‪33,56‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬

‫‪7931,84‬‬

‫‪1916,69‬‬

‫‪9325,33‬‬

‫‪2210,63‬‬

‫‪9354,96‬‬

‫‪2603,31‬‬

‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫)ﲨﻠﺔ(‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫‪14490,10‬‬

‫‪15109,66‬‬

‫‪16053,32‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 2005‬‬

‫‪58‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2003‬‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 14.6‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺑﺎﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻃﻔﻴﻒ ﺑﻠﻎ ‪ 0.9‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، 2002‬ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳏﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﺠﺰ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ‪ 55‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪21‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (8‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﻠﻊ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪. 2003-1995‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ‬ ‫‪2003‬‬

‫‪1995‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪37.7‬‬

‫ﺻﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪32.4‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫‪70.1‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪47.8‬‬

‫ﺻﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪45‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫‪92.8‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ‬

‫‪16.7‬‬

‫‪14.6‬‬

‫‪31.3‬‬

‫‪27.5‬‬

‫‪21.1‬‬

‫‪48.6‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬

‫‪25.5‬‬

‫‪3.7‬‬

‫‪29.2‬‬

‫‪31.2‬‬

‫‪5.5‬‬

‫‪36.7‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪4.6‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪5.7‬‬

‫‪6.8‬‬

‫‪0.6‬‬

‫‪7.4‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ‬

‫‪15.9‬‬

‫‪8.3‬‬

‫‪24.2‬‬

‫‪21.7‬‬

‫‪9.9‬‬

‫‪31.6‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2010‬ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 61‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﻮ ﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 28‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪15‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 17‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 70.1‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪1995‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 92.8‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، 2003‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 283‬ﻛﻠﻐﻢ‬ ‫‪/‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻛﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ 1999 -1995‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫‪313‬ﻛﻠﻐﻢ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻛﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ 2003 -2000‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪47.9‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺳﻠﻊ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺇﺫ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 42.1‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﻭﳓﻮ‬ ‫‪20.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 16.7‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ ‪ 12.3‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ ‪ 10.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‬ ‫‪.‬ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪2003‬ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﲔ ‪ 2.5‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﲑ‬ ‫ﻭ ‪ 17.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﻭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﻛﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺑﲔ ‪ 0.8‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫‪29.7‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﻛﻪ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪:‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2002‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 49.7‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 48.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳِﺆﻛﺪﻩ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪، 5‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪. 2004‬‬

‫ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪1‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫‪22‬‬


‫_________________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪26-15 .‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (7‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1997‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2001-97‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2003‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2004‬‬

‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ )ﲨﻠﺔ(‬

‫‪43,95‬‬

‫‪57,30‬‬

‫‪56,23‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬

‫‪88,45‬‬

‫‪58,34‬‬

‫‪57,56‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬

‫‪98,80‬‬

‫‪99,08‬‬

‫‪100,83‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫‪62,52‬‬

‫‪64,37‬‬

‫‪66,15‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ‬

‫‪99,17‬‬

‫‪99,38‬‬

‫‪99,07‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ‬

‫‪96,96‬‬

‫‪96,48‬‬

‫‪95,00‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ)ﻣﻜﺮﺭ(‬

‫‪33,11‬‬

‫‪33,80‬‬

‫‪35,84‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪26,49‬‬

‫‪35,11‬‬

‫‪31,03‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪83,38‬‬

‫‪82,65‬‬

‫‪82,33‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬

‫‪105,16‬‬

‫‪102,89‬‬

‫‪102,50‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‬

‫‪97,33‬‬

‫‪98,73‬‬

‫‪97,37‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬

‫‪70.24‬‬

‫‪69,92‬‬

‫‪70,32‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 2005‬‬ ‫‪ 2000-1997‬ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 43.95‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‪ 56,23‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫‪ 31,03‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ ﻛﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ ﻭﺍﳋﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻹﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ ﻛﺄﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻭﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭ ﻗﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 48.2‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 46.4‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 44.9‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 39‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 33.9‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪32.6‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪ 68.9‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪ 68.4‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‬ ‫‪.‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﻛﻪ ﻭﺍﳋﻀﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ‪ 96.2‬ﻭ ‪ 99.7‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ ﻓﺎﺋﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪7. 4‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻝ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫‪23‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (8‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 97‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2000-97‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2003‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪37,39‬‬

‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ )ﲨﻠﺔ(‬

‫‪22,67‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪24,84‬‬

‫‪77,01‬‬

‫‪100,14‬‬

‫‪81,86‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬

‫‪98,84‬‬

‫‪98,53‬‬

‫‪27,29‬‬

‫‪3,89‬‬

‫‪100,00‬‬

‫‪0,04‬‬

‫‪5,68‬‬

‫‪60,81‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪0,03‬‬

‫‪1,69‬‬

‫‪100,31‬‬

‫‪100,00‬‬

‫‪0,04‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪17,89‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪9,63‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪28,77‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﲑ‬

‫‪54,21‬‬

‫‪5,18‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪93,12‬‬

‫‪3,30‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪96,95‬‬

‫‪1,72‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬

‫‪91,98‬‬

‫‪99,69‬‬

‫‪99,73‬‬

‫‪94,91‬‬

‫‪114,71‬‬

‫‪99,95‬‬

‫‪94,47‬‬

‫‪111,77‬‬

‫‪99,95‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫‪18,77‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪87,32‬‬

‫‪25,39‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪84,97‬‬

‫‪26,96‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪79,83‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ‬

‫‪99,42‬‬

‫‪84,78‬‬

‫‪100,40‬‬

‫‪99,77‬‬

‫‪82,37‬‬

‫‪99,89‬‬

‫‪98,69‬‬

‫‪81,55‬‬

‫‪99,90‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ‬

‫‪92,48‬‬

‫‪63,75‬‬

‫‪100,22‬‬

‫‪90,88‬‬

‫‪63,96‬‬

‫‪99,81‬‬

‫‪90,27‬‬

‫‪65,27‬‬

‫‪99,80‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ)ﻣﻜﺮﺭ(‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪100,63‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪101,18‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪100,06‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪0,35‬‬

‫‪1,54‬‬

‫‪115,32‬‬

‫‪6,62‬‬

‫‪0,76‬‬

‫‪101,27‬‬

‫‪7,88‬‬

‫‪1,85‬‬

‫‪109,16‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬

‫‪95,82‬‬

‫‪61,46‬‬

‫‪100,56‬‬

‫‪91,29‬‬

‫‪53,98‬‬

‫‪100,47‬‬

‫‪83,80‬‬

‫‪54,65‬‬

‫‪100,36‬‬

‫ﳊﻮﻡ ﲪﺮﺍﺀ‬

‫‪93,70‬‬

‫‪64,18‬‬

‫‪100,57‬‬

‫‪87,69‬‬

‫‪54,12‬‬

‫‪100,48‬‬

‫‪77,56‬‬

‫‪53,57‬‬

‫‪100,37‬‬

‫ﳊﻮﻡ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀ‬

‫‪99,72‬‬

‫‪60,19‬‬

‫‪99,75‬‬

‫‪99,18‬‬

‫‪53,93‬‬

‫‪99,85‬‬

‫‪99,06‬‬

‫‪54,99‬‬

‫‪99,77‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ‬

‫‪91,91‬‬

‫‪41,68‬‬

‫‪100,78‬‬

‫‪83,90‬‬

‫‪45,03‬‬

‫‪102,75‬‬

‫‪82,89‬‬

‫‪44,92‬‬

‫‪103,72‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‬

‫‪100,00‬‬

‫‪105,47‬‬

‫‪98,83‬‬

‫‪105,70‬‬

‫‪99,88‬‬

‫‪105,37‬‬

‫‪99,89‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬

‫‪43,36‬‬

‫‪40,77‬‬

‫‪98,72‬‬

‫‪37,59‬‬

‫‪98,94‬‬

‫‪41,08‬‬

‫‪98,61‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫‪38,02‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2004‬‬

‫‪36,35‬‬

‫‪100,00‬‬ ‫‪47,67‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪29,42‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪85,36‬‬

‫‪36,60‬‬

‫‪97,85‬‬

‫‪29,09‬‬

‫‪35,11‬‬

‫‪100,00‬‬ ‫‪45,19‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 2005‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﰐ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺴﺒﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ) ‪27.29‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪ ( 28.77‬ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﱂ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﺳﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻓﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ‪ 45‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻭ‪ 96‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﲑ ﻭ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺯ ﻓﻨﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ) ‪ 1.72‬ﻭ ‪ 1.85‬ﻭ ‪ ( 5.68‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﱂ ﺗﺼﻞ ﻟﻼﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﻛﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﲑ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ) ‪ 7.88‬ﻭ ‪ 26.96‬ﻭ ‪ ( 35.11‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﻮﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺠﺰ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﻢ ﺍﻟـ ‪ 300‬ﺃﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﻤﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﲤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳉﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳍﻀﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻬﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﻄﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﺗﲔ ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ‬ ‫‪24‬‬


‫_________________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪26-15 .‬‬

‫ﺷﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺋﻊ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺸﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺃﺑﻜﺮ ﻧﻀﺠﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻔﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻠﻮﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺼﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﶈﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﳍﺎﻣﺸﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﺤﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2003‬‬ ‫ﲝﻮﺍﱄ‪ 9.7‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻭﻫﻲ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 68‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﺬﺑﺬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻢ ﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﳍﺰﺍﺕ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﳍﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (1‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1995‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2003‬‬

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‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪37-27 .‬‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺩ ﺑﻮﻣﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﻮﻣﺮﺩﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔـﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺻـﺎﺣﺒﺖ ﻗﻴـﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘـﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﻣـﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪ ،‬ﺃﳘﻴﺘـﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲢـﺴﲔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﲝﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺣﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺗﻄـﻮﻳﺮ ﻫﻴﺎﻛـﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻭ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺃﳘﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺠﺰﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺇﺫ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺎ ﲰﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ )‪(1) (cs4‬‬

‫ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﳌﻮﺿـﻮﻉ ﻳﺘـﺴﻢ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻮﻥ )‪ (consommateur‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺑﺎﳊﺪﺍﺛﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬

‫)‪ (ompétition‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ )‪ (changement‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻌﺪﻭﺍ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋـﻦ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴـﻖ ﰲ‬

‫)‪ (complexiste‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺠﻮﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻫﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﰲ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺷـﺮﻭﻁ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﰲ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺪﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ,‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﳓـﺎﻭﻝ‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺳﺴﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬

‫ﻟﻔﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺃﻧﻈﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳـﺔ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻓﺮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﶈﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺼﺺ‬

‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺛﺒﺖ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ‬

‫ﺳﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻘﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑـﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺃﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﻫﺪﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﲏ‬

‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﺑﺮﺯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ) ‪TQM /‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻛﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻨـﺸﺄﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﺭ‬

‫‪ (Total quality management‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺗﻰ ﰲ‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢـﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬

‫ﳒﺎﺡ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ‪ .‬ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴـﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠـﻮﺓ‬

‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ‪‬ـﺪﻑ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺪﺍﺛﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ .2‬ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪ Quality‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﺍ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻼ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪ Qualitas‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻊ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭ ﲟﺎ‬

‫ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﲏ ﻗﺪﳝﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ)‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻴﺪ‬

‫ﻳﺆﻭﻝ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻬﺪﻑ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝـﺔ "‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬

‫ﻭﻗﻞ ﺍﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻓﺴﲑﻯ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﻢ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ" )ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬

‫ﻭ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺟﺴﻴﻤﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌـﱪﺭ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴـﺎﺕ ﻻ‬

‫–ﺍﻻﻳﺔ‪.(105‬‬

‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻭ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻏﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟـﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ "ﺇﻥ‬

‫ﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺻﻮﻻ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﷲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ"‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ "ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﳛﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻋﻤﻼ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻘﻨﻪ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺃﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺗﻘـﺪﱘ‬

‫‪.1‬‬

‫ﺭﻛﺎﺋﺰ ﻫﺪﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﻭﺇﻃﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﻳﻬـﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ juran‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻐـﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪(2).‬‬

‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻣﻦ‬

‫‪.2‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ‪ E-deming‬ﳝﺎﺛـﻞ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒـﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫" ﺩﻗﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ "‪(3).‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬

‫‪.3‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ‪ Ph-crosby‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻫـﻲ "‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻫـﻲ ﻣـﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓـﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻭ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ " ‪(4).‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫‪.4‬‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ‪ Christian Meria‬ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ ﻭ ﺑﺄﻗﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫‪(5 ).‬‬ ‫‪.5‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬـﺎ ‪ G.Taguchi‬ﺑﺄ‪‬ـﺎ " ﺗﻔـﺎﺩﻱ‬

‫ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﺰﺑﻮﻥ ")‪(6‬‬

‫‪ . 1-1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ‪:‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺍ‪ -‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫـﺎ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪37-27 .‬‬

‫ﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻗـﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿـﻲ ﻭ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬

‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳـﻒ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺼﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺘﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩﺍ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻠـﻖ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪Total‬ﺇﺫ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺗﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺣـﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ )‪ (7‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻠﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻭﻓﻖ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﺧﻠﲔ ﰲ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻨﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻭ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬

‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭﳍﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻷﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﳛﻀﻲ ﺑﺮﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻮﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓـﺈﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﱐ ﻣـﺪﺧﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣـﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﰒ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺄ‪‬ـﺎ ﺷـﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺩﻓﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﻭﻗﺘﺎ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .I‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ‪:-‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄـﻮﺭ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺎﰐ ﺫﻟﻚ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤـﻞ‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﰐ ‪:‬‬

‫"ﻟﺘﻴﻠﻮﺭ"ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺨـﺼﺺ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺤـﺺ‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺩﻋـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺿـﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺶ )‪.(8‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠـﻖ‬

‫ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﻤﺖ‬

‫ﺑﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋـﱪ‬

‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬

‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﱂ ﳛﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﻔﺰﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻭﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﺭ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(01‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‬

‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻊ‬

‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﻭﺝ ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻕ‬

‫ﻨﻌﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺯﻥ‬

‫‪(9)*Jean Marie : Le défi de la qualité dans la société industrielle p81.‬‬

‫‪ .II‬ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ‪:1950 – 1930‬ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .III‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪: 1970 – 1950‬ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪:‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺒﺎﺕ )ﺍﻟﻌﻴـﺐ ﰲ‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﺍ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻸﻭﻝ ﻣـﺮﺓ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ( ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿـﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺣﻠـﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ‬

‫ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺃﻧـﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻭ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ')‪.(10‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠـﺔ ﰎ‬

‫ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﳎـﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ‪.‬ﻭ ﳚﺐ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺗﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﻛﺎﰲ ﺑﻞ ﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ ﲟﻔﺮﺩﻩ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻖ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭ ﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻟﻨﻈـﺎﻡ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﲟﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻭ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ﻭ ﺃﴰﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ .IV‬ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ‪ 1970‬ﺣـﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫‪.2‬‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪37-27 .‬‬

‫ﳏﻮﺭ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻣـﻦ ﺣﻴـﺚ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻭ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.3‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﲨﻴـﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﶈـﻴﻂ ﻭ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ ﻭ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﻟىﺎﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﰲ‬

‫‪.2.1‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﳑﻜﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻓﻠـﺴﻔﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﲑ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻭ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‪‬ـﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳـﺴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳـﺔ ﳌﺨﺘﻠـﻒ‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻷﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﻭ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﺔ ﳑﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺴﻮﻕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤـﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺍﻫﺒﻬﻢ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ)‪. (11‬‬

‫ﳛﻘﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻧـﻪ ﺍﻣﺘـﺪﺍﺩ‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﳊﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢـﺴﲔ‬

‫ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣـﺪﺧﻞ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻛـﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺳﻠﻌﺔ ‪/‬ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ‪ /‬ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ـﻀﻞ‬ ‫ـﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻓـ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴـ‬

‫ـﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ـﻞ ﻟﻠﻤـ‬ ‫ـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺜـ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳـ‬

‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺷﻜﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ ﻭ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪،‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳـﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺭﻓـﻊ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ)‪.(12‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﻭ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪.1‬‬

‫ﳏﻮﺭ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪(13).‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺳﻮﻑ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﳑﻜﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ (2‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﲝﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ‬

‫ﻏﺯﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ ﺒﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫) ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ " ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺹ ‪(14)( 299‬‬

‫‪.3.1‬ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻘـﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺩﺉ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ)‪: (15‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺄﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ …ﺍﱁ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬

‫‪ .5‬ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪.TQM‬‬

‫‪ .5‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫‪.4.1‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .6‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ) ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻟﺔ (‬

‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫‪ .7‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺟـﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎ‪‬ـﺎ ‪،‬ﻭ ﺗﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ‪ TQM‬ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺪﺓ‬

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‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪37-27 .‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻫـﺪﺍﻑ ‪ .‬ﻭﺁﺩﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔـﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﲞﺪﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ‬

‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﺕ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﺣﻘﻴﻘـﺔ‬

‫ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺘﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﺍﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ "ﺩﻧﻴﺲ ﻣﻮﺭﺟـﺎﻥ " ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻟﺪﻯ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ ﺳـﺎﻛﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ)‪. (16‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌـﲏ ﻗـﺪﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻭﺻﻒ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠىﺎﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﻳﺆﻛـﺪ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ‬

‫‪" Fericelli AM‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻻ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﻭ ﻟﻜـﻦ‬

‫ﺇﱃ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﲟﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻧـﺸﺎﻁ ﻳـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻮ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﺼﲑﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪(18).‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺭﻫﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻐﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓـﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺧـﺬ ﰲ‬

‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺬﺍﺑﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺘﺎﺑـﺎﺕ ‪ Mporter‬ﺑـﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴـﺔ ﻭ ﻟﻜﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ " ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺿﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺑﻘﺎﺋﻬـﺎ ﻭ‬

‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺃﻓـﻀﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻓـﻀﻞ ﻟﻺﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻫــﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨــﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳــﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤــﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳــﺔ‬ ‫‪ Performance‬ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴـﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺃﻱ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺜﻴـﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﻐﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺑﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭ‪ /‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺪﻳﻦ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫‪ Action‬ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻞ‬

‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ )‪. (19‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ‪ Processus‬ﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬـﺮ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬

‫ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ )‪(17‬‬

‫ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻛﻔﺆﺓ ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻴﲔ ﻳﻨﻈـﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺓ‬

‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪،‬‬

‫‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺧﺒﲑ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ ‪ Arthur D- little‬ﻭﻓـﻖ‬

‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜـﻞ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻀﻢ ‪ 500‬ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ‪) porter‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻗـﻞ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺩﻭ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓـﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫‪.‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ( ﺗﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﻠﻔﺔ ﲟﺒـﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻣﻌﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﻭ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘـﺸﺎﻑ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﲤﻴﺰﻫﻢ )‪(22‬‬

‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ‬

‫ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻢ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑـﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ‬

‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﲟﻘﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﲡﺴﻴﺪ ﻫﺪﺍ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺧـﺮ‬

‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﲟﻌـﲎ ﺍﳌـﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ)‪.( 20‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ‪.‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻄـﻮﻳﺮ‬

‫ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ porter‬ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻥ ﲣﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﻌﻤﻼﺋﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓـﺴﲔ‬

‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ‪‬ﲕﺀ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﳝﻬﺎ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺗﻘـﺪﱘ ﻣﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﲝﻤﺎﺱ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﳎـﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ )‪(23‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺎﺩ )‬

‫ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﱪﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ‪‬ﺎ)‪. (21‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺑﻌـﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺓ‬

‫ﻓﺈﺫﻥ ﺣﺎﳌﺎ ﲢﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﰐ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻻﺀ ﻭ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﲡـﺎﻩ ﻣﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺳﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫‪.3‬‬

‫( ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻤـﺎﻳﺰ‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳﺘﻌﻜﺲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺠـﻢ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ‪ TQM‬ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓـﺴﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴـﺰ ﰲ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﲟﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻫﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﻣﻦ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺑﲔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﺎﻟﺰﺑﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﲣﺎﺫﻩ ﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟـﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟـﺔ‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺐ‪،‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺭﺿﺎﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘـﺎﱄ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ ﺍﳌـﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﻗـﺎﻡ ‪‬ـﺎ & ‪Peter‬‬

‫ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺣﺼﺺ ﺳﻮﻗﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟـﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ‬

‫‪ Waterman‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﲤﻴﺰﺍ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ ﳏـﺪﺩﺓ ﻫـﻲ ﺃﻥ‬

‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪34‬‬


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‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪37-27 .‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﲤﻴﺰﺍ ﻭ ﳒﺎﺣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺟﻬﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﲝﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻓﺎﻋـﻞ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻋﺎﱂ‬

‫ﻭﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ‪ .‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗـﺖ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻬـﺎﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺑﻌﺪﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣـﻊ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻛﺒﻌـﺪ‬

‫ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜـﺎﰲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﻗـﺖ )ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟـﺴﺮﻳﻊ –‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ – ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ (‪.‬‬ ‫‪-4‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒـﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ƒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ‬

‫‪.1‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﱃ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺎﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻞ‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ‬

‫ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﻦ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺗﻄﺮﻗﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻭ‬

‫‪.2‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺗﻘـﺪﱘ ﻣﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭ ﻭﻻﺋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ‬

‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺋﻤـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﲤﺜـﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻘﺎﺋﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺎ ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺘـﻮﺝ ﻭ ﳒﺎﺣـﻪ ﺳـﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ ﺭﺿـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬

‫‪.3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳒﺎﺡ ﻭ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺪﺓ‬

‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑـﺪﺃ ﻣﻨـﺪ ﺣـﻮﺍﱄ‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﲤﻴﺰﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ )‪. (24‬‬

‫‪ 1900‬ﻡ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑـﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﻣﺰﺍﻣﻨﺘـﻪ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻣﺮﺕ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺶ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟـﺐ ﺿـﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ )ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ( ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ ﳑـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﲟﻨﺎﻓـﺴﻴﻬﺎ ﻣـﻊ‬

‫‪.4‬‬

‫ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ ﺟﻌـﻞ‬

‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﳕﻮﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻫﺪﻓﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬

‫ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﲤﻜﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ ﺟـﺪﺩ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲤﻜﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﺻـﻮﻻ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺋﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺫﻭﺍﻗﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻻﺋﻬﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪.‬‬

‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ) ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﳑﻴﺰ ( ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫‪35‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟـﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺇﻃـﺎﺭ ﻓﻠـﺴﻔﻲ‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫‪ -5‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗـﺪﺧﻞ ﺿـﻤﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ‪:‬‬‫‪-1‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋـﺎﺹ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤـﺴﲔ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻌﺎﻟـﺔ‬

‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﳌـﺎ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﳐﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﺮ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-2‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫ ﻛﺎﻓـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺍﺑﲑ‬

‫‪-7‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺗﻌﻤـﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﺧﺮ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻋـﺪﺍﺩ‬

‫‪-8‬ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻦ‬

‫‪-3‬ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨـﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳـﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴـﻊ‬

‫ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺟﻮﺍﺋﺰ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﺗﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻛﻔﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬

‫‪-4‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﻠﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‬

‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ )ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄـﺎﻋﲔ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ) ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ ....‬ﺍﱁ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪37-27 .‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ –‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬ ‫‪-4‬‬ ‫‪-5‬‬ ‫‪-6‬‬ ‫‪-7‬‬ ‫‪-8‬‬ ‫‪-9‬‬ ‫‪-10‬‬ ‫‪-11‬‬ ‫‪-12‬‬ ‫‪-13‬‬ ‫‪-14‬‬ ‫‪-15‬‬ ‫‪-16‬‬ ‫‪-17‬‬ ‫‪-18‬‬ ‫‪-19‬‬ ‫‪-20‬‬ ‫‪-21‬‬ ‫‪-22‬‬ ‫‪-23‬‬

‫ﻣﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺩﻛﺔ ﻭﻃﺎﺭﻕ ﺷﻠﱯ‪-‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪-‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪.‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬ﻁ‪ .2002 .1‬ﺹ‪15‬‬ ‫‪Juran Dj .Gestion de la qualité. AFNOR. 1983. P15‬‬ ‫‪Neville jean Philipe. La qualité en question. Revue Française de Gestion,‬‬ ‫‪Mars,Avril,Mai. 1996. p39‬‬ ‫‪Crosby jean Philipe. La qualité c’est gratuit. Economica. 1986. p19‬‬ ‫‪Meria Cristian. La qualité des produits industriels. Ed dunod. P3‬‬ ‫ﺣﻼﻭﻱ‪.‬ﺹ‪8‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪.‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ‪.‬ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪ .2002‬ﺹ‪129‬‬ ‫‪Jean marie .Le défi de la qualité dans la société industrielle. P81‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺴﺘﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﺪ ﺩﺍﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪.‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪.‬ﻁ‪. 1995 .1‬ﺹ‪27‬‬ ‫‪Brilman Jean. Les meilleures pratiques de management au cœur de la‬‬ ‫‪performance. Ed .organisation. 2 tirage. 1998.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻳﺲ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻁ‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪ 1998‬ﺹ‪.2‬‬ ‫ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻇﻢ ﺧﻀﲑ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﻁ‪ .1‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ‪.2000‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪.‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬ﺹ‪.299‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪.‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﲝﺜﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴـﺰ ﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺎﺕ ‪.‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻠﺔ‪.‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2005‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻌﻮﺭ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ‪.‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﲝﺜﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﱄ ﺣـﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴـﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‪.‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‪.‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪.2005‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﻨﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ ‪.‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪.2005‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻤﻲ ﺣﻴﺪﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ –ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪.‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮ‪.2002.‬ﺹ‪.8‬‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﺮﺳﻲ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ 1996.‬ﺹ‪.87‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻮ ﺷﻨﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪-‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ‪-‬ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪-‬ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫـﺎ‪-‬ﺭﺳـﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎﺟـﺴﺘﲑ‪ .‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ 2002.‬ﺹ‪.16‬‬ ‫‪Porter Michael. L’AVANTAGE concurrentiel- comment devancer ses‬‬ ‫‪concourt et maintenir son avance. Ed dunod. Paris. 1997. p8‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ‪.‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ 2005‬ﺹ‪.181‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪ .‬ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺀ –ﻛﻴﻒ ﲡﻌﻞ ‪ %1‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺑﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪-‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ – ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ‪.‬ﻻﺳﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﲟﻴﻚ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪.1998.‬‬ ‫ﺍﲪﺪ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ‪.‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪.2001‬‬

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‫__________________________________________________________________________ ﺃﺛﺮ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪44-39 .‬‬

‫ﺃﺜﺭ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﺩﺍﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺧﻴﻀﺮ ﺑﺴﻜﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﻴ‪‬ﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲝﻜﻢ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﺎﳌﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ )‪.(3‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ )‪.(4‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻺﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺿﻌﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺄﺧﺬ ﻛﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﰐ ﳌﻼﺀﻣﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﲝﺜﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ‪ Thomas‬ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ "ﺧﻄﻂ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺫﺍﺕ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪(1) ".‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺧﻠﻖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﲔ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ‪ -‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﲟﺘﻐﲑﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﲟﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ )‪.(2‬‬

‫‪ .2 .2‬ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﱪ ﻭﺃﺩﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﲢﻠﻴـﻞ ﻛـﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻴﺪ ﻟﺒﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻧﻔـﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟـﺔ ﻟﺘـﺴﺨﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺿﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻷﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺗﺪﻋﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻴﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻟﺘﻘﻮﳝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﻮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻧﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1 .2‬ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(1‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ)ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ( ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ )‪.(5‬‬

‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺭﺩﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻉ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﺎﺀ‬

‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ‬

‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،2001 ،2‬ﺹ‪.113‬‬

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‫__________________________________________________________________________ ﺃﺛﺮ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪44-39 .‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ /‬ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ )ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﲰﺎﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪...‬ﺇﱁ( ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ . 3‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﱴ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﲣﻔﺾ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻭﺑﻴﻚ ‪ OPEC‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺼﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻝ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺳﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻴﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ )‪.(7‬‬

‫ﺇ ﹼﻥ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻭﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻨﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬

‫‪ .1 .3‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻘﺐ ﻭﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﺬﻩ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻮﺡ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺎﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳛﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺒﺪﺍﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻘﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1 .1 .3‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻧﻮﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻫـ‪ /‬ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﲰﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻫﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﳛﻀﻰ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻲ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻠﲔ ﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺴﻮﻳﻘﻬﺎ )‪.(8‬‬

‫ﺃ‪ /‬ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﻓﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﲤﺤﻴﺼﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﻤﻮﺡ ‪‬ﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ‪ /‬ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﳎﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯ‪ /‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﺻﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ /‬ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲣﻀﻊ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﻭﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ)‪.(6‬‬

‫ﺡ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﲡﻨﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻘﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺮﺻﺪ ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻻﻗﺘﻨﺎﺹ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﲟﺎ ﳜﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﳘﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻬﺎ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﳍﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻻ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻟﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ‪ /‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﲤﺎﺳﻚ‬ ‫ﲨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺘﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯ‪ /‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﲰﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ . 2 .3‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻷﻱ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻴﻎ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺪﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻨﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺡ‪ /‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻁ‪ /‬ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .1 .2 .3‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻟﻚ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻭﻋﻼﺟﻬﺎ‪ ,‬ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﻻ ﻣﻔﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ 2 .2 .3‬ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺩ ﳏﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬‫ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺮ‬‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴـﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﱄ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃ‪ /‬ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ /‬ﳝﻜﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﳝﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ /‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﲑ ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ )ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ(‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻄﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻏﺘﻨﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫـ‪ /‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫__________________________________________________________________________ ﺃﺛﺮ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪44-39 .‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(2‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ )‪.(9‬‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻭ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ؟‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﻀﻌﻑ‬

‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﻗﻭﺓ‬

‫ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻑ ﻫﺫﻩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ؟‬

‫ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻑ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﻴﻥ؟‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬

‫ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻑ ﻫﺫﻩ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻗﻭﻱ‬

‫ﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻏﺎﱎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻍ‪.‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮ‪ ،2000 ،‬ﺹ‪.188‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﻠﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﺗﱪﺯ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪...‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﲜﺎﻧﺒﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐـﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺳـﻢ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﳌﺎﻡ ﲝﺴﻦ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﻓﻼﺡ ﺍﳊﺴﻴﲏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،2000 ،‬ﺹ‪.13‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﺎﻳﺪﺓ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺣﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،1995 ،‬ﺹ‪.37‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﻃﺮﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.1993 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،2001 ،2‬ﺹ‪.113‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻏﺎﱎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻍ‪.‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮ‪ ،2000 ،‬ﺹ‪.188‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻋﺒﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮ‪. 1999 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.110‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.110‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻏﺎﱎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.143‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.188‬‬

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‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪60-45 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻜﻤﺩﺨل ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ )ﺑﺎﺗﻨﺔ(‬

‫ﺇﳍﺎﻡ ﳛﻴﺎﻭﻱ – ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺮﺭﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ –ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ –‬

‫ﻫﺪﻓﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲜﺎﻧﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﱐ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻭﺳﻂ ﳏﻴﻂ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻭﻓﻖ‬

‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﺮﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﰲ‬

‫‪-‬ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﺻﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ ﺍﺗﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺘﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺳﺒﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﺘﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲜﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﺎﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺧﺪﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻫﻢ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻳﺮ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺒﲏ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﻟﻜﺴﺐ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻟﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻣﺴﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ؛‬‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ؛‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﳒﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﴰﻠﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ‬

‫‪ -1-1‬ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻠﺖ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪،‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪ :‬ﺗﺪﱐ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺭﺩﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻃﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪... ،‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬ ‫‪45‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -1-1-1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﺲ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪9000‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 2000‬ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺃﲝﺎﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‪(6).‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺖ‬

‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﻲ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﻯ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﻮﺿﺢ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻯ ﰒ ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺎ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺎﻣﻼ ﻭﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻼ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﺴﲑﰐ‬

‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ )‪ (Processus‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ,‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺯ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ )ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ( ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ )‪ .(1‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﺃﻱ ﺇﳘﺎﻝ ﻟﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﰲ‬

‫ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪(7):‬‬

‫ﺣﲔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻛﻞ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﱐ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺑﻠﻮﻏﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻹﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻠﻖ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺘﻐﲑ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ :‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪(2).‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ )ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ(‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﻛﺰ ﺑﻌﺾ‬

‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ )ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ( ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺃﻋﺘﱪ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺪﻯ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪(3).‬‬

‫ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑﻩ‬

‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ( ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ,‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ‪... ،‬ﺍﱁ‪(4).‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻟﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺪﻯ‬

‫ﻭﺭﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ )‪ .(5‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮﻏﻬﺎ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ )ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﺪﺓ‬

‫ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ )‬

‫ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ( ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪46‬‬


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‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪60-45 .‬‬

‫‪ -2-1-1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺗﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﻓﻖ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (1‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ‪ ,‬ﺳﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ‬

‫‪ -3-1-1‬ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻛﻔﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‬

‫ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ )‪ ،(8‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ )‪ ،(9‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲤﺎﺷﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻷﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ )‪ ،(10‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺃﺣﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﻘﻴﺎﺱ )‪ .(11‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑﻩ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻛﻤﻲ ﻟﻜﻦ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪... ،‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺀ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﺍ ﻭﻣﺪﺧﻼ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ )‪ .(12‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻛﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺳﻨﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻳﺘﻢ‬

‫‪ -2-1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -1-2-1‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ,‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ "ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻲ ﻭﻛﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ )ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻛﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ‬

‫)ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ(‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺫﻭ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳋﻠﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺑﲔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺯﺑﺎﺋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﰒ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ )ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ"‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ .(14‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻺﻳﺰﻭ‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪ 9000‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 2000‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ " ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﰲ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ "ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺳﲑﻭﺭﺓ ﻹﺭﺿﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻭﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ " )‪ . (15‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﳏﺪﺩ ﻭﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺭﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ‬

‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ" )‪.(13‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻟﻜﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺪﻗﻴﻘﻪ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ‬

‫ﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬

‫)ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ(‪(17) .‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﲢﺴﲔ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬

‫ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬

‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫‪ -2-2-1‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‪: ISO‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‪.‬‬

‫ﳝﺜﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺎ ﻳﻀﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ‬

‫‪ -3-1‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬

‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻋﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1987‬ﰒ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻟﺮﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ‬

‫‪ 1994‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2000‬ﻭﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲣﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ 9001‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 2000‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬

‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻲ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﺩﺓ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬

‫ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‪ ,‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬

‫ﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻫﻲ‪ ":‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﲢﺴﲔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬

‫)‪.(16‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬

‫ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺗﻘﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺻﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻷﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﳓﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪48‬‬


‫________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪60-45 .‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﳔﻔـﺾ ﻣﺆﺷـﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 11‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﱵ ‪ 1994‬ﻭ‪ (19) .1997‬ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺣﺼﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﳌﺎ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬

‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬

‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺳﻼﺣﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﶈﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻟﻄﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ‪%14.2‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳉﻠﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺟﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻭ‪ %64.2‬ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ .2001‬ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﲔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺍ ‪ %50‬ﳘﺎ ‪ :‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ %57.8‬ﻭ‪%64.2‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺧـﻼﻝ )‪ ،(2002- 1997‬ﻭ ﻛـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ %54.7‬ﻭ‪%74.3‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪( 20).‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺳﻲﺀ‬

‫‪ -1-2‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﺪﺓ‬

‫ﲤﻴﺰﺕ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬

‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻫﺘﻼﻙ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺃﺟﻬﺰ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺁﻻ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺗﺴﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ‬

‫ﳌﺨﺰﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﺇﺧﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪(18) :‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﳌﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪﺭ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪. % 50‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﻧﺔ‪،‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﲑﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺑﺎﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﺒﻌﺪﻳﻪ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﳕﻮ ﺟﺪ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪. %21.2‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ‪...،‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﲤﺎﺷﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺟﺮﻯ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﺗﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻀﺮﺭﺍ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺗﻘﻬﻘﺮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﳔﻔﺾ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﺑـ‪ 1.5%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫‪49‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -2-2‬ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ‬

‫‪ -‬ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪.2000‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﻞ‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲤﺖ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫*ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﺲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﲟﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﴰﻠﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻛﻌﻀﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﺲ )‪ ،(ISO‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺣﻖ ﻣﻨﺢ‬

‫)ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ‪ 70‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﺪ ﻳﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻃﺮﻑ ‪ 47‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﲑ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲰﺤﺖ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪،9000‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﴰﻠﺖ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑﻱ‪.‬‬

‫*ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ ,‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ 9000‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪135‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲤﺜﻞ ﰲ‬

‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2004‬ﻭ‪ 3‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ‪(22).‬‬

‫ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ )ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺎﺝ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ(‪(21).‬‬ ‫*ﻭﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﲢﺖ ﻭﺻﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﺼﻠﺖ‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺻﻴﺪﺍﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬

‫ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ )ﺑﺎﺗﻨﺔ( ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.2004‬‬

‫‪ -1-3‬ﶈﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﺰﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺷﺮﻛـﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ ﻓﺮﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫‪ -3-2‬ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴـﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﻳـﺔ ﻟﻺﲰﻨﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸـﺮﻕ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(GIC-ERCE‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ)‪ .(SGP‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ )‪ (EPE/SPA‬ﺫﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﻛﻤﺘﻐﲑﺓ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ 2.250.000.000‬ﺩﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻭﺫﺍﺕ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪﺓ ﺑﺒﺎﺗﻨﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺘﻴﻼﻃﻮ )ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺑﺪ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1986‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ‬

‫ﲡﺮﺑـﺔ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳـﺦ ‪ 3‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪.1986‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺟﻮﺍﺋﺰ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬

‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬

‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ ،1986‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻪ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 13‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﲣﻔﻴﻀﻪ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﲟﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻃﻦ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬

‫‪ -‬ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﻭﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻲ‪.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪50‬‬


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‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪60-45 .‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻓﺎﻗﺖ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪%10‬‬

‫ﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ‪ ،NA442‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻴﲑ‬

‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﳍﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﻭﻹﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ,‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﺮﺷﺪ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺻﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬

‫ﻣﺒﻴﻌﺎ‪‬ـﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨـﻮﺍﺕ ‪2003 ,2002‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺐ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ‪ :‬ﺻﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‪ ،NA442 (2000) :‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‪ .%9,09 ,%11,58،%11,56:‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻧﺴﺐ‬

‫ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻐﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻔﺠﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ‪2004‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‪ ,‬ﻭﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺇﲰﻨﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ )‪ (ACC‬ﺑﺎﳌﺴﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻳﺒﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ ﺑﻐﻠﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2003‬ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪CPJ45‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‬

‫)ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺗﻼﻧﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺗﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﳏﻴﻄﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑـ‪ 45‬ﻣﻴﻘﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﻜﺎﻝ(‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‬

‫‪. CPJ CEM II A32,5‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴﺰﺕ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻟﲔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﲔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ ، CPJ CEM II A42,5‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻭﺕ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫‪.2004‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﻢ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺣﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬

‫)ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ‪ % 1‬ﺇﱃ ‪ (%6‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﻠﻂ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﲡﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻥ ﻭﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﲏ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻳﺮ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻛﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ ،9000‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪-‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻓﺮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ 1994 :9002‬ﰒ‬

‫ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬

‫ﻃﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪:9001‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ ،2000‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ )ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺎﺝ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ( ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺴﲑ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬

‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻨﻒ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺎﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬

‫ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ )‪ ،(2004-1997‬ﺳﺘﺘﻢ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﺍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪(23).‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ‬

‫‪ -2-3‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺎﺟﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺠﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ‬

‫)ﺑﺎﺗﻨﺔ( ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ‪ 1500‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻴـﻦ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ‬

‫‪ -1-2-3‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﳉﺎﺭﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠـﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 800‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﰲ ﺷﺎﺣﻨﺎﺕ )‪ (Dumpers‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬

‫ﺑﲔ ‪ 35‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 40‬ﻃﻦ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺣـﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﺘـﻢ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺘﻬـﺎ ﰲ‬

‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺴﻴﲑﻩ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﲰﻨﺖ ﺫﻭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫‪51‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫ﻣﻄـﻤـﻮﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳـﺮ‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪(concasseur‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻄﻤﻮﺭﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻨﻴﺲ‬

‫ﺑﺎﳌﻄﺎﺭﻕ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺑـ‪ 1000‬ﻃﻦ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻂ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻠﻌﺎﺕ )‪ (Extracteurs‬ﺇﱃ ﺳﺪﺍﺩﰐ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻤﺎﻣﻲ‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 25‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻂ ﻣﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪70‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺣﻮﻧﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ‪65‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ %‬ﻛﻠﺲ ﻭ‪ % 30‬ﻃﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﲢﺖ ﺻﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﳘﺎ ﺍﳉﺒﺲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺣﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ )‪ (SCHENK‬ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﻥ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻢ ﻛﺴﺮﳘﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺎﺳﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻄﺎﺭﻕ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬

‫ﳐﺮﺟﲔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺼﺐ )‪.(Débitmètres‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ 1000‬ﻃﻦ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﲣﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ ﺣﻠﺰﻭﱐ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺲ ﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ‪ :‬ﻛﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫)ﺍﳋﺎﻡ( ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﺲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ )ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻛﺲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬

‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﺴﺨﲔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻃﻮﺍﺑﻖ ﺫﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻠﺰﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻂ ﺑﺄﺣﺰﻣﺔ‬

‫ﲣﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻥ ﲢﺖ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﳐﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪°1400‬ﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺞ ﺫﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳋﻠﻴـﻂ )ﻛﻠﺲ ﻭﻃﲔ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴـﺢ‬

‫ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ‪ 130‬ﺇﱃ ‪°150‬ﻡ ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﳓﻮ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳـﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻄﻤـﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴـﺲ‬

‫ﻣﻄﻤﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪15000‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺮﻋـﺎﺕ )‪ (Doseurs‬ﳓﻮ ﻃﺎﺣﻮﻧﺘﲔ ﺧﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻃﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺣﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ 140‬ﻃﻦ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﻛﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻄﻬﻲ ﺟﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺣﻮﻧﺘﲔ‬

‫)‪ (incuits‬ﺗﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻃﻬﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ‬

‫ﻫﻲ‪ ،%6‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲡﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺣﻮﻧﺘﲔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬

‫ﻛﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﻟـﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻃﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳊﺼـﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺤـﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻮﺩﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻃﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﰲ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻗﺔ)‪ (Finesse‬ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ‪ % 14‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻃﺎﺣﻮﻧﺘﲔ ﻟﻺﲰﻨﺖ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ‪100‬‬

‫ﻏﺮﺑﺎﻝ ﺫﻭ ‪ u 90‬ﻭﺑﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻈﻤﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺏ‪.% 1‬‬

‫ﻃﻦ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺣﻮﻧﺘﲔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﳐﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺣﻮﻧﺘﲔ )‪ :(Trémies‬ﺍﺛﻨﺘﲔ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺠﺒﺲ‬

‫ﲤﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﱪ ﻋﻮﺍﺯﻝ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ )ﻛﻠﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺯﻭﻻﻥ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻄﻤﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻨﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺗﻌﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺣﻮﻧﺘﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﲡﻨﻴﺴﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ‬

‫ﲤﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻄﻤﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﻨﻴﺲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ 8000‬ﻃﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻄﻤﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﺫﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻌﺔ ‪ 8000‬ﻃﻦ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻮﺍﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﻳﺔ)‪ (Pneumatiques‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪60-45 .‬‬

‫‪ -2-2-3‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘـﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸـﺮﻛﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺇﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ,‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘـﺮﺓ )‪:(2004 -1997‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ,‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺇﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻌﻄﻞ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﺒﻜﺮ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ,‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻊ ﻟﻄﺎﻗﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(1‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﲡﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (1‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻏﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪,‬‬

‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺨﻄـﻂ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ‪ %100‬ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺪﺍﺳﻲ‪ ,‬ﻓﺎﻵﺟﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩ ﻭﻣﻜﻠﻒ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ,(2001-1997‬ﰒ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﻞ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ,‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ‪,%100‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2000‬ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺏ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺇﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬

‫‪%109,33‬ﻭﺃﺩﱏ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﺑـ ‪ .%98,03‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻄﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﲔ ‪ 97,80‬ﻃﻦ‪/‬ﺳﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺇﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺧﱪﺓ‬

‫‪ 2004‬ﻭ‪ 108,17‬ﻃﻦ‪/‬ﺳﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1998‬‬

‫ﻭﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻷﻥ ﺇﲰﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺫﻭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ ,‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﺘﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺍﻋﻴﺪ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ‬

‫‪ : 1986‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻜﺴﺐ ﺛﻘﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻓﻊ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬

‫‪ : 1992‬ﺗﻌﻄﻞ ﺟﻬﺎﺯﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻥ ﳘﺎ ‪ :‬ﳐﻔﺾ ﺍﳉﺴﺮ‬

‫ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﲢﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻂ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺟﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎ‬

‫‪ : 1995‬ﺗﻌﻄﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳊﻠﺰﻭﱐ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺨﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬

‫ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ )ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ( ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ )ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﻤﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﻋﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ‬

‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ( ‪.‬‬

‫‪ : 2003‬ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﺮﻭﺣﻴﺎﺕ )ﻣﱪﺩﺍﺕ( ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻥ ﻭﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪12‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ 1994 : 9002‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ‪ %100‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ,2003‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ‪ ,2000 :9001‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬

‫ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻫﺘﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ‬

‫ﺑﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺟﻮﺩﺗﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪.2003‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻪ ﻭﻳﻄﺒﻘﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳑﺎ‬

‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪ ,‬ﻓﺈﻥ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ,‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺇﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﻬﺎ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2000‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﻋﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﻼﺋﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑـ‪ %2,17‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﰲ ‪ 2002‬ﺇﱃ ‪.%2,42‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﲰﺢ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻱ ﺭﻓﻊ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀ‪‬ﻢ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 2000‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ %9,36‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﺇﱃ ‪ %12,7‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪2002‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪53‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ 925‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ‬

‫‪ %27,29‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2000‬ﻭ ‪ %36,91‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 2002‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﻛﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ,‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪ ,1997‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻧﲔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬

‫‪ -‬ﲤﻴﺰﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬

‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺬﺑﺬﺏ‪ ,‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1998‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺨﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺋﻲ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺑـ ‪ %18,65‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2004‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻛﻮﺍﺳﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ‬

‫ﺑـ ‪. %30,38‬‬

‫‪ 1072‬ﻍ ‪/‬ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪,2002 :‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻹﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﱯ ﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 2003‬ﻭ ‪ ,2004‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺃﺩﱏ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2000‬ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺑـ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ‬

‫‪ %17,23‬ﻭﺃﻛﱪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺑـ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﻮ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ . %33,19‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻧﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺠﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳐﻄﻂ‪ ,‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ ﺗﺘﺢ‬

‫ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﻗﻔﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﲝﺠﺔ ﺳﺮﻳﺘﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻫـ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪,‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﻌﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﻟﻠﺴﺒﺐ‬

‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﲔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ %59,50‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1999‬ﻭ‪ %66,62‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ,1997‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫ﻫـ‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﺗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ‬

‫ﻧﺴﺐ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻫﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ‪ ،%2‬ﻓﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﻧﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﻄﻌﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻄﻼﺕ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﺫﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ )ﻃﻴﺎﺕ( ﻭﺻﻠﺐ ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬

‫‪ %33,38‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1997‬ﻭ‪ %40,50‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪. 1999‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻏﻼﻑ ﺫﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺻﻠﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬

‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ,(3‬ﻓﺈﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﻪ ‪CEM II A 32,5‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻄﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‪ ,‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬

‫‪ CPJ‬ﻭ‪ CPJ CEM II A 42,5‬ﺳﻨﻮﺿﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬

‫ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪,‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻵﺟﺮ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ(‪,‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻷﻥ ﻭﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﻗﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺠﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻛﻮﺍﺳﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ)‪ (Réfractaires‬ﻭﻧﺴﺐ‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ‪ ,‬ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ‪ ,‬ﺳﻨﻮﺿﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(2‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻨﻮﺿﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (2‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪ 107‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻭﺍﻁ‪/‬ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ )‪-2002‬‬

‫‪ -3-3‬ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫‪ .(2004‬ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﺃﻛﱪ ﰲ ﻣﻄﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻄﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻄﺎﺣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪,‬‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻀﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﻭﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬

‫ﻧﺎﺣﻴﱵ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻛﻤﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺣﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪54‬‬


‫________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪60-45 .‬‬

‫‪ -1-3-3‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ )ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣـﺔ ﺗـﺎﺝ( ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺟـﲔ‪CPJ- :‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬

‫‪ CEM II/A 32,5‬ﺑﺘـﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪ 2001‬ﻭ ‪CPJ‬‬

‫ﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻦ‬

‫‪ -CEM II/ A 42,5‬ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 7‬ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ ‪.2004‬‬

‫ﰒ ﲢﻮﻟﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 19‬ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ ‪.2004‬‬‫ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫‪.1998‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‬

‫ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ ,‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬

‫)ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ( ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻧﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻌﺔ )ﺧﻠﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﻛﻠﻨﻜﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻧﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ )ﻛﻠﺲ‪ ،‬ﻃﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺪﻥ‬

‫ﲤﻠﻚ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ‪ Engins‬ﺍﶈﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺟﺒﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﺯﻭﻻﻥ(‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﰲ‬

‫ﲡﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ )ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ( ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺺ‬

‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ‪... ،‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ .(NA442:2000‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﺘﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫ﲤﻴﺰﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺩﺍﺀﺓ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ 2004 :14001‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ‪‬ﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ 2000 :9001‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺴﻨﺖ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﻼﺀﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪.18000‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻮﻥ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪.2000 :9001‬‬

‫ﺇﳒﺎﺯﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳔﻠﺺ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫* ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2-3-3‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫* ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻪ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ‪.2000‬‬ ‫* ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‬

‫* ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺟﻬﺰ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﺇﺫ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ‪.1998‬‬

‫* ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪-‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫* ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻣﺎ‬

‫* ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻟﻶﻻﺕ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻫﺘﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻗﺪ ﲢﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫* ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ‪ 1994:9002‬ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 7‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪ ,2000‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﺮﻗﺖ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ 16‬ﺷﻬﺮﺍ ﻭﻛﻠﻔﺘﻬﺎ ‪ 530‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ 2000 :9001‬ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 21‬ﻣﺎﻱ ‪ ,2003‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﺮﻗﺖ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ 6‬ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﻛﻠﻔﺘﻬﺎ ‪138,3‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺳﻨﺘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪55‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﳌﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ ﺑﻐﻠﻴﺰﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻭﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﻷﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ ﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺿﻌﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻃﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ‪... ،‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻵﰐ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﺴﻼﺡ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻠﻪ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻪ‪،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﺸﺮﻁ ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻏﺮﺱ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻳﺮ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ‪ 9000‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺋﻬﺎ‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‬

‫ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺗﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ‬

‫ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‪... ،‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﲑ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬

‫‪ -5‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ)‪-1997‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﲤﺎﺷﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﳏﻴﻄﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ،(2004‬ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫‪ -6‬ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﳌﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﺲ ﻭﻛﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﺜﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺪﻭﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻳﺰﻭ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‪،2000‬‬

‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻛﺎﻻﻳﺰﻭ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﻞ‬

‫‪14000‬ﻭ‪.18000‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬

‫‪ -7‬ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺧﺎﺹ ﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ‪،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺗﻮﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻫﺘﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ‬

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‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻳﺰﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬


‫________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪60-45 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(1‬ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺴﺭ ) ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻴﻥ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬

‫ﻁﺤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻁﻬــﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻨﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬

‫ﻜﻠﻨﻜﺭ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍ ﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(1‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ )‪(2004-1997‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪% :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫‪1997‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪1998‬‬

‫‪1999‬‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬

‫‪99,14 98,03 98,08 101,10 109,33 105,25 103,84 103,80‬‬ ‫‪101,13 99,02 102,00 104,94 106,05 102,09 100,73 100,70‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪:‬‬‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫‪2,17‬‬

‫‪2,42‬‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ‪:‬‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬‫‪-‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬

‫‪26,91‬‬ ‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫‪24,04‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪:‬‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﻲ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ‬‫‪-‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﻞ‬

‫‪97,80 98,64 101,62 107,55 107,21 107,25 108,17 105,69‬‬ ‫‪61,98 62,07 61,83 62,01 59,94 59,50 60,70 66,62‬‬ ‫‪38,02 37,93 38,17 37,99 40,06 40,50 39,30 33,38‬‬

‫‪18,65‬‬ ‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫‪27,18‬‬

‫‪24,31‬‬ ‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫‪19,06‬‬

‫‪27,62‬‬ ‫‪9,36‬‬ ‫‪27,29‬‬ ‫‪17,23‬‬

‫‪28,66‬‬ ‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫‪22,88‬‬

‫‪27,88‬‬ ‫‪12,77‬‬ ‫‪36,91‬‬ ‫‪26,78‬‬

‫‪30,38 27,63‬‬ ‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫‪30,78 33,19‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﰎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻘﲔ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (1‬ﻭ )‪.(2‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(2‬ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻛﻮﺍﺳﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ )‪(2004-1997‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫‪1997‬‬

‫‪1998‬‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪1999‬‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ )ﻛﻴﻠﻮﺍﻁ‪/‬ﻃﻦ(‬

‫‪106,9‬‬

‫‪106,81 105,05‬‬

‫‪102,89‬‬

‫‪104,80‬‬

‫‪111,97‬‬

‫‪116,5‬‬

‫‪113,50‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ )ﻛﻴﻠﻮﺣﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪/‬ﻃﻦ(‬

‫‪969,85 936,98 892,86‬‬

‫‪949,39‬‬

‫‪967,44‬‬

‫‪960,64‬‬

‫‪927,7‬‬

‫‪958,2‬‬

‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫_‬ ‫‪781,81 1047,17 738,17‬‬

‫_‬ ‫‪779,76‬‬

‫_‬ ‫‪1275,6‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪0,60‬‬

‫_‬ ‫‪1335,5 1298,3‬‬

‫ﻛﻮﺍﺳﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ )ﻍ‪/‬ﻃﻦ(‬

‫_‬ ‫‪676‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺠﺮﺍﺕ )ﻍ‪/‬ﻃﻦ(‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ)‪(%‬‬

‫‪1,98‬‬

‫‪1,96‬‬

‫‪0,64‬‬

‫‪1,95‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪57‬‬

‫‪0,61‬‬

‫‪155,6‬‬

‫‪0,68‬‬

‫‪0,46‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟــﻊ‬ ‫‪1- Khemakhem. A, la dynamique du contrôle de gestion, ( paris : Bordas, 1976 ), P. 310.‬‬ ‫‪J et B. Grabot, Organisation et gestion de la production, (Paris : Hermes, 2002 ), P. 230. .2- Erschler‬‬ ‫‪3- Ingram. H and Mc Donnel. B, “Effective Performance management- the team work approach‬‬ ‫‪considered”, Management service quality, Vol 6, N°6, 1996, PP. 38-42.‬‬ ‫‪4- J-Y. Saulquin, « Gestion des ressources humaines et performance des services: le cas des‬‬ ‫‪établissements socio- sanitaires », revue de gestion des ressources humaines, N°36, Ed ESKA,‬‬ ‫‪Paris. 2000, P. 20.‬‬ ‫‪P.168.. J-P, Economie industrielle.( Alger: OPU,1993 ).5- Angelier‬‬ ‫‪6- Norme ISO 9000:2000 , systèmes management de la qualité , principes essentiels et vocabulaire.‬‬ ‫‪P. 4‬‬

‫‪ -7‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﺎﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪) ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.11 .‬‬‫ ﻣﺮﺟﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪) ،‬ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،(1993 ،‬ﺹ‪.32 .‬‬‫‪ -8‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﻮﺭ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻧﺰﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺭ‪" ،‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﲑﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ )‪ ،"(2000-1993‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪ ‪ ،24/4‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،2002 ،70‬ﺹ‪.65.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﶈﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ‪-‬ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪...‬ﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪) ،-‬ﻣﺼﺮ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،(2002 ،‬ﺹ‪.3 .‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻋﺎﻳﺪﺓ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪) ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،( 1985 ،‬ﻁ‪ ،1.‬ﺹ‪..401‬‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﺯﻫﲑ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ؟‪) ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻗﺒﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪ ،(2001 ،‬ﺹ‪.15 .‬‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪)،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪:‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،(1969،‬ﺹ‪.635.‬‬ ‫‪- ECOSIP, Gestion Industrielle et mesure économique,.(Paris : Economica, 1990 ).P. 276.13‬‬

‫‪ -14‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﳍﺎﻡ ﳛﻴﺎﻭﻱ‪" ،‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ"‪ ،‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺟﻲ ﳐﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،2001 ،5‬ﺹ‪.46.‬‬ ‫‪- Norme ISO 9000:2000 , Idem.15‬‬ ‫‪- Norme ISO 9004 :2000, Systèmes de management de la qualité- lignes directrices pour 16‬‬ ‫‪l’amélioration des performances. P. 4.‬‬

‫‪ -17‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪) ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،(2002 ،‬ﻁ‪ ،1.‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.96 -78 .‬‬ ‫‪ -18‬ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺪﺍﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،2000‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫‪.2001‬‬ ‫‪ -19‬ﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﻄﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،2001 ،‬ﺹ‪.6.‬‬ ‫‪N°105, série E, Alger, .ONS: L’activité industrielle (1989- 2002), collections statistiques- 20‬‬ ‫‪33-34..2003,PP‬‬ ‫‪- Ministère de l'industrie, le programme qualité du ministère de l'industrie, projet Algérie –21‬‬ ‫‪France- ONUDI, Journée d'information. 2005, P.31.‬‬ ‫‪22- Idem.‬‬

‫‪ -23‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳـﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉـﻮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ )‪.(2004-1997‬‬

‫‪58‬‬


‫________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪60-45 .‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(1‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‬

‫)*(‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬

‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪1‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪2‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪3‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪4‬‬ ‫ﻡﺃﺝ‪5‬‬

‫ﻣﻌـﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘــﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟـــﻒ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪6‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻌﻪ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃﺝ‪7‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃﺝ‪8‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟـــﻲ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪9‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪10‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪11‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪12‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪13‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪14‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪15‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪16‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ ‪17‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ‬

‫ﻡ ﺃﺝ ‪18‬‬

‫ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ‪19‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺶ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨــﺮﺟــﺎﺕ )ﺍﻹﻧﺘـﺎﺝ(‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ )ﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺁﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺩ(‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺠـﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴـﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴـﻒ ﺃﻓـﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﺴـﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴـﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻀـﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴـﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘــﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠــﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻄــﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴـــﺶ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬

‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻀﻼﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻔﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺶ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﱪﺍﳎﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻄﻼﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺷﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺶ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‪ - :‬ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،1993 ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.181-142.‬‬ ‫‪-A.Couloud et autres, les ratios de productivité, Ed. les éditions d'organisations, Paris, 1986, PP. 11,136.‬‬

‫)*( –ﻧﺮﻣﺰ ﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺏ ﻡ ﺃ ﺝ ﻥ ﺣﻴﺚ‪ :‬ﻡ=ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃ=ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺝ=ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻥ=ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪59‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

‫_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(2‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ )‪(2004-1997‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬

‫‪1997‬‬

‫‪1998‬‬

‫‪1999‬‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ )ﻃﻦ(‬

‫‪970000‬‬

‫‪970000‬‬

‫‪970000‬‬

‫‪970000‬‬

‫‪1038000‬‬

‫‪1040000‬‬

‫‪1010000‬‬

‫‪1020000‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ )ﻃﻦ(‬

‫‪1006906‬‬

‫‪1007313‬‬

‫‪1020991‬‬

‫‪1060546‬‬

‫‪1049489‬‬

‫‪1020033‬‬

‫‪990172‬‬

‫‪1011278‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻻﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ )ﻃﻦ(‬

‫‪1000000‬‬

‫‪1000000‬‬

‫‪1000000‬‬

‫‪1000000‬‬

‫‪1000000‬‬

‫‪1000000‬‬

‫‪1000000‬‬

‫‪1000000‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ‬ ‫) ‪ 3 10‬ﺩﺝ(‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫‪66645‬‬

‫_‬

‫‪77492‬‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫) ‪ 3 10‬ﺩﺡ(‬

‫‪309864,3‬‬

‫‪410728,4‬‬

‫‪616857,8‬‬

‫‪712014,2‬‬

‫‪668243,3‬‬

‫‪606812,2‬‬

‫‪598603,4‬‬

‫‪709125,6‬‬

‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫) ‪ 3 10‬ﺩﺝ(‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫‪194346‬‬

‫_‬

‫‪223977‬‬

‫_‬

‫_‬

‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫) ‪ 3 10‬ﺩﺝ(‬

‫‪74508,58‬‬

‫‪111647,03‬‬

‫‪117580,5‬‬

‫‪122700,4‬‬

‫‪152948,2‬‬

‫‪162537,5‬‬

‫‪198695,3‬‬

‫‪218330,1‬‬

‫‪9527‬‬

‫‪9312‬‬

‫‪9519‬‬

‫‪9892‬‬

‫‪9758‬‬

‫‪10037‬‬

‫‪10038‬‬

‫‪10340‬‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫) ﺳﺎﻋﺔ(‬

‫‪4773‬‬

‫‪6028‬‬

‫‪6477‬‬

‫‪6609‬‬

‫‪5977‬‬

‫‪6196‬‬

‫‪6132‬‬

‫‪6342‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺔ )ﺳﺎﻋﺔ(‬

‫‪14300‬‬

‫‪15340‬‬

‫‪15996‬‬

‫‪16501‬‬

‫‪15735‬‬

‫‪16233‬‬

‫‪16170‬‬

‫‪16682‬‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻻﺕ‬ ‫)ﺳﺎﻋﺔ(‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ : (3‬ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ‬

‫ﳏﺘﻮﺍﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳـﲑ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫‪NA 442‬‬

‫ﺇﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 28‬ﻳﻮﻡ )‪ / N‬ﻣﻢ ( ‪....‬‬‫ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ )ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ( ‪........................‬‬‫ ﺗﻘﻠﺺ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ 28‬ﻳﻮﻡ ‪.............................‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ )ﻣﻢ( ‪.....................................‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻟﻔﺎﺕ )‪............................... (%‬‬‫‪ -‬ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻳﺮ )‪................................. (%‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬

‫ﳎﺎﻟـــﻪ‬ ‫‪CEM II A 32,5‬‬ ‫≤ ‪ 32,5‬ﻭ≥ ‪52,5‬‬ ‫≤ ‪............... 90‬‬ ‫≥ ‪............ 800‬‬ ‫≥ ‪.............. 10‬‬ ‫≥‪.............. 3,5‬‬ ‫≥ ‪........... 0,10‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻱ‬

‫‪CEM II A 42,5‬‬ ‫≤ ‪ 42,5‬ﻭ≥ ‪.... 62‬‬ ‫≤ ‪............... 60‬‬ ‫≥ ‪............ 1000‬‬ ‫≥ ‪.............. 10‬‬ ‫≥‪.............. 3,5‬‬ ‫≥ ‪............ 0,10‬‬

‫‪%100‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻱ‬

‫ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺯ ‪...........................................‬‬‫ ﻟﻠﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ‪........................................‬‬‫ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻔﺠﺮﺍﺕ ‪.....................................‬‬‫ ﻟﻜﻮﺍﺳﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ )‪........... (Réfractaires‬‬‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ ‪............................‬‬

‫‪ 925‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﺣﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ /‬ﻛﻠﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ‬ ‫‪ 107‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻭﺍﻁ ‪ /‬ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﲰﻨﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 160‬ﻍ ‪ /‬ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺲ‬ ‫‪ 1072‬ﻍ‪ /‬ﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻨﻜﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫> ‪. %2‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﰐ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪60‬‬


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‫ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪68-61 .‬‬

‫ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻦ ﲪﻮﺩﺓ ﳏﺒﻮﺏ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺑﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﲰﺎﻋـﻴﻞ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﳝﺲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻭﻫﻮ " ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ" ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻼﺣﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﲢﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﺑﻀﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪ (....‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺮﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺼﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫* ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫* ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻭﺇﻧﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻫﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ – ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ – ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ –‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ – ﺍﻹﻧﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ – ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ – ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﻜﻨﻴﺔ )‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺸﻘﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ (؛ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ )ﳏﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪( ...،‬؛ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ؛ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍ ﳌﻀﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﳓﻮ ‪ %50‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻭﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺣﱴ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻴﺄﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﲰﺴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﻢ »ﻣﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ« ﺍﲣﺬﺕ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻻ ﺳﺮﻃﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﺪﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻮﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺜﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﺃﳊﻘﺖ ‪-‬ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪ -‬ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﻋﻄﻠﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻛﺄﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻦ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺷﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﻧﻌﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺿﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺑﺈﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﲤﺎﺷﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻻﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﳏﺪﺩﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻹﳒﺎﺡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻠﺐ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﺭﻫﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺮﻭﺭﻩ ﺑﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻭﻃﻨﺒﱭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻳﺸﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﺍﻋﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﲢﻜﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎﻫﻮ ﺫﺍﰐ ﻛﺘﻔﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺿﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﺸﺎﺕ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻠﺔ ﳑﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻫﺘﻼﻛﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺮﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﲟﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ) ﻓﻤﻦ ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﳍﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﳑﺜﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲣﻔﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻘﻞ ﺇﺭﺙ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻛﺰﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺮﺍﺕ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺩﱏ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺄﺧﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻗﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻟﻠﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻫﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺼﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﳏﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﴰﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻇﻠﺖ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﱴ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺣﻠﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﻼﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻞ ﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﻳﻜﺘﻨﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﳜﻀﻊ ﳌﻀﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﻱ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1975‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲣﻀﻊ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﺑﺎﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﱄ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺑﺒﻴﻊ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﻬﻴﺄﺓ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﱄ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻛﺸﻒ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﲟﻨﺢ ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﻭﺻﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺃﺭﺍﺽ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺣﱴ‬

‫ﺑﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺃﺭﺍﺽ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﻋﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﻮﺣﻆ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻣﺴﺢ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻸﺭﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻀﺎﻋﻔﺖ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻭﻓﺮﺽ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﳘﺖ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﺢ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪1990‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺳﻮﻕ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺄﻃﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲡﻨﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﳋﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﻘﻞ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺯ ﻫﻮ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﺎﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻟﻸﺭﺽ ﻭﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺄﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ‪120‬ﻭ ‪ 350‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﲔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻊ ﺑﺄﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ‪ 4‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 10‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺼﺖ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﺩﺭﺟﺖ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﲰﺤﺖ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺳﻮﻕ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻗﻠﺼﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ )‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺳﲑﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﻨﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ‪ 10‬ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻈﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ‪ 10‬ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﺴﻨﺪ‬

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‫ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪68-61 .‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻊ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﱐ ﻟﻠﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺃﺿﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﲡﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻻ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﺰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺩﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺯﺟﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻫﻞ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﲣﺬﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﳛﺪﺩ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻴﺘﻮﺭ‪ ,‬ﻭﺗﺒﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﳉﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﰐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 20‬ﺃﻭﺕ ‪ 2001‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﶈﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﳛﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺗﻌﺎﺭ ﻳﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻮﻥ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ " ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺮﺳﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩﻱ ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ" )‪ ،(2‬ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺻﻴﻎ ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺼﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪:‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻮﻛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﺭﻧﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳊﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺘﺖ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺯﺓ‪:‬‬‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %50‬ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺺ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﺬﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺧﺺ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ ) ‪:(La concession‬‬‫ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺃﺻﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻮﱃ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﳍﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺘﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻮﺽ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﳒﺎﺯ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ ﺑﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﻘﺔ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﱪﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪:‬‬‫ﻧﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺘﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫‪63‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﻗﺼﺪ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺳﻌﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺿﺒﻄﻪ ﻭﺗﺴﲑ ﻣﻠﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻭﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻟﻠﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﲑ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺸﺠﻌﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻭﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﺍﻵﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﲤﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻗﺼﺪ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺃﺕ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺑﺈﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 277-63‬ﻟﻴﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 26‬ﺟﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ‪ 1963‬ﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻧﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻓﺮﺍﻏﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺘﻪ ﻫﺠﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺗﺴﺮﺏ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻫﺘﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻦ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﺛﺮ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 277-63‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1966‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 284-66‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 15‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪1966‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻄﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺷﻐﻞ)‪. (5‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻌﺮﺟﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﲰﺤﺖ ﲟﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﲟﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﲰﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 13-82‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 28‬ﺃﻭﺕ ‪ 1982‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺳﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﲔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻌﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﺩﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﲑﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﳒﺪ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﺪﻗﺔ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺩﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﺩﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﲔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﰐ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ )ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﳌﺪﻯ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ )‪. (3‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺋﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ)‪: (4‬‬ ‫ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻲ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻓﺮﺹ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲡﺎﻫﻠﻬﺎ؛‬ ‫ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻭﻓﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺟﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻔﺔ ﻳﻌﺪ‬‫ﻋﻼﺟﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ )ﻫﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﻣﻐﺔ ﻭﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺈﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪68-61 .‬‬

‫ﻭﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%51‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ‪ 12-93‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪ 1993‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‬ ‫‪ 08-93‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 25‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 1993‬ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﻢ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ ‪50-75‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 26‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪ 1975‬ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ؛ ﻭﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ‪ 09-93‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪25‬‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 1993‬ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﻢ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ ‪ 154-66‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 8‬ﺟﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫‪ 1966‬ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪05‬‬

‫ﲰﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 13-86‬ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﻢ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﲟﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﲟﺴﺎﳘﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 15‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ‪ 99‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻭﺗﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،%49‬ﻭﰲ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﲰﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪ 25-88‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 12‬ﺟﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ‪ 1988‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪13-82‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ‪ ،12-93‬ﺃﻗﺮﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﲟﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﰲ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺼﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪04-95‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 24‬ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ ‪ 1995‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫‪ 05-95‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 24‬ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ ‪ 1995‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ 03-01‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 20‬ﺃﻭﺕ‪ 2001‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻴﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺳﻠﻊ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﲝﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 10-90‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 14‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 1990‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ ﻛﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻴﻤﲔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﻲ ‪ 01-03‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪20‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺕ ‪ ،2002‬ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ ANDI‬ﻟﺘﺤﻞ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ ،APSI‬ﻛﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲞﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1993‬ﺻﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 05‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‪ 1993‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 90-10‬ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﻔﺰﺓ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻐﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﶈﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺑﺎﳌﺜﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺠﺰ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻔﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻷﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻧﺺ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪12-93‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ‪ ،2010‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ 14‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ‪ 15‬ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍ ﻟﻼﲢﺎﺩ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺒﻖ ﺳﻮﻯ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﻫﻮﻟﻨﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ‪ 900‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‪ 360‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺼﺼﺖ ‪ 10‬ﻣﻼﻳﲔ ﺃﻭﺭﻭ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ‪ 4‬ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﻻﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻻ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ ,‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﺍ ﻛﺄﻱ ﻣﻮﻇﻒ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ‪ ,‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 18-83‬ﰲ ‪ 31‬ﺃﻭﺕ‬ ‫‪ 1983‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﱃ )‪: (7‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬‫ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺑﺎﳉﻨﻮﺏ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ‬‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﺼﻠﺢ ﺃﺭﺿﺎ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻨﺎﺩﻕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺠﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻼﻋﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 03 – 03‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ‪2003 / 02 / 17‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ)‪:(8‬‬ ‫ـ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﲞﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﻫﻠﺔ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺸﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﳕﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺩ ﻭﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﲜﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﻈﻬﺮﻩ ﺍﳋﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﺎ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺠﺎﺋﺐ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﺸﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻓﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺗﺜﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﺛﺎﺭ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺆﺫﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﰎ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪ 80‬ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 73‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ‪870‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﻭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ % 15‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻦ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ‪ 49,2‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪46‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺳﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ .2003‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﰎ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪ 34‬ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﺟﻨﱯ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪23.7‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %52‬ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺳﻴﲔ)‪. (6‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺗﻌﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺃﻣﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻃﻮﻱ ﻣﻠﻔﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺟﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺭﺩ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺢ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ )ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻭﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ(‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﳌﺴﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﻮﺍﺹ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﳎﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﲤﻨﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻭﻟﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻧﺰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ )ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻨﺤﻪ ﻷﻱ ﻗﺮﺽ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﳏﻘﻘﺔ ﻭ ﳎﻬﺰﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ … ﺍﱁ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪66‬‬


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‫ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪68-61 .‬‬

‫ـ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﳏﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﻫﻼﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺛﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻋﺮﺍﻗﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﱪﻯ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﻭﲨﺪﺕ ﺗﺜﻤﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ـ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﲔ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‪ ) .‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺘﺸﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ (‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﻨﺘﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﳜﺺ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻭﲡﻬﻴﺰﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ـ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻛﻨﻬﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﳑﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﻠﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻓﺮﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻷﻃﻤﺎﻉ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﺮﻗﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﲑ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺑﺘﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫‪ -‬ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﳚﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻭﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﻘﻨﲔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﻣﺰﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺭﺩﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻌﻤﻞ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺷﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻷﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﻛﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻭﻻ ﲟﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻧﻠﺨﺼﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ـ ﺗﻘﻠﺺ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺿﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪2007/05‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻬـﻭﺍﻤﺵ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -(1‬ﳎﻬﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪-(1،‬‬ ‫‪5 ،‬ﺍﻓﺮﻳﻞ‪ ,2002‬ﺹ ﺹ‪) www.google.com/el-bayan.new.papers 2-1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻂ(‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -(2‬ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﻃﺎﺣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﻫﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ )ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻁ‪ .1‬ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ,2003 ،‬ﺹ‪23‬‬ ‫‪ -(3‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻁ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،2001 ،‬ﺹ ‪.45‬‬ ‫‪ - (4‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻗﺤﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،2001 ،‬ﺹ‪17‬‬ ‫‪ – (5‬ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ ,‬ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ,‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ ,2004,‬ﺹ ‪21‬‬ ‫‪ -(6‬ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ ,‬ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ,‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ,2004,‬ﺹ ‪21‬‬ ‫‪ -(7‬ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺪﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ«‪،‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.200461‬‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺟﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ«‪ -(8‬ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺪﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫‪.2004‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪-1-‬ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻧﺰﺍﺭ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺴﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫»ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ«‪،‬‬ ‫ﻁ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ & ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪.2001 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺳﻌﺪ ﻃﻪ ﻋﻼﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫»ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ«‪،‬‬ ‫ﻁ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪.2003 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﻃﺎﺣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﻫﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ )ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻁ‪ .1‬ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪2003 ،‬‬ ‫‪-4‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﻂ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻁ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪2001 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻗﺤﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪2001 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪ -2-‬ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪6-GHERTMAN Michel, Les multinationales», Que sais-je n°2068,‬‬ ‫‪ed. PUF (3°ed.), Paris, 1982. Et réédition Bouchene, Alger,‬‬ ‫‪1993‬‬ ‫‪7-GINGLINGER Edith, «Les décisions d'investissement», ed.‬‬ ‫‪Nathan, Paris, 1998.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪-1-‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﳎﻬﻮﻝ‪ ,‬ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ,‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.2004,‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺪﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ«‪،‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.2004 ،‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -2-‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﳎﻬﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫‪5 ،‬ﺍﻓﺮﻳﻞ‪) www.google.com/el-bayan.new.papers.2002‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻂ(‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ‪:‬‬

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‫__________________________________________________________ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪81-69 .‬‬

‫ﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﺨﺫ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‪ :‬ﺤﻤﺯﺓ ﺒﻥ ﻗﺭﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺴﻥ ﺯﺒﻴﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺜﺮ ﻭﺗﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﲰﺤﺖ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﺎﻡ )ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻹﲰﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺟﻢ‪،‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻧﺴﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺣﺔ ﻭﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﱁ‪(...‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺠﻤﻞ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺃﳒﺰﺕ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ‪ :‬ﺑﻮﻓﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻱ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﲑ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﳍﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ)‪ .(ii‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻞ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﻪ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ )‪ %50‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻣﻌﺪﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ)‪.((iii‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﳜﻀﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻣﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻧﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ )ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﲝﺔ ‪.(3E‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻧﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭ ﳏﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﺪ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ∗‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻧﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻔﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﺳﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻳﺴﻮﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﳉﺎﻑ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺗﺼﻨﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺗﺼﻨﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ 42‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫‪383‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺯﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺏ‪1000‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻼﺩﻧﺎ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﻮﺯﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺒﺨﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﰲ ‪65‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻭﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ 48‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﺗﺘﺒﺨﺮ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻓﺎﻧﻴﺔ**‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻐﺮﺍﰲ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺸﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺧﺼﺼﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻱ )ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫‪ 1000‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ ،(i)(1970‬ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ***‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﱂ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬

‫‪ -I‬ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻳﺮﻣﻲ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫)‪(iv‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﲝﺔ ‪"3E"L'efficacité Economique‬‬ ‫‪،D'équité Sociale Et L'environnement‬‬ ‫‪69‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻮﻳﺔ)‪.(v‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﲑ ﳑﻜﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺍ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺳﻄﻪ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﺽ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻛﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﺽ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2-I‬ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻠﻚ ﲨﺎﻋﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻭﻃﲏ ﲨﺎﻋﻲ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻷﻱ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻪ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﲔ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 02‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ( ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳒﺪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﳚﱪﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ )ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﲔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻓﻴﲔ‪ (...‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﻃﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ)‪ ،(vi‬ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻭ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺗﻰ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﱄ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭ ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻣﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﺭﻳﺢ ﻭ ﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -1-I‬ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﻮﺭﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﳌﻨﺎﺥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺪﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﺸﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﺭﺙ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﲤﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻠﻜﺎ ﲨﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﺴﻴﲑﻩ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻨﻤﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﻱ )ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺒﺎﺩﺭ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻘﺔ ﻣﺜﻠﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻳﺴﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻄﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻏﺮﺍﰲ∗‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﻣﻮﺣﺪ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍﺿﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻪ ﻭ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬

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‫__________________________________________________________ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪81-69 .‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﳌﻜﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ -‬ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﲨﻌﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻮﺳﻄﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺠﺴﺪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺮﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﻁ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ )‪ (ADE‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻘﺔ ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻬﲑ )‪ ،(ONA‬ﻓﺒﻔﻀﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﲟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺗﻀﺎﻣﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‬ ‫‪ 1996‬ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭ ﳉﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﺽ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ‬ ‫‪ -3-I‬ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ )ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺠﺎﺭ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(01‬ﺃﻫﻢ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻄﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪-‬ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﳎﺔ)ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺔ( ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ‪.‬‬‫ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﲡﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬

‫‪-‬ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪-‬ﺣﺬﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ‪.‬‬‫‪-‬ﻋﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻓﻊ ﺟﺰﺍﰲ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬‫‪-‬ﺩﻓﻊ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ )ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‪-‬ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‪.‬‬‫ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﻳﺴﺪﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻣﺮﻥ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪-‬ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﲑ‬‫ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Extrait de :Lynnaise de eaux, Momento gestionnaire d l’alimentation en eu et de‬‬ ‫‪l’assainisement.tom 03,p841.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﺎﻥ"‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﻧﺎﻗﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻭﻗﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﲤﻮﻳﻞ‬

‫‪ -4-I‬ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺫﻭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺍ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺘﻪ ﻭ ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻪ ﻭ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ)ﻣﺜﻼ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ‬ ‫*‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ )ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ(‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻴﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﲤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ)‪ ،(vii‬ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﳓﻮ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻣﺒﺎﻻﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻫﻈﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻪ ﳍﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻳﻐﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻴﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺠﻌﺖ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﻀﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﻨﺢ)‪ (viii‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍـﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃـﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ )ﻭﻋﻴﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﺴﻌﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﻮﺭﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳐﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺪﻣﺞ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ)‪:(ix‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ؛‬ ‫‪" -2‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻊ" ﳝﺜﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﳍﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻌﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ "ﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺭﺓ")‪(x‬؛‬

‫‪Pij = [Cij + F‬‬ ‫‪(Cij) + Rij + Yij] / Qij‬‬

‫‪ : Pij‬ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ )ﺳﻄﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻮﻓﻴﺔ( ‪i‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ‪ j‬؛‬ ‫‪ : Cij‬ﺳﻌﺮ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ i‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ‪j‬‬

‫؛‬ ‫)‪ : F (Cij‬ﻫﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ i‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ‪ j‬؛‬ ‫‪ : Rij‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪ j‬ﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ i‬؛‬ ‫‪ : Yij‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪ j‬ﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ i‬؛‬ ‫‪ : Qij‬ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ‪ i‬ﻷﺟﻞ ‪.j‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰎ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 98/156‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 16/05/98‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺪﺩ ﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﱰﱄ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻭ ﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰎ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ )‪10‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ( ﻭ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ )‪ 04‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ( ﻭ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻠﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(02‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪1998‬‬

‫ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻠﲔ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ‬

‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ‪ 0‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 25‬ﻡ‪/3‬ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ‪ 26‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 55‬ﻡ‪/3‬ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ‪ 56‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 82‬ﻡ‪/3‬ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 82‬ﻡ‪/3‬ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬

‫‪-2‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﻭﺣﻴﺪ‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﻭﺣﻴﺪ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ‬ ‫‪01‬‬ ‫‪3.25‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻘﺔ )ﺩﺝ‪/‬ﻡ‪(3‬‬

‫‪ x001‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ x3.25‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ x5.50‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ x6.50‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫‪5.50‬‬ ‫‪6.50‬‬ ‫‪4.50‬‬

‫‪ x4.50‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫‪5.50‬‬

‫‪ x5.50‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫‪6.50‬‬ ‫‪ x6.50‬ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﻭﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،156/98‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﻌﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 16‬ﻣﺎﻱ ‪ ،1998‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،31‬ﺹ ‪.20‬‬ ‫‪72‬‬


‫__________________________________________________________ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪81-69 .‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲑﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺒﺬﻳﺮﻩ)‪ ،(xi‬ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲑﺓ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺒﺌﺘﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ)‪:(xii‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻜﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪3.6‬‬ ‫ﺩﺝ ﺇﱃ ‪ 4.5‬ﺩﺝ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺮ ﺍﳌﻜﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﲟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ )ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻔﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ ﻭ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲑﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭ ﺗﺪﻋﻰ "ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ "‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺮ‬

‫ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ )ﲨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪....‬ﺍﱁ(‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﲑﺓ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﶈﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺗﺎﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‪ :‬ﻭ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺑـ ‪ 3.00‬ﺩﺝ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺸﺪ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻣﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻭ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﺗﺎﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ‪ :‬ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬

‫ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺇﺗﺎﻭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﲤﺎﺛﻞ ﺇﺗﺎﻭﺓ‬‫ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﻄﺎﻋﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ "ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﺎﻥ" ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬‫ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﲔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺢ ﻋﻼﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺒﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺗﺎﻭﺓ "ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ" ﻭ "ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ"‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﺗﺎﻭﺓ‬

‫‪ -II‬ﺗﺴﲑ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﲑﺓ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪:‬‬

‫ﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ ﺑـ ‪ %20‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺗﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ‪ :‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﻃﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‪...‬ﺍﱁ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺟﱪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.‬‬‫ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫)ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﲟﻌﺎﳉﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﻼﺡ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬

‫"ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ" ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﺑـ ‪ %04‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﺗﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﴰﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ ‪ %02‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺗﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪) :‬ﺍﻷﻏﻮﺍﻁ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺩﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺪﻭﻑ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﺰﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﺗﺎﻭﺓ "ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ" ﻣﻊ ﺇﺗﺎﻭﺓ "ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ )‪ (TVA‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻳﺮﻣﻲ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺭﺟﺎﺀ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍﺽ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺳﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺃﺗﺎﻭﻯ ﺃﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺻﺤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﺠﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﻣﻴﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺗﻠﻮﺛﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻧﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻭ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺻﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﳏﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ)‪ .(xiii‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﺩ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺫﻭ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫∗‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ‪...‬ﺍﱁ‪ .‬ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ -03-‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻭﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(03‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪5.5‬‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪10.9‬‬

‫ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪8.1‬‬

‫‪6.8‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪10.0‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫ﻛﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫‪14.8‬‬

‫‪4.1‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬

‫‪15.2‬‬

‫‪4.0‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻞ‬

‫‪18.8‬‬

‫‪3.2‬‬

‫ﺍﳍﻨﺪ‬

‫‪38.0‬‬

‫‪1.6‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪source: Girusov E.V.et al. Ecology and Environemental and ressources‬‬ ‫‪économies, Moscow,1998,p167.‬‬ ‫‪1.0‬‬

‫‪60.01‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮ )ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ( ‪-Meilleures‬‬ ‫‪ ، (MTD) techniques disponibles‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ‬‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻊ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻫﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪74‬‬


‫__________________________________________________________ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪81-69 .‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻋﺪﺓ )ﲤﺮ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ(‪ :‬ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﺪﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲨﻊ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ )ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪(-01-‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ؛‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫ﲝﻮﺙ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ؛‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﲤﻮﻳﻦ؛‬ ‫‪-3‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻲ؛‬ ‫‪-4‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ؛‬ ‫‪-5‬‬ ‫ﲡﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ؛‬ ‫‪-6‬‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻒ ﻭﲣﺰﻳﻦ؛‬ ‫‪-7‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻊ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ؛‬ ‫‪-8‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ؛‬ ‫‪-9‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ؛‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﲢﻮﻳﻞ )ﺭﺳﻜﻠﺔ( ﻭﺻﺮﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ )ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻃﺒﻌﺎ( ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻏﻞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫‬‫ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﺮﺳﻜﻠﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ )ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ(‬ ‫‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ؛‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﻭ‬ ‫‬‫ﺍﶈﺎﻛﺎﺓ؛‬ ‫ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫‬‫ﻭﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﻭﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ )ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻧﺴﻴﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(01‬ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺟﻠﺐ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬

‫ﺨﺭﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﻭﺠﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺒﻘﺎﻴﺎ‬

‫ﲨﻊ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺻﺮﻑ‬

‫ﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻟﻬﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺨﻭل‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪75‬‬

‫ﻴﺩ ﻋﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻤﻭﺍل‬

‫ﻭ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ‪ 100:1000 ، 1.10 :‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺑـ‪ 10‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺴﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ‪ 100‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ ‪ 1000‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﻄﺄ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‪-L’analyse du -‬‬ ‫‪) cycle e vie du prouit‬ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ‪ LCA‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪ (ACV‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﻀﻢ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﻭﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑـ )‪.(xiv)(Elobilan‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﳜﻀﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ )ﺃﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ‪.(- 02-‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺘﻪ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(02‬ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ‬

‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬

‫ﲢﺴﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﻘﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺇﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻃﺮﻕ )ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ( ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺣﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﲡﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﳕﻮﺫﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺭﺳﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‬

‫ﺗﻜﺜﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻣﻌﻄﺎﺓ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ‪.‬‬

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‫__________________________________________________________ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪81-69 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(03‬ﳎﻤﻞ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪2O‬‬

‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻭﺝ‬

‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬

‫‪//‬‬

‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪/‬‬

‫‪A‬‬

‫‪A0‬‬

‫‪AX‬‬

‫‪P1‬‬

‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬

‫‪P0‬‬

‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬

‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻭﺝ‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫‪Q‬‬

‫‪Q0‬‬ ‫‪ Q0‬ﺇﱃ ‪ (Q/‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻌﻄﺎﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ )‪ (P0‬ﻣﺮﻭﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ 03‬ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ‪ A0‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﲎ ‪ (O‬ﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺟﻴﻮﻣﺘﺮﻱ )ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﺤﲎ )‪ (1‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﲢﺪﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ "ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ – ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ" ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺿﺤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ)‪ :(04‬ﺍﳌﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ " ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ" ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺳﻴﺌﺔ(‬

‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺩﻧﻴﺎ )ﺳﻴﺌﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ‪ -1‬ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺫﻭ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺭﺩﻳﺌﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺴﻌﺮ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺫﻭ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺭﺩﻳﺌﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺴﻌﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ )ﻋﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺫﻭ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺑﺴﻌﺮ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫)ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻣﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺫﻭ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺑﺴﻌﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ :(05‬ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺩﻧﻴﺎ )ﺳﻴﺌﺔ(‬

‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﺇﱃ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬

‫‪-3‬ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ‬ ‫)ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ(‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻀﻊ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺷﻄﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﻳﺘﻠﺨﺼﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ؛‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻈﻢ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﲡﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ )ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،(08‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻬﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﺠﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ؛‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ؛‬‫ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ؛‬‫ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ)ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪(-02-‬‬ ‫‪ -III‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ :04‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴﺰ)ﺗﻜﻮﻥ( ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )ﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪...‬ﺍﻟﺦ (‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺸﺤﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺤﻭﺍﻤﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﻼﺡ‬

‫ﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺨﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺸﺤﻭﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ‪...‬ﺍﻟﺦ‬

‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﺩﺓ(‬

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‫__________________________________________________________ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪81-69 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ )‪ ،(REU‬ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ )‪ ،(DEV‬ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ )‪ (∆PZ‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪RE4= DEV +∆PZ‬‬ ‫)‪(1‬‬ ‫‪Q i‬‬ ‫=‪Zi - Q(0)i Zi ∆PZ‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ( ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ )ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﲔ‪(....‬؛‬ ‫ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﺳﻬﻤﻬﺎ؛‬‫ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﲔ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‬‫ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ؛‬‫ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ؛‬ ‫ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺺ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺯﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﶈﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺮﺍﻗﻴﻞ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺈﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﳍﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﲜﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ )‪(ISO14000‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1996‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳍﺎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﰲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ؛‬‫ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ؛‬‫ ﺗﻌﻬﺪ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺳﻠﻚ‬‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻭﺗﻜﻔﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ؛‬ ‫ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ؛‬‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﳍﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺷﻚ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ )‪ ( ISO14000‬ﲤﻨﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ " ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ " ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻮﻟﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ :Q(0)i‬ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ i‬ﺍﶈﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ؛‬ ‫‪ :Zi‬ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ‪i‬؛‬ ‫‪ :Q(1) i‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟـ ‪ ،Q(0)i‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ؛‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ )‪ (DEV‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﳎﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺡ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻢ ﳍﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -IV‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪ -‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻋﻘﻼﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻳﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻫﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﺘﺼﺪ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺧﻀﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﳝﻮﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺩﻣﺞ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﴰﻮﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫‪système‬‬ ‫‪management‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫‪ ،(environnemental SME‬ﻫﻮ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﲏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ)‪.(xv‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ)‪.(xvi‬‬ ‫‪79‬‬


_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5 ‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ‬

:‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‬،"‫ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺭﻫﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬: ‫ "ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬،‫ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬،‫ﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬‫ ﺍ‬- .1 .09‫ ﺹ‬،2000 ‫ ﻣﺎﻱ‬،‫ﻋﺸﺮ‬ 2 .secretariat d’etat chargé de l’environnement, action21,Alger,1997,p03. - loc.cit .3 4 . Mohamed Hamza BENGRINA, "Les Problème de l'utilisation de l'eau en Algerie, avec la prise en compte du facteur écologique", Thèse doctorat, Institut de l'économie nationale. G.V.P le khanov, moscou, 1991, p 06. 5 . Chedli FEZZANI, Les Ressources en eau des pays de l'Observatoire du Sahara et de Sahel, septembre 2001 op.cit, p69. 6 . F.Nunes Correia, la gestion des ressources hydrologiques et des eaux useés en Méditerranée : stratégies de la gestion des eaux dans le bassin méditerranéen. Actes de la conférence de Ministérielle, vol 02, Alger 1990, p113. 7 . Mohamed Hamza BENGRINA, op.cit, p 05. 8 . Atelier du RIOB: la participation des usagers a la gestion et au financment des organismes de bassin, Paris, unesco, 20 Mars 1998, p20. 9 . Ibid, p 07. .54‫ ﺹ‬،2001‫ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ‬،‫ "ﰲ" ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬،"‫ " ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬، ‫ ﻓﺮﺍﻛﻠﲔ ﻓﻴﺸﺮ ﻭ ﺣﺴﲔ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ‬.10 11

. Mustapha BABA AHMED," Problématique de la Subvention de l'eau", "in" revue mensuelle stratigica business and finance, n 03 décembre 2004, p41. .125‫ ﺹ‬،(1995 ،‫ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‬: ‫ "ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻏﺪﺍ " ) ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬،‫ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬.12 13 .- Fathutdiov R.A, straégie managment, Moscou,1999,p293. 14 . paolo Baracchini, guid a la mise en place du management environnemental en entreprise selo ISO 14001,Lausanne,2001,p 08. 15 . Paul de Backer, le management,02 édition, Paris, 1998,p 04. 16 . paolo Baracchini, opcit, p12.

80


‫__________________________________________________________ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ – ﺹ‪ .‬ﺹ‪81-69 .‬‬

‫∗‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ هﺎﺗﻪ اﻟﻄﺮق )إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﺴﺪود‪ ،‬ﺣﻔﺮ اﻵﺑﺎر‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬اﺳﺘﻴﺮاد اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬اﻟﻠﺠﻮء إﻟﻰ ﻃﺮق ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﺼﺺ اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺪن اﻟﻜﺒﺮى(‪.‬‬ ‫**‪ -.‬ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ %70‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺎﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﱵ ‪ 1913‬ﻭ‪ 1938‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - .i‬ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪" ،‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺭﻫﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ"‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻱ ‪ ،2000‬ﺹ‪.09‬‬ ‫***‪ - .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 03-83‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟـ‪ 05‬ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ ‪ 1983‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ 17-83‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 16‬ﺟﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ‪ 1983‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 13-96‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟـ ‪ 15‬ﺟﻮﺍﻥ ‪.1996‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ 08-90‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ‪ 09-90‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟـ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ ،1990‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬‫ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1992‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1996‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ " ﺇﺗﺎﻭﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ" ﻭ " ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ"‪.‬‬‫ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ii‬‬ ‫‪.secretariat d’etat chargé de l’environnement, action21,Alger,1997,p03.‬‬ ‫‪- loc.cit .iii‬‬ ‫‪iv‬‬ ‫‪. Mohamed Hamza BENGRINA, "Les Problème de l'utilisation de l'eau en Algerie, avec la prise en compte du facteur‬‬ ‫‪écologique", Thèse doctorat, Institut de l'économie nationale. G.V.P le khanov, moscou, 1991, p 06.‬‬ ‫‪v‬‬ ‫‪. Chedli FEZZANI, Les Ressources en eau des pays de l'Observatoire du Sahara et de Sahel, septembre 2001‬‬ ‫‪op.cit, p69.‬‬ ‫∗‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺮف اﻟﻤﺎدة ‪ 02‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻮم اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬي رﻗﻢ ‪ 100/96‬اﻟﻤﺆرخ ﻓﻲ ‪ 1996/03/06‬اﻟﺤﻮض اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﻏﺮاﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﻪ ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻷرﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ یﻐﻤﺮهﺎ ﻣﺠﺮى اﻟﻤﺎء ورواﻓﺪﻩ ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ آﻞ ﺳﻴﻼن یﻨﺸﺄ داﺧﻞ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ یﺘﺒﻊ ﻣﺠﺮاﻩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻧﻬﺎیﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪vi‬‬ ‫‪. F.Nunes Correia, la gestion des ressources hydrologiques et des eaux useés en Méditerranée : stratégies de la‬‬ ‫‪gestion des eaux dans le bassin méditerranéen. Actes de la conférence de Ministérielle, vol 02, Alger 1990, p113.‬‬ ‫*‪- .‬ﻣﺜﺎل ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻤﺪن واﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ اﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎت اﻟﻤﻔﺮوﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪ .......‬و ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻت‪ ،‬أو ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﻄﺎﻋﺎت‪ ،‬أو إﻋﺎدة ﺹﺮﻓﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮف اﻵﺧﺮیﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫‪vii‬‬ ‫‪. Mohamed Hamza BENGRINA, op.cit, p 05.‬‬ ‫‪viii‬‬ ‫‪. Atelier du RIOB: la participation des usagers a la gestion et au financment des organismes de bassin, Paris,‬‬ ‫‪unesco, 20 Mars 1998, p20.‬‬ ‫‪ix‬‬ ‫‪. Ibid, p 07.‬‬ ‫‪ .x‬ﻓﺮاآﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﺸﺮ و ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻋﺴﻜﺮي ‪ " ،‬اﻹدارة اﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﺮق اﻷوﺳﻂ"‪" ،‬ﻓﻲ" ﻣﺠﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ واﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ‪ ،2001‬ص‪.54‬‬ ‫‪xi‬‬ ‫‪. Mustapha BABA AHMED," Problématique de la Subvention de l'eau", "in" revue mensuelle stratigica business and‬‬ ‫‪finance, n 03 décembre 2004, p41.‬‬ ‫‪ .xii‬وزارة اﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ و اﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﺮاﻧﻴﺔ‪" ،‬اﻟﺠﺰاﺉﺮ ﻏﺪا " ) اﻟﺠﺰاﺉﺮ ‪ :‬دیﻮان اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،(1995 ،‬ص‪.125‬‬ ‫‪xiii‬‬ ‫‪.- Fathutdiov R.A, straégie managment, Moscou,1999,p293.‬‬ ‫∗ ‪ .‬إن ﻣﺆﺵﺮ ﻗﻠﺔ اﺳﺘﻬﻼك اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻹﻧﺘﺎج )‪ ،(VE‬هﻲ ﻣﺆﺵﺮ ﻟﻘﻴﺎس ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﺎء‪ ،‬و اﻟﺬي یﺤﺴﺐ وﻓﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج )‪ ،(EP‬ﻣﻊ ﺳﻌﺮ اﻟﻤﺎء )‪ ،(P‬آﻤﺎ یﻠﻲ‪VE = EP/P :‬‬ ‫‪xiv‬‬ ‫‪. paolo Baracchini, guid a la mise en place du management environnemental en entreprise selo ISO‬‬ ‫‪14001,Lausanne,2001,p 08.‬‬ ‫‪xv‬‬

‫‪. Paul de Backer, le management,02 édition, Paris, 1998,p 04.‬‬ ‫‪. paolo Baracchini, opcit, p12.‬‬

‫‪xvi‬‬

‫‪81‬‬


93 83

2002 1990

2002 1990

6 1990

1 2002 1

2002

1990

6

153 2002

729

410

1990

4.8

44

178 15.1 6

1 1

Cat6=44.236*t+100.04 ; R2=0.9316…..1

65

2001 15

43 10

6

0.18

44.24

5

2

6

2 1

5

47

1990

55

0.9

2002

Cat5=0.59*t2 +7.45*t +49.43 ; R2=0.6869…..2

2001 76 15

12

62 0.9

3

5

0.06

1.18*t + 7.45

4

1

4

3 2002

58

1990

63


2007 05 Cat4 = -0.1256*t3 + 1.9414*t2 - 4.9919*t + 69.091 ; R2 = 0.8268…..3

0.8 13

2001 90 14 0.97 4

4 4

4 - 0.377*t2 + 3.883*t - 4.992

1 1990

3

87 67

2002

69

Cat3 = -0.0256*t4+ 0.5506*t3 - 3.6657*t2 + 9.3315*t + 80.51 ; R2 = 0.6585…..4

27

1.2 25

3

7 3.03 2

- 0.102*t3 + 1.652*t2 - 7.331*t + 9.332

5 5 1

2

17 2002

20

1990

Cat2 = -0.0542*t3 + 0.722*t2 - 0.1439*t + 16.811 ; R2 = 0.8828…..5

2

2002 8

12

1990 2.4

2

29 6

– 0.163*t2 + 1.444*t – 0.144

8.17 1

1

5 Cat1 = 0.6209*t + 4.0385 ; R2 = 0.9601…..6

676 26

1

177

7

0.621

8.05

1

7

1990

380 2.5

84

2002

935


93 83

2002 1990 Cat = 45.11*t + 360.38 ; R2 = 0.9842…..7

2 3

6

17119 2002 22949 44

47485 2.8 10014

45.11

1990

2 2002 1990

9.62 Y = 410.52*t2 – 3668.9*t + 22768 ; R2 = 0.9338…..8

2 1990

5 8

2534 2002

2033

6 821.04*t – 3668.9

0.8

2691

14

371

0.55 y = -1.1125*t4 + 27.18*t3 – 218.13*t2 + 673.62*t + 2044.7 ; R2 = 0.5873…..9

2 1990

4 9

6151 2002 5558 28

3338 0.5 1543

5 - 4.45*t3 + 81.54*t2 – 436.3*t + 673.6

0.28 y = 2.5577*t4 - 93.403*t3 + 1052.9*t2 - 3905.5*t + 8494.8 ; R2 = 0.7271…..10

2002

11717

24197 22

0.5 5317 3.29

1990 10 4 10.23*t3 – 280.21*t2 + 2105.8*t – 3905.5

2 21715

3


2007 05 y = -64.769*t3 + 1061.2*t2 – 3984.4*t + 26490 ; R2 = 0.8205…..11

2 1990

2

3535

11

2002 4867 23

2975 0.8 1130

3

2.17

– 194.31*t2 + 2122.4*t – 3984.4

y = -4.823*t4 + 133.01*t3 – 1236*t2 + 4295.6*t + 1059.3 ; R2 = 0.6174…..12

2 1990

1

2758

12 2002

4692 29

6000

2

2.2 1344 9.25

- 19.29*t3 + 399.03*t2 - 2472*t – 4295.6

y = -1.8505*t3 + 2.4989*t2 + 576.14*t + 1680.9 ; R2 = 0.8451…..13

13

8169 2.69

13

y = 2015.5*t + 50769 ; R2 = 0.9233…..14

1 – 5.552*t2 + 4.998*t + 576.14

14

53812 2002 64877

2015.5

73548 1.4

1990

y = 2015.5*t + 50769 ; R2 = 0.9233…..14

2002 1393 23

1097 1.1 325 3.19

3 3 1991

86

1006


93 83

2002 1990 y = -0.5372*t4 + 10.612*t3 - 71.572*t2 + 268.74*t + 860.23 ; R2 = 0.5216…..15

3 3

2 15

3696 2002

6504

5087

1991

1.8

33

- 2.15*t3 + 31.84*t2 – 142.14*t + 268.74

1700 6.81

y = -5.5773*t4 + 129.36*t3 - 918.55*t2 + 2388.9*t + 1944.9 ; R2 = 0.8699…..16

3

3 16

5026 2002 7242 23

7197 1991 1.4 1659 4.05

- 16.73*t3 + 388.08*t2 – 1837.1*t + 1944.9

y = -18.401*t3 + 282.49*t2 - 603.98*t + 5196 ; R2 = 0.9491…..17

3

4 17

18972 2002 21445 11

23624

1991

1.2 2340 2.1

- 55.2*t2 + 564.98*t + 603.98

y = 9.8671*t2 + 451.62*t + 17975 ; R2 = 0.8008…..18

3

5 18

26286 2002 30716 9

35126 1.3 2769

1991 19.73*t + 451.62

2.7 y = 756.35*t + 25799 ; R2 = 0.9701…..19

756.35 19


2007 05

3 54986 2002 65883

8 2002 1990

12

6

73548 1.3 7921 925

1991

y = 2088.1*t + 52310 ; R2 = 0.9035…..20

8

1 44

20 2088.1

44

247.7

1990 2002

149

24.1

185.7

y = -0.1399*t4 + 3.2719*t3 - 24.274*t2 + 69.575*t + 92.194 ; R2 = 0.5467…..44

45 44 194.7

- 0.5596*t3 + 9.8157*t2 - 48.548*t +69.575

1990 1998

39

2 113.2 45

y = 0.0682*t4 - 1.4159*t3 + 10.497*t2 - 46.62*t - 3.104 ; R2 = 0.7092…..45

0.273*t3 – 4.248*t2 + 20.994*t – 46.62

88

8


93 83

2002 1990

3

6

1

3،4،5 1،2

1،5،6 2،3،4

2 6 4،6 1،2،3،5


2007 05

6

1

1

www.ons.dz 26/08/2003

4

3

5

2

3

4

100 80 60 40 20 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 4°catégorie(**)

Polynomial (4°catégorie(**))

2

5 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

40 30 20 10 0

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2°catégorie(****)

3°catégorie(***)

Polynomial (2°catégorie(****))

7

1

Polynomial (3°catégorie(***))

6

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

1000 800 600 400 200 0

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Check Total

1°catégorie(*****)

Linéaire (Check Total)

1

90

Linéaire (1°catégorie(*****))


93 83

2002 1990

6

8

2

26/08/2003 www.ons.dz 4

10

5

9

2

12

3

11

14

1

13

2


2007 05

15

3

26/08/2003 www.ons.dz 17

16

19

18

20

3

92


‫‪2002 1990‬‬

‫‪93 83‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪105.0‬‬ ‫‪83.9‬‬ ‫‪74.4‬‬ ‫‪72.8‬‬ ‫‪49.5‬‬ ‫‪32.7‬‬ ‫‪45.8‬‬ ‫‪28.8‬‬ ‫‪74.3‬‬ ‫‪80.0‬‬ ‫‪95.7‬‬ ‫‪99.5‬‬ ‫‪99.6‬‬

‫‪1990‬‬ ‫‪1991‬‬ ‫‪1992‬‬ ‫‪1993‬‬ ‫‪1994‬‬ ‫‪1995‬‬ ‫‪1996‬‬ ‫‪1997‬‬ ‫‪1998‬‬ ‫‪1999‬‬ ‫‪2000‬‬ ‫‪2001‬‬ ‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪-44.0‬‬ ‫‪-52.9‬‬ ‫‪-90.0‬‬ ‫‪-104.0‬‬ ‫‪-85.4‬‬ ‫‪-155.1‬‬ ‫‪-119.3‬‬ ‫‪-115.8‬‬ ‫‪-194.7‬‬ ‫‪-171.0‬‬ ‫‪-96.8‬‬ ‫‪-94.4‬‬ ‫‪-148.1‬‬

‫‪149.0‬‬ ‫‪136.9‬‬ ‫‪164.4‬‬ ‫‪176.9‬‬ ‫‪135.0‬‬ ‫‪187.8‬‬ ‫‪165.1‬‬ ‫‪144.7‬‬ ‫‪269.0‬‬ ‫‪250.9‬‬ ‫‪192.5‬‬ ‫‪193.9‬‬ ‫‪247.7‬‬

‫‪www.ons.dz 26/08/2003‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫‪21‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪ -i‬الوجلس الوطني االجتواعي واالقتصادي‪ ،‬لجنت آفاق التنويت االقتصاديت واالجتواعيت‪ ،‬هشزوع التقزيز حول هساهوت هن اجل إعادة تحديد‬ ‫السياست السياحيت الوطنيت‪ ،‬الدورة السادست عشزة‪ ،‬نوفوبز ‪ ، 2000‬ص ‪. 22‬‬ ‫‪ - ii‬نفس الزجع‪ ،‬ص ‪. 23‬‬ ‫‪ - iii‬عشي صليحت‪ ،‬اآلثار التنوويت للسياحت – دراست هقارنت بين الجزائز‪ ،‬تونس والوغزب‪ -‬هذكزة هاجستيز في العلوم االقتصاديت‪ ،‬قسن العلوم‬ ‫االقتصاديت‪ ،‬جاهعت باتنت ‪. 2005/2004‬ص ‪. 78‬‬


‫___________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪105-95 .‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺩ‪.‬ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﺯﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﳏﺎﺿﺮ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺨﺺ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﻀﻌﺔ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﺎ ﺻﻌﺒﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻛﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻇﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺠﺰ ﰲ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﺍﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻛﻠﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﻜﺘﺴﻲ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻧﺸﻐﻠﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﱴ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ ﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﻋﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﲡﺴﻴﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺴﻴﺪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻃﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ )‪ ، (2‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ ﲝـﺚ)‪ ، (3‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﳛـﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳـﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻐﻠﺖ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺟ ﹼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﺠﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟـﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ...‬ﺃﺛﺮﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻴﻘ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﻮﻟـﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺠﺖ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﻜﺘﺴﻲ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻛﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻧﺸﻐﻠﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻧﻌﻘـﺪﺕ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﱴ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺟﺎﻫـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ) ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳـﺔ( ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻫﺎ ﻭﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ؟ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃ(‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻃـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺗـﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ ﳍـﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬـﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻷﺿـﺮﺍﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺳـﺘﺰﺍﻑ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‬ ‫ﻭ ﳓﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﻠﻢ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻗﺪﳝﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﻳﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻳﺮ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﺳـﺘﻠﺰﺍﻡ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﺿﺢ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻮﺿـﻮﻋﺎ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻓﻴﺎ ﳉﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺜﻤﺔ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻹﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎ ﻝ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻖ ﻭ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻔﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ﻧﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻳﺘﺨـﺒﻂ ﰲ ﻭﻳـﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ)‪ (1‬ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫‪95‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫‪-1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪-5‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ"ﺑﻮﺃ" ﻭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ" ﻭ ﺍﺫﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺇﺫ ﺟﻌﻠﻜﻢ ﺧﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻮﺃﻛﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻬﻮﳍﺎ ﻗﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﻭ ﺗﻨﺤﺘﻮﻥ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳉﺒـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻮﺗﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺫﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺁﻻﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻭ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺜﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﻳﻦ" )‪ (4‬ﻭ‬ ‫)‪(5‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺗﺒﻮﺃﺕ ﻣﱰﻻ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻜﻨﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‬

‫ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﻤﻴﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻪ ﺍﳌـﺎﺩﺗﲔ ‪08‬‬ ‫)‪.(12‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪ 09‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﳛـﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻗـﺪ ﻳـﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻬﺎ)‪. (13‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻄﻴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻠﻂ ﻭ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺿﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﻏﲑ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﺎ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻻﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫)‪.(14‬‬ ‫ﻣﺄﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺉ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ‪...‬ﻓﺎﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻐﲑ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺪﱐ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻋﻴـﺔ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﲝﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ )ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫)‪(15‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ( ﺇﱃ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺨـﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻌـﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻷﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﲟﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺿﺎﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺇﺿـﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟـﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﲰـﺎﻙ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ)‪( 16‬‬

‫‪-2‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻍ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺇﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ )‪ (Ecologie‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﻭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1858‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺪﻳـﺪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﺭﻧـﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺿـﻊ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ ﺇﻳﻜﻮﻟـﻮﺟﻲ ﺑـﺪﻣﺞ ﻛﻠﻤـﺘﲔ‬ ‫)‪(6‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺘﲔ"ﺍﳌﱰﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪".‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺭﻳﻜﺎﺭﺩﻭﺱ ﺍﳊﱪ ﻣﺆﺳﺲ ﲨﻌﻴـﺔ ﺃﺻـﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﳎﻤﻮﻋـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺆﻟﻒ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺇﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪(7‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻳﻌـﻴﺶ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻓﻀﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫)‪(8‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺃﻗﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣـﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﻄﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺩ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫)‪(9‬‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪...‬‬ ‫‪-3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺆﲤﺮ ﺳﺘﻜﻬﻮﱂ‪:‬‬

‫ﺝ(ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﲣﱪﻧﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟـﺸﻢ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻭﻕ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻊ‬ ‫)‪.(10‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﻃﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺣﻴـﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺇﺷـﻜﺎﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ)‪( 17‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪-4‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻴﻂ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻴﻤﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫)‪.(11‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺸﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪96‬‬


‫___________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪105-95 .‬‬

‫ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳊﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻛﲔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬‫ﺗﻌﱪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻠﻴﺔ‪...‬‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﳋﻄـﲑﺓ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﳑﺎ ﻧـﺘﺞ ﻋﻨـﻬﺎ ﻛﺜـﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ‪...‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬‫ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪...‬‬‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻁ ﰲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﲞﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻃﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﺎﻃﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺑﻮﺍﺧﺮ‪...‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ‬‫ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﺏ‪...‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ‬‫)‪( 18‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ‬‫ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬‫‪-‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ‬

‫ƒ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺣﺘﺮﺍﺯ ﻭ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﻟﻠﻮﻗـﻮﻑ ﺃﻣـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﳊﻤﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺨﺮﻳﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻼﺕ ﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻣـﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﻈﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐـﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻹﻛﺜﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﲪﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲢﺘـﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺳـﻘﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳊﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﺒﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳـﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺇﻥ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳍـﻮﺍﺀ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳉـﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺧـﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣـﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺇﻗﻞ ﺗﻠﻮﺛﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟـﺒﱰﻳﻦ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ‪...‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳐﺘﱪﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺇﲣﺎﺫ ﳎﻤﻮﻋـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻹﺟـﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜـﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﺮ )‪.(20‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳎﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﳎﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ)ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ( ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫)‪(19‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ƒ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻹﻧـﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪...‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﳏﻮﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺮﻳﻔﻬﺎ ﻳﺴﺊ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻭ ﻗﺒـﻮﻻ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻓﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺻﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔـﺮﺽ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺳﻘﻔﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺃﻧﻈﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻓﻌﻼ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳜﻀﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺗـﺴﻠﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺟﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺎﻳﻠﲔ ‪( 21).‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧـﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬ﺗﻀﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻷﻫـﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‪:‬ﲢﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻮﺡ‬‫‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺣﺪ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟـﻀﺠﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ‪:‬ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺓ‬‫‪.‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﱰﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪:‬ﲢﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻄـﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴـﺔ‬‫ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣـﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠـﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺗﻨﺼﻴﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺘﻴﻘﻮﺑـﺎﻱ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪.1982‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﻠﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﻠﺴﻴﺔ )ﺇﻳﻜﺎﺕ(‬ ‫ﺭﻳﻮﺩﳚﺎﻧﲑﻭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1986‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺳـﻔﻦ ﺃﻋـﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1993‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﳐﺰﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﻨﻘـﻞ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠـﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﻮﻳـﻮﺭﻙ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪.1995‬‬

‫™ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳎـﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﻴـﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﺑﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻠﺴﻨﻜﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1992‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﻧﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺇﺳـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﻓﻴﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1994‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﳝﺔ ﳊﻮﺽ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻴﻜﻮﻧﻎ‪ ،‬ﺷـﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻱ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1995‬‬

‫™ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺇﺗﻼﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1989‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺧﻄﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻣﺎﻛﻮﺍ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1991‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﻱ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﲝﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﺑﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻧﺎﻣﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ‪.1992‬‬

‫ﳝﺜﻞ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﺈﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺿـﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﲢﻮﻻ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﲪﺎﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﻤﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻭﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ)‪(22‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺇﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1902‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺇﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﺠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻘﺮﺍﺽ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪.1911‬‬ ‫ƒ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1909‬‬ ‫ﰎ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻻ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ‪.‬‬

‫™ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﺎﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌﻨـﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻠﺴﻨﻜﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ‪.1992‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1994‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ 170‬ﺇﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‪.‬‬

‫™ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﲰﻚ ﺍﳊـﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷـﻨﻄﻦ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪.1946‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺑﻮﻟﺔ ‪.1973‬‬

‫‪-2‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪:‬‬

‫)‪( 23‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧـﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫‪98‬‬


‫___________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪105-95 .‬‬

‫ƒ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﳌﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﻣﻠﻮﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺇﺑﻼﻍ ﺍﻟﺒﻠـﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌـﺸﺘﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﳋـﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻹﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺗﻘﺎﺑـﻞ ﺇﻹﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣـﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤـﺚ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑﻳﺔ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﺘﻮ( ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ )‪.(24‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺬﺓ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳـﺎﺋﻞ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻀﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ؛‬ ‫‬‫ﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ؛‬ ‫‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﻖ؛‬ ‫‬‫ﺍﻹﺑﻼﻍ؛‬ ‫‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ؛‬ ‫‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﻈﻤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 10/03‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 19‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪2003‬‬ ‫‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪ 25/90‬ﺍﳌـﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 18‬ﻧـﻮﻓﻤﱪ‬ ‫‬‫‪ 1990‬ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﻢ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗـﻢ ‪ 29/90‬ﺍﳌـﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 01‬ﺩﻳـﺴﻤﱪ‬ ‫‬‫‪ 1990‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﻢ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 12/84‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 23‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪1984‬‬ ‫‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﻢ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 05/85‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 16‬ﻓﱪﺍﻳﺮ ‪1985‬‬ ‫‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻛﻴﺘﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻌـﻞ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳـﺔ ‪ECOTAX‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻴﺢ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﳊﻤﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻳﻀﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻣـﺖ ﺑﺈﺻـﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻃﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻐـﺮﺏ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪...‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻷﻥ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌـﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﱪﻡ ﺇﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺑﻴﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻻﲪﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ ﻻﺑـﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪.‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﺪﻭﺓ ﺭﻳﻮ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺼﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺃﲡﺎﻫﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻈﻬﺮ ﺇﲡﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌـﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺣـﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻳـﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺳـﻮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻈﺮ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻘﺮﺍﺽ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳒﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻷﻛﻔﺊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠـﺔ ﰲ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ƒ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃـﺮﻑ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﻔـﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﻭ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺩﻉ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺠﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻣـﻦ ﻃـﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﲢﺪﺕ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ ﺇﱃ ﺗـﺒﲏ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴـﺔ )ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ(‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﻘﺎﺋﺺ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺴﻌﲑﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ )‪.(25‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺗﺴﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﺰ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺴﻴﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺴﻴﻜﻮ ﺳﻴﱵ ﰲ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﱰﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺳﺎﺋﻖ )‪ (27‬ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟـﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ ﻭ ﺑﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻮﻛﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻛـﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﳊـﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳍـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ)‪.(28‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺗـﻀﻤﻨﺘﻪ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻋﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﺮﺍﻣـﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺟﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ ﻛﻞ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﻘﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺮﺩﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﻭ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻭ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﻏﺮﺱ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﻭﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﲢﻔﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ)‪(26‬‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺪﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺁﺭﺛﺮ ﺑﻴﻘﻮ ﳚﺮﻱ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳـﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺴﻌﻰ ﻏﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻜـﺲ ﳎﻤـﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺪﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻠﻮﺙ)‪ (29‬ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﻧﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫ƒ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﺠﻴﺞ‪....‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺇﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﰒ ﺇﺗﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪....‬‬

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‫___________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪105-95 .‬‬

‫ƒ ﺭﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠـﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺠﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳒﺮﺍﻑ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪(30).‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﻠـﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻟﻸﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1972‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ)‪ (OCDE‬ﻭﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺘﻄﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ" ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﻛﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺔ ﳌﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟـﻀﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺍﲡﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴـﺔ ﳌﺒـﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺤـﺪﺩ ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻭ ﺍﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ƒ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺇﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻷﻥ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺗـﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻗـﺪ ﺗﻨﺘـﻬﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬـﻮﺭ ﺳـﻮﻕ‬ ‫)‪.(31‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫ƒ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻧﻪ ﺍﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺗﻨﻔﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﳚﺪ ﳎﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺐ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺷﺄﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻭ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﲦﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺐ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﺭ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ )‪.(32‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺰﻡ ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﳝﺎﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﻠﻮﺙ ﻳﻐﺘﻨﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻟﻠﻐـﲑ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﳎﺎﻻﺗﻪ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﳍـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻥ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﺈﺧﺘﻴـﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺟـﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺣﲔ ﺗﺘﺴﺮﺏ ﺍﻹﻧﺒﻌﺎﺙ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺒﺖ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﲔ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﻭ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﺑﺚ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﺍﺗﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﺭﻋﲔ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﱪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻋﲔ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻠـﻮﺙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣـﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺳﻨﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﺒﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﺓﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ)‪ .(33‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﻄﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻠـﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺑﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠـﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﳊﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺇﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻀﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻄﺎﻝ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨـﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟـﻮﺟﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﲢﻤﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﲑﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﺍﻷﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺎﰐ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻟـﻀﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﻓﻊ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻣﺒﺪﺍ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺒﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﱪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ )‪ (34‬ﻭ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺃﺭﺗﻮ ﺑﻴﺠﻮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺳـﺘﺪﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺤﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺟـﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺇﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻛﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﻣﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻣـﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﺎﻣـﺔ ﻭ ﲤﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮ)‪ (35‬ﻭ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺃﺍﳌﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻓﻊ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -5‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺳﻌﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣـﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ....‬ﻭ ﳎﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﲨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻮﺣـﺪ ﻟﻠﺠﺒﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ( ﺳﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭ ﲡﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻻ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‪.‬‬‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺍﻟﻐـﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ) ﻏﺎﺯ ‪ ( CFC‬ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺘﺮﻭﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩ‪-‬ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2002‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﳚﺎﺩ ﺇﺟـﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﶈﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻳـﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﻘـﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪( 36):‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪-1‬ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ) ﺍﳌﻴـﺎﻩ‬‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ (‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻲ )‪(37‬‬ ‫ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻷﻧـﺸﻄﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺳﻢ ﲢﻔﻴﺰﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲣـﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻄﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄـﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻧـﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺳـﺸﻔﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺳﻢ ﲢﻔﻴﺰﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴـﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﻧﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﲤﺮﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻـﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌـﺎﱄ‬‫ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻭﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤـﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ؛‬ ‫ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ ﻭﻳﻬـﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗـﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻭﺗﺒﺼﲑﻩ ﲝﻘﻴﻘـﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ‬‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺜﻘﻴﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻫﲑ ﻋـﱪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﰲ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳـﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﺩﺍﺓ ﳌﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬‫ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳋﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓـﻊ ﲢـﺴﲔ‬‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳊـﻀﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﺻﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﺩﻱ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴـﺎﻩ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌـﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫـ‪ -‬ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻴﻒ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺟﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﻣﺜـﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪102‬‬


‫___________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪105-95 .‬‬

‫*‪-‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺜﻤﲑ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺜﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﻹﻣـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻔﻬﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ" ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‬

‫ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻌﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﲟﺮﻛﺰ ﺛﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻓﻘـﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻈـﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻷﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‪،‬ﻭ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﲣﺮﻳﺐ ﻣـﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺎﺭ؛ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﳏﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﻤﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﳚﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻭﺣـﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻫﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﲟﺒﺪﺃ ﲢﻤﻞ ﻣـﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻠـﻮﺙ ﺗﻜـﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺃﻭﻻ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺮﻱ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﲡﻨﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻫﲑ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﲡﻨﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻁ؛ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻫﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳـﺎﺕ ﲪﺎﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻴـﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﳊﻤﺎﻳـﺔ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﳉﻤـﺎﻫﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌــــــﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﺣــــــﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌــــــﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﲪﺎﻳــﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌــﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘــﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤــﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟــﻮﺟﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺿﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﲝﺜﻪ ﺭﻛﺎﺋﺰ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳـﺔ‬

‫"ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻴﺎ ﺃﺭﺿﺎ ﻣﻴﺘﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻟﻪ" )‪ ،(40‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺰﻉ ﺃﺭﺿﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻳـﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫"ﺑﻼﻝ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﳌﺰﱐ" ﻷﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫*‪-‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺷﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌـﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻘﻮﻟـﺔ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ" ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺁﺩﺍﺑـﺎ ﻛـﺜﲑﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻏﺘﺴﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻴـﺐ ﻭﺣـﺴﻦ ﺍﳍﻨـﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺜﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺫﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫*‪-‬ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ "ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔـﺴﺪﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ ")‪ (41‬ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﺗﻼﻑ ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺷﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ‬ ‫‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺭﺟﻼ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﺑﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺷﺎﺓ ﺣﻠﻮﺑـﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺇﻧﺬﺍﺭ ﳌﻦ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻃﲑﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺨـﺬ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﻭﺡ ﻫﺪﻓﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺜـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﲜﻠﺪ ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫*‪-‬ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣـﺸﺪ ﻛـﺒﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻔـﺎﻅ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺑﺪﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﻭﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﲡﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺘﻘـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻭﻯ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫*‪-‬ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺗﺘـﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻹﺗﻘـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺀ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺸﺮﺏ ﰒ ﻳﺘﻮﺿﺄ ﺑﻔﻀﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛـﺎﻥ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﻠـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻄﻴﻖ ﻭﺃﻻ ﻳﻀﺮﺑﻮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﺋﻊ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﲑ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ "ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺣﺎﻝ" ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺒﺴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻊ ﳍـﺬﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ )‪:( 38‬‬ ‫*‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻀﲑ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﲢـﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ "ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺜﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﺼﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﲦﺮﻫﺎ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟـﻞ"‬ ‫)‪.(39‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﲑ ﺧﺸﺒﺔ ﻟﲑﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ )ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ(‪.‬‬ ‫*‪-‬ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺗﻼﻑ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺗﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻸﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺑـﺪﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﳘـﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺑﻴﺔ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ "ﺟﻮﺳﺘﺎﻑ ﻟﻮﺑﻮﻥ" ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫"ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﺎﲢﺎ ﺃﻋﺪﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺭﺣﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ" ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻳﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﳌـﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﲑﻫﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﲏ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﲪﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺿﺮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫‬‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭ؛‬ ‫‬‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﻈﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻵﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻡ "‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ" ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ ﳕﻂ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﳛـﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬‫‪-‬ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻘﻮ ‪ PIGOU‬ﺳـﻨﺔ ‪1920‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴـﺔ"‬ ‫ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌـﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳـﺔ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭ ﺭﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳـﻌﺔ ﻟــ‬ ‫‪ 29/28‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪.1997‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ ‪ 1996‬ﺹ ‪.07/04‬‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﻣﻴﺸﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺳﲑﻳﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ ‪ 1993‬ﺹ ‪.13-11‬‬ ‫‪ (4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.74‬‬ ‫‪ (5‬ﺇﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ ﳏﺎﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ ‪ 1991‬ﺹ ‪.17‬‬ ‫‪ (6‬ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪ 2002‬ﺹ ‪ 16‬ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.5‬‬ ‫‪ (7‬ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺹ ‪ 15‬ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻳﻜﺎﺭﺩﻭﺱ ﺍﳍﱪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﻴﺴﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪ .1982‬ﺹ ‪.38‬‬ ‫‪ (8‬ﻣﺎﺟﺪ ﺭﺍﻏﺐ ﺍﳊﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ ‪ 2002‬ﺹ ‪39‬‬ ‫‪ (9‬ﺗﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ ‪ www.fekezed.com/liberery.plup§do=article: vient et page = 4655‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪/23‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳـﻞ‪/‬‬ ‫‪2005‬‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2002‬ﺹ ‪.17‬‬ ‫‪(10‬‬ ‫‪ (11‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 04‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 05‬ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ ‪ 1994‬ﺍﳉﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (12‬ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 03/83‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 1983/02/05‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫‪104‬‬


‫___________________________________________________________________ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪105-95 .‬‬

‫‪ (13‬ﻣﻌﻮﺽ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ ‪ 1986‬ﺹ ‪.9‬‬ ‫‪ (14‬ﻣﺎﺟﺪ ﺭﺍﻏﺐ ﺍﳊﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺹ ‪.40‬‬ ‫‪ (15‬ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺹ ‪.29‬‬ ‫‪ (16‬ﺍﲪﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺳﺎﳌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻄﻲ ﻭ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ‪ 1981‬ﺍﻻﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪98‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪ (18‬ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﺯﻳﻖ ﻭ ﻋﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﻡ ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺪﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫‪(17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ ‪،‬ﺍﻻﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﲢﺎﺩ ﳎﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗـﻮﻧﺲ‬ ‫‪ 2005/09/29/27‬ﺹ‪34‬‬ ‫‪(19‬ﻣﻨﺎﺿﻞ ﺟﺎﺳﻢ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﲑﺍﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ‪ www.ebea.net/wghet-neaer/13/736 htm10‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ‪2005/04/22‬‬ ‫‪ (20‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ogcit/www.unesco.org /most/so-areb‬اﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﻮم ‪2005/07/25‬‬ ‫‪www.unesco.org/most/sq-arab/fiche/3p.httm consulte le 15/04/2003(21‬‬ ‫‪ (22‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫‪ (23‬ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﳎﺎﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻳـﻮﻣﻲ ‪2006/06/07/06‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (24‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫‪ (25‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.331‬‬ ‫‪ (26‬ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 01‬ﺑﲔ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (27‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺹ ‪341‬‬ ‫‪ (28‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌـﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺼﺮ ‪ 1996‬ﺹ‬ ‫‪.841-650‬‬ ‫‪ (29‬ﻭ ‪ .www.unesco.org (30‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫‪ (31‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺹ ‪.344‬‬ ‫‪ (32‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.630-510‬‬ ‫‪ .www.unesco.org (33‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫‪ (34‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ ‪www.unesco.org 1992‬‬ ‫‪ .www.unesco.org (35‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫‪(36‬ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﺯﻳﻖ ﻭ ﻋﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺻﺺ‪16-10‬‬ ‫‪ (37‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪– 2003‬ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪/38‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪...‬ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‬ ‫‪ www.islamonline.net/arabic/science/2005/05/article07.shtml‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪2006/11/02‬‬ ‫‪ (39‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﲪﺪ‬ ‫‪ (40‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫‪ (41‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﻳﺔ ‪56‬‬

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‫__________________________________________________ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪119-107 .‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﻲ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ )ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ( ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﳕﻂ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺗﺴﻠﻜﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ )ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ( ‪ ،‬ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻛﻞ ﻇﺮﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻓﺮﺹ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﻓﻈﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ)ﺃﻭﻻ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ)ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪.‬‬

‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‪ ،‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼﺪ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫* ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫* ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺒﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺛﺮﻭ‪‬ﻢ )ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﺑﺪ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ؛ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﳏﺎﻓﻈﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪ :-1‬ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺪﺧﻼﻥ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺎﻥ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﶈﻠﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻘﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ :2-1‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‬

‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳏﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﳕﻂ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ –ﻭﻓﻖ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﳏﺪﺩﺍ‪ -‬ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪":‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﺭﺱ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ‪ Action‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ‪ Les graphiques‬ﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ)ﳊﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ( ﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ)ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ(‪ Anticiper‬ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ‪Les‬‬ ‫"‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪tendances‬‬ ‫‪futures‬‬ ‫)‪.( L.Thiaville,2002,P10‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﶈﻔﻈﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺬﺍﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲟﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲝﻴﺎﺯﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺎﺯﺗﻪ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ)ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﺮﻳﺪ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ‪،1984،‬ﺹ‪.(21:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﶈﻔﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﺍﺑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪107‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﻋﻦ ﳕﻂ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺗﺴﻠﻜﻪ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﳍﻢ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺯﺑﺎﺋﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺷﻮﻫﺪ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪.‬‬

‫‪ " Charles Henry Dow‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﲰﻪ ﲟﺆﺷﺮ ﺩﺍﻭﺟﻮﻧﺰ‬ ‫ﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﻳﻜﻪ"ﺍﻳﺪﻱ ﺟﻮﻧﺰ‬ ‫‪ ، " Eddie Jones‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﳒﺎﺡ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻨﺒﺆﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳒﻢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺸﺮﺕ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫"ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺘﺮﻳﺖ"‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻴﻬﺎ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﻠﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ "ﺩﺍﻭ" ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳍﺒﻮﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﻭﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳍﺒﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻼ)ﻡ‪.‬ﺇ‪.‬ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،2002،‬ﺹ‪)428:‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ((‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪):‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﺮﻳﺪ‪.‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺃ‪،1984،‬ﺹ‪(26:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ؛‬ ‫ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻣﺰﺍﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ )ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﲔ‪ ....،‬؛‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻟﻸﺳﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﲤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ؛‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺁﺟﻼ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ ﻋﺎﺟﻼ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺪ "ﺭﺍﻟﻒ ﻧﻴﻠﺴﻮﻥ ﺇﻳﻠﻴﻮﺕ‬ ‫‪ " Elliott‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻗﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﳒﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻭﺻﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻪ)ﺩﺍﻭ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻸﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﻪ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ ‪ ، Théorie et méthodes d Elliot‬ﻓﺒﻔﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻨﺒﺄ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻪ ‪– 1935‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ )ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳍﺒﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻼﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺒﺄ ‪‬ﺎ "ﺩﺍﻭ"(‪ -‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻋﺎﻓﻴﺘﻪ )ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ()‪.( L.Thiaville,2002,P08‬‬ ‫‪Ralph Nelson‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﱵ "ﺩﺍﻭ" ﻭ"ﺇﻳﻠﻮﺕ"‪ ،‬ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪(1/‬‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﺩ ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺑﺒﻂﺀ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱰﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﳛﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺤﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻟﻸﺳﻬﻢ ﻟﻴﺼﻨﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭﺧﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻹﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻓﻀﻞ ﳌﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﲤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ ﺑﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ‪ les chartistes‬ﺗﻌﲏ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳒﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ "ﺩﺍﻭ" ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻬﺎ " ﺷﺎﺭﻟﺲ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﻭ‬ ‫‪108‬‬


‫__________________________________________________ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪119-107 .‬‬

‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳏﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﻥ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺘﲔ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﲤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﳒﺪﻫﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﲝﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﲤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻠﻞ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺃﺩﻕ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻭﻣﺪﺓ ﺫﻟﻚ‪...‬ﺍﱁ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﻛﺨﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻟﻠﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻄﺎﻥ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻹﳚﺎﺩ ﳕﻂ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ؛‬ ‫• ﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﳕﻂ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺗﺴﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﺴﲎ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻩ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺳﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﳝﺮ ﻣﺘﺘﺒﻌﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ‪ -‬ﲟﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﲟﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻊ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳊﺴﺎﺳﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﳐﺮﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺧﻄﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ؛ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ؛ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﲟﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ )ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ( ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪ :2-1-3-1‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺀ‪ -‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ؛ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ ‪ ، Les fondamentalistes‬ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﲟﺎ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺳﺘﺆﻭﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ)‪.(2‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻮﻫﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺑﲔ ﺳﻴﻮﺻﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻻ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﻭﺭﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﶈﻄﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺑﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺻﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺑﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺄﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺳﺘﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ؛‬ ‫• ﻭﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻷﻱ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺃﻱ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﻞ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻣﲔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ -‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ -‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺩ)ﺇ‪.‬ﻑ‪.‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﻣﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ ،1984‬ﺹ‪ .(28:‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺃﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻜﻤﺎﺵ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻜﻤﺎﺵ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻷﻣﻜﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻴﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.2‬‬

‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻠﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﲔ‪،‬ﺣﻮﺍﺟﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﲢﻔﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺟﺒﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺘﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ)‪:(3‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭﻓﺤﺺ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻬﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺳﺘﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ) ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻜﻤﺎﺵ(‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺘﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‪...،‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﲤﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﲞﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﲟﺎ ﺳﺘﺆﻭﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﺜﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻋﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ )ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ(‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻓﺤﺺ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﲝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬

‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻛﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫‪110‬‬


‫__________________________________________________ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪119-107 .‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺑـ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫‬‫ﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳋﺼﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺗﺴﻌﲑ )ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ( ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪MEDAF‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻔﺤﺺ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺍﺯ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ‪‬ﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﳉﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻮﻗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﻇﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﲢﻠﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﳐﺮﺟﺎ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﲟﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﳊﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﳏﻔﻈﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ‪‬ﺎ؛‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺣﺎ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺳﺘﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﳏﻔﻈﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺸﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺭﲝﺎ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺆﺓ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﳎﺎﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻻ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﻓﻈﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ )ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ( ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻐﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺷﻘﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻼﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ) ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ( ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ) ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳋﺼﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺮﲨﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺟﻬﺪﺍ ﻭﻭﻗﺘﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻓﺼﻠﺖ ﻭﻣﺴﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻪ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺮ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻣﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫‪111‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﲏ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ)‪ .(5‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳒﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﲔ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺷﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪( J.Murphy, 2003, P : 06).‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ‪-‬ﺍﳌﻬﲏ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﶈﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﳕﻂ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲢﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻋﻤﻼ ﻣﻬﻨﻴﺎ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪: -2‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﺪﺧﻠﻲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﲡﻤﻴﻌﻪ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﳏﺎﻓﻈﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻓﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﲤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻂﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﻞ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻀﻞ –ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ‪ -‬ﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪،‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺗﻪ‬‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﲏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ؛‬ ‫ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻊ‬‫ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ‬‫ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺫﻭ ﺟﺪﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻋﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻖ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﺽ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﲤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺻﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻭﺭﺷﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻀﻲ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺗﺒﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﱪ ﻭﺃﴰﻞ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺷﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﰲ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺟﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ)ﻉ‪.‬ﻝ‪.‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻨﺴﻰ‪،2001 ،‬‬ ‫ﺹ‪.(219:‬‬

‫ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳒﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺎ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ)ﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺟﺪﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪﻩ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ – ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻲ ‪ -‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻼ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻛﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﻛﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ)‪ .(4‬ﻭﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻯ ﻭﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﲔ ﻣﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﲝﻜﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻤﻼﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺬﺍﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺄﰐ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬

‫‪ :1-2‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫"ﺝ‪.‬ﺏ‪.‬ﻭﻟﻴﺎﻣﺲ ‪ " J.B.Willams‬ﻋﻘﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪ 1938‬ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺻﻞ )ﻣﺎﱄ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ( ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ "ﺇ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺸﺮ ‪"I.Fisher‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1907‬ﺃﺳﺲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ )ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺧﺼﻢ(‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺰﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻧﻘﺪﺍ)‬ ‫‪ .(G.Hirigoyen & J.Caby,1998,P10-11‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺴﺒﻖ "ﻭﻟﻴﺎﻣﺲ" ﺃﻱ ﺃﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪112‬‬


‫__________________________________________________ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪119-107 .‬‬

‫‪ :Vn‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺑﻴﻊ )ﻗﻴﻤﺔ( ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪ n‬؛‬ ‫‪ : t‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ )ﺍﳋﺼﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ‪ :‬ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(2‬‬

‫)ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ( ‪ La valeur intrinsèque‬ﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻪ ‪-‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﱪ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ)‪.( G.Hirigoyen & J.Caby,1998,P11‬‬

‫‪Di + Vn‬‬ ‫‪(1 + t )n (1 + t )n‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ "ﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺩ ‪ "Graham & Dodd‬ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1962‬ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ )ﺍﳋﺼﻢ( ﻻﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻬﻢ)ﻉ‪.‬ﻝ‪.‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻨﺴﻰ‪ ،2001 ،‬ﺹ‪ ، (238:‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪ : V:‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻬﻢ؛‬ ‫‪: D0, D1, D2,..., Dn‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ؛‬ ‫‪ :n‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ؛‬ ‫‪ : t‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ )ﺍﳋﺼﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬

‫) ‪∑ (1 D+ t‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(1‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ)‪:(8‬‬ ‫‪.1‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ‪. n‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺻﻔﺮﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫‪.2‬‬ ‫ﲤﺘﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ )ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﻳﻨﻤﻮ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪،‬‬ ‫‪.3‬‬ ‫ﳝﺘﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ؛ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ "ﻗﻮﺭﺩﻥ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺑﲑﻭ ‪."Gordon-Shapiro‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﻳﻨﻤﻮ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﻏﲑ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ؛ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫"ﻗﻮﺭﺩﻥ‪ -‬ﺷﺎﺑﲑﻭ "‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪.‬‬

‫= ‪V‬‬

‫‪n =1‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻩ )ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﻪ( ﲟﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺛﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺧﺼﻢ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻳﺼﻨﻒ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ(‬ ‫)‪ . Approche actuarielle (6‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ "ﺇ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺸﺮ ‪ ،"I.Fisher‬ﳑﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻘﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:( 78 -79 J.Brillman et C.Maire,1993,P‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(2‬‬

‫ﳝﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﲝﺘﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‪:‬‬

‫‪v= D0 + D1 2 +L+ Dn n + Vn n‬‬ ‫) ‪(1+t) (1+t‬‬ ‫) ‪(1+t ) (1+t‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪ : V:‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺻﻞ(؛‬ ‫‪: D0, D1, D2,..., Dn‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ؛‬

‫‪i =1‬‬

‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ ،(1‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻼﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﳝﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻐﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ؛‬ ‫• ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪Barrean et‬‬ ‫‪ ،(7)( J. J.Delahaye,P301).‬ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﳊﻴﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﲡﻬﻨﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪v = D 0 + D 1 2 +L + D n n‬‬ ‫) ‪(1 + t) (1 + t‬‬ ‫) ‪(1 + t‬‬

‫∞‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫∑= ‪V‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ‬

‫‪Décaissement‬‬ ‫‪Encaissement‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﳍﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﲢﻜﻤﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺑﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳋﺼﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.2‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﳐﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﶈﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺧﺼﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﳊﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺗﺴﻌﲑ)ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ( ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ ،MEDAF(9‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻪ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ " ﻭﻟﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﺭﺏ ‪ (10)"Willim Sharpe,1964‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﺤﲎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻒﺀ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻱ" ﻟﻸﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ "‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﻮﻳﺘﺰ ‪ .(11)"H.Markowitz, 1965‬ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ‪-‬ﻭﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.4‬‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺾ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺳﻴﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺧﺼﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺘﺴﲎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲟﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬

‫] ‪Ε (r j )= r f + β j[E (rM )− r f‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪ E(rj) :‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫‪ rf‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺃﺫﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺰﻳﻨﺔ؛‬ ‫‪: Bj‬ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳓﺪﺍﺭ)ﻣﻴﻞ( ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ )ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻣﻘﺴﻮﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻄﻰ ﻭﳏﺴﻮﺏ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ :E(rM‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ؛‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﳐﻄﺮ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﳐﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻀﺮﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘﺎ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﳐﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.3‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ‬

‫‪ :-2-2‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻔﺎﺕ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺭﲰﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﲢﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ‪ ، PER‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻮﺭﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻠﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

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‫__________________________________________________ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪119-107 .‬‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪﳘﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻜﻮﱐ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﳜﻀﻊ ﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ؛ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺳﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﰲ ‪ 31‬ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺷﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﺪﺍﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫…(‪ .‬ﻓﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻱ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲔ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻹﻗﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲡﺮﻯ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ)ﻡ‪.‬ﺇ‪.‬ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،2002،‬ﺹ‪ ، (418:‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻬﻢ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ‪ PER‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻲ)ﻡ‪.‬ﺇ‪.‬ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،2002،‬ﺹ‪ ، (418:‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ)‪(M.Albouy et S.Perrier,2003,P60‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻭﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺳﺘﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺇﺿﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻪ ﻭﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺼﻮﺭﻩ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﺍ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻀﻠﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﲝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﱯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺎﺩﺣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ)ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﳏﻔﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﺎﻫﻴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ‪ Les manipulations comptables‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﺙ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ)‪ .(12‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﲤﺖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﺡ ‪‬ﻤﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺮﺡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ)ﻃﻮﻛﻴﻮ ﻭﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ(‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪J.Brillman‬‬ ‫‪et‬‬ ‫)‪.( C.Maire,1993,PP60-85‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻼﻗﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﰲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ (...،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ) ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﱄ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ(‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻳﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻟﻠﺴﻬﻢ‬ ‫‪ ، BPA‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫)‪ .(P.Vernimmen,2002,P546‬ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﻗﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍ ﻣﺮﺩﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺭﲝﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﺑﺮﺓ)ﻡ‪.‬ﺇ‪.‬ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،2002،‬ﺹ‪.(418:‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻻ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ)‪ .(13‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻪ ﻛﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻫﺎﻡ ﺑﲔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻜﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺧﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳜﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻬﺎ )ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ‪ =PER‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫‪115‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،(...،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﳛﺪﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻪ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺎﺋﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﰲ ﺑﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ ‪ Anticipé‬ﻟﻸﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺴﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﲟﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻹﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻳﻌﱪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﲝﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﱯ ‪، PER Relatifs‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺎ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ)‪ (14‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺑﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻟﻠﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﰲ)‪) P.Vernimmen,2002,P547‬ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ((‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﳕﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﻘﺒﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ PER‬ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﳕﻮ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻃﺮﺩﻳﺔ ؛‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﲟﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﳔﻔﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺳﻌﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ‪ PER‬ﻭﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﳋﻄﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ‪ PER‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﲨﻊ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪V= PER* BPA‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪ :‬ﳝﺜﻞ ‪ :BPA‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻟﻠﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ‪ PER‬ﳒﺪﻩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ(‬ ‫‪ ، Approche actuarielle‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺭﲰﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﻣﻌﲔ‬ ‫)ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋﻒ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪(L.Batsch, 1999,P341)Approche‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬ ‫‪ .comparatives‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺭﲰﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ)‪ ،(15‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪V= Vo/BPAo * BPA‬‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫‪V ? __________ BPA‬‬

‫‪Vo___________ BPAo‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﲔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺹ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻬﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﺄﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﺴﻌﺮﺍ ﺑﺄﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺎ‬

‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺘﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻕ) ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪116‬‬


‫__________________________________________________ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪119-107 .‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻬﲏ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﶈﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﳕﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲢﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳒﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻼ ﻣﻬﻨﻴﺎ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪،‬‬‫ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻳﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺴﻴﲑ ﳏﺎﻓﻈﻬﻢ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲡﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺼﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪Approche intrinsèque‬ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺧﺼﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ‪ PER‬ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﲢﻠﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﳐﺮﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲟﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ ﳊﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ )ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ( ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﳏﻔﻈﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪.1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ‪‬ﺎ؛‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬ ‫)ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﻀﺎﺭﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ( ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺳﺘﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﳏﻔﻈﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪.1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﺴﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﺸﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺤﻘﻖ ﺭﲝﺎ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲏ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺆﺓ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﳎﺎﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻑ‬

‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﻴﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﺸﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﺍﺀﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﺴﻌﺮﺍ ﺑﺄﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﺍﺀﻩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﺀﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﲔ ﻳﻌﻤﻼﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺧﺼﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺐ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﳌﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﺄﺛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﳒﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺑﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺧﺼﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﳝﺘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﻷﻣﻜﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳒﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳒﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﶈﻠﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﲔ ﳍﻤﺎ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﻴﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﲔ ﻭﻳﺘﻴﺤﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻛﻞ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺿﻨﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺠﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺎﻥ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻨﻔﺎﻥ‬‫ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﶈﻠﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ؛ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﳒﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ‬ ‫‪117‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﻓﻈﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ )ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ( ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺸﺪﻩ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺣﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫)ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻨﻌﺪﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﱪﺯ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻨﺠﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺭﺷﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﺘﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺍﻻﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -(1‬ﻟﻺﻃﻼﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻨﲑ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.458-427 :‬‬‫ ‪J.Murphy, L’analyse technique des marchés financiers, Traduit de l’américain par P.Stokowski et A.Dublanc,‬‬‫‪Valor Editions, 2003, Hendaye, PP : 27-385.‬‬ ‫ ‪L.Thiaville, Connaître l’analyse technique : pour comprendre les graphique en bourse, Edition Le journal des‬‬‫‪finances, Paris, 2002, PP : 23-86.‬‬ ‫ ‪A.Dublanc et F.Barrioz, Le guide des indicateurs de marché, Valor Editions, Hendaye, 1998‬‬‫‪ - (2‬ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﺤﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﻣﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬ﻭﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ‪) Actuarielle‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -( 3‬ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻨﲑ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.388-283 :‬‬‫ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،1998 ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.166-41 :‬‬‫‪ -(4‬ﻟﻺﻃﻼﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ )ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺪ( ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫‪- J.Murphy, Op.cit, PP : 05-09.‬‬ ‫‪, Consulté www.edubourse.com/guide/fiche/.php?idFiche=218 )- Analyse technique versus analyse fondamentale. In : 5‬‬ ‫‪le 27/09/2005.‬‬ ‫‪ - (6‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ‪ Approche actuarielle‬ﻛﻤﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪ ، Approche intrinsèque‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻖ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - (7‬ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﻭﺗﻘﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻓﺘﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ 25‬ﺇﱃ ‪50‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -(8‬ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻨﲑ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.416-412:‬‬‫ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻲ ﻻﺷﲔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻨﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.240-238 :‬‬‫ ‪P. Vernimmen, Finance d’entreprise,5e Edition, Editions Dalloz, Paris, 2002, PP : 17-358.‬‬‫‪PP : 80-86. - J.Brilman et C.Maire, Op.cit,‬‬ ‫‪ -(9‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻲ ﻻﺷﲔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻨﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.237-232 :‬‬‫ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﻮﻗﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺹ ﺹ‪.42-38:‬‬‫‪- G.Hirigoyen, Willam Sharpe et la gestion de portefeuille, in Les grands auteurs en finance, Op.cit, PP :38-48.‬‬ ‫‪ -(10‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫‪- G.Hirigoyen, Willam Sharpe et la gestion de portefeuille, in Les grands auteurs en finance, Op.cit, PP : 31-60.‬‬ ‫‪ -(11‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫‪- G.Gallais-Hamonno, Harry Markowitz ou la fondation de la finance moderne, in les grands auteurs en finance, Op.cit,‬‬ ‫‪PP : 09-30.‬‬ ‫‪ -(12‬ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪- M.Albouy et S.Perrier, Manipulations comptables et évaluation de l’entreprise, in La revue du financier, N°139, 2003,‬‬ ‫‪P :60.‬‬ ‫‪ - (13‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﻞ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -(14‬ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻃﻼﻉ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﱯ ) ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ‪ Bates‬ﻭﳕﻮﺫﺝ ‪ ( Holt‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ ‪J.Brilman et C.Maire, Op.cit, PP : 94-100.‬‬‫ ‪P.Vernimmen, Op.cit, PP : 551-553.‬‬‫‪ - (15‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﱪﻫﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ‪ PER‬ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻟﻜﻼﳘﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﳋﺼﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻻ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪V=D/t :‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ‪ V=1/t*D :‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ .V=PER*BPA :‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﳛﺴﺐ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺭﲰﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪118‬‬


119-107 .‫ﺹ‬.‫ ﺹ‬- ‫__________________________________________________ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ‬

:‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

.1984 ‫ ﻣﺎﻱ‬،18 ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬،‫ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬،‫ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﺮﻳﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﻣﲔ‬ ،‫ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬،‫ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻲ ﻭﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺗﺴﻌﲑ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﲰﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬،‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻲ ﻻﺷﲔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻨﺴﻰ‬ .2001 ‫ ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ‬،‫ﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‬‫ ﺍ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬،‫ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻗﺎﺯﻳﻖ‬،‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ .1998 ،‫ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﺻﺔ‬،‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ،‫ ﺃﻃﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺩﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﻩ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬،‫ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄﺓ‬،‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﻮﻗﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﻢ‬ .1995،‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ .2002 ،‫ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬،‫ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‬،‫ﻣﻨﲑ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‬ -

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M.Albouy et S.Perrier, Manipulations comptables et évaluation de l’entreprise, in La revue du financier, N°139, 2003. L.Batsch, Finance et stratégie, Economica, Paris, 1999. J.Brilman et C.Maire, Manuel d’évaluation des entreprises, Les éditions d’organisation, Paris, 1993. A.Dublanc et F.Barrioz, Le guide des indicateurs de marché, Valor Editions, Hendaye, 1998. G.Gallais-Hamonno, Harry Markowitz ou la fondation de la finance moderne, in les grands auteurs en finance, Collection dirigé par M.Albouy, éditions ems,Colompelles, 2003. G.Hirigoyen, Willam Sharpe et la gestion de portefeuille, in Les grands auteurs en finance, Collection dirigé par M.Albouy, éditions ems,Colompelles, 2003. G.Hirigoyen & J.Caby, Histoire de la valeur en finance d’entreprise, Cahiers de recherches de CREF, Université de Bordeaux 4,1998 .in : http://cref.U-boreaux4.fr/cahiers/1998-01.htm. J.Murphy, L’analyse technique des marchés financiers, Traduit de l’américain par P.Stokowski et A.Dublanc, Valor Editions, Hendaye, 2003. L.Thiaville, Connaître l’analyse technique : pour comprendre les graphique en bourse, Edition Le journal des finances, Paris, 2002. P. Vernimmen, Finance d’entreprise,5e Edition, Dalloz, Paris, 2002.

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‫______________________________________________________ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪136-121 .‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ /‬ﺑﻮﺷﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﺋﺰﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﻗﻄﺎﻑ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻋﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﻄﻴﻒ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺃﻭﺳـﻊ ﺃﻻ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ "ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣـﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻴﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺠﺴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﲢﺘﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻤﻴـﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺷﱴ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺮﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻧـﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﳑـﺎ ﺟﻌـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﻔﺰ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺟﺪ ﻣﺸﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫ﻭ ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ ﻛـﺒﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻈـــﺮﺍ ﻵﻓﺎﻗـــﻪ ﺍﳌـــﺼﲑﻳﺔ ﻋﻠـــﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـــﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﲣﺬ ﻣـﺆﲤﺮ‬ ‫ـﺪﻭﱄ‬ ‫ـﺎﺩ ﺍﻟـــ‬ ‫ـﲔ ﻟﻼﲢـــ‬ ‫ـﺪﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﻮﺿـــ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨـــ‬ ‫‪ii‬‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﲟﻴﻨﻴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻴﺲ )ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 12‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﺇﱃ ‪ 6‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ ‪ 1998‬ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﺣﻮﻝ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻨـﺎﻏﻢ ﳌﻔـﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﳌﻮﺍﻛﺒﺔ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻋﻮﳌﺔ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﲡﺴﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ‪‬ﺘﻤـﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺟﻨﻴﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2003‬ﻭ ﺳﺘﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‪ iii‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ 15‬ﻭ ‪ 20‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ ‪ ،2005‬ﻭﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﻭ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﻟﻪ ﰎ ﺇﻧـﺸﺎﺀ ﻣـﺎ ﻳـﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺏ"ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ" ) ‪Fond de solidarité‬‬ ‫‪ (numérique‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺭﲰﻴـﺔ ﺗﻌﻤـﻞ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺎﺕ ﻃﻮﻋﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲡﺴﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺇﺭﺳـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ i‬ﻳﺘﺒﻠـﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ "ﺑﺎﺭﻛﻴﻞ" ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﻋﱪ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧـﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1972‬ﺻﺪﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﻳﻮﳒﻲ ﻣﺎﺳﻴﺪﺍ" ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ "ﺧﻄﺔ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2000‬ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟـﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ" ﺃﻱ ﳎﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲡﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗـﺖ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻋﱪ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺄﻛﺪﺕ ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺣﺘـﻮﺍﺀ ﺟـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺒﺸﺮﺍ ﺑﻘﺮﺏ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺘﻘﻠﺺ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟـﻮﻃﲏ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳌـﺒﲏ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ % 50‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﻺﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒـﺎﺩﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳـﻖ ﺍﻟـﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﲑﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﻟﺘﺒﲏ ﺧﻄﺔ ‪iv‬ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌـﺎﺭﻑ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﳕﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎﹰ‪ ، ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺼﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻـﻌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻌﲔ ﺍﻏﺘﻨﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺮﺯ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤـﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﻃﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴـﺔ ﻋﺎﳌﻴـﺔ ﻟﺘﺤـﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻏﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳـﺘﻌﲔ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﲝﻠﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .2015‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺧﺬ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﲟﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛـﺰ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺑﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻧﻔﺎﺫ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌـﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ؛‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺧـﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﻨﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣـﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻔـﻖ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺃﻛﻔﺄ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘـﺎﺣﻒ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﱪﻳـﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺷـﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ؛‬

‫ﺩﻋﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﰲ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛـﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴـﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ؛‬

‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ؛‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄـﺎﻉ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠـﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﲤـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲢﻮ‪‬ﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳـﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ؛‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣـﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋـﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ؛‬

‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻔﺰ ﺍﺳـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﶈﺘـﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﲤﻜﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﻧﻔﺎﺫ ﲨﻴـﻊ ﺳـﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋـﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺫﺍﻋﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻴﺴﲑ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﰲ ﺷـﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ؛‬

‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟـﻞ ﺣﻔـﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻛﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﲤﺘﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔـﺎﺫ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄـﲔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﲟـﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪122‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪136-121 .‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻄـﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴـﺔ ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﳕﻮﹰﺍ ﻭﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺼﻐﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺹ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻮﻗﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴـﺔ ﺍﳌﺘـﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﺩﻋﻢ ﲝﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨـﻬﻮﺽ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﳉﻨـﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﳒﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻮﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﻓـﲑﻭﺱ ﻧﻘـﺺ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻳﺪﺯ ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﻜـﺮ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻮﻡ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺻﻐﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰﻫﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﳍﺎ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟـﻤﻌﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻧﺘـﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺍﻵﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﳐﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺳـﻴﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺳﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﳎﺘﻤﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺭﺻﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺻـﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺭﺻﺪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﳕﻮﹰﺍ ﻭﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‬

‫ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺷﻲ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﺗﺎﺣـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔـﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑـﺎﺏ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟـﻮﻃﲏ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺒـﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄـﺎﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﻈـﻴﻢ ﺍﺳـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ )ﻛﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .7‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻨﻈـﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ ﻭﻧـﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻩ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻳﻌﺘﻤـﺪ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺗﻮﺻـﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻫـﺪ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺩﻋﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﻋـﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﻲ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (commerce‬ﻭ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻔﻴـﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟـﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴـﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﱪ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ"‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻭﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺭﺳــــﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺍﻋــــﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘــــﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳــــﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ "ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ" ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﺿﻌﻔﺎ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ vi‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻮﺫ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﳔـﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـﺖ ﻭﻛﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﻠﺤﺔ ﻳﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﲢﻜﻤﻪ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌـﻴﲏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭ ﻭﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﻧـﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺑـﲔ ﺃﺟﻬـﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﲔ ﰲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﻠـﻎ ﳓـﻮ ‪6‬ﺭ‪1‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺷﺨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﻛﺪﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺩﻭﻝ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﳕﻮﺍ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﳕﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫‪6‬ﺭ‪ 0‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻮﺫ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘـﺮﻭﱐ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪59‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ 22‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﻭ ‪ 13‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋـﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭ ‪ 6‬ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘـﺮﻭﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺴﻌﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺎﻳﺰﻱ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳـﺎﺱ ﻣﻨـﺼﻒ ﰲ ﲨﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻭﻧـﺴﺦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺯﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻲ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﲨﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺻﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲝـﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣـﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﻀﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ :1‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪" v‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺧﻠﻘﺘـﻬﺎ ﺛـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣــﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗــﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺑــﲔ ﺍﻟــﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣــﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺎﺱ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﲟﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ )ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ( ﻭ ﺗـﻮﺍﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻃــــــﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣــــــﺎﺕ ﺍﻟــــــﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﲢﻜﻢ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺣﻲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻧﻌﻜـﺲ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﰲ ﺗﻄـﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ـﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ـﺔ )‪ (E-commerce‬ﻭ ﺯﻳـ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺳﺲ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍـﺎ ﻋـﱪ ﺍﻟـﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ـﻮﻡ(‬ ‫ـﺪﻭﺕ ﻛــ‬ ‫ـﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟــ‬ ‫ـﻬﺎ ﺷــ‬ ‫ـﺔ)ﻭ ﻣﻨــ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴــ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺇﻃــﻼﻕ ﺍﳌﺒــﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳــﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳــﻠﻜﻴﺔ )‪M-‬‬

‫‪ : 2‬ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺧﻄﺮ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﻄﻨﺖ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻗﺮﺕ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪vii‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻋـﺪﻫﺎ ﳎﻠـﺲ ﺍﻟـﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺏ‬ ‫‪124‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪136-121 .‬‬

‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﻋﻤـﺎﻥ )ﻣـﺎﺭﺱ ‪،(2001‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻛﻜﻞ (‪،‬ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺪﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﻳﻌﺘﻤـﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻏﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﻠﻒ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺒﻠﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻭ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻗﺎﺑﻠـﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻔﻴـﺬ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴـﺔ ﻟﻼﺗـﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ‬‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ viii‬ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﺮﰊ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﺑﺮﺋﺎﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ (‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﻧﺲ ‪ 2005‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ )ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺪﻣـﺸﻖ ‪-12‬‬ ‫‪ ،2002/1/13‬ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺑﺘﻮﻧﺲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪-15‬‬ ‫‪ 2002/4/16‬ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺧـﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘـﺮﺓ‬ ‫‪ (2002/9/12-11‬ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﱪﺍﻳﺮ ‪ 2003‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺗﻠـﻚ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋـﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﳉﺎﻥ ﲢﻀﲑ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﺍﳉﻬـﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴـﺔ ﻟﻼﺗـﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ؛‬ ‫ﺇﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ؛‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﳉﺎﻥ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻬـﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌـﺪﱐ ﺍﳌﻌﻨـﻴﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ؛‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻀﻴﻖ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﲣﺬﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺗـﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﳎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺴﻮﻱ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘـﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﲟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﲟﺼﺮ‪ ،ix‬ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﻠـﺰﻡ ﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻧﻈﻢ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻹﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻـﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲞﻼﻑ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﻔﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺬﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺭﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‪ x‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻜﻮ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1978‬ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻛـﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺑﻨﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍ ﳉﻬﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﳎﻤﻮﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺒﺖ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳌـﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﳊﻜـﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺃﻓﺮﻳـﻞ‬ ‫‪ 1980‬ﲟﻘﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻜﻮ ﺑﺒﺎﺭﻳﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﲝﻀﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻒ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺎﺕ ﻏـﲑ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻔﻄﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻲ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠـﺔ ﺍﳋﺘﺎﻣﻴـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻐﺮﺍﰲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻮﻻﺕ ﰲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺃﻧﻈﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺳـﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺒﻠﻮﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ ﰲ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻭﺕ‬ ‫‪ ،2000‬ﻭ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 13‬ﺟﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫‪ 2000‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﲟﻮﺟﺒﻪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻣﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﻀﺎﺀ ﲞﻂ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﺼﺮ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﰐ ﻃﻤﻮﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻊ ﳏﺎﻭﺭ ﻟﺒﻨـﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘـﺮﻭﱐ ﻟﻠﺘـﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﳊـﻀﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻧـﺸﺊ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻜﺘﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﻣﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ ﻭﺧـﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟـﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻃﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻔﻴﺰﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﹰﺍ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺕ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣـﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﻣـﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤـﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳـﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠـﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﲑﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﱯ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟـﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺻـﻨﺎﻋﻪ ﻗﻮﻳـﻪ ﰲ ﻣـﺼﺮ ﻟﻼﺗـﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﻭﺗﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﻛﻜﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺳﻌﻴﻬﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺍﳌـﻨﻈﻢ ﻟﻠـﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﻹﻃـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻢ ﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳـﺔ ﻭﻗـﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﲪﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺻﻨﺔ ﻭﺟـﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﻴـﻮﺗﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻌﺘﱪ ﲝﻖ ﺭﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺕ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫"ﺍﺳﻜﻮﺍ"‪ xii‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻈﻤﺘﻪ ﰲ ‪6-4‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ ‪ 2003‬ﲢﻀﲑﺍ ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟـ‪ 13‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓـﻮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ‪‬ـﺪﻑ‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪:xi‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌـﲏ ﺗﻮﺻـﻴﻞ ﺧـﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳌـﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻣﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ـﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ ﳎﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻭﺭﻗﻲ ﻻ ﻧﻘﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﰒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻋـﱪ ﺷـﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ؛‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ؛‬

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‫______________________________________________________ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪136-121 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻛﻤﻮﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ‪ NTIC‬ﻭﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻀﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻛﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ "ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺃﺑـﻮ‬ ‫ﻇﱯ ﻟﻼﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲟﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺗﻘﻨﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ )ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ "ﻣﺪﻳﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﰊ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ"‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﻭﺍﺣﺔ ﺩﰊ ﻷﻧﺼـﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻗـﻞ"‪ ،‬ـﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪ NTIC‬ﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎ ﰲ ﳕـﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ‪ NTIC‬ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ 10‬ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،1997‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﺍﻹﻣـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﳐﺼﺺ‬ ‫ﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﻔﻮﺫﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﲣﺬ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ ‪،2002‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭ"ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﰊ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ"‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺤﺖ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ ‪ 2000‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﻛـﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺩﺍﺧـﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻀﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 450‬ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺻـﻨﺎﻋﺔ ‪ NTIC‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛـﺰ ﻓﻜـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠـﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣـﻞ ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻛﻤـﻮﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺭﺍﺋﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺩﰊ ﺑﺈﺩﺧـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲤﺘﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﲨﻴـﻊ ﺇﺟـﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﳋـﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺳـﺒﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻨﺠـﺎﺡ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍ‪‬ـﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻘﻨﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺳﻨﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺪﻑ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺁﻣﻨﺔ ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ ‪ ،1992‬ﺃﻗـﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ 3‬ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﻗـﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻠﺪﺍ ﺧﺎ ٍﻝ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴـﻊ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺻﻨﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟـﺸﺄﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺪﺭ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺩﰊ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺳـﻴﺐ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺩﰊ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪5‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،2001‬ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﻛﺄﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﲡﺮﻱ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﲢـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﻗـﺎﻧﻮﻥ "ﺍﳉﺮﳝـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ‪" Cybercrime‬ﲟﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳚﺮﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ "ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺳﻨﻐﺎﻓﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻗﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﳌﺎ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﺑـﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ﺟﻬﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺀ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠـﻪ ﻳـﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﻃــــــﺎﺭ ﻋــــــﺼﺮﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘــــــﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟـﺴﻨﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻲ ﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻛـﺪﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺳـﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ xiii‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮﺓ ﰲ ‪ 9‬ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻧـﺸﺎﻃﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻣﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳـﺔ ﻭ ﺣﻘـﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﳑﺎ ﺳﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴـﺔ ﺗﻌـﺰﺯ ﻗـﺪﺭﺓ ﺟـﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺟـﻨﱯ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷـﺮ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨﺖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﺍﻝ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺣـﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ .‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰎ‬ ‫ﲤﻜﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻋـﻦ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﱪ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮ ﰎ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﳐﻄﻂ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻳﺘـﻀﻤﻦ ﻋـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰎ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻔﻴـﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺮﻧﻴﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪ 3‬ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‪ .‬ﻭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﺪﻳﺮ ﳉﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﻣـﺼﺮ ﺃﺻـﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺧـﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴـﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ ﻋـﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﲤﺖ ﻣﻴﻜﻨـﺔ ﻣﻬـﺎﻡ ﻋـﺪﺩ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟـﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰎ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰎ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻣـﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﲣـﺬﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﳏﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﺿﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜـﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻵﱄ ﺍﳌﱰﱄ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻀﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻣـﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺒﺬﻝ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ ﺟﻬﻮﺩﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺟﻮﺍﻧـﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻗﺒـﺎﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻣﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﶈﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻃﺮﺣﺖ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ " ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ" – ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺮﻳﻦ ﻹﳒـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ‪ xiv‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺧـﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺳـﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺸﻬﺪ ﳕﻮﺍ ﺿـﺨﻤﺎ‬

‫ﲝﻠﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2008‬ﺇﺫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﳓﻮ ‪ 13.4‬ﻣﻠﻴـﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ 6.9‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﻲ ﺍﳍﺎﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ‪ 71‬ﻣﻠﻴـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﲝﻠﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2009‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ 27‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ‪‬ﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻮﺀ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻠﻎ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋـﻦ ‪ 6‬ﻣﻠﻴـﻮﻥ ﻣـﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‪ ، 2004‬ﻭ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﺮﻓـﺖ ﺳـﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﻋـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟـﻞ ﺗﻔﻌﻴـﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ)ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ‪(1‬‬ ‫‪ :3‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻌﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺇﻓﺮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻼﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻳﻮﱃ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗـﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺗﻮﱄ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻤـﺔ ﳌﻨـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﲡـﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﲔ ﻳﺄﺧـﺬﺍﻥ ﺑﻌـﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﳘﺎ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺛﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪.xv‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺛﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ)ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،(2‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫‪xvi‬‬ ‫ـﺔ ‪Money Matters‬‬ ‫ـﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴـ‬ ‫ـﺴﺔ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳـ‬ ‫‪Institute‬ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﻭ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1996‬ﻭ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﺭﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜـﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪.‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻏﻄﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ 70‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ) ‪ ( 9‬ﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.2003‬‬

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‫______________________________________________________ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪136-121 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺻﻴـﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫‪2004‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬ ‫‪1634‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪1540‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬

‫‪18‬‬

‫‪21‬‬

‫‪1574‬‬

‫‪1523‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫‪24‬‬

‫‪1464‬‬

‫‪1495‬‬

‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪29‬‬

‫‪27‬‬

‫‪1406‬‬

‫‪1443‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪33‬‬

‫‪29‬‬

‫‪1387‬‬

‫‪1435‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫‪1336‬‬

‫‪1348‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫‪1332‬‬

‫‪1344‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫‪48‬‬

‫‪52‬‬

‫‪1287‬‬

‫‪1282‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪52‬‬

‫‪48‬‬

‫‪1262‬‬

‫‪1297‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ :2‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺛﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪www.moneymattersintitute.org 2005 :‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳋﻠﻮﻳﺔ )ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ 1000‬ﻧﺴﻤﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﻭﺩﻭ ﺧﺪﻣـﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ـﺖ‬ ‫ـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـ‬ ‫ـﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺳـ‬ ‫ـﺴﻤﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻧـ‬ ‫ـﻞ ‪ 10000‬ﻧـ‬ ‫)ﻟﻜـ‬ ‫)ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ( ﻭ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺍﻹﻧﻔـﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﻜـﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ) ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪،‬ﻋﻮﳌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ (‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ( ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪)،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ (‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ ‪ 21‬ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍ ﺑﺈﲨﺎﱄ ‪63‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺤﺖ ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺇﱃ ‪ 100‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺻﻴﺪ ) ﺻﻔﺮ ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻮﺀ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺭﺻـﻴﺪ ) ‪ ( 100‬ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺗﻜـﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺻﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﲬﺲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮﻟﻨـﺪﺍ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻐﺎﻓﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ( ﺍﺧﺘﲑﺕ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﻘﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﻘﻘﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺰﺍ ﻣﻬﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﲣﺺ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ 1000‬ﻧـﺴﻤﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﻄــــــﻮﻁ ﺍﳍــــــﺎﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘــــــﺔ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧـﺮﻯ ﻳـﺼﺪﺭ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺘـﺪﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـــﺎﳌﻲ ‪World Economic Forum‬‬

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‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺏ "ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ " )ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ (3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﰲ ﳕﻮ ﻭ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴــــــــﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳــــــــﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﺭﻋﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻳـﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺗﻜـﺎﻣﻼ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺟﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴـﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـــــــــﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـــــــــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻏﻄﻰ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺳـﻨﺔ ‪( 104) 2004‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ )‪ (7‬ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ )‪ (102‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ )‬ ‫‪ ( 5‬ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.2003‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺻﻴـﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫‪2004‬‬ ‫‪23‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬ ‫‪0,84‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬

‫‪31‬‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫‪0,39‬‬

‫‪3,67‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫‪33‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0,37‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪54‬‬

‫‪64‬‬

‫‪0,10‬‬ ‫‪0,17-‬‬

‫‪3,53‬‬ ‫‪3,19‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬

‫‪57‬‬

‫‪65‬‬

‫‪0,24-‬‬

‫‪3,19‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬

‫‪80‬‬

‫‪87‬‬

‫‪0,66-‬‬

‫‪2,57‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪ :3‬ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪www.weforum.org2005 :‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻋﻴــﺔ ﺗــﺸﻤﻞ ﺑﻴﺌــﺔ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴــﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪)،‬ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮ ﺳـﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ ﺑـﺴﻨﺔ ‪2003‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟـﻮﺟﻲ(‬ ‫)ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺎ( ﺃﻣﺮ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺑﻠـﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﻻﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳑﺘﺎﺯﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﻟـﺔ ﻣﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠـﻲ ﻻﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﲤﻨﺢ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﲞﻄـﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻧﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ﺇﱃ ‪،7‬‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳـﻴﻌﻄﻲ ﲦـﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺄﺷﲑﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻼﻣﺢ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻹﻋـﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻭ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﳔﻔـﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﺻـﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺿـﻌﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﺳﻮﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﻟﻺﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺻﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﻴﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻫﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ)ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ‪ ،(2‬ﻭ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﲢﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﺕ ﺳﻨﻐﺎﻓﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻜـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫‪xviii‬‬ ‫ﲢﺼﻲ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ‪ 36‬ﻣﺆﺳـﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪Kompass‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﺴﻠﻨﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻠﻨﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﳕﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ ﻓﻬﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺇﻋﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ) ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻠﺘﻪ ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻏﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ (‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﱃ ﲣﻠﻔﻬـﺎ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ـﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﳜﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﲑ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻭ ﺣﱴ ﻋـﻦ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬ ‫‪ :1‬ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺆﻫﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮﻱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻌﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺣﱴ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﻣـﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪130‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪136-121 .‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺗﻔﻄﻨﺖ ﻟﻸﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺳﻴﺴﺎﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻧﻔـﺴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈـﺮﺍ ﻟﻠـﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺘﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧـﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺷﻄﺎﺏ ‪xix‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻭ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲡﺎﻫﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋـﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗـﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪) ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ " ‪Cyberparc Sidi‬‬ ‫‪ " Abdallah‬ﻛﻘﻄﺐ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟـﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺂﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻻ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺳﻮﻯ ‪ %1‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺗﻀﻴﻒ ﺷﻄﺎﺏ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺣـﺪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﺣﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﺣﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻮﻓﻖ ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻱ ﻭ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜـﺔ ﻟﻺﻋـﻼﻡ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺒﻴﺴﺔ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺃﺷـﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﲑ ﻛﺎﻑ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻓﻌـﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺧﻔﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﺣﻢ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻗﺐ ﻭﺧﻴﻤﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﺪﻕ ﻧﺎﻗﻮﺱ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋـﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺨﺬﻱ ﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﰲ ﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺗﻼ ﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫‪xx‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ "ﲪﻴﺪ ﺑﺼﺎﱀ"‬ ‫ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳــﺔ ﺣــﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺿــﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺤــﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤــﻲ‬

‫ـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ـﺄﻥ ﺍﺳـ‬ ‫ـﺎﺕ ﺑـ‬ ‫ـﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـ‬ ‫ـﺎﺀ ﳎﺘﻤـ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺇﺭﺳـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻳـﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺎ ﺿﺨﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﰲ ﺇﻃـﺎﺭ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣـﺒﲏ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺎ ﲝﻮﺍﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺅﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺟﺮﻱﺀ ﻭ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺿﻌﻒ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺑـﺪﺍﻉ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻱ ﻭ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻭ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻀﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﳚﻲ ‪‬ﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﺧـﲑﺍ ﰲ ﻣـﺴﺎﳘﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺿﻌﻔﺎ ﻧـﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺎﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻭﺿـﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳـﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﻬﻴـﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺭﺩﻳﺌﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫)ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺿﻴﺎﻉ ( ﻭ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻔﺎﺫ ﳏﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﰲ ﺻﺪﺩ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺗﺼﺮﳛﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻏﺴﺘﺎﱐ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ ﳉﺮﻳـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ‪ xxi‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺮﻯ " ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣـﺎ ﻫـﻲ ﺿـﻌﻒ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺛﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﺔ ﺻـﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺼﻐﲑﺓ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺘـﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿـﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜـﺎﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺫﻛﻴـﺔ ﻟـﺪﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺿـﻌﻒ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ ﺧـﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋـﻖ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻷﻱ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺭﻗﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳋﻠﻞ ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﻠﻔﺖ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻓﺸﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺮ ﺳﻮﺀﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﻏﺴﺘﺎﱐ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻭﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻳﻠﻮﻛﻬﺎ ﺑﻼ ﻣﺒـﺎﻻﺓ ﺇﻥ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﻐﺒﺎﺀ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﰲ ﺃﺭﻭﻗﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺨﻮﺹ ﺳﻴﺎﺳـﻴﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺼﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻘﻮﻡ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻟﻌـﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﻄـﻼﻕ ﻣـﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟـﺴﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻣـﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺘـﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭ‪-‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻹﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢـﺪﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺬ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻛﻮﺳـﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳚﺪﺭ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳋﺼﻢ ﻭ ﺑﻄﺎﻗـﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻤـﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ xxiii‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗـﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺼﻢ ‪ Carte de Debit‬ﻭ ﻳﺘﻤﺜـﻞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﺼﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳊـﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﻨﺎ؛‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻤﺎﻥ ‪ carte de Credit‬ﻭ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﺣﱴ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻣـﺪﻳﻨﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻗﺮﺿﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺗﻪ؛‬

‫‪:2‬ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭ ﻟﻨﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺗﺸﺎﺅﻣﺎ ﲡـﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﺳـﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻀﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـﺖ ﺃﺻـﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﻗﺒﺎﻻ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔـﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻮﺕ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﳏﺘﺸﻤﺎ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳍﺎﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻔﻪ ﺟﻌـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻗﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﺇﺣـﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳـﺪﺓ ‪ Le soir d’Algériexxii‬ﻓـﺎﻕ ﻋـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2005‬ﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﰐ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋـﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﻣﺆﻫﻼﺕ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﳚﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﳉﺪﻱ ﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺈﳊﺎﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳚﺪﺭ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻤـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻮﺓ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﻗﻠﻴﻠـﺔ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺁﺧﺬﺓ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﺳـــﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـــﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄـــﺎﻗﺘﲔ ﺍﻟـــﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻣﻌﺎﰿ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ)‪ (puce‬ﻳـﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻲ ﻻ ﺗـﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻌﺔ ﻛﺒﻄﺎﻗﱵ ﺍﳋﺼﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺘـﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﺠـﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻞ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﲢﻤﻞ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎ ﳌﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻧﻘﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺒـﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪132‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪136-121 .‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﺧﻠـﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻣـﺎﺭﺱ ‪ ،2005‬ﺗﺆﻛـﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫‪xxiv‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺃﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺻﻼﺡ ﺯﻳﻦ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨـﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻘﻠﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻵﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺇﻗﺒـﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﻀﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻷﺷـﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺻﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻕ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻄﻲﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ ﳕﻮ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻧﻘـﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺻـﻮﺭﺓ ﺷـﻴﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﲰﺤﺖ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻄﻠـﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻳﺪﺍﻋﺎ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺩﻡ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﻭ ﺣﱴ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻣـﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻭ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﲑﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﲤﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﰲ ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﺋـﻊ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳـﺔ ﺳـﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﻘـﺪﻱ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻋـﺎﻡ ﻟﻸﻓـﺮﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣـﻞ ﺑـﺎﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺄﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻃﺎﻟﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻣﺮﻥ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﻛﺪﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻧﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻـﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﳚـﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟـﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺘـﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺧﺼﺨﺼﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺨﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻋﱪ ﺍﻷﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﺼﺮﺍ ﺗﺴﻮﺩﻩ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺘـﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﺇﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓـﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟـﻞ ﺍﺑﺘﻜـﺎﺭ ﺃﺷـﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ ﻣـﺸﲑﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﻴﺪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻌـﻞ ﺗـﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﳏﺎﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌـﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐـﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺎﻣﺶ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺜﲑ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺘﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺑـﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺻﻨﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ ﻛـﺒﲑﺓ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺠـﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﺷﻮﻃﺎ ﻛـﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ ﻭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪xxv‬‬ ‫ﲤﺖ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪Global Internet Solution‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻧﻪ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟـﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘـﺮﻭﱐ ﻭﲨـﻊ‬ ‫‪133‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺼﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺻﻨﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪. %99‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﲤﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ )ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪،(4‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﺮﺻﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺢ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺻﻨﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ 2000‬ﻭ ‪ 2004‬ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺻﻨﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﰲ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻏﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺗـﺒﲏ ﺃﻧﻈﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪ SSL Epay‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺄﻧـﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺎﻧﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺻﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻠﱪﳎﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﳌﺨﺘﺼﲔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺻـﻨﺔ ﻳﺮﺍﻗﺒـﻮﻥ ﻳـﺪﻭﻳﺎ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ‬

‫‪2000‬‬

‫‪428‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫‪%2,34‬‬

‫‪2001‬‬

‫‪507‬‬

‫‪29‬‬

‫‪%5,72‬‬

‫‪2002‬‬

‫‪4881‬‬

‫‪660‬‬

‫‪%13,52‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪2003‬‬

‫‪3248‬‬

‫‪255‬‬

‫‪%7,85‬‬

‫‪2003‬‬

‫‪17754‬‬

‫‪1637‬‬

‫‪%9,22‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪2004‬‬

‫‪21845‬‬

‫‪2136‬‬

‫‪%9,78‬‬

‫‪2004‬‬

‫‪44279‬‬

‫‪3325‬‬

‫‪%%7,51‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪ : 4‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻻ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷـﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﺧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐـﺶ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳـﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺩﻉ ﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻼﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺁﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺐ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1997‬ﻭ ﺭﻏـﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﱂ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺎ ﻣﻠﻮﻣﺴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﲑﺍﻧﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤـﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ‪ xxvi‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺠﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺗـﻮﻧﺲ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳـﺔ ﺟـﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫‪ 2004‬ﻳﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻣﺜﻴﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺏ‪ 15‬ﻣﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻗﻔﺰﺓ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺑﻄﺊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﺮﻉ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪2005‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﻭﺻﻞ ‪xxvii‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺣﺎﻣﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ‪ ،9800‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺁﻣﻨـﺔ ﻭﻓﻘـﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻌـﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ‪EMV‬‬ ‫‪ (europay mastercard visa)xxviii‬ﲤﻜـﻦ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺴﺤﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳـﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗـﺖ ﻋـﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ (DAB‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺴﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺰﻭﺩﺓ ﲜﻬـﺎﺯ ﺍﻟـﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘـﺮﻭﱐ‬ ‫)‪ ،(TPE‬ﻭ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺯﻭﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ 400‬ﳏﻞ ﲡﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺮﻣﺞ ﻟﺮﻓـﻊ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺇﱃ ‪ 1500‬ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪.2005‬‬ ‫‪134‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪136-121 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻥ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺍﻛﺒﺖ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻞ ﻭ ﺣـﱴ ﻟﺘـﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﺠـﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﲞﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﻔﺮﺯﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﶈـﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻭﻋﻴﻬـﺎ ﺑـﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ "ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ" ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻌـﺎﱐ ﺿـﻌﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﳓﻮ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺀ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﳘﺎ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺛﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺆﺷـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻥ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺖ ﺍﻥ ﲣﻄﻮ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻻﺑﺄﺱ ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺑﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟـﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳔﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﺍ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﻭﲡﺎﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﱄ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪،‬ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻤﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿــﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭ_ﻣﺘﻮﺳــﻄﻲ‪ xxix‬ﺍﻟــﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﺒﻨــﺎﻩ‬

‫‪ xxxEumedis‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺟﺪﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﺓ ﻭ ﺟﺪ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﻠﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘـﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ_ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻳـﻮﻡ ‪ 10‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳـﻞ‬ ‫‪ 2005‬ﰎ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺗﻮﺻـﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣـﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻛﺸﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻨﺴﻖ ﻟﻠﻤـﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪Emispher (euro-méditerranean‬‬ ‫‪Information Satellite Platform For‬‬ ‫)‪Health, Education and Reseach‬‬ ‫‪Emphis‬‬ ‫‪(Euro-Mediterranean‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪Public Health Information System).‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﺟﺪ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﲡـﺴﻴﺪ ﳎﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ـﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴ ـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺇﻃـ‬ ‫ـﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـ‬ ‫ﻭ ﰲ ﳎـ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺎﺷﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺣﻴـﺰﺍ ﻛـﺒﲑﺍ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ xxxi‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻗـﻊ ﳎﻠـﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﱁ ‪ ...‬ﻭ ﻟﻺﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﻓﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ –‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ‪ (e-gouvernement) -‬ﳛﻤـﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴـﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﺍ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳـﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑـﺪﻳﻼ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺒﻐﺘﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺌﻨﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺃﺑﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻄﻨﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺘﺘﻔﻄﻦ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﻓـﻮﺍﺕ‬

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_______________________________________________________________ 2007/5 ‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ‬

: ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

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‫ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﺴﻤﺎﺩﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﱄ ﺑﺘﻮﻧﺲ " ﺩﺭ ﺍ ﺳﺔ ﺣ ﻮﻝ ﳎﺘﻤ ﻊ ﺍ ﳌﻌ ﻠ ﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌ ﻨ ﻄﻘﺔ ﺍ ﻟ ﻌﺮ ﺑ ﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤ ﻮﺫﺝ‬:‫ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻣﺼﻤﻮﺩﻯ‬i 2003 ‫ﺍ ﻟ ﺘ ﻮ ﻧﺴ ﻲ " ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻜﻮ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ‬ www.itu.int www.itu.int/wsis ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﲤﺮ‬iii 2003 ‫ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ‬wsis-03/geneva/doc/5-a ‫ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ "ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ" ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬iv 2000 ‫ "ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ" ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﻮﺍﻥ‬v

2004-08-09 ‫ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ‬11378 ‫( ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬www.alyaum.com.sa) ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬

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2002 ‫ ﺭﺃﻓـﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻏﻨﻴﻢ "ﺩﻭﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ" ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ‬.‫ ﺩ‬vii ‫ ﺭﺃﻓﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬.‫ ﺩ‬viii www.alkhaleej.ae 2005 ‫ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ‬11 ‫ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ‬ix ‫ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻣﺼﻤﻮﺩﻯ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‬x www. ahram.org.eg 2004/07/18 17 ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ "ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ" ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻫﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬xi www.escwa.org.lb/arabic/information/press/escwa/2003/dec/12.html 2003 ‫ ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ‬12 ‫ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺳﻜﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﺔ‬xii ‫" ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‬2004 ‫ "ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬xiii ‫" ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬2004 ‫ "ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬xiv 2005 ‫ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬xv xvi www.Moneymattersinstitute.org xvii (Davos Forum) www.weforum.org xviii ‫ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬Kompass www.kompass.com xix Dr. Nadia Chettab « économie, tic et bonne gouvernance en Algérie » disponible sur www.dst.cerist.dz/seminaires/communications xx Hamid Bessalah « apport de la recherche scientifique nationale dans l’avènement de la société d’information et la création de l’économie du savoir » centre de développement des technologies avancées décembre 2002 disponible sur www.postelecom.dz. xxi ‫ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬113292003 ‫ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‬5 ‫ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ‬www.al-jazirah.com xxii “marche du téléphone portable en algérie le grand bazar” quotidien « le soir d’Algérie » version éléctronique Lundi 11 Avril 2005 www.lesoirdalgerie.com xxiii David Bounie – Sébastien Soriano « La monnaie électronique Principes, fonctionnement et organisation » LCN, volume 4, n° 1-2003, pages 71 à 92 Disponible sur egsh.enst.fr/bounie/documents/ Recherche xxiv

) ‫ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬www.alyaum.com.sa( ‫ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ‬10937 ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬2004-05-26

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« paiement sécurisé Ssl Epay Security » Publication réalisée sous la direction de Mr Olivier RIMMEL pour le compte de Global Internet Solutions. 7 Février 2005 disponible sur le site www.epaysecurity.com/ xxvi Carte bancaire : L’Algérie à la traîne www.algerie-dz.com/ xxvii journal Elwatan Edition du 16 juillet 2005 www.elwatan.com/ xxviii Groupement des cartes bancaires www.cartes-bancaires.com/fr/dossiers/emv.html xxix « Hôpital virtuel euro-méditerranéen L’Algérie partenaire- coordinateur » journal Horizons Lundi 11 Avril 2005 www.horizons-dz.com xxx www.eumedis.net xxxi Ministère des finances « Symposium international sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication et la société de l’information » Alger 9,10 ,11/12/02

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‫______________________________________________________ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪145-137 .‬‬

‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺒﻭﺤﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﻭﻱ ‪ -‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺺ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ )ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺭﺓ ‪ (Reengineering‬ﻛﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﻃﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪ -‬ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺅﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬

‫ﺑﺪﺕ ﻭﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺒﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﺧﺎ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﲡﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﳚﻴﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ii‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪" :‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﳉﺬﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺪﻑ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫‪iii‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﻗﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﻭﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫"ﻵﺩﻡ ﲰﻴﺚ‪ "Adam Smith‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳍﺎ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪iv‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻧﺒﻴﺬﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺯﺟﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﳝﺔ" ‪Reengineering is not reorganizing‬‬ ‫‪v‬‬ ‫‪."it is not new wine in old bottles‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺟﺬﺭﻱ ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻃﻔﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪vi‬‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻖ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻗﻔﺰﺓ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﲤﻜﻨﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺭﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻋﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺳﻌﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﻔﻲ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ(‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺣﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻔﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳉﺬﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫‪i‬‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺅﻫﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1.1‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ ﺳﻴﺸﻬﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺗﻼﻣﺲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫‪137‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺟﺬﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺟﺊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪ ،vii‬ﻭﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻋﺎﺟﺰﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﺭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ" ﻟـ"‪ " Hammer, M & Champy, J‬ﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺎ ﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻹ‪‬ﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )‪ (M.Hammer‬ﻫﺰﺓ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫)‪ (Reengineering The Corporation‬ﺃﺣﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ)‬ ‫‪ (M.Hammer‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﲣﺼﺼﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ‪The Reeingineering‬‬ ‫‪.Revolution‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ‪Beyond‬‬ ‫‪.Reengineering‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺪﺓ ‪ ،The Agenda‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺆﻟﻒ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺳﺲ )‪ ( M.Hammer‬ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺎﺅﻩ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪« We are a management education and‬‬ ‫‪research firm that focuses on cutting‬‬ ‫‪adges‬‬ ‫‪issues‬‬ ‫‪in‬‬ ‫‪operations,‬‬

‫‪organizations,‬‬ ‫‪and‬‬ ‫‪technology‬‬ ‫‪utilization ».‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻗﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫"‪ "Hammer‬ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺟﻮﺍﻥ) ‪20-21‬‬ ‫‪ (June 2006‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪The Power of ":‬‬ ‫‪ "Technology, Enabled Precess‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ ) ‪The Royale Somesta‬‬ ‫‪ (Hotel Cambridge‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Hamme and co‬ﺟﻬﻮﻩ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺜﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫‪viii‬‬ ‫"‪."The engineering by Training‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺗﺼﺪﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻇﻔﻮﻧﻪ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﱯ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪ix‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﲏ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2.1‬ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﶈﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‪.‬‬‫ ﴰﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ(‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ‪.‬‬‫ ﺣﺸﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﱪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻗﺔ‬‫‪x‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﺘﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬

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‫ﺩﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﰲ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪145-137 .‬‬

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‫ﺗﺆﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻳﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻭﺗﻴﲏ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻌﺐ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫•‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺗﺴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬

‫•‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺮﻕ‬

‫ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1.2‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺳـﻮﻑ ﺗﻐـﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌـﲏ ﺑﺎﻟـﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠـﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳـﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠـﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻓﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﺭﺑﲔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳍﻴﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺮﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﻐﲑﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺎﻓﻈﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﻋﻤﺎ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﻪ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲣﻔﻴﻀﻬﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ " ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ " ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ) ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺛﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐـﻴﲑ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟـﻮﺟﻲ ﻣﻌـﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳـﺔ ﺳـﻠﻄﺔ ﺃﻛـﱪ ﰲ ﺍﲣـﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟـﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺳـﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤـﺔ ﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺤﻪ )ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪(01‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ % 70‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻴﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﲰﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺳﻴﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﳚـﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗـﺼﻞ ﻟﻸﻓـﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫‪xiii‬‬ ‫ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳـﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻛﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲤﺖ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳـﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒـﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻛﻌﻨـﺼﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫)ﺍﺭﺗﻴﺎﺩﻱ( ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳـﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﱯ ﻳـﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻭﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﱯ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫـﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺼﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﺟـﻪ ﻟﻠـﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1994‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪.1‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻧﻔﺎﻗﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺇﻛﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫‪.3‬‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺙ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﳏﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫‪.4‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫‪xv‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2.2‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ‪:‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻧﺘﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﺗﺎﺣﺘﻪ ﻭﲤﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋـﱪ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﲣﺎﺫﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳـﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﲑﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‪.‬‬‫ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪xvi‬‬ ‫ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻭﳘـﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻔـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻊ ﲢـﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻠﻪ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ ﺍﻟﺒـﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪xvii‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﻧﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻤﻲ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻴﻂ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬـﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪ 50.6‬ﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻲ ﳌﻮﻇﻔﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ – ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ % 72‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 9.9‬ﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ % 3.2‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺑﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﻞ ‪ 150‬ﻣﻮﻇﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪ ،xiv‬ﻧﻮﺟﺰ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(02‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

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‫______________________________________________________ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪145-137 .‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﺘـﺎﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﺪﺧﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺗﻄـﻮﻳﺮ ﺟﺬﺭﻳـﺔ ﻹﻧﺘـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻛﻔﻮﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺳﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ ﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳉﺄﺕ ﻛﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﱯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺗﻄـﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﲤﺲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﲝﺜﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﻼﺏ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻭﻣﺆﻃﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﱯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻠﺼﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺮ ﲞﻤﺴﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪ :1‬ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪ :2‬ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪ :3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪ :4‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪xviii‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪ :5‬ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪:‬‬

‫* ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺟﺪﻭﻯ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫‪xix‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ‪:‬‬

‫* ﻗﺴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳـﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ( ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ )ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﲟـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ )ﻗـﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ( ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑـ‪:‬‬ ‫* ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺭﺑﲔ ﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳉﺬﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺇﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﻭﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ )ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ( ﺍﳌـﺮﺗﺒﻄﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣـﻊ ﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬـﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﲞﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫* ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺄﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳉـﺬﺭﻱ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌـﺮﺽ ﳍـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫* ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻸﺟﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫* ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺷـﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـﺖ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﺍﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﺷـﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪xx‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻣﻠﺤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺻـﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺐﺀ ﺍﳌﻠﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗـﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃـﺮﻕ ﻭﺃﺳـﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺩﻋﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ ﻓﻴـﺪﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﲟـﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﳌـﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪xxi‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻭﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ /1‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﱯ(‪ :‬ﻭﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺭﻭﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ /2‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐـﻴﲑ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ )ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴـﺎ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ( ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻛﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ )ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ( ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓـﺴﺔ ﻣـﺘﻐﲑﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺅﻭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﺣـﺴﺐ ﻓﺌـﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﲣﺼـﺼﺎ‪‬ﻢ‬‫)ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻴﺔ( ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺼﻤﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟـﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴـﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻻﺳـﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﺠﻢ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﳜـﺪﻡ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒـﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﳛﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺑﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻬـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺭﺑﲔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺏ ﻣﻠﻤﺎ ﺇﳌﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻗـﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻵﱄ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌـﺪﺭﺏ ﰲ ﻇـﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺳﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺗﺘﻄﻠـﺐ ﻣﻬـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺭﺑﲔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﳎﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ـﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳـﺘﻢ ﻫﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﲟﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻞ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﻮﱘ ﺫﺍ‪‬ـﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﻈﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴـﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻇـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪،‬‬‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ )ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ(ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺪﺭﺑﻮﻥ‬‫ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪.‬‬‫ ﺭﺑﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‪.‬‬‫ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ‪.‬‬‫‪ .5‬ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﱯ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﱪﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺑﻄـﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺳﻔﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ؟ ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴـﺰ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ؟‬ ‫‪142‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪145-137 .‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﻲ ﳉﻴـﻞ ﺍﻟـﺸﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺷـﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺘـﺎﺝ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻌﻲ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺪﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﱪﺭﺍ ﲢﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻃﺆ ﻳﻌـﺪ ﺃﻣـﺮﺍ‬ ‫‪xxiii‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬‫ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ؟‬ ‫ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄـﺔ‬‫‪xxii‬‬ ‫؟‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻳـﺸﻤﻠﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﻣﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻣﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺒﺎ ٍﻥ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﻄـﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻵﻟﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤـﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ )ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺝ( ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻫـﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﻟﻜـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﶈﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻣـﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﺎ ﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﳊﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﰲ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺃﲦﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ﻻ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﻪ ﻷﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ‪xxiv‬ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺬﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺣﻖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ :(01‬ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪Reengineering‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺹ‬ ‫‪Downsizing‬‬

‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪Restructuring‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﺽ ﻤﺤل‬

‫ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀ‬

‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ‪TQM‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺠﺫﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‪ :‬ﺠﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﺭ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.70‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ :(02‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ 100‬ﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ 44‬ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬

‫ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺩ‬

‫‪75‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬ ‫‪9‬‬

‫‪85‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫‪75‬‬

‫ﺤل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬

‫‪21‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫‪65‬‬

‫ﺇﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫‪33‬‬

‫‪64‬‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪32‬‬

‫‪62‬‬

‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪37‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻲ‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪24‬‬

‫‪48‬‬

‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪Source : Randall .S Schuler & Susan E. Jackson ,Human Resource Management: Positioning for the 21 st Century.‬‬ ‫‪N.Y, West Publishing Company, 1996, p301.‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪144‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪28‬‬


‫______________________________________________________ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪145-137 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﻴﺶ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -i‬ﺭﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،2000 ،‬ﺹ ‪.29‬‬ ‫‪ -ii‬ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ ﳏﺠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻨـﺸﻮﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،2003 ،‬ﺹ ‪.149‬‬ ‫‪ -iii‬ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،2003 ،‬ﺹ ‪.69‬‬ ‫‪ -iv‬ﺳﻴﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺟﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ‪ »،‬ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟـﺴﻮﻳﺲ«‪ ،‬ﳎﻠـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪ ‪ ،6‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺃﺳﻴﻮﻁ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺴﻮﻫﺎﺝ‪ ،1992 ،‬ﺹ ‪.459‬‬

‫‪ -v‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺰﺍﺩﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪- Joel.E.Ross, Total Quality Management: Text, Cases, and Reading. London: Kogan page‬‬ ‫‪limited, 1994, p 316-317.‬‬ ‫‪ -vi‬ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.149‬‬ ‫‪ -vii‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.150‬‬ ‫‪ -viii‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ " ﻣﻴﻜﺎﺋﻴﻞ ﻫﺎﻣﺮ ‪ "M. Hammer‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﺐ‬

‫‪ ،http://www.hammerandco.com‬ﻭﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )‪ (Agenda‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺆﻟﻒ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻟـ "‪ "M. Hammer‬ﰲ ‪: 2005‬‬ ‫‪.http://www.hammerandco.com/publication-agenda.asp‬‬ ‫‪ -ix‬ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.150‬‬ ‫‪ -x‬ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.69‬‬

‫‪ -xi‬ﺳﻴﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺟﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.460‬‬ ‫‪ -xii‬ﺭﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.27‬‬ ‫‪ -xiii‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.30-29‬‬

‫‪ -xiv‬ﺳﻴﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺟﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.365‬‬ ‫‪ -xv‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.469‬‬

‫‪ -xvi‬ﻋﺪﻧﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﲢﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﻁ‪ ،1‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ‪ ،2000‬ﺹ‬ ‫‪.145‬‬

‫‪ -xvii‬ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.150‬‬ ‫‪ -xviii‬ﺳﻴﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺟﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.482‬‬ ‫‪ -xix‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.495 -484‬‬ ‫‪ -xx‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.486‬‬

‫‪ -xxi‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.489-487‬‬

‫‪ -xxii‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.495-490‬‬

‫‪ -xxiii‬ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ ﳏﺠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.151‬‬ ‫‪ -xxiv‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪- Michael Hammer et James Champy, Le Reengineering. Trad de l’anéricain par: Michel le Seac,‬‬ ‫‪Paris: Dunod, 1993, 247 Pages.‬‬ ‫‪- John Whiting, «Reengineering The Corporation: A Historical Perspective and Critique». Industriel Management.‬‬ ‫‪Vol°= 36, N°= 6, 1994, p 14-16.‬‬

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‫________________________________________________ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪158-147 .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻡ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯل ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﻭﻱ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺩﺣﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﺪﺓ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬

‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻘﻴﻤﻪ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﳏﺘﻠﺔ ﻟﻸﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻙ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻼﺀ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺣﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﲔ ﻭﺇﺣـﻼﻝ ﳏﻠـﻬﻢ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﲔ ﻏﺮﺑـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺣﺼﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻠـﺴﻄﻴﲏ ﻣـﻦ ﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ ﻛﻔﺎﺣـﻪ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳـﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﲑﻩ‪.‬ﻭﺇﺩﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ – ﺣﻖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﺣﱴ ﲤﻨﻊ ﺍﶈﻜﻤـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪[2].‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻨﺤﺖ ﻓﻠـﺴﻄﲔ ﺻـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﺟﻠﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺑﺈﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻻ ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺳﺆﺍﻻ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻟـﺼﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ ﺣـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﻔﻴﻈﺔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﻘـﺪﱘ ﻣـﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻓﻌﺎﺕ ﺷﻔﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗـﺴﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻲ‪[3].‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳐﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 96‬ﻑ‪ 1‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﱄ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺳـﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺩﻻﺋﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺑـﲔ ﻧـﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪،1966‬‬

‫ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺭﺃﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺣـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﻥ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺳﻠﻄﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ﺗﻘـﺮﺭ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 96‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌـﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 65‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺳـﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻛـﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ ﲟـﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ ﻭﺣﻮﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺟﻨﻴـﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌـﺔ ﻟﻠﻌـﺎﻡ ‪1949‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻟﲔ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻘﲔ ‪‬ﺎ ‪1977‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﳎﻠـﺲ ﺍﻷﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ؟]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ‪19‬ﺩﻳـﺴﻤﱪ ‪ 2003‬ﻗـﺮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺣـﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ‪ 66‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻜـﻞ ﺟﻮﺍﻧـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺭﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ﺃﺗﺎﺣـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗـﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍ ًﺀ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ‪.‬ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻨﻌﺖ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺍﳉﻠﺴﺎﺕ ‪.‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻣﺎﺭﺳﺖ ﺿﻐﻮﻃﺎ ﻗﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫‪147‬‬


‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﳌـﺴﻮﻏﺎﺕ ﻟﻄﻠـﺐ ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ]‪ [5‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻭﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻬﻞ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫؟ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ؟ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺣـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺃﻡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ؟ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ؟ﻭﻫﻞ ﳛﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﳛـﻖ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟـﻞ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫؟ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﳛﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲤﺘﻨﻊ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﺑﺪﺍﺀﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ؟ﻭﺿﻮﻉ ﲢﺖ ﺃﻱ ﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ؟ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ؟ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ؟‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺳﻨﻨﺎﻗﺸﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺃﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 96‬ﻓﻘﺮﺓ ‪ 1‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ 65‬ﻓﻘﺮﺓ ‪ 1‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﳒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﲢـﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﲝﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺅﻱ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻣـﺎ ﻗـﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﲔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺪﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﻫﻼ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻘـﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺟـﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻟﺴﺒﺒﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﳉـﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺘﻔﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﳏﺘﻤﻠﲔ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﻛﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻭﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺭﺅﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗـﺮﻓﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻋـﺪﺓ ﻳﺘﻌﻠـﻖ ﺑﻌـﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻼﺀﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﻓﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿـﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜـﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻣﺎﺱ ﺑﲑﺟﻨﺘﺎﻝ ﻳﻬﻮﺩﻱ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻤـﻞ ﺑﱰﺍﻫـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺩ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﻗﺎﺿﻴﺎ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌـﺪﱐ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﻤـﻞ ﺑﺘﺠـﺮﺩ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺭ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺭﺃﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﻻ ﻳﺜﲑ ﻗـﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌـﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺗﱪﺭ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺳـﺒﺒﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﲏ ﻭﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﺳـﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﺭﻫـﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠـﺴﻄﻴﲏ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺩﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫ﻋﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﻃﺎﺭﺋﺔ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻀﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨـﻬﻚ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ‪،‬ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴـﺬ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺸﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﲔ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻣﻌﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺩﻋﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﳓﻴﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ ‪[4].‬‬ ‫– ﺗﺮﻯ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺣـﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭﻩ ﻳﺘﺴﻖ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﳌـﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 12‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺮﺓ" ‪"1‬ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺜـﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻳﺘﺴﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻴﺜـﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻯ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﳝﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻠـﺐ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،.‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺠﺰ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﻮ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﻄـﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﺟﺪﻱ ﻟﻠﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﲔ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﻋـﺪﻭﺍﱐ ‪،‬‬

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‫________________________________________________ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪158-147 .‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﻟﻴﺠﻮﺯ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻈﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ]‪[6‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﻭﺣﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺯﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺆﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﻭﺩﳝﻮﻣﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﺍﺩﻋﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻧﻀﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﲏ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺑـﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﲡﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠـﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻮﺯ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﲪﺎﺱ ﺑﺄﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﺣﻘﺔ ﻭﲤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﲏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘـﺪﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﲏ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﻼﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﻭﺗـﺸﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﺈﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭ ﻳـﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﲟﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﻭﺿـﻌﻴﺔ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉـﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﻳﻨﺘـﻬﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻃﺮﻭﺣﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻓﲑﻯ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻫﺠﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﻭﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﻀﺮﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻨـﻊ ﻭﻗـﻮﻉ ﻋـﺪﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻃﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺠﺠﻪ ﻭﺃﻃﺮﻭﺣﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘـﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺍﺿـﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ % 92‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒـﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﲏ ﺳﻮﻯ ‪ %8‬ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺰﺭ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺻﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺣـﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘـﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣـﲏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺑـﺸﺎﻥ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﻳـﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﰒ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺭﺃﻳﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻨﺪﺋـﺬ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺸﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺭﺅﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻃـﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻏﻤﻮﺿﻪ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻻ ﳛﺪﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺁﺧـﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺃﻡ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ ‪[7].‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﻮﳝﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻡ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺇﺧﻼﻻ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﳏـﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﺗﻌﻄـﻲ ﺭﺃﻳـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤـﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠـﺴﺆﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ *]‪ [8‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻷﺣﻜـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 38‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﲤﺖ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋـﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤـﺔ ﻳﻌﺘـﱪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﻭﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ ﺃﳘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﳎﻠـﺲ ﺍﻷﻣـﻦ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺭﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻓـﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺭﺟﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﺧﺮﻗـﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺩﻭﱄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 38‬ﺃﺿﺎﻓﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻗﺮﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻷﻥ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﶈﻜﻤـﺔ ﺇﻋـﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﺛـﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻮﻙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻼﻗﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪[10].‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻧـﺰﺍﻉ ﻗـﺎﻧﻮﱐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﱴ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺆﻫﻠﺔ ﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﱰﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻻ ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﳌـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ 36‬ﻛﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﺑـﺎﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻛﻞ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 33‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻣﱴ ﻧﻘﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻗـﺎﻧﻮﱐ؟ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﲨـﻊ ﺍﻟـﱰﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ؟ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ؟ ]‪[9‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻲ‬

‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﻟﻮﺗﺮﺑﺎﺧﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻗـﺎﻧﻮﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘـﺪ ﺣـﺪﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻻﻫـﺎﻱ ‪ 1907 -1899‬ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻋـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻗﺸﻲ ﰲ ﲝﻮﺛـﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﻤﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﺿـﺎﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌـﺸﻬﻮﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳏﺎﻛﻤﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺿﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﳍﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌـﺔ ﺍﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻧﻈـﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻤـﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳـﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﻣﻮﺭﺟﺎﻧﺜﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻧﺰﺍﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻛﻴﻠﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻮﺿـﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﺫﺍ ﲤـﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻳﻌﺘـﱪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲤﺖ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻖ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1/65‬ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﱵ ﰲ ﺃﻳـﺔ ﻣـﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺭﺧﺺ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺼﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻃﺒﻘـﺎ ﻷﺣﻜـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻘﻴﺪ ﺇﺫﻥ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻡ ‪ 96‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻡ ‪ 1/65‬ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳐﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ ﻹﺻـﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﻻ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻥ ﲤﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟـﺮﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫‪150‬‬


‫________________________________________________ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪158-147 .‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﶈﻜﻤـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗـﺮﻓﺾ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﱄ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻗـﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠـﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ‪[12].‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲤﺘﻨﻊ ﻋـﻦ ﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﺮ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻼﺋﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 65‬ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺭﺃﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﺘـﺸﺎﺭ‪‬ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﲣﻮﳍـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﺣﱴ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻠﺒﻴـﺔ ﺷـﺮﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻀﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ‪[13].‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈـﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﻧـﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻗﻬﺮﻳـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘـﺮﺙ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔـﻲ ﻗـﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍ‪‬ـﺮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳏﻔﺰﺍ ﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺇﻥ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘـﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺢ ﳍﺎ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪[11].‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﳔﻠﺺ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻔﺮﻉ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻗـﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺸﻌﺐ ﺳﻠﺐ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺣﻖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﲑ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣـﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺫﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻃﺮﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﺑـﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻗـﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﹰﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻻ ﺗﺘﻘﺎﻋﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘـﺸﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗـﺮﻓﺾ ﻳـﺒﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺾ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻔﻲ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﻭﺍﺟـﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻓـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻃﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻄﺎﻟـﺐ ﺑﺈﻋﻄـﺎﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻣـﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﲤـﺎﺭﺱ ﺻـﻼﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺷﺎﺋﻜﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻓﻀﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﶈﻜﻤـﺔ ﺻـﻼﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲤﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﺳـﻴﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﳛﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺳـﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻻﺗﻌﺘـﺮﻑ ﲟﻨﻈﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻌﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﳚـﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻘـﻰ ﻭﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺷﻜﻮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻨﺎﰱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻭﻳﻨﺘـﻬﻚ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﺜﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﺕ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ ﻭﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻢ ﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺗﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﳛﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻭﰲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛـﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺷﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔـﻲ‬ ‫ﳊﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﺆﺍﻻ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻭﺣﺮﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﳐﻮﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪،‬‬

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‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ – ﻋﺪﺩ ‪_______________________________________________________________________________ 2007/5‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺽ ﻓﻼﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻣﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻠﺤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻲ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﺑﺘﻌﻬﺪﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻬـﺎ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 1948‬ﻭ ﺃﻭﳍﺎ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﺟﺌﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻜﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺜﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﰲ ﺇﺧﺘـﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺇﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 1950‬ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺇﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﳜﺘﻠـﻒ ﰲ ﻣـﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠـﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺎ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﻴﺲ ﻟـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﻟـﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺮﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻪ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﲣﻔـﻒ ﺍﻟﺘـﻮﺗﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺃﺩﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺗﺪﻱ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺆﺳﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻛﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻲ]‪[14‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻗﻮﺗﻪ ﺍﻻﻟﺰﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻻﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﺑـﻞ ﻣـﻦ ﺇﺗﻔـﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺘﲔ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺂﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺗﺖ ﻣﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺄﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻀﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺃﻡ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗـﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﲤﻨﻊ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺇﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﺎ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﺼﺮﻩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﲣﺎﺫﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻄـﻲ ﻟﻠـﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻮﻟﺔ ﻃﻠﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔـﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤـﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺭﻓﻀﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ]‪.[15‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﱂ ﺗـﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺇﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺗﻔﺤـﺼﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺳـﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﻋﱪﺗﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺭﺍﺋﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺣﻜﻤﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻬـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻣـﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗـﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﳌﻦ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪[16] 276‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺎ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺎ‬

‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﳚﺐ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﳏﻂ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮ ﻟﻸﻣـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﻨﺒﻊ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﳌـﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺪﺍﺏ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻔﻠﺴﻄﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺣﱴ ﲢﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺗﻌﺘﱪﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﲢﻮﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ‪[17].‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻔﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺇﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﺟﺞ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﳌـﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﺍﻟـﺮﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺷـﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉـﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﲢﺪﻳـﺪﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﺽ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺑﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫‪152‬‬


‫________________________________________________ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺯﻝ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺹ‪.‬ﺹ‪158-147 .‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺯﻋـﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺮﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺧﺮﻳﻄـﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳـﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲤﺎﺭﺱ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻭﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻣﻄﺮﻭﺡ ﻭﻋ