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Special Report

What is democracy? Russians don’t know

W U.S-Russia space Will cooperation survive?

New survey reveals surprising attitudes

Geopolitical tensions take their toll on joint projects

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Politics & Society

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NEWS IN BRIEF

Society As restrictions remain in place, a survey shows uncertainty about the goals of the bans

Putin Says Russia Will Stay the Course as Inflation Rises

Purpose of Sanctions Unclear to Many Russians

Although a recent World Bank forecast predicted that Russia would not go into recession in 2014, the country is already facing inflation of 7.6 percent and the Russian ruble has fallen dramatically against the U.S. dollar and the euro. Nevertheless, speaking at an investment forum in Moscow on Oct. 2, President Vladimir Putin said that Russia did not intend to deviate from previously stated budget plans nor were there any plans to introduce capital outflow restrictions.

Russian-Owned Restaurant Gets Michelin Star For the first time in its 114-year history, Michelin has awarded a star to a Russian-owned restaurant. Midtown Manhattan restaurant Betony, owned by Moscow restauranteur Andrei Dellos, has received a star in the 2015 Michelin guide. Dellos originally used the space for a New York branch of Moscow eatery Cafe Pushkin, which served high-end Russian food, but it failed to attract New Yorkers and closed less than a year after opening. Betony, which serves new American cuisine, has proved much more appealing. One reason Betony is the first Russian-owned restaurant to receive a Michelin star is that the firm does not inspect restaurants in Russia.

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At a meeting on Sept. 30, the Committee of Permanent Representatives of the European Union declined to make any changes in the sanctions currently in place against Russia. The next chance European leaders will have to

consider the question of whether sanctions against Russia can be lifted will be Oct. 23–24, during the European Council meeting in Brussels. A source close to E.U. officials told Russian news agency Tass that any decision on the sanctions will be based on “how the situation in Ukraine will unfold.” According to Fyodor Lukyanov, editor-in-chief of the journal Russia in Global Affairs, this reasoning is not surprising. “Political leaders will continue to follow the development of events in

Ukraine, and only in the case of stable progress can sanctions be attenuated,” said Lukyanov. He is hopeful that the E.U. will act sooner rather than later to remove some sanctions, since the ties between Russia and the E.U. mean that European economies are also suffering from the policies. Alexei Skopin, head of the department of regional economy and economic geography at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow, said that Russia’s retaliatory sanctions were having their

intended effect on the E.U., although Russians may be suffering more. “The first series of Russian retaliatory sanctions demonstrated its counter-productiveness both for Russia and the E.U.,”said Skopin.“In particular, it had been estimated that prices on agricultural products [in Russia] would increase by 15 percent, but prices on certain products increased by 40 percent, which is completely unacceptable.” CONTINUED ON PAGE 2

Ballet St. Petersburg’s Mikhailovsky Theater takes on the Bolshoi and the Mariinsky

Theater Gets a Turn in the Spotlight The Mikhailovsky Theater is making its first tour to the U.S. and will present both classic and contemporary ballets at Lincoln Center from Nov. 11-23.

Natalia Osipova, previously a star of Moscow’s Bolshoi ballet, danced a new version of “Don Quixote” with the Mikhailovsky Theater’s ballet company in 2012.

PAULINE NARYSHKINA SPECIAL TO RBTH

Always the underdog Opened in 1833, the Mikhailovsky Imperial Theater was the third stage in St. Petersburg sponsored by the imperial court, after the Mariinsky and the Alexandrinsky Theater. The theater was named after Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich, brother of the Russian Emperor Nicholas I and it was

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For most of its history, the ballet company of St. Petersburg’s Mikhailovsky Theater lived in the in the shadow of the troupes of the Big Two of Russian ballet, Moscow’s Bolshoi Theater and the Mariinsky Theater, also in St. Peterburg. Today, however, the Mikhailovsky’s dancers are getting some of the recognition they have long deserved, thanks to the efforts of a director who was also the driving force behind the theater’s restoration.

constructed next to Michael’s palace. In the beginning, the theater had neither a fixed repertoire nor a resident company, so the Mikhailovsky invited foreign stars — including French, German and Italian performers; composer Johann Strauss; and actress Sarah Bernhardt. In 1918, after the Bolshevik revolution, the theater changed its name to the Leningrad State Ac-

ademic Small Opera Theater and became known by the acronym created from its Russian name, Maleglot. A ballet company was formed in 1933, led by renowned choreographer Fyodor Lopukhov. The theater benefitted from its obscurity, according to Sofia Stanovskaya, the Mikhailovsky’s P.R. manager. “Not being an ‘official’ stage like the Mariinsky or the Bolshoi, the theater became

a real lab for artistic experiments, staging some of the innovative operas by Dmitry Shostakovich, as well as Prokofiev’s ‘War and Peace.’”The theater was the setting of the premier of Shostakovich’s “The Bright Stream.” In the post-Soviet era, the theater faced a sharp decline in attendance, which was only reversed in 2007 with the arrival of a new patron: Vladimir Kekhman. Then 39, Kekhman made his fortune selling fruit and was known in the press as the Banana King. Kekhman spent more than $38 million to refurbish the theater, after which it returned to its historic name. He proved ready to do anything to make a name for the theater and himself. He rented the auditorium out for parties and receptions and personally appeared on stage as Prince Lemon during a production of the Italian fairy tale “Cipollino.” At the time, Kekhman said, “It’s an old dream of mine. I came to the theater to sing and dance.” CONTINUED ON PAGE 7

ARTYOM CHERNOV

On Oct. 17, the Media-Enabled Musketeers will present their first festival of short films at the HBO Theater in NewYork. The project, which was funded by the U.S.-Russia Social Expertise Exchange, brought together Russian and American journalists to train people with disabilities to tell stories about their lives through short documentaries. The group debuted its films in September in Moscow. The project was spearheaded by Jon Alpert, co-founder of the Downtown Community Television Center in Manhattan.

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NIKOLAI LITOVKIN

Russian shoppers have begun to feel the effects of restrictions on western food imports imposed by Russia in response to U.S. and E.U. sanctions.

Russia and Ukraine Strike Temporary Deal on Gas Supplies RBTH.COM/40241

TASS

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As sanctions start to affect the lives of Russian consumers, a survey shows that most fail to understand why the restrictions were imposed and what they are intended to accomplish.

Joint Project to Screen Films

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Politics & Society

RUSSIA BEYOND THE HEADLINES Section sponsored by Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Russia www.rbth.com

Society Poll shows confusion over democracy’s definition, but consensus on its meaning According to Irina Osipova, an analyst with FOM, the majority of Russians understand democracy as related to a set of values rather than as public participation in government. Osipova, however, does not agree that defining democracy this way means that Russians don’t know what democracy is. “I don’t think this shows a lack of understanding of the subject matter,”Osipova said. “It is easier for respondents to express the opinion that manifestations of democracy are more important than the school definition.” Nevertheless, she did agree that a lack of education could explain the responses.“Social studies and sociology have been taught in schools only recently,”Osipova said. Social studies became part of the federal curriculum only in 2000.

Russians Divided on Meaning of Democracy While Russians will protest, they aren’t interested in participating in government.

The most democratic leader?

REUTERS

Public opinion

DARYA LYUBINSKAYA SPECIAL TO RBTH

A recent poll conducted by the Public Opinion Foundation (FOM) provided new insight into how Russians feel about democracy — and what they think it is. According to the survey, the majority of Russians believe that democracy is important, but a third of respondents were unable to ex-

plain what democracy is. When asked by pollsters to choose the best description for “democracy,”34 percent of those who responded to the survey chose the option“difficult to say.” Sociologist Olga Kryshtanovskaya, who studies the Russian elite at the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, attributes the lack of awareness to flaws in the Russian educational system. “It is essential that every child clearly understand what democracy is when he or she graduates from school. Then it will be pos-

NATALIA MIKHAYLENKO

Forty-three percent of those surveyed said that democracy was democratic rights and freedoms, such as transparency and freedom of the press and freedom of speech. This number is down significantly from previous surveys. In a poll conducted by the AllRussian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) in 2007, 55 percent said that democracy was freedom of speech, the press, and religion. In 2010, the number had already fallen to 44 percent.

Results of a recent poll indicate a disconnect between views on the meaning of democracy and what constitutes democratic leadership.

MOST READ Volunteer Initiative Helps Russia’s L.G.B.T. Youth rbth.com/40205

sible to say whether we have it or not,” Kryshtanovskaya said.

Freedom or chaos? Although the poll respondents were mostly unable to define democracy, a third of them said that Russia today has as much democracy as it needs. According to Kryshtanovskaya, this is because the general assumption among Russians is that democracy is synonymous with freedom.“If there is a lot of freedom, this is democracy, and if there is not much freedom, there is no democracy,” she said.

The respondents’ definitions of democracy seem at odds with the response to another question in the FOM poll, which asked what period in Russia’s history was the most democratic. More than a third of respondents — 37 percent — didn’t answer the question, but 27 percent said the current period; another 12 percent named PresidentVladimir Putin’s first two terms (2000–2008). Poll respondents also selected Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev (1964– 1982) as Russia’s most democratic leader. Although many may consider the presidency of Boris Yeltsin (1991–1999) as a period of freedom, those polled did not associate this time with democracy. According to Kryshtanovskaya, this dichotomy can be explained by the prevailing negative view of the Yeltsin years. “Freedom morphed into chaos. This alienated many from democracy. People saw the weak government and decided that that is the sort of m e s s t h e y d o n ’ t n e e d ,” Kryshtanovskaya said. “People understand democracy to be something good, something that we should strive for.” Valery Soloviev, a professor at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO), said that in naming Russia’s most democratic politicians, respondents are confusing“democratic” with “popular.”“Certainly, Putin is the most popular leader in postSoviet history. But it is impossible to say that he is a democratic politician,” Soloviev said. Kryshtanovskaya, who was a member of the ruling United Russia party from 2009 to 2012, says that in her opinion, the influence of civil society in government has increased in recent years. She said, that today,“People want to know what the state is doing, to control it literally every minute.” Osipova, on the contrary, says that it is impossible to speak about any growth or decrease in civil activity. “There are no dynamics; it was quite low, and it remains so,” she said. This view is backed by an August survey by the analytical Levada Center, which revealed that only 3 percent of Russians were interested in actively taking part in the political process and that 76 percent were not interested in participating at all.

Missiles Tensions revive debate on treaty

A Return to Nuclear Arms The current breakdown in bilateral relations between the U.S. and Russia has brought a return to rhetoric previously associated with the Cold War. ALEXANDER BRATERSKY SPECIAL TO RBTH

When a group of Russian high schoolers were shown an artificial launching site during an excursion to a Cold War–era bunker-turned-museum in Moscow recently, they were introduced to a simulator that allowed them to make a “nuclear launch.” Given the option of directing their virtual warheads at any country they liked, the majority of them chose to “target” the United States. The episode at the museum, reported on a social network by one of the teachers, whose teenage son also participated in the trip, came as a shock to those who consider the idea of nuclear war between the United States and Rus-

Memories of the Cold War–era nuclear arms race are being reawakened by current tensions. In July, the U.S. accused Russia of violating the I.N.F. Treaty, signed by Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan in 1987.

ters to 5,500 km [310-3,420 miles], and not to maintain or build launchers for such missiles.”The U.S. said Russia has violated the agreement by launching a groundbased cruise missile. In response, Russia said that the U.S. itself had violated the treaty by test firing the Ground Based Interceptor, a missile defense system designed to destroy strategic ballistic missiles during the midphase of their trajectory, according to Maj. Gen. Midykhat Vildanov, of Russia’s Academy of Military Sciences. In mid-September, U.S. Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Rose Gottemoeller was in Moscow for a bilateral discussion of the issues of concern relating to the treaty. Although neither side came away satisfied with the outcome of the talks, they have promised to continue the dialogue. But while many Russians may have never heard of the 1987 treaty, the country’s nuclear might still gives them cause for pride — a pride that for this generation is not tainted by concern of a new arms race. At the end of September, a group calling itself “Fashion’s answer to the sanctions is ‘no!’” began distributing a line of T-shirts with such slogans as:“You make my Iskanders feel funny”and“The Topol is not afraid of sanctions” — references to Russian ballistic missile systems.

More weapons? sia as a forgotten relic of the past, and even more so to the younger generation, for whom such a notion has never really existed. However, signs of growing mutual distrust are in the air and memories of the Cold War–era nuclear arms race are being reawakened by the current tensions between the U.S. and Russia. “We have not been confronted with the actual use of nuclear weapons in many, many years — since 1945,” said Gen. Eugene Habiger, who served as commander in chief of U.S. Strategic Command from 1996 until his retirement in 1998.“The Millenials as we call them, people born after 1990, really haven’t been concerned about nuclear weapons. It wasn’t on their radar screen; they didn’t go to school hiding under their desks.They have other priorities, other concerns.” However, officials on both sides of the Atlantic seem inclined to put nuclear war onto that list of concerns once again. In July, the U.S. accused Russia of violating the IntermediateRange Nuclear Forces Treaty (I.N.F.), signed by Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1987. The treaty lays out “the obligation to neither acquire, produce nor test ground-based cruise missiles with a range of 500 kilome-

In compliance with the terms of the I.N.F., the Soviet Union destroyed 1,752 of its analogous missiles and decommissioned 845 launchers, three production facilities and 69 missile bases, while the United States dismantled 859 medium and short-range missiles, 283 launchers, seven production facilities and nine missile bases. But there may soon be new weapons to replace these. Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, who is responsible for Russia’s military-industrial complex, recently announced that Moscow is accelerating the renewal of its nuclear deterrence capacities. The project will be completed by 2020. In early October, a U.S. State Department report showed that for the first time in history, Russia had passed the United States in the number of deployed nuclear warheads. Gen. Habiger is not completely opposed to both countries maintaining nuclear weapons. According to him, “The true value of nuclear weapons is not military or political: It is to deter other nuclear weapons. As long as nuclear weapons are out there, [there] will be some deterrent value in maintaining nuclear weapons stockpiles.” Read the full story at rbth.com/40559

Russians Unclear on Sanctions’ Goal

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CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1

Will Mikhail Khodorkovsky Return to Politics?

Alexei Skopin also emphasized that the result of the sanctions is that in Russia consumers are suffering, whereas in Europe, the producers are feeling the pressure.

rbth.com/40079

The U.S. role

Saving Siberia’s Crown Jewel: State Program Aims to Clean Up Lake Baikal rbth.com/39809

Regardless of what the E.U. decides later in the month, Lukyanov noted that the U.S. political establishment was not even open to discussing the lifting of sanctions at this point. According to Lukyanov, the United States is much less tied to Russia economically than Europe is and can therefore continue to put economic pressure on Russia for a long time. “I think that Washington’s objective is not even the defense of Ukraine from Russia’s aggression,”Lukyanov said,“but rather the long-term intention to have

Moscow assume a more circumspect foreign policy course.” Skopin thinks that the U.S. has additional motives for keeping the sanctions in place.“The American economy gains a new weapons market in Europe and Ukraine,”Skopin said.“New jobs will consequently be created and the economy will receive a boost. The sanctions against Russia kill two birds with one stone — reduce the market for Russian weapons and reduce the credit line for Moscow.”

71% to weaken and humilitate Russia

4%

18%

to stop the war in the Ukraine

to respond to Crimea annexation

Russian reaction According to a recent survey by the analytical Levada Center, most Russians do not make the connection between economic sanctions imposed by the U.S and the E.U. and Russian policy in Ukraine. In a poll conducted Sept. 19–22 among 1,600 respondents in 46 Russian regions, 71 percent of Russians believe that the main

RUSSIA BEYOND THE HEADLINES IS AN INTERNATIONAL MEDIA PROJECT SPONSORED BY RUSSIAN DAILY NEWSPAPER ROSSIYSKAYA GAZETA. ITS PRODUCTION DOES NOT INVOLVE THE REPORTING OR EDITING STAFF OF THE NEW YORK TIMES. RBTH IS FUNDED THROUGH A COMBINATION OF ADVERTISING AND SPONSORSHIP TOGETHER WITH SUBSIDIES FROM RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES. RBTH’S EDITORIAL VOICE IS INDEPENDENT. ITS OBJECTIVE IS TO PRESENT, THROUGH QUALITY CONTENT, A RANGE OF PERSPECTIVES ABOUT RUSSIA AND RUSSIA’S PLACE IN THE WORLD. PUBLISHED SINCE 2007, RBTH IS COMMITTED TO MAINTAINING THE HIGHEST EDITORIAL STANDARDS AND TO SHOWCASING THE BEST OF RUSSIAN JOURNALISM AND THE BEST WRITING ABOUT RUSSIA. IN DOING SO, WE BELIEVE THAT WE ARE FILLING AN IMPORTANT GAP IN INTERNATIONAL MEDIA COVERAGE. PLEASE E-MAIL US@RBTH.COM IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS ABOUT OUR OWNERSHIP OR EDITORIAL STRUCTURE. RBTH PUBLISHES 28 SUPPLEMENTS IN 23 COUNTRIES WITH A COMBINED READERSHIP OF 33 MILLION AND MAINTAINS 19 WEBSITES IN 16 LANGUAGES.

The purpose of sanctions is... A poll conducted Sept. 19–22 indicated that most Russians do not connect the sanctions against Russia to actions in Ukraine.

purpose of Western sanctions is “to weaken and humiliate Russia.”Another 18 percent felt that the sanctions were in response to Russia’s annexation of Crimea, while 4 percent said the purpose of the sanctions was “to stop the war, destruction and human casualties in eastern Ukraine.” Sixty-eight percent of the respondents believe Russia should “continue its policy” of retaliation against the sanctions, almost a fifth (22 percent) call for“seeking a compromise and making concessions in order to stop the sanctions”and 10 percent are undecided. While respondents generally were open to additional retaliatory sanctions against some Western products, 51 percent were against banning Western pharmaceutical products and 45 percent were against banning Western computers and mobile phones.

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Economy Joint explorations for tight oil have fallen victim to geopolitical tensions between Russia and the West

Foreign Oil Majors Pull Out of Russia Foreign oil giants ExxonMobil and Shell have terminated tight oil production projects in Russia, including the Arctic shelf, as a result of sanctions.

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“According to estimates, up to 25 percent of Russia’s currently recoverable oil is extracted through hydrodynamic impact on formations, primarily hydrofracking [hydraulic fracturing]. However, hydrofracking equipment is produced predominantly in the U.S.,” said Olga Malikova, a professor at the Institute for Government Service and Management at the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. The withdrawal of Shell and ExxonMobil from tight-oil production in Russia is therefore quite an unwelcome event for the domestic oil-extraction industry, she said. Russia has seen stable oil output growth in recent years, due to a substantial degree to modern enhanced oil recovery

$96 is how much a barrel of Brent oil must average in 2014 in order for Russia to maintain a balanced budget.

14% is how much oil production in the U.S is expected to increase in 2015 according to information from the U.S. Department of Energy.

The only ExxonMobil project unaffected by sanctions is exploratory drilling at the Universitetskaya-1 well, which was initiated on Aug. 9, 2014.

technology, as well as to more work at complex fields, Malikova added. On Sept. 30, Shell’s press service published a statement saying that the sanctions had influenced its plans to develop oilfields in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area in Western Siberia. “At the moment, we are conducting a dialogue with European state entities and our partners regarding the degree of influence of these sanctions,”the statement read. According to the Financial Times, ExxonMobil is calling on the U.S. government to ease the sanctions against Russia so that it can resume its Arctic drilling project in the summer of 2015. The company’s C.E.O., Rex Tillerson, spoke out against the U.S. sanctions at an ExxonMobil shareholder meeting in May. “We do not support sanctions, generally, because we don’t find them to be effective unless they are very well implemented,”Tillerson said. In April, Shell chief Ben Van

Drop in oil prices threatens budget

ALAMY/LEGION MEDIA

Heading for the exits

Influence on the market

is how many of its 10 oil-production projects in Russia that ExxonMobil has terminated due to sanctions against its partner, Rosneft.

PRESS PHOTO

Oil giant ExxonMobil has terminated nine of its 10 oil production projects in Russia — including in the Arctic, Western Siberia and on the Black Sea shelf — due to the sanctions imposed on Russia by the United States. ExxonMobil’s partner in the joint venture is Russian stateowned oil giant Rosneft. The only project left unaffected is exploratory drilling at the Universitetskaya-1 well, which the partners initiated on Aug. 9, 2014. But this project has only gotten a reprieve. ExxonMobil spokesman Alan Jeffers told Russian news agency Tass that the U.S. State Department had taken into account the complexity of the work at the well and has given the company extra time to wrap up the project. Dutch oil major Shell followed ExxonMobil’s example, also ceasing its operations in Russia in response to the sanctions. According to Russian analysts, the withdrawal of foreign partners potentially poses a threat to about a quarter of the Russian oil market.

The current slump in oil prices is putting stress on the Russian federal budget. During trading on Oct. 2 the price of Brent oil dropped to $92.20 a barrel, marking the biggest fall since the 2008 crisis, when the price of oil was $38.40 a barrel. The price of Brent has fallen by 19.9 percent since June.

The decrease in oil prices makes it difficult for Russia to maintain a balanced budget since its profit percentage is directly linked to oil prices. According to the Ministry of Finance, the budget will be balanced only if oil prices end the year at an average of $96 per barrel of Brent.

Beurden said the company had no plans to change its work with its Russian partners, despite the situation in Ukraine.

Some Russian analysts, however, remain optimistic. “It can confidently be said that the average oil price in 2014 will allow the Russian budget to be deficit-free,” said Alexei Kozlov, chief analyst at UFS Invesment Company. “Moreover, we do not expect the cost of black gold to decrease this year below the minimal price fixed on Sept. 2.” According to Anton Soroko, an analyst at investment holding Finam, the strengthening of the U.S. dollar is contributing to the fall in oil prices. Additionally, the Federal Reserve is concluding its program of quantitative easing and in 2015, the U.S. central bank plans to increase rates. “There is a decrease in prices also in gold, silver and other nonferrous metals, which is also related to the growth of the dollar,” said Soroko. Right now, he said, “the cost of the American currency is at its maximum since 2010.” Read the full story at rbth.com/40409

While Russian commentators see the exit of Russia’s foreign partners as immediately problematic, they also believe it could push the country to develop its own technology. “The strategy of purchasing high-tech foreign equipment is posing serious problems to the development of the industry,”Olga Malikova said. According to her, Russian companies will need to either search carefully for potential partners who can supply the technology they need, or work to enhance the efficiency of the equipment they already have. Otherwise, these companies will have to accept the reality that oil production will be reduced on a whole host of fields. Dmitry Baranov, a leading expert at investment holding Finam Management, is more optimistic: “Production of that oil will begin a little later, which is not terrible at all for the economy in general and for the industry in particular. Russia will start to produce that oil later so that there will be more oil for future Russians,” he said. Baranov added that, thanks to sanctions, “the country will get the time and resources to develop its own technology to produce and refine viscous and superviscous oil; that is, in any case, Russian R&D and industry and trade will develop.” According to Alexei Kozlov, chief analyst at UFS Investment Company,“the withdrawal of foreign oil companies may delay the start of large-scale tight-oil production, but Russian oil companies are up to the task.” Rosneft President Igor Sechin previously made clear in an interview with Bloomberg that the door would remain open even in the event that partners chose to withdraw from cooperation. “If anyone is unable to continue work or is forced to leave, they will have the option of coming back,” said Sechin.

INTERVIEW ALEXEI ULYUKAYEV

Alexei Ulyukayev, the current Minister of Economic Development and one of the architects of Russia’s economic reforms of the 1990s, spoke with RBTH about the prospects for encouraging foreign investment in Russia.

In your opinion, in what way is Russia currently attractive to foreign investors? In the UNCTAD [United Nations Conference on Trade and Development] World Investment Report 2014, Russia is named as one of the most attractive economies in transition for foreign investors. Our advantages lie in the high return on energy projects, as well as projects associated with natural resources. Not only oil and gas, but also metals and timber attract foreign investors. Unfortunately, we are still seeing only individual examples of enterprises being created that produce high value-added products. Russia is objectively interested not only in attracting financial capital, but also in new technology, know-how and best management practices that would allow it to bring entrepreneurial activity to a new level of efficiency. In order to reduce the country’s dependence on commodity exports and high-tech imports, and to increase the share of high value-added products, Russia needs to attract investment into modernizing industry and agriculture.

What changes has the Russian economy recently undergone, particularly as a result of the international sanctions? We are observing a dual impact of the sanctions on the Russian economy. On the one hand, there is the inevitable decline in growth rates, higher inflation, ruble volatility and reduced liquidity. On the other hand, these same new realities are capable of helping overcome the structural imbalances that have long been inherent in the Russian economy. I am first and foremost talking about the excessive pegging to fuel and commodity exports, as well as the orientation towards imports of a wide set of goods — both producer and consumer demand. The Russian economy possesses a sufficient reserve of durability, which allows it to ensure future growth. In the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness 2014– 2015 report, Russia rose by 11

ranks to 53rd (64th last year) out of 144. The high level of education enjoyed by Russians and its major innovation potential have been identified among its competitive advantages. In that case, how fast will the Russian economy be able to overcome the crisis period? Our economic development forecasts are based on the premise of relative stabilization and a lack of more serious sanctions. Capital outflow may decrease substantially by 2017. The G.D.P. dynamic is expected to rise to 1.2 percent in 2015, versus 0.5 percent in 2014. Faster G.D.P. growth will primarily be connected with the investment dynamic, which will grow by 2 percent in 2015, versus a 2.4 percent decrease in 2014. We are continuing to work on improving the investment climate so that businesses feel comfortable and safe in all respects. Russia is not fencing itself off from the outside world and is not breaking business ties. How can Russia solve the structural economic problems you mentioned? Russia has entered a period of

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new economic conditions, and the government needs to tighten its belt. The situation with the budget is compounded by the fact that the country’s revenues will continue to decline relative to previous periods in the long term, which will prevent Russia from counting on any changes due to a lack of significant shifts in the government’s economic and budget policy. At the same time, the present moment seems the best to make the most effective investments in the country’s development. With Russia’s introduction of tit-for-tat sanctions on imports from the United States, Canada, Norway and the European Union, we have a unique opportunity to develop the most crucial industries, such as agriculture and food processing. Programs to subsidize farmers, provide insurance, and engage in joint public-private financing to construct enterprises capable of ensuring full import substitution demand substantial resources. In your opinion, which Russian regions might be attractive to foreign investors? The dynamic development of Siberia and the Far East is a na-

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Russia Is Not Fencing Itself Off From the Outside World

the profit tax, mineral extraction tax (with the exception of oil and gas), and property taxes, and discounted insurance premiums are being given to new companies located in the priority development territories.We plan to create business conditions in these territories that can compete with the key business centers in the AsiaPacific region, including procedures for securing construction permits, connecting to power grids and going through customs.

HIS STORY NATIONALITY: RUSSIAN AGE: 58 STUDIED: ECONOMICS

A native of Moscow, Alexei Ulyukaev holds degrees in economics from both Moscow State University and the Pierre Mendes University in France. He has served as Russia’s Minister of Economic Development since June 14, 2013.

Take a new look at the Urals in our photo blog! rbth.com/ postindustrial_urals

tional priority, and a decision has been made to introduce profit tax breaks for new investment projects being implemented in this region. The next step will be to spread them throughout the entirety of eastern Siberia. Besides that, right now the possibility of creating so-called “priority development territories” in the Far East and eastern Siberia is being considered, with special conditions for launching non-extractive production facilities oriented towards exports. Five-year holidays are being provided on

Interview prepared by Viktor Kuzmin

RBTH will return to the New York Times on Nov. 19!


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Space Russia and the U.S. may part ways on the journey to the final frontier

Science Experiments in orbit continue

Science Moves Ahead Despite Gecko Loss

The International Space Station remains one place where Americans and Russians can find common ground.

Roscosmos’s ambitious plans for future exploration of Mars and the moon are moving ahead with the help of experiments currently underway. VICTORIA ZAVYALOVA RBTH

NASA

In the beginning of September, five geckos died in a Russian Photon-M satellite as part of an experiment examining how bioorganisms cope with the challenge of living in space. According to the director of the experiment, Sergei Saveliev, the autopsy showed that there was no food in the animals’ stomachs. He attributed their deaths to technical malfunctions. “For the experiment it was important that the geckos mate in space and then lay their eggs — something that didn’t happen,” said Saveliev. Despite this setback, Russian research into animal behavior in space will continue. Dormice will be the next to fly into space, according to Vladimir Sychev, director of the biological program of the Photon-M project. Scientists will study how the rodents hibernate in space. Scientists say that dormice are perfect for this study, since they sleep for exactly half a year. There is one particular challenge that must be confronted, however — dormice do not hibernate according to a particular schedule. Rather, they decide themselves when to go into hibernation. Practically an entire zoo has been sent to space by Russian scientists. Mice, gerbils, fish and snails have already been subjects of experiments. According to cosmonaut Yelena Serova, who flew to space on Sept. 26 and will spend the next six months on the International Space Station, the I.S.S. crew is currently operating a sizeable scientific program made up of 59 experiments. “In

Rocket wars

Despite tensions between the U.S. and Russia, cooperation on projects in space will by necessity have to continue, at least for the near future. VICTORIA ZAVYALOVA RBTH

On April 2, as a result of tensions over Ukraine, the U.S. government announced that it was suspending all joint rocket and space programs with Russia — with the exception of the use of the International Space Station. “Given Russia’s ongoing violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, NASA is suspending the majority of its ongoing engagements with the Russian Federation,” officials said in a statement. “NASA and [Russian Space Agency] Roscosmos will, however, continue to work together to maintain safe and continuous operation of the International Space Station.” In response, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, who is responsible for space and the defense industry, tweeted that the U.S. could “take advantage of the trampoline”to send astronauts to the I.S.S., alluding to the fact that the Russian Soyuz spacecraft is currently the only

way to get equipment and personnel to and from the station. While NASA had long been working on creating new spacecraft, the conflict with Russia seems to have sped up the process. On Sept. 16, NASA announced that it has signed a multibillion-dollar contract with Boeing and SpaceX to construct spacecraft. According to NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, who announced the decision at Florida’s Kennedy Space Center, the U.S. plans to end“the nation’s sole reliance on Russia by 2017.” Developing American spacecraft will not be cheap. Currently, the U.S. pays Russia $71 million for each flight, but the projects with Boeing and SpaceX will cost $4.2 and $2.8 billion, respectively. Furthermore, such spacecraft are not developed overnight. According to NASA Representative Joshua Buck, the agency does not intend to halt its collaboration with the Russian Space Agency. “Space cooperation has been a hallmark of U.S.Russia relations, including during the height of the Cold War, and most notably, in the past 13 consecutive years of continuous human presence on board the International Space Station,”Buck

said in a statement. There is currently a contract in place for Russia to carry six American astronauts to the I.S.S. in the second half of 2016 and return them the following June. The cost of the contract is $424 million. Russian space development has also suffered as a result of the tensions. The manufacturing time of Russian satellites has increased by 8–10 months because of restrictions on the supply of American components. “Due to the sanctions, we will have to modify a series of instruments and equipment,” said Yury Vygonsky, the deputy general designer at Russian satellite firm Information Satellite Systems on Oct. 1. According to Vyvonsky, the company is now forced to look for substitutes for American components in China, South Korea and other Asian countries. Rogozin, for his part, says that collaboration between Russia and the U.S. in the International Space Station will not end in 2024 as currently scheduled, but four years earlier. He said that Russia will take the money saved by pulling out of I.S.S. obligations and direct it towards more innovative space projects.

Mice, gerbils, fish and snails have already been subjects of experiments by Russian scientists in space. examine the psychological challenges humans would face during a long spaceflight. The current experiments will attempt to look at the physical challenges.

Not quite human In January 2015, Roscosmos plans to carry out an experiment on robots in orbit. With the help of cloud technologies and a special joystick that compensates for the delay in transmitting data from Earth to orbit, cosmonauts on earth will attempt to manipulate robots in space. The robot experiments are an important step in Russia’s long-term plan to build a base on the moon. According to Roscosmos, Russia should complete a habitable moon base by 2040.

The final frontier? Currently, both Russia and the U.S. are making plans to fly to Mars. Unlike politicians, the representatives from space industries in both countries would like to collaborate on developing technology for a flight to the Red Planet.“Surely we intend to continue interacting with the U.S. and other countries that are interested in exploring near and distant space,” said Igor Burenkov, Director of Informational Policy and Mass Media at Russia’s United Rocket and Space Corporation.“Projects dedicated to the exploration of the solar system, as well as the flight to Mars, will definitely be international — it is important for all of humanity.”

NASA

Due to Sanctions, U.S.-Russia Ties Lost in Space

Russia-American cooperation on rocket technology is also suffering as a result of sanctions. Currently Russia supplies the U.S. with engines that power the Atlas V rocket, which carries most U.S. satellites into space. In May, Rogozin announced that, in response to sanctions enacted by the U.S., Russia could halt the supply of RD-180 and K-33 rocket engines to the U.S. In response, the Pentagon requested a report from an independent panel examining American reliance on Russian rockets and the potential for developing U.S. rockets. Air Force General Howard Mitchell, retired, who led the advisory panel, noted in the report that without the Russian RD engines, the U.S. would have to cancel satellite launches after 2016. An additional report is expected by the beginning of November with recommendations on developing U.S. rocket engine technology.

general, we are conducting unique biotechnical and geophysical experiments,”Serova said in an interview with Russian daily Rossiyskaya Gazeta before her flight. While the subjects of the I.S.S. experiments are smaller animals, the purpose of the research is to determine the effects of microgravity on bio-organisms in preparation for sending humans to Mars by 2024. In 2011, the Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos) completed the Mars-500 project, which imitated as closely as possible on earth a piloted flight to the Red Planet. As part of the project, six volunteers spent 519 days in a closed space — the length of time scientists estimate it will take to fly from earth to Mars and back. The purpose of Mars-500 was to

Russian scientists will examine sleep patterns of dormice in orbit.

Innovation A list of projects under development shows that Russia’s space agency isn’t content simply to keep putting people into orbit.

Russia’s Most Ambitious Space Projects The Russian Space Agency has a list of programs it would like to complete before 2025. The ideas range from the realistic to something out of science fiction. VALENTIN HITORIN SPECIAL TO RBTH

Liquidator: the space janitor Humans haven’t conquered space yet, but they have already managed to pollute it. According to the U.S. Space Surveillance Network there are more than 16,200 loose objects orbiting the earth. This debris has the potential to destroy space vehicles. In August, Roscosmos announced a plan to design a spacecraft for cleaning the geostationary orbit. The project, called the Liquidator, is slated for development between 2018–2025 with a budget of roughly 10.8 billion rubles ($292 million).

New cosmodromes Roscosmos plans to spend 900 billion rubles ($24.3 billion) for infrastructure to support space-

GSO, a high-operating supervision space system for major emergency situations. According to plans, it will function on an optical and radar band on a geostationary orbit ($1.2 billion).

Moon base

Remote sensing of the earth The remote sensing of the earth is one of the Russian space industry’s weakest areas. With no program in place that reaches across the entirety of Russia, Russian scientists have to rely on information from international satellites. But the new Federal Space Program (F.S.P.) is slated for development between 2016–2025. This program was developed by resilient optimists who hope to enlarge the Russian orbital fleet by adding 26 high-tech satellites at a cost of 358.6 billion rubles ($9.7 billion). There are several different projects within the F.S.P. They include: Meteo-SSO, a global hydrometeorological and heliophysical system consisting of four new generation satellites that will travel on sun synchronous orbits ($1.8 billion); Meteo-Glob, a global meteorological sensing system that uses visible and infrared bands ($2.3 billion); Resurs, a three-satellite program designed to capture images of the Earth in

NASA

Russia’s Space Agency, Roscosmos, has not limited itself to repeatedly putting people in orbit and conducting experiments at the International Space Station. The list of Roscosmos projects ranges from the likely to the fantastical. Here are some of the most interesting proposals.

ports. These funds will be used to build an extension of the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the northern Russian region of Arkhangelsk as well as to complete the construction of the Vostochny Cosmodrome in the Russian Far East and to support the Baikonur space complex.

One plan Roscosmos is serious about getting underway by 2025 is the construction of a base on the surface of the moon.

IN FIGURES

$292 million

$9.7 billion

$280 million

is the budget for the Liquidator project, which will develop a spacecraft to clean up Earth’s geostationary orbit.

is the cost of developing 26 new high-tech satellites to give Russian scientists access to data across the entire country.

is proposed for the development of a moon base, an excavator and a mobile robot for exploration of the lunar surface.

Roscomos is developing a new rover that will search the moon for natural resources such as rare earth metals.

high and ultra-high resolution ($1.5 billion); ES-SSO, an operating supervision space system for local emergency situations that is composed of 10 satellites that orbit in synchronicity with the sun ($2.9 billion); and ES-

Russian spacecraft were the first to fly over the dark side of the moon and take soil samples, but they never managed to put a person on its surface. Roscosmos is currently quite serious about moon exploration. The agency is slated to spend $280 million on the development of a moon base, a mobile manipulator crane, a grader, an excavator, a cable layer and a mobile robot for lunar surface exploration between 2018–2025. It appears that Roscosmos wants to be not just a guest, but a full-time resident.

opment should finish by 2021, which gives the agency four years to test the vehicle before its 2025 deadline.

Super-heavy rocket to Mars In September 2014, plans for a super-heavy rocket with a120– to 150–ton capacity received preliminary approval from President Vladimir Putin. This rocket is one of the most expensive of Roscosmos’ ideas. Its budget is twice as large as the Angara rocket, a popular spacecraft currently in use. The purpose of the rocket is to create a vehicle that will be capable of flying to Mars. The proposal is likely in response to an announcement made by NASA in late August that its own super-heavy deep space rocket will be ready for testing in 2018.

What’s in a black hole? Moon-mobile A moon base without a moon vehicle is kind of beside the point, therefore Roscosmos is developing a new rover that will search the moon for natural resources. The moon is full of resources, such as rare earth elements, titanium, and uranium, which the earth itself does not have in abundant supply (hence the name). It is also rich in helium-3, which is a possible fuel for nuclear fusion. Roscosmos is calling its new moon vehicle the moon-mobile. Devel-

Russian and German scientists continue to work towards the development of the high-energy astrophysics observatory SpectrRG, which will explore galactic clusters and black holes with the eROSITA Roentgen telescope. While the idea has been in existence since the late 1980s, the project was only restarted in 2005 after having been put on hold several times because of delays from the German telescope developers. The observatory should be ready by 2017.


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Cosmonauts First Russian woman in space in 17 years will serve as flight engineer on Expedition 41/42 to the International Space Station

Engineer Serova First Russian Woman to Fly to the I.S.S. VICTORIA ZAVYALOVA RBTH

On Sept. 26, Yelena Serova became the first female cosmonaut to go to the International Space Station. Serova will spend the next six months at the station with fellow cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyayev and American astronaut Barry Willmore. The expedition, known as 41/42, will last 170 days. Serova, who became a cosmonaut for the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) in 2011, will serve as the flight engineer for the mission and conduct biophysical and medical experiments during her time aboard the I.S.S. She is only the fourth female cosmonaut in Russian space history and the first one in space in 17 years. In contrast, more than 40 American women have flown in space, and American Karen Nyberg served a mission on the I.S.S. just last year. One of the experiments Serova will manage during her time at the I.S.S. is called Firestation, which researches atmospheric gamma flashes and optical glow during thunderstorms. Serova, 38, is married to a retired cosmonaut. They have an 11-year-old daughter.When asked during a preflight press conference how she plans to stay in communication with her family, Serova said: “There is no problem with that. The I.S.S. is now equipped with all the modern types of communications.” Serova, who is a native of the small regional town of Vozdvizhenka in the Ussuriysky District of the Primorsky Territory in the Russian Far East, has said that she dreamed of becoming a cosmonaut even as a young girl. After graduating from high school, she attended the aerospace faculty of the Moscow Aviation Institute, the launching point for many Russian cosmonauts, where she trained as an engineer. Before entering cosmonaut training, she worked at the S.P. Korolev

Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, which manufactures spacecraft, and Russia’s Mission Control Center. Serova applied to become a cosmonaut in 2005 and was admitted to general space training in 2007. In 2009, she passed the exams to became a test cosmonaut. In December 2011, she was appointed flight engineer for Expedition 41/42. “At this stage of my preparation, I have been approved as a crew member at the same time that several of my male colleagues are still waiting for their hour of triumph,”she said in the preflight press conference. “With regards to myself, I can say the following: There is an incredible burden on the woman because she has to be both a professional at work and a good housewife and mother.” She noted that she is not intimidated by the hardships of space travel.“This is my job and my professional choice,”she said, adding that she hoped her time in space could be a “breakthrough”for other Russian female cosmonauts. There is currently one other woman in the Russian cosmonaut corps, Anna Kikina, 30. There are 12 women among NASA’s astronauts.

Alexander Samokutyayev, Yelena Serova and Barry Wilmore pose.

© RIA NOVOSTI

Yelena Serova, a native of the Russian Far East, has become only the fourth Russian woman in space, and the first to make the trip in 17 years.

4

RUSSIAN WOMEN IN SPACE FROM Valentina TERESHKOVA Tereshkova, born 1937 TO SEROVA On June 16, 1963,

© RIA NOVOSTI

cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space. She spent three days above the Earth, orbiting the planet 48 times and covering nearly

1 million miles. Before her recruitment as a cosmonaut, Tereshkova was a textile factory assembly worker and an amateur skydiver. After her flight, Tereshkova continued to train as a cosmonaut, but she never returned to space.

TASS

Svetlana Savitskaya, born 1948 In 1982, Savitskaya flew aboard Soyuz T-7, becoming the second woman in space. On July 25, 1984, Savitskaya became the first woman to perform a space walk. She be-

INTERVIEW VALENTINA TERESHKOVA

“Women in Space Have a Lot of Prospects”

DPA/VOSTOCK-PHOTO

Today, Valentina Tereshkova, Russia’s first woman in space, is a member of the State Duma, Russia’s lower house of parliament, but she remembers her experience as a cosmonaut as if it were yesterday. She spoke to Larisa Ionova of Rossiyskaya Gazeta about the experience and her views on women in space today. Are you a fan of extreme experiences? I have never thought of myself as a lover of extremes. Each person does their job, comes up against difficulties and overcomes them. Back then, many people dreamed of going into space. When Gagarin first did it, it inspired so many people. In late 1961, I was invited to undergo selection for a space mission. Five young women were selected from over 1,000 contenders from all over the country.

Starting from early 1962, we began active training. The head of the team, Yuri Gagarin, was a very demanding leader despite all his charm. The training was focused more on the psychological than the physical aspects. We all were experienced parachute jumpers who had made jumps during the day and at night, on land and on water. But each time there was something new for us. Starting with zero gravity. Back then there was no special simulator, or hydro laboratories. Instead, an aircraft would perform special figures to create brief moments of weightlessness so that we could feel it and get used to that feeling. How did you cope with being alone and in a confined space? I never suffered from claustrophobia. The isolation chamber test was used to check trainees’

gan training as a cosmonaut in 1980. Prior to her recruitment, Savitskaya was a test pilot. Beginning in 1974, she set 18 international world records on MiG aircraft and three records in team parachute jumping.

TASS

Yelena Kondakova, born 1957 Kondakova is the first woman to make a longduration spaceflight. Her first trip into space was on Soyuz TM-20 on Oct. 4, 1994. She returned to Earth after a five-

month stay at the Mir space station. Kondakova’s second flight was as a mission specialist on the United States Space Shuttle Atlantis during mission STS-84 in May 1997. Since 1999, she has served as a State Duma Deputy.

PHOTOSHOT/VOSTOCK-PHOTO

Yelena Serova, born 1976 Serova was selected as a cosmonaut in 2006 and was assigned in 2011 to Expedition 41. On Sept. 26, 2014, Serova became the first female cosmonaut to visit the International Spa-

ce Station (I.S.S). Prior to training as a cosmonaut, Serova worked as an engineer designing Russian spacecraft at the Energia firm, and in Russia’s Mission Control Center. Serova was selected as a test cosmonaut at the age of 30.

Buildings Discover the secrets of the Baikonur Cosmodrome emotional state, heart condition, and numerous other parameters, like eyesight, for example. Some people think that while in space, a cosmonaut is left to their own devices and therefore feels lonely. In fact they have a busy program to complete. One part of this was obligatory physical exercises. I had to measure my blood pressure at given times, take blood samples and do all the other tasks. In addition, I had to thoroughly study the spacecraft. Women in space have a lot of prospects. The space training center that we set up with our own hands is now training women for space missions, too. Incidentally, speaking of sanctions, American astronauts are training together with ours and are flying on our spacecraft. It is not in their interests to impose any sanctions. We work together with them when they come to our space training center to learn how to fly on our spacecraft, while our cosmonauts go to the NASA center in Houston. Would you like to go into space once again? Of course. Sadly, my age is not right for that. I very much wanted to go to Mars. I had spent many years studying the planet, reading everything that had been written about it. Having been to space, do you believe that there is extraterrestrial intelligence out there? So far, all scientists’ efforts to find some sentient form of life outside Earth have failed. But the universe is immense. We cannot rule out that there are planets in it where life does exist. If there are living creatures out there, they are very, very far away. And they are not making contact. Larisa Ionova originally published in Rossiyskaya Gazeta Read the full interview at rbth.com/40147

For Russians, the Path to Space Starts in Kazakhstan Constructed in top secret, the remote Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan has been the departure point for Russian space missions since the 1950s. EKATERINA TURYSHEVA RBTH

All of the Soviet Union’s legendary space odysseys began from a single point on the map: the Baikonur Cosmodrome, in the middle of the vast Kazakh steppe. The first artificial Earth satellite, the first craft to approach the Moon and the first manned orbital craft spacecraft were all launched from Baikonur. Baikonur means “Rich Valley” in Kazakh. The valley in question, however, is actually a desert lying to the east of the Aral Sea. The location was ideally suited for its purpose — Baikonur boasts enough space to position ground radio relay stations at the required distance from each other, it is close to the equator, and it has a mild climate. Mankind took its first step to the stars on Jan. 12, 1955. On that day, two carriages arrived at the small Kazakh railway station of Tyuratam, were detached from the rest of the train and left there. Legend has it that when the Soviet Union’s main space rocket designer, Sergei Korolev, arrived at the site and saw a new railway track leading from the Tyuratam station into the steppe, he gave an order to start building the launch pad right where the track ended, and that is how the location was chosen for Baikonur’s first launch pad, now known as the Gagarin pad. These same rails, cast in the early 20th century, are still used

to transport space rockets to their launch positions. The cosmodrome itself was initially named Tyuratam, after the railway station. But since the entire construction project was shrouded in utter secrecy, a different name was used in all official documents. A decoy space center was built not far from the real Baikonur. Eventually, a whole decoy town was built there. When the Soviet Union announced that it had successfully put a man into space, there was huge international interest in the

new Soviet space center. Between 1966 and 1970, the Soviet government took foreign delegations to Baikonur four times. The first foreign guest at the cosmodrome was Gen. Charles de Gaulle. Although Baikonur is in Kazakhstan, it remains under Russian administration. Anyone can attend a launch, but only as part of an organized tour. Obtaining permission to visit the site can take up to 45 days. Read the full story at rbth.com/34617

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SANCTIONS AGAINST TOLSTOY? Ivan Kurilla RBC DAILY

ne of the hottest periods of the Cold War ended in January 1958, with the signing of the LacyZarubin Agreement, also known as the “Agreement Between the Soviet Union and the United States of America on Exchanges in Science, Technology, Education, Culture and Other Spheres.” Soon after, young pianist Van Cliburn won the International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow, while Igor Moiseyev’s folk dance ensemble and the Bolshoi Ballet made a big impression during American tours. Later, in 1973, American and Soviet scientists were able for the first time to conduct research projects in other countries with the support of the Fulbright program. With the onset of perestroika, ordinary Russians and Americans started to actively visit one another’s countries, and foreign exchange programs opened up for Russian and American students. During that period, the U.S. government and American philanthropists invested heavily in building the infrastructure for these exchange programs — to a much greater extent than the Russians did, since Russia was suffering through a serious economic crisis at the time. But these exchanges proved useful to both sides. Russian scientists were able to continue their research despite sharp reductions in funding, without leaving the country and without transferring to the business sphere or to stateowned structures. Both Russians and Americans gained experience with one another. Today, all of this infrastructure

IORSH

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for scientific, cultural and educational cooperation is being destroyed before our very eyes. And it is being dismantled by both sides. Last winter, even before bilateral relations soured in connection with the Ukraine crisis, the U.S. reduced funding for research and cooperation programs with Russia. As a result, the Kennan Institute’s Moscow office was closed in the spring, and the Moscow Carnegie Center’s journal “Pro et Contra” ceased publication in the summer. Then, on Oct. 1, the Russian government terminated the Fu-

ture Leaders Exchange (FLEX) Program, which gave Russian high school students the opportunity to live with an American family and study at an American school for one year. Various reasons have been given for each closure, but it is obvious that each of them would have been resolvable in the framework of regular diplomatic dialogue. Why is all of this happening in such an abrupt way? Some have speculated that these events are a result of the “return of the government”as the primary, if not only, actor in in-

ternational politics. Governments are starting to show who’s boss by purposely severing cross-border links. In this view, the cosmopolitan nature of modern science and culture contradicts the objectives of geopolitics. Conspiracy theorists see malicious intent in funding for educational trips. But in this case, if these motives were there all along, why are the programs being cancelled only now? And why, then, didn’t the Russian government create its own infrastructure for personal contacts, scientific cooperation and educational trips

INTERNET CONTROL ABOUT SECURITY, NOT CENSORSHIP

in the 2000s, when the budget had the money for it? Personal interaction between Russians and Americans can dispel frightening myths about Russia much better than Russia Today can, and scientific cooperation raises the prestige of Russian science throughout the world. And after all, if Russians who go to the U.S. can be suspected of sympathizing with that country, why not invest in organizing a counterflow of Americans to Russia? Today these questions are already obsolete. Instead of nurturing relations, Russia and the

U.S. have instead paved the way to their complete ruin. The closure of all the Russian-American cooperation programs created in the 1990s is likely to be followed by programs that have been in place since the détente, thus spelling the end of the 1958 agreement. And there’s not much distance between that and the symbolic unplugging of the hotline between the White House and the Kremlin. If, however, we proceed from the assumption that no one — either in Moscow, or in Washington — wants to start an actual war between Russia and the U.S., then amid all the fierce rhetoric, economic sanctions and diplomatic struggles, the challenge facing both societies is to strengthen, not destroy, contacts at a nonpolitical level. It would be inappropriate to call what is going on with culture, science and education“sanctions,” because gains and losses are viewed completely differently in these fields. Can you imagine a ban on reading Hemingway and Twain in Russia, and a titfor-tat prohibition on Tolstoy and Chekhov in the U.S.? But unfortunately, the closure of exchange programs is closer to that absurd ban than it is to the sanctions against imports of chicken legs and microchips. It is these educational and cultural contacts that bind us together and lay the groundwork for better relations in the future. Politicians understood this well during the Cold War. Our generation would do well to consider it, too. Ivan Kurilla is the head of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Area Studies atVolgograd State University.

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Oleg Demidov RUSSIA DIRECT

s Russia pushing the Internet to the brink of fragmentation? The question is often asked with regard to the Russian Security Council’s plans to ensure protection of the Russian Internet (the Runet) from external threats, which might include its disconnection from the global Internet. To answer this question, it is important to examine the two layers of infrastructure where a potential disconnection could take place. One is at the point of physical connection — cross-border fiber optic cables owned by major Internet service providers (I.S.P.s) and the key Internet Exchange Points (I.X.P.s). One of the strategies for the Russian state in case of an emergency might be to order the major I.S.P.s to terminate their operations and to block the operations of the key I.X.P.s. However, the Runet is simply too developed, and has too sophisticated and diversified an infrastructure for this strategy to work. There are multiple crossborder cables, many of which are linked directly to foreign I.S.P.s’ networks instead of the I.X.P.s in Russia. Additionally, there are mobile connections and satellite communications. There is, however, another layer of infrastructure layer where a disconnect could occur — the national segment of the Domain Name System (D.N.S.). The D.N.S. is a global hierarchical database that enables association of domain names with I.P. addresses for all nodes and devices in the Internet. Due to its hierarchical nature, the D.N.S. is managed in a centralized manner, with root servers, its top level, distributed all over the world. The root servers are the first step in translat-

NATALIA MIKHAYLENKO

I

ing inquiries from humans into I.P. addresses that allow for communication between Internet hosts. Russia could, in principle, create a D.N.S. system with its own root servers. This would require setting up D.N.S. servers

Russia could, in principle, set up D.N.S. servers in the country to perform the functions of root servers. The politicized approach to issues being discussed creates real divisions in the minds of stakeholders. in Russia to perform the functions of the root servers and to ensure autonomous association of Russian domain names with the I.P. addresses. Theoretically, implementation of such measures would make the Runet complete-

ly autonomous from the global Internet. But this option would imply the fragmentation of the Internet. Establishment of a national D.N.S. Root would establish a precedent that the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) would very likely regard as opening Pandora’s box. The expansion of such practices on a nation-by-nation basis would not only undermine ICANN’s power and functions, but would effectively mean the breakup of the Internet into smaller national segments. Is Russia going to shake up the fundamental nature of the Internet’s architecture that far? This is hardly likely. Remember, Russia is connected to the global Internet not only by wires and cables, but also by a $30 billion Internet sector and by $250 billion in Internet-dependent business within the broader national economy. The Russian government does grasp the globalized nature of Internet businesses, so it would not undermine one of the major non-hydrocarbon drivers of Russia’s economic growth over the last decade.

Besides, despite Russia’s rather rocky relationship with ICANN, the idea of fragmentation is actually not what the Russian government is trying to develop. This is all about state sovereignty on the Internet in the first place, and protection of the national segment of the Internet from any external threats in the second. Both goals might be achieved without isolation of the national segment from the global Internet as the new default mode. Control over major layers of the Internet’s infrastructure, which is incorporated in the digital sovereignty concept, does not imply its isolation. And this is clearly identifiable from the statements of the Russian delegates at key international forums. What should be stressed in this regard is that the basic incentive behind such moves lies in the security domain, and has very little to do with the rights and freedoms of Russians on the Internet. The politicization of Internet governance issues has resulted in the West accusing Russia of oppressing Internet freedoms, while Russia sees the technical body of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) as a potential transmission mechanism for U.S. sanctions. The problem is that the lack of mutual trust and the politicized approach to the issues being discussed create real divisions in the minds of stakeholders. Then, as a consequence, these divisions start to be demarcated at the infrastructure level. The answer is to focus on preventing the politicization of Internet governance rather than worrying about fragmentation of the Internet. Oleg Demidov is Project Director, International Information Security and Global Internet Governance at PIR Center.

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How Moscow Might Respond to Financial Sanctions OCTOBER 2014 MONTHLY MEMO With the West preparing to announce a new round of sanctions against Russia aimed squarely at the financial sector, Russian lawmakers are not sitting idly by. Find out what steps Russia is ready to undertake to protect its economy and financial sector, and how realistic these initiatives really are.

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CORRECTION In the opinion, “A Long Road Ahead for Eastern Ukraine,” which appeared on Page 6 of the Sept. 17 edition, we identified the breakaway region of Transnistria as being located

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The Arts

RUSSIA BEYOND THE HEADLINES Section sponsored by Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Russia www.rbth.com

History Russia’s best-known porcelain manufacturer celebrated a milestone in September

BEHIND THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

Uncover the Secrets of Russian Fine China

From Mikhail to Misha — Deciphering Russian Names Alexey Mikheev SPECIAL TO RBTH

NINA FREIMAN SPECIAL TO RBTH

In September, one of Russia’s most cherished institutions, the Imperial Porcelain Factory in St. Petersburg, marked its 270th anniversary. The name of the factory has become synonymous in Russia with fine china and tableware, and items decorated with its iconic blue-and-gold pattern, known as the cobalt net, are among the most popular souvenirs for visitors looking for something other than a nesting doll or a fur hat. The Imperial Porcelain Factory was founded in 1744 by Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, a daughter of Peter I (the Great). Elizaveta invited Christopher Hunger from Saxony to start the factory. Peter had first seen porcelain during a visit to Saxony in 1718. Hunger’s assistant was DmitryVinogradov, one of the first Russian chemists. Unfortunately Hunger turned out to be a charlatan — not only did he not invent a kind of Russian porcelain, but he even failed to replicate German fine china. Hunger only managed to manufacture six cups. In the autumn of 1746, Vinogradov replaced him as head of the factory.

1,200 ANATOLY MEDVED

people currently work at the factory, which has influenced the names of many institutions in its St. Petersburg neighborhood.

From formula to production By January 1747,Vinogradov was producing porcelain. According to historian Konstantin Pisarenko, the technology used at the factory was actually Chinese in origin. In 1741, Russian Alexei Vladykin, a businessman who was living in China making trade connections, learned the formula for porcelain from a document obtained from high-ranking contacts in China. However, Vladykin was only able to return to Russia — with the secret formula — in 1746.

Porcelain cemetery In the nearly 300 years of its existence, the factory has expanded and influenced the surrounding neighborhood. The railroad station next door is called the Farforovskaya Railway Station after farfor, the Russian word for porcelain. The word also appears in the names of the nearby Farforovskoye Cemetery and the Farforovsky Overpass.The St. Petersburg subway station closest to the factory was also named in its honor: Lomonosovskaya. During the Soviet era, the factory was renamed after Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. According to Tatyana Tylevich, general director of the Imperial Porcelain Factory, the enterprise currently employs around 1,200 people. There are three work-

shops: one for soft-paste porcelain (animal sculpture), one for hard-paste porcelain and one for bone china. The items made of bone china are so thin that they literally shine in the light and ring when they are tapped with a pencil— which is done to every item before it is sold to make sure there are no cracks. The factory’s main European competitors are British producer Wedgwood and German manufacturer Meissen. However, these companies now produce most of their items in Southeast Asia, although design is still done in Europe. “The Imperial Factory is one of the few in Europe that has not moved its production facilities to other regions,” Tylevich said, adding, “Our products can’t be torn away from the place where they have been manufactured for 270 years.” But while the factory’s management, equipment and manpower are Russian, its raw materials are imported from abroad — from Ukraine. At the start of the fighting in Ukraine, the factory decided to procure a year’s worth of raw materials. “We’re

Patterns include the famous cobalt net as well as designs inspired by the avant-garde.

The Imperial Porcelain Factory was founded in 1744 by the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, a daughter of Peter I. looking forward to a rapid conclusion to this conflict. We had several stores in Ukraine,”Tylevich said. “Now they’ve suspended their operations, but their owners are focused on future cooperation.”

Jack of all trades Even though she has been working with porcelain for as long as she can remember and has been with the factory for 40 years, Nelya Petrova, the Imperial Factory’s chief artist, admits that por-

rbth.com/literature

BIBLIOPHILE

A Russian-EnglishTranslator Reveals Her Wish List

ers to the company, including Mariinsky star Leonid Sarafanov and Natalia Osipova and Ivan Vasiliev of the Bolshoi. Kekhman later summed up his success in an interview: “My theater is the second best in Russia. As for the best one, let the others sort this out between themselves!” While Kekhman’s personal fortunes have since taken a turn for the worse — he was declared

bankrupt in London in 2012 — the Mikhailovsky’s star continues to rise. After successful tours in Germany and the U.K., the Mikhailovsky will travel to the United States and Japan this fall. Marat Shemiunov said the goal of the tour is simple:“Make them ask us to come back.” Read the full story at rbth.com/40571

preciated and translated ‘Harlequin’s Costume’ on spec, convinced that it would find a publisher SPECIAL TO RBTH eventually.” arian Schwartz, who “I became a translator,”she said, has been translating “largely because I felt that was Russian literature the one role — bringing Russian since 1978, won the literature to the English-speak2014 Read Russia award for Con- ing audience — I could play best. temporary Literature on Sept. It was something a native speak6 for her translation of Leonid er of Russian could not do.” Yuzefovich’s “Harlequin’s CosSchwartz worked as a translatume.” Her work recreates the tor for Nina Berberova, the émidifferent voices in this postmod- gré novelist and short story writern whodunit to great effect. er. The partnership lasted from The novel is the first in a 1981 until Berberova’s death in trilogy, based on the real-life 1993. Said Schwartz ,“I’ve always adventures of Ivan Putilin, a felt that that collaboration was legend in his own lifetime. In definitive for me.” the late 19th century Putilin was The intended readership is cena chief inspector of police chas- tral to Schwartz’s perception of ing St. Petersburg’s most noto- her role. Apart from Yuzefovich, rious criminals. Later contem- the authors she wants to transporaries dubbed him a Russian late more of in future include Sherlock Holmes, but in Yuze- Andrei Gelasimov, whose comic, fovich’s hands, Putilin’s stories poignant, accessible novels she become something richer and has almost single-handedly more multilayered than tradi- brought to the attention of Antional murder mysteries.“Har- glophone readers. She also has lequin’s Costume”originally ap- her eye on Olga Slavnikova’s novel peared in Russian in 2001, and “The Man Who Couldn’t Die its sequel,“Prince of the Wind,” (Bessmertny)”and Dina Rubina’s won the National Bestseller lit- novel“The Petrushka Syndrome.” erary prize. “What all these books have in “Having translated about 70 common, apart from their literbooks over the last 35-plus ary brilliance,”said Schwartz,“is years, fewer than five of them, what I see as their potential approbably, have been at my ini- peal to the Western reader.” tiative,” Schwartz said during Read the full story at the Read Russia Award Presenrbth.com/39771 tations in Moscow.“I found, apPhoebe Taplin

M

There are three official distributors for Imperial Porcelain in New York — one in Manhattan, one in Brooklyn and one in Brighton Beach.

Mikhailovsky dancers will bring Giselle to Lincoln Center next month.

Learn more about Russian names and their origins at rbth.com/double_agents

Read our updated literature section!

ELENA BLEDNYKH

Kekhman’s aggressive management techniques were not universally welcomed. His first two years in charge were marred by internal conflict. Today, however, the company is gaining recognition — both in Russia and abroad. “The impulse and the momentum that Vladimir Kekhman brought are without precedent in the international history of opera and ballet, there is no doubt about that”,said Marat Shemiunov, who began dancing with the Mikhailovsky company at the age of 14. One of Kekhman’s strengths is his ability to surround himself with good people and to make

them understand his vision. Kekhman has enlisted Farukh Razumatov, a former principal dancer and assistant director of the Kirov Ballet at the Mariinsky, as the Mikhailovsky’s artistic advisor for ballet, as well as Russian mezzo-soprano Elena Obraztsova as the artistic advisor for opera. Both Razumatov and Obraztsova are household names in Russia, and their celebrity has contributed to the rebuilding of the Mikhailovsky’s reputation. In 2011, Kekhman appointed Spanish choreographer Nacho Duato as the Mikhailovsky Ballet’s artistic director. Duato’s reputation helped attract new danc-

for the same name. For example, Dmitry can be shortened to Dima or Mitya. Full names are used in official papers and in formal communication, while at home and among friends Russians are usually known under their diminutives. To express even closer relations and affection, pet names are used, which are usually formed by adding yet another suffix to the diminutive. During the first years after the Bolshevik Revolution, the Communist authorities actively promoted new names that reflected the arrival of a new era. Usually, they were formed by abbreviating the names of the leaders of the revolution. Vilen was formed on the basis of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, or Melor, which was formed from Marx, Engels, Lenin, and October Revolution; or a girl’s name Ninel, which was Lenin read backwards. There were also some rather strange sounding names inspired by advances in science and technology, such as Elektron or Industri, while the female name Domna, which in Russian means a blast furnace, turned out to be an ancient Roman name. While the current American president’s first name means a hut in Russian, the current Russian president’s name, Vladimir, is formed from two words and literally means “one who rules the world.”It has several diminutives: Volodya, Vova and Vovochka, which is closely associated with a long-running series of jokes featuring a naughty schoolboy.

LITERATURE

celain is a capricious material. It can shrink by as much as 13–14 percent during firing, and the different types of paints used to paint the works require different firing temperatures. Nevertheless, Petrova considers the material quite flexible. “You can do a lot of things with porcelain; for example, a table or chandelier. We have an artist who can improvise a whole dress from pieces of porcelain,”Petrova said. “The material isn’t good except for jewelry. It’s too fragile.” Unglazed porcelain in its liquid state it is called slurry. This material, which is reminiscent of cocoa in terms of color and texture, is used for sculptures that are created with porous plaster molds. Each sculpture requires several molds. When the slurry solidifies, the parts are combined. The illustrations painted on the figures seem completely black at first, but turn gold after hours in the oven. Even after many years of use, the gold never fades.

Mikhailovsky Theater Finally Gets a Turn in the Spotlight CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1

rom a foreigner’s point of view, the most “Russian” male name is Ivan (the Russian equivalent of John). For many centuries this name was popular among all social strata, from ordinary peasants to the royal family. At the same time, it was the name’s ubiquity that in the end compromised its reputation somewhat. For instance, the main character in countless folk tales, the youngest and most hapless son in the family is usually called Ivanushkadurachok, a diminutive of Ivandurak, meaning Ivan the fool. Having said that, he appears a fool only at the start of the tale, while in the end he always emerges victorious. In the 20th century the name Ivan lost its popularity and began to be associated primarily with a person of poor education, limited intellectual ambitions and sloth-like habits (hence the expression “valyat’ van’ku”, meaning to be idle). Most Russian names have a diminutive. As a rule, it is formed by adding the ending “sha”to the initial syllable of a name. For example, Mikhail becomes Misha; Pavel, Pasha; Maria, Masha; Darya, Dasha. Sometimes to produce a diminutive, it is not the ending but the beginning of the full name that is dropped (so Ivan becomes Vanya) or both, with only the middle bit remaining (so Alexander becomes Sasha). Sometimes these different mechanisms produce two diminutives

F

Russia’s Imperial Porcelain Factory still produces items on the same site in St. Petersburg, nearly 300 years after its founding by a daughter of Peter the Great.

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RBTH presents a brand new section on Russian cuisine

Discover more about the country’s cuisine and culinary traditions with useful tips from our authors, workshops from Delicious TV and recipes from The Soviet Diet Cookbook >>rbth.com/russian_kitchen


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RUSSIA BEYOND THE HEADLINES

MOST READ How Running Got Back on Track in Russia rbth.com/40101

Section sponsored by Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Russia www.rbth.com

Sport Bored with the N.B.A. preseason? Try V.T.B. United League.

JAMES ELLINGWORTH SPECIAL TO RBTH

The last few days before the N.B.A. season starts will feel even longer than usual this year for hardcore basketball fans. As the U.S. national team went undefeated 9–0 on its way to victory at the FIBA World Cup in Spain in September, the competition was the usual mix of U.S. glory and exotica. There was the Americans’ 129– 92 domination of Serbia in the final; their traditional doublingup of a hapless preliminary round opponent (this time Finland, 114– 55); and a few outlandish touches — such as the bemused looks on American faces when faced with New Zealand’s traditional haka war dance. After the excitement and exotica of the World Cup, N.B.A. preseason feels a little underwhelming. Naturally, any true fan will watch his own team’s preseason games, seeing how the roster comes together for a potential shot at the championship. But obsessively watching other teams’ preseason is a step too far for many — especially if that other team is full of unpronouncable names. But for real fans who have been bitten by the international basketball bug and are seeking a new source of excitement to fill their time, Russia is a good choice. The Russian national team missed out on qualifying for the FIBA World Cup, which might

lead fans to think that Russian basketball is going through a tough time. But this is not the case. The national team is indeed mired in trouble — fierce infighting at the Russian Basketball Federation has created chaos behind the scenes. The team won Olympic bronze in 2012, but the unending back-biting laid the ground for an abject EuroBasket campaign last year. The storied Team Russia finished 1–4 in the competition. Still, despite the hassle at the federation, Russian club basketball remains among the strongest in Europe. And, handily for U.S. fans seeking another overseas thrill during preseason, the Russian season began on Oct. 3 and the games are readily available online. The main competition league for Russian teams is the V.T.B. United League. Games and other information about teams in the league is available in English at vtb-league.com. Teams from six countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia compete in theV.T.B. United League, but it is dominated by Russian clubs. The overwhelming favorite, unsurprisingly for anyone with knowledge of Russian basketball, is CSKA Moscow. CSKA, founded in the 1920s as the team of the Soviet Army, boasts four Americans on its roster, including ex–Toronto Raptors forward Sonny Weems, and has proved its ability to keep up with N.B.A. power. Last year, a mini-tour of the U.S. during the N.B.A. preseason saw CSKA defeat the Minnesota Timberwolves 108–106 and go down fighting

98–96 to the San Antonio Spurs, a highly creditable performance against the eventual league champion. CSKA is indisputably the big dog in Russia, having won the last three V.T.B. titles, most recently with a 3–0 domination of Nizhny Novgorod in last year’s final series, which included a 27-point blowout. Still, Goliaths are there to be taken down by plucky Davids, and CSKA can be beaten — they were taken down by Khimki in the 2011 V.T.B. finals. Among other challengers, Nizhny Novgorod is not as bad a team as last year’s finals suggest, while Zenit St. Petersburg could emerge as a challenger this season after being relocated and picking up funding from deep-pocketed gas monopoly Gazprom. Apart from Russia, teams from Finland, Kazakhstan, Latvia and

Last year during a mini-tour of the U.S., Moscow’s CSKA defeated the Minnesota Timberwolves 108-106.

Still, despite the hassle at the federation, Russian club basketball remains among the strongest in Europe.

high but there are fewer games, which are scattered throughout the season schedule in two lengthy preliminary rounds before the playoffs. But there’s one more, less obvious reason to keep an eye on Russian basketball — you could be watching N.B.A. coaches of the future. Before joining up as coach of the Cleveland Cavaliers (and LeBron James) this summer, David Blatt learned his trade with two Russian clubs and the country’s national team. As the new assistant coach of the Spurs, former CSKA coach Ettore Messina brings the knowledge of four Euroleague titles to an N.B.A. champion famed for its European-style team game. Even the N.B.A.’s first female assistant coach, Becky Hammon, who joined the Spurs last month, has Russian history — she played for the national team as a naturalized citizen. A few years in the future, you could be watching your N.B.A. team announce its new coach, a mysterious rising star from Europe who cut his teeth in theV.T.B. United League.

Estonia also often feature in the finals. CSKA is also a constant presence in the Final Four of the Euroleague, the strongest basketball competition outside North America. With top teams from Spain, Greece and Israel also in the mix, the standard of competition is

Will Prokhorov say “nyet” to a deal for the Nets? As the N.B.A. season gets underway, the prospects for the Brooklyn Nets have become less a subject for discussion than their ownership. This has mostly been the case for the Nets since 2010, when Russian billionaire Mikhail Prokhorov paid $200 million for an 80 percent stake in the team. Prokhorov and his Russian-ness have factored into the team’s popularity. “Mikhail’s been a very visible presence,” said Irina Pavlova, president of Onexim Sports and Entertainment Holding USA, the company that holds Prokhorov’s interest in the team. Some home games boast Russian Heritage Nights and YouTube clips

of players learning Russian during practice have popped up online. But at the beginning of October came news that Prokhorov was considering selling the team to Guggenheim Sports and Entertainment Assets. Regardless of how the deal plays out, Prokhorov can take credit for, as Pavlova said, “making it popular to be a Nets fan.” As columnist Mike Chiara wrote on Bleacherreport, “Even if Prokhorov’s tenure as owner of the franchise is cut short... his contributions will be remembered, as he has managed to make the Nets a popular and modern brand.”

GETTY IMAGES/FOTOBANK

With still half a month before the N.B.A. season explodes into life, the Russian basketball season gives serious fans an opportunity to branch out.

GETTY IMAGES/FOTOBANK

Russian Basketball Worth Another Look for American Fans

Jared Feldschreiber

DISCOVER RUSSIA TOGETHER

In the 1950s and 1960s, the United States and the Soviet Union rushed to be the first in space. (Russia was the biggest part of the Soviet Union; it became an independent country in 1991.) On Oct. 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first satellite into space — Sputnik 1. Sputnik is the Russian word for satellite. The first American satellite, the Explorer 1, was launched Jan. 31, 1958.

Many kids in both Russia and the U.S. dream of visiting other planets. Today, American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts often work together — so if you hope to work in space, learning Russian is a good idea.

Learn Russian! On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin blasted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome and became the first human to orbit the earth. Three weeks later, on May 5, 1961, American Alan Shepard also made it into space. But the Americans were first on the moon. Apollo 11 landed on the moon on July 20, 1969. Russian space travelers are called “cosmonauts,” which means “sailor of the universe” in Greek. The American term, astronaut, means “sailor of the stars.”

Space - космос (kohz-mohs) Planet - планета (pla-net-ah) Star – звезда (zvez-dah) Constellation – созвездие (sohz-vez-dee-ah) Space ship – космический корабль (kohzmee-chez-kee koh-rah-bl) Aliens – пришельцы (pree-shelt-see) Spacesuit – скафандр (ska-fahn-der)

Later, the U.S. and the Soviet Union cooperated in space. The countries worked together to construct the first space station, Mir, which operated from 1986-1996. Today, Russian and American space travelers work together on many projects at the International Space Station (I.S.S.) and train together at Star City, outside of Moscow, and at NASA’s training facilities.

NATALIA MIKHAYLENKO

Crossword

Strelka, whose name means “arrow” in Russian, was one of two “space dogs” launched into orbit by the Soviet Union in 1960. Strelka and her partner Belka, whose name means “squirrel,” spent a day in space before safely returning to earth. Accompanying them on their journey were a rabbit and 42 mice. They were the first living things to survive a voyage into orbit. After her flight, Strelka continued her space training. She later had six puppies. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev gave one of them as a present to President John F. Kennedy’s daughter, Caroline.

Animals in Space: Exploring the Universe Before Humans

Read about the creatures that have found their way into orbit rbth.com/39879

DPA/VOSTOCK-PHOTO

Across 1. One of the first dogs in space 3. The Russian word for satellite 4. Where Neil Armstrong walked 6. What aliens might fly 8. The planet both Russian and American space programs hope to reach soon Down 1. Where Russian space ships take off from 2. Abbreviation for the space station operating today 5. The Russian word for astronaut 7. The first man in space 9. One of the first dogs in space

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RBTH for the New York Times  

Russia Beyond the Headlines supplement distributed with the New York Times in the U.S.

RBTH for the New York Times  

Russia Beyond the Headlines supplement distributed with the New York Times in the U.S.

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