Page 1

THE HISTORY OF

RAILWAYS Take

a

journey through time

from

to discover the history

the pioneering days of steam to the high-speed electric trains

BR BR J

TF148 ,H9B L998x

of railways,

of today


O N T

E

N T

S

feostonNtftelforam The

First

Steam Railway

2-3

Steam Locomotives

Come

of Age

How

Steam

a

4-5

Locomotive Works

6-7

American Railroads

8-9

Railways Across the World

10-11

Building a Railroad

12-13

Passenger

Comfort

W W:

14-15

Railroad Stations

&

16-17

Signal Boxes

Freight

&

the

Railroad Mail

18-19

Electric Trains

20-21

Diesel Trains

22-23

Great Train Journeys

24-25

Great Steam Engines

26-27

Traveling

Underground

The Future

Index

32 Inside

M

Back Cover

1

/

3

,

28-29 30-31

Did You Know?

i&

jH

1 /

••...-


9J


Wills' 5

Cigarettes PUFFING BILLY Many

on the

early locomotives stayed

tracks

by

having driving wheels that slotted into grooves

one of the

The

rail tracks.

Hedley designed sufficient grip

train

in

William

British engineer

wheels so that there was

between smooth wheels and

rails

without the need for grooves. In 1813 he built a

lpfcÂŤ

train called Puffing Billy using this

BR BR

was used

J

England to a nearby

to carry coal

from

a

new

mine

design.

in the

It

north of

river.

TF148 .H96 t998x

CUGNOT'S STEAM CAR

Experiments with steam engines were not In France Nicholas

produced the

first

Cugnot,

moving

just taking place in Britain

a military engineer

powered

vehicle

by steam. In 1769 he designed a three-

wheeled car

French army to

for the

move cannons. The weight huge copper boiler

difficult to steer

it it

built another

demonstrated it

and on

ran into a stone wall.

Cugnot

of the

at the front

made trip

its first

The

next year

machine, which he

in Paris.

It

turned over

tried to turn a corner.

as

Cugnot was

arrested as a public nuisance

and

his

machine was

impounded.

TREVITHICKS EXPERIMENTS Richard Trevirhick contributed to the development of the locomotive

by being the

steam-powered vehicles onto

working

for the

owners of

first

He

rails.

tin

person to put learned his trade

mines

in

Cornwall,

England. As the mines were dug deeper and deeper, the

problem

of draining

them became

greater. Trevithick

developed a steam engine to

pump

water from the

mines.

He

built his first

steam-powered locomotive Christmas Eve and pulled In at

1804 he

a

in

1801.

built his first railroad

Coalbrookdale

in

of his trains in

It

was demonstrated on

number of people up

a steep

Shropshire. In 1808 he decided to

London. He

hill.

locomotive for an ironworks

built a circular track in

show one Eaton

Square, one of the most fashionable parts of London, and

charged people to

The locomotive

travel in a carriage pulled

Ircvithick failed to get

transportation.

by

a locomotive.

did not catch the public imagination and

He

any

interest in this

new form of

returned to his native Cornwall and

continued working on stationary steam engines, including steam threshing machine and the

first

a

rock-boring machine.


The

First

^^fc ^ehicles

1

/

Jf

Steam Railway

that traveled

by

rail

existed long before

the arrival of the steam train.

From

the sixteenth

century wagons were being pulled along wooden

rails at

mines throughout Europe. Grooves cut into the

paved roads of the ruined city of Pompeii show that primitive horsedrawn railways (or railroads) existed

even during the time of the Romans. This made traveling

much

easier since the wheels rolled along

smoother surface. However, it still relied on the muscle power of humans or animals. As a means of transportation it was slow and could be used only for short distances. Although steam power was understood by the ancient Greeks, effective steam engines were not built until the middle of the eighteenth century. At first steam was mostly used to power stationary machines. It was only through the vision and determination of engineers in Britain and France that steam began to power the railroads. Fast and long-distance travel then became a reality.

"CATCH MF WHO CAN"

a

(

)ne of the reasons

improvement on

thai he

found

in

1812.

by means of grooves It

was used

It

stayed on the track

in the

to carry coal

wheels and tracks.

from

a colliery to

the city of Leeds, a distance of 3.5 miles.

.gflj

way

to

the

in

engine under high pressure. This

meant

thai the

steam

engine could be more powerful without making it

bigger. Trevithick used a

high-pressure steam engine

on the

train

Who

he showed

London. The

on

a

train

"( "att h

Can" by

because

Blenkinsop

a

put the steam

was tailed

This steam locomotive was built by John

earlier

steam-driven vehicles was

in

HAULING COAL

why

Trcvi thick's trains were an

it

its

Me

passengers

traveled

circular track.

•


Steam Locomotives

Come

of

he early attempts

Flying Scotsman

is

steam-powered

at

ocomotion showed that it was possible travel at speeds and distances that,

THE FLYING SCOTSMAN The

Age

one

until then, could only be imagined.

Two

nonstop between London

George and Robert Stephenson (father and son), carried out further development work and went on

and Edinburgh,

to build reliable

of the

most famous steam

trains ever built.

built in

1

923 and

It

was

traveled

a distance

of about 390 miles, even

managing

to

change crew

without stopping. At the time

this

was the world's

longest non-stop run.

claimed to be the train to reach

It is

first

100 miles

per hour, although this

cannot be

verified.

British engineers,

steam locomotives for

customers all over the world. Within a few decades whole countries and entire continents were linked by railway lines. Journeys that once took several days through inhospitable territory could

now

be done in just a few hours and in safety and comfort.

The steam locomotive

supreme

as the

most

reigned

common form

transport until the 1950s

when

it

of mass

was

superseded by diesel and electrical power. The passion for steam trains carries on and many are

still

carefully looked after

and run by railway

preservation societies. There are also the world where steam trains are

still

being used on a

commercial

some

\

*E

basis. In

parts of

MINH

L

TRIAL S

October 1829 the owners of the

Liverpool and Manchester Railway

announced

a

competition to find

the best locomotive for their railroad.

The

five trains entered were either horsedrawn or steam-driven.

It

won by

was

left),

the Rocket (shown

largely designed

Robert Stephenson, It

by

(right).

traveled

70 miles at an average speed of 15 miles per hour. His victory also meant the triumph of the steam locomotive over horse power.


THE LOCOMOTION It

who convinced

was George Stephenson

the

owners of the Stockton and Darlington Railway steam

to use

The

first

Locomotion,

For the

trains instead

of horsepowercd wagons.

locomotive that he built for the railroad was the

first

front

shown

here.

pulled 28 coal-filled wagons.

It

time there was

connecting rod between

a

and back wheels enabling them

George Stephenson

built three

t

he-

to turn together

more locomotives

lor the

Stockton and Darlington Railway.

STILL USING Steam This

trains are is

still

being used commercially

in several countries, particularly India

because steam trains remain simple to operate and cheap to maintain.

replacing

steam

STEAM

them with new

trains in operation

electric trains

diesel or electric trains

can be very high. India

still

because of the high cost of

oil

several

of their old steam

and China.

eost ol

has nearly 5,000

and China has about 7,000, more than the number

combined. Zimbabwe repaired

The

of diesel

and

trains in the- late

1970s

and the

lower cost of coal.

THE BEST FRIEND OF CHARLESTOWN The

commercial steam locomotive

first

that

was

built

and used

United States was called The Best Friend of Charlestown. passenger train over 6 miles on metal and

wooden

rails

It

first

in

the

pulled a

on Christmas Day

1830. After running successfully for several months, the locomotive exploded.

The

engine's fireman

had closed the

safety valve of the boiler

because the noise of the engine annoyed him.

Stockfoa*

THE STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON RAILWAY

IWiincr,,,,

Railway. Tin' <nnimini\ ÂŁCOACHfi 4

The Stockton and Darlington Railway in England was the first to use steam locomotives. The engraving on the left shows the opening of the railroad on September 27, 1825. With 25 miles of line laid

EXPERIMENT,

it

was the longest in

railroad in the world.

It

was

cÂť

MONDAY.

built

an area surrounded by coal mines and was

soon carrying over year. line

The

was

halt a million tons ol coal a

poster on the right

shows

also used to carry passengers.

that the I

he

first

passenger train was called the Experiment and

was

a great

success.

muMT

WKDNEBDAT,' * rarDAY.

SATURDAY.


ON THE FOOTPLATE There were always two crew members

The

speed.

The fireman had

and that the

fire

and regulating

was water

to see that there

was kept stoked up with the

Too much steam and valves

the cab of a locomotive.

in

driver was responsible for driving the train

right

its

in the boiler

amount

of fuel.

the safety

would shut down the

engine to stop the boiler from exploding; not enough steam

and the

train

would

stop.

EARLY IDEAS This illustration comes from

book

called

a

Mathematical Elements

of Natural Philosophy Confirmed by It shows that

Experiments, printed in 1747.

some people were thinking about using steam power for twenty years before Cugnot built his steam car. It would have worked by heating up water in the boiler and producing a jet of steam. In theory this would push

travel over

the vehicle forward, an unlikely outcome.

A

lot of fue

would be needed to produce enough steam to move the machine, and that would have made the vehicle too heavy. It

took another two decades before

it

was

realized that the

steam had to be put under pressure before

it

could produce sufficient

power

TURNING THE WHEELS

HEATING

THE WATER The

In this cross section

piston

is

encased inside

The steam

of a steam locomotive

a cylinder.

there are lots of tubes

the cylinder

enters

and pushes the

running along the

piston forward, which then

length of the

turns the wheel. Each time

locomotive.

These tubes

the piston

surrounded by water.

The

turns through one

hot gases from

revolution.

MOVING THE STEAM

the firebox pass along

and

this

heats the water

and

these tubes

produces steam.

moves forward

and backward the wheel

are

escapes.

The steam

collects at this

dome,

and then passes along

a

called a regulator valve,

tube to the pistons.

As the piston

goes back, the steam

More steam now

enters the cylinder

and

starts the process again.


How a

Steam Locomotive Works he idea that steam could be used

/halad

r

as a source of power been around for centuries, long before the invention

Roman

oftthe locomotive. In

STEAM FROM A KETTLE

Egypt, Hero of Alexandria

designed a machine that relied on steam power. However,

it is

generally accepted that effective steam technology really began

1698 when Thomas Savery invented the "Miner's Friend," a steam engine for pumping water out of mines. His invention was improved upon in the eighteenth in

England

in

Thomas Newcomen, James Watt, and Matthew Boulton. By the end of the century, steam engines were powering factories, mills, and pumps both in Europe and America. It was Richard Trevithick who applied this

h

engine whenever kettle

trains.

heating water to

is

heated.

a

The

steam created by boiling water

century by

technology to

easy to sec the

is

principles of a Steam

expands inside the kettle.

Steam trains work by produce steam. The steam

is

As more steam

produced

it

is

forced oui under pressure through the spout.

expands and the resulting pressure pushes a piston backward

and forward. The moving piston turns the wheels of the train by means of a rod and crank connected to it. Although the design of the steam locomotive gradually improved, the

worked has not changed

significantly to the

present day.

NEWCOMENS STEAM ENGINE This diagram shows the steam engine invented by the Englishman

Newcomen

in

1712.

was used

It

to

pump

water out of mines.

steam into the cylinder. As the steam cooled This pulled

Different kinds of locomotives are classified by the

way

in

which

their wheels are arranged.

small wheels at the front are called the

leading wheels, the larger wheels are the driving

wheels connected to the pistons and the

back wheels are known wheels.

Many American

as the trailing

locomotives

had four leading wheels and four driving wheels but no trailing wheels.

known

shrank and

a

Thomas

worked by pushing

vacuum was

created.

down the piston, which raised the pump rods and removed the water. The piston was then raised by weights attached to the pump rods.

COUNTING THE WHEELS

The

it

It

as the

They were

4-4-0 type.

way

it


In

1

830

was held between

a race

horsedrawn

train.

It

a

steam locomotive, Tom Thumb, and a

took place on a stretch of the Baltimore-Ohio

Tom Thumb broke down and

the horse

won

line.

the race.

CONFLICT WITH THE INDIANS Many the

who

of the people

American

built

railroad system

thought they were buildin

on uninhabited

land. In fact,

they often laid track through territory that

belonged to

American Indian

tribes. It

local

is

perhaps

not surprising that the Indians saw the arrival of the railroad,

and

the settlements that were built around

them,

as a threat to their

way of life and

attacked the trains.

AN AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE This train shows

many of the

modifications added to

American steam locomotives. The bars called cowcatchers

by

and protected the

train

large animals, like buffalo. Since

at the front

were

from being derailed

much

of the track was

unprotected, a large lamp was placed at the front of the train to

warn people of its approach. Early American

locomotives used the firebox.

A

wood

wire

chimney

rather than coal as fuel for

mesh had

to catch

to be placed in the

any burning wood sparks

LINKING A CONTINENT 1863 over 10,000 workers

In January

Pacific Railroad started to lay track

for the Central

westward from

Sacramento. In December 1865 12,000 workers from the

Union

Pacific Railroad

eastward from lines

met

1869, the

at

began to build new tracks

Omaha. Over

three years later the

Promontory Point

last spike,

in

Utah.

10,

which was made of gold, was

driven in and united the two tracks. possible to take a train Pacific coast

two

On May

It

was

now

from the Atlantic coast

of the United States of America.

to the


Albany &Bnffak

American Railroads JO!

s

railways spread across Europe they provided

between cities and industrial centers. In the United States the story of the locomotive was very different. Railroads were built through areas that had not yet been settled. Towns were created along these railroads to serve the needs of the railroad companies and their customers. The railroads played an important part in opening up and developing many parts of

Through

im

35 fcwn-g. COBG

G0U.G WIST.

THE RAILROAD CRAZE The

railroads were

successful in the

American

The expansion of the

United States

was massive. In 1870 there were about 53,000 miles of track in the United States. By 1900 this figure had jumped to over 190,000 miles. It reached a peak in 1916 when there were 254,000 miles of track.

because die public

railroad system

found

it

a

cheap,

last,

and

way

to travel. In

reliable

the early wars, railroad

companies

made more money from passengers than from freight.

WILLS'

THE

ClOARETTEs

STOURBRIDGE LION In the early years of the steam

locomotive, American railroads were dominated

by English engineers and

factories.

Between

1

829 and

1841 over 100 locomotives were imported into the United States

from Eneland.

One

of the

first

of these was the Stourbridge Lion for the Delaware and Hudson Railroad.

which began work

in

1829.

It

proved to be too heavy

to run effectively.

THE DE WITT CLINTON The

first

locomotive in

New York

State ran

on August

9,

1831.

It

was called the De Witt Clinton. As the picture

shows, passengers traveled on the inside and outside of the carriages. Clinton,

who

died in 1828 after a career that

made him

a

It

was named

senator, a mayor,

W

new

links

the country.

II.

m^\

alter the politician a

governor

ol

New

De

\\

York,

itt

EAST.


Railways Across the World im fter Robert Stephenson won the Rainhill Trials ^HfeÂťl in 1829 with the Rocket, news of this exciting

^/

W new form

of transportation began to spread

around the world. People from many nations came to

and try it out. When they returned home they were determined to set up their own railway systems; but for many years Britain dominated the railway industry. Like the United States, many countries began by buying British-built trains. It was also British engineers who traveled around the world to supervise the laying of railway lines. After a while, other countries began to build their own locomotives or to modify the trains they had bought so that Britain to see

SWISS

MOUNTAINS Ordinary locomotives could not cope with the steep gradients of the Swiss mountains.

In

1882

a Swiss

the rack locomotive here.

By

the middle of the nineteenth

and major

Germany emerged

as

It

worked by having

a

toothed wheel that slotted into a

grooved central

they worked better in local conditions. century, the United States

engineer invented

shown

it

competitors of Britain in the building of locomotives for the world market.

rail.

THE CRAMPTON The

type of train trapped in the

snow

Crampton. These British-designed

in this picture

trains

was known

were very popular

in

as the

Europe,

particularly in France.

The

first

public railway line in France was opened in

1837 and ran between

Paris

and

St.

railways adopted the successful that as "taking the

many

Crampton

Germain. From the 1850s the French

engine.

people referred to

rail

They were

so

journeys

$>^x ^

Crampton."

GERMAN TRAINS At the beginning of the nineteenth century, what states.

The

picture shows the

first

train to

was the British-built Der

run

Adler,

is

now modern day Germany consisted of a Saxony. The first train in any of

in the state of

which ran

10

in

1835 between Nuremberg and

collection of small

the

Fiirth.

German

states


AN IMPERIAL RAILWAY much of

Since India was controlled by the British,

and other railway equipment

the track, locomotives,

was supplied by

British

railway line was

opened from Bombay

companies. The

April IS, 1853, a distance

of 25

first

to

Indian

Thana on

miles.

TRAVELING THE CONTINENT After independence in 1947, the railway

companies

in India

were nationalized by the government. Trains were modified to take

account of

America, the train

local conditions. Like early trains in in this picture has a

cowcatcher and

a powerful lamp.

BREAKING UP AFRICA In the

mid- 1880s the major

European powers met to carve

Each

up

developed

of the areas

railway system. states

in Berlin

between them.

.Africa

When

its

own

the African

gained independence they

found

thai twelve different

gauges use. is

of track

were

in

The tram shown

a

Beyer-< larratt

locomotive used by Nigerian Railways.

The

first

railroad in

Nigeria ran

^ 4 it

ft

a

STEAM ENGINES The

first

train in

The

Singawa.

to

From 1880 98

to

IN JAPAN

Japan ran on June line

was extended

railroad in China.

first

It

1876 and ran between Shanghai and Wuzong, a distance

of 20 miles.

Chinese revolution in

It

in

China began

was only

after the

1949 that railways to

expand

rapidly.

18~2. from

opened

Yokohama

Iokyo by October 1872.

1992 there were over

track.

CHINESE RAILWAYS This picture shows the

12,

to

1890 the Japanese railways grew from

to 1,459 miles. In

14,500 miles of

in

in

1901.


Building a Railroad uilding a railroad

is

not

as

simple as just

finding the shortest distance between

two points. As the Swiss railroad builders discovered, trains could not climb steep hills or mountains.

This was solved by either building the railroad around the

ISAMBARD

KINGDOM One

mountain, which saved money but

BRUNEI.

a passage through the mountain,

of the greatest railroad

engineers of the 19th

but cost more money.

century was Isambard

built in

Kingdom

He

started

Brunei.

work with

father building the

successful tunnel

River In

Thames

in

first

under the

London.

1833 he became

Western Railway and supervised the laying of the line between Bristol.

He

London

continued

to build railroad lines in

England and Wales, including two railroad bridges at Saltash

and Chepstow.

whom

first

which saved time was

railroad tunnel

1826 on the Manchester-Liverpool

line

and

was about one mile long. The longest railroad tunnel in the world is the Seikan tunnel in Japan, which is about 33 miles long. Railroad bridges also had to be constructed to cross rivers and valleys. The earliest railroad bridge was built on the Stockton-Darlington line in England in 1824. The longest bridge in the world today is the Huey P. Long Bridge in New Orleans and is over 23,000 feet long. The work of the railroad engineers and designers, such as Isambard Kingdom Brunei, is rightly remembered, but it is important not to forget thousands of ordinary people, some of

his

engineer for the Great

and

The

by carving

lost time, or

lost their lives in the process,

to these lasting

BLASTING During the

monuments

to

who

modern

also contributed

engineering.

THROUGH ROCK FOREIGN LABOR

early years of railroad

building, workers

had

to cut

through Railroad building required a

solid rock using only picks

shovels.

It

Nobel who

and

of workers, and

was the work of Alfred finally

railroad building

made this part of much less back-

companies

2*

many

relied

on foreign

workers. This photograph

shows American breaking. Nitroglycerine that

is

is

companies using Chinese labor.

managed it

with

a

to

1867 Alfred Nobel

make

it

stable

He

came

Chinese people

to California

during

by mixing

porous solid and so made

safe to use.

railroad

a liquid

very unstable and highly

explosive. In

lot

railroad

called his

new

the 1850s and

worked

as

it

unskilled labor. that 10,000

It is

estimated

Chinese workers

invention dynamite. built the railroad over the Sierras

12

and Rockies.


CROSSING THE RIVER Because railroads were built across kinds of territory,

all

became necessary

it

to build different kinds of bridges.

A

normal beam or arch bridge might

not be adequate for a train crossing a very wide river or valley.

The

Forth

Railway Bridge, which linked Edinburgh and

Dundee and

is

by King Edward VII

pictured on the right, was opened in

1890.

It

was one of the

made

cantilever bridges to be built. Cantilever bridges are steel

first

of tubular

towers joined together by a series of cables and brackets.

PAYING FOR

THE RAILWAY The

building of the railways

was often financed by governments because they realized their

the

economy

importance <>l

to

the country.

Money was

raised

government

shares.

by issuing

When

somebody bought a share they became a part-owner of the railroad company and shared (

in

any

profits

made.

rovernments were also

involved

in

ensuring that

sufficient land

was available

many owned by

toi

the railroads. Today, railroad lines are state or receive

subsidies.

en

'

TOOLS OF THE TRADE This picture from Punch magazine is called "Navvy in Heavy Marching Order" and shows many of the tools used by the

men who

built the railroads. Alongside

the pick and shovel, there

and

a

small wheelbarrow

"Navvy" came from the

first

were

is

a

hod

to carry

for carrying bricks

away

"navigators."

rocks.

The word

Workers hired

to dig

Some Many ot Workers who had

canals were called "internal navigators.'

later

employed

these workers

to build the railroads.

came from

Ireland.

helped to build the railroads

during the Crimean War

in

in Britain

1854.

were used

They helped

build a small railroad and dig trenches.

13

government

the


PULLMAN COMFORT 1859 an American

In

industrialist called

George

Pullman experienced

a very

uncomfortable train journey.

He in

decided to design a coach

which people could

and

eat with

more

comfort than on steamer."

modern

He

"sleep

ease

and

a first-class

EARLY PASSENGER COACHES

built the first

sleeping

car,

the

Pioneer, in 1863.

He

also

This picture shows one of the passenger trains.

built the first dining car

earliest

The coaches were

converted horse carriages. Those riding on

in 1868.

the outside were often covered in smoke.

~x

SLEEPING IN Pullman began

to sell his sleeping cars to

very popular and well

However, he was called

COMFORT

less

known

successful in

George Nagelmackers,

England

in

for their luxurious

Europe because

after seeing a

running

in

1868 and was

called the

Mann

They became

1866

in

Pullman car

started to build sleeping cars for Europeans. His started

1873.

compartments.

first

in

a Belgian

America,

sleeping car

Boudoir Sleeping Car.

MODERN COMFORT ROYAL TRAINS With

increasing competition from

aircraft

trains

and

now

cars,

The sumptuous

many modern

have to offer

a

this train

wide

range of services to attract

air

it.

that main-

European monarchs had

own cars built. Queen Victoria of

their

customers. This train has a movie screen built into

interior of

shows

Heating and

Britain

conditioning ensure that,

had

a luxurious

coach with thick

whatever the weather outside,

carpets

the passengers inside

walls.

remain comfortable.

and padded

It is

said she

enjoyed her sleeping car ore than her palaces.

14


Passenger Comfort ^fc

^

/When

///

â&#x201E;˘

the railroads were originally built they

were designed simply to carry goods

for short

companies soon realized that they could also make money by offering trains as a cheap and convenient form of transportation for travelers. Later, |f

distances. Railroad

people in the

if

THE ORIENT

number of

they realized that they would attract a larger

EXPRl

they offered more comfort. This became essential

United States as trains covered vast distances and people had to sleep on them. The

s s

For many, the mosi luxurious train of the Orient Express.

railroad

companies began

to

on [une

ran

offer different levels of

passenger accommodation

most went

who

at

paid the

and

"first class"

were given the most comfortable seats,

1

was

Ii

first

883, and

linked Paris and

Bucharest In

varying prices. Those

5,

all

more room, and the

smoothest journey. "SecondClass" passengers paid slightly

I

889

Romania.

continued

Bucharest to

|iast (

in it

now

Constantinople,

Aim

called Istanbul.

1919

on

it

included

route to

its

Its last

I

Italy

urkev.

journey was

Mav

in

1977.

and compartments were smaller and less comfortable. These two classes of railway travel still exist on many railroad

less

lines.

In the early years there was also a "third class," often a roofless

carriage without seats.

DIFFERENT CLASSES This picture from 1845, called

"Going

to the Derby,"

shows the

of service given

to

railway passengers. The picture

at

different kinds

the top shows first-class

passengers about to enter their

spacious carriage.

EARLY SLEEPERS

picture had

The Canadian Pacific Railway offered sleeping

These beds were

seats

and

elass far less

less

middle

legroom.

However, they did have both

accommodation

to everybody, not just the wealthy.

The second-

class passengers in the

a roof,

which (he

passengers

in the

third-

bottom

comfortable

than the beds offered by Pullman.

picture had to c\o without.


Railroad Stations & Signal Boxes

^

s

passengers began to use trains to travel from one

became clear that they needed some kind of platform and shelter while they were waiting for the train, and assistance to board it since the place to another,

it

doors were well above the ground. In 1835, in the

German

town of Nuremberg, a wooden shelter was placed over raised wooden platform. This became the world's first railroad station. The first major railroad station was Euston in London, which was built at the end of the 1830s. As the nineteenth century became larger and more ornate, using large amounts of steel and glass. Railway companies employed the best architects and engineers progressed, railroad stations

to design their stations.

SIGNALING ARMS One

of the

earliest

ways

of passing messages to the

moving

drivers of

trains

The upper arms

tell

the driver whether or not

should stop.

a train

The

lower arms are an advance

warning signals.

picture

for the next set

The is

to carry

largest of these

were rightly called "Temples of Steam." As the number of lines and the number of stations continued to grow, it became

was

through the use of signaling arms.

The

of

signal in this

increasingly important for the trains to be

some way. Collisions between trains happened often in the early days of steam. Railroad companies employed several methods to ensure that both the trains and the passengers traveled not controlled in

telling the driver

on with caution.

only comfortably but also

safely.

TICKETING In the

1

840s the

first tickets

for train

journeys were issued. These were

copper discs with the destination of the passenger engraved onto

Only

later

greater detail start to be used.

Tickets were checked by guards

and

later

by machines.

16

it.

did paper tickets with

a


NEW STATIONS Even though the importance declined

of the railroad has

importance with the

in

of the

motor

rise

and the

ear

airplane, projects to build

grand railway stations continue today. The picture is

Herouville station

of 1)

in

Lyon, France. Building these stations encourages people-

and

to return to the railways

helps redevelop run-dovt n areas in cities.

They

are

still

seen as symbols of the

importance

of a

c

ity.

GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL )=

s.

New York

City's

Grand Central Terminal

was designed by Whitney Warren and constructed in 1907-13.

which was

to build,

of

money

building.

It

at the

$43 million

amount

time for a large public

could not be called a "Temple of

Steam" because

it

was

built to be used only

by

electric locomotives.

TOUCH

KEEPING IN It

cost

It

a considerable

was important that

signal boxes could

warn each other of any problems

in their

The telegraph, invented in 1837 by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone, block.

was

used by the railroads

first

to connect

Paddington

West Drayton,

in

a distance

EARLY SIGNAL BOX

1839

in

Railroad lines were

London with

split

of just over

up into "blocks"

and each block was

13 miles.

controlled by

The

signal

MODERN SIGNAL BOX

a signal

box.

levers inside the

box controlled the

arms on the

and

signals

also controlled the points.

Operating the signals and railroad

now been

lines has

modern computerized

The of

screens

all

where

seen

systems.

trains

A

lines

The

bottom I

<^B

signal*

^.

are controlled

electronically.

17

i

W

box

part

hese led

from the jfc

and location of

trains in the area.

and points

the i

the positions

can change

signals

was done by cables at

of the pic ute.

the points, or junctions,

and the any

show

This

taken over by

signal

to the various

signals

and

points within

each block.


&

Freight

the Railroad Mail

^B A

//ell before the invention of the steam locomotive, horsedrawn trains were ยงy w used to pull a few freight wagons. These were usually used at coal mines and traveled only a short distance to a nearby river or canal. When the

//

W

steam locomotive appeared,

it

suddenly became possible

more than just two or three carriages. spread, two more things happened. First,

for trains to pull far

HAULING GOODS The

train

above

is

operated by Amtrak,

As railway

lines

the freight that they carried could be taken far greater distances, cutting out the

need for the journey by water.

the U.S. railroad

company, and

is

able

number

to pull a large

of freight carriages.

By

the 1930s, diesel

and

diesel-electric

locomotives had

become more powerful than steam locomotives

and could take

more

freight.

far

Many

governments

Second, trains began to carry not only raw materials coal but also finished goods

train

important today in Europe and

is less

many Asian countries still depend on freight trains. One of the items most

America,

first special

introduced in

amount of trucks on

London and letters

congestion and pollution.

They

are

trying to encourage

companies

to use

railroads to

move

was mail. was February 1855 between

successfully carried

The

are

which causes

factories to

the towns. Although the carrying of freight by

concerned about the

the road,

from the

like

along

by

trains

postal train

Bristol. Before this

time

were carried by mail coaches

muddy

roads and were very

slow and unreliable.

their goods.

STILL USING There

are

many

STEAM parts

of the world where the

steam engine

is still

the

main source of power for freight trains

the

and

dominant way

of

moving goods around. This

is

especially true

of large

countries like China, where this picture was taken. Behind the locomotive are the freight cars, called flat trucks, the simplest

main types of

freight cars are tank-wagons,

kind of car.

which carry

container cars, which protect goods from the weather.

IS

The

liquids,

other

and


EARLY FREIGHT TRAINS same

Early height steam trains used the

moved

carriages as

horsedrawn

slowly because none of the carriages had brakes.

solved in the 1870s the trains could travel

much

When

trains.

this

The

train

problem was

faster.

FOLLOWING IMPERIAL ROUTES The

first

railway lines built in Asia

served the interests of the Europeans

who

controlled these areas rather than the native inhabitants. This

were

less

meant

that passenger trains

important than freight

trains.

picture shows, countries like India the lines

and the

still

As

this

rely

on

trains built in the

early part of this century.

SORTING THE MAIL Collected mail was taken to

a special

mail was sorted into pigeonholes. sorted they were dropped ofi

was done without the

at

carriage

Once

designated stations.

train Stopping.

The

over the side of the train and caught by )latform.

The

where the

the letters were

mail was

a net

I

his

hung

on the railway

bags were then taken away tor delivery.

PICKING UP HE MAIL I

Trains were able to pick up any letters to be collected without the train

having to stop. Letters waiting to be picked up were put into

hung from past, a net

a special

hook

as

shown

in

a

bag and

the picture. As the train sped

suspended from the side of the tram caught the mail bag.

[9

l

J


Electric Trains ike steam, the potential of electricity as a source

many

g of power was understood

J"

f practical use

Italian

was found

for

it.

years before a

In 1800 the

Alessandro Volta invented

the battery,

supply of

which gave a constant and in 1819

electricity,

the relationship between electricity

and magnetism was discovered by the Danish scientist Hans

WERNER VON SIEMENS The the

inventor of

first

practical

electric train

from

came

electric train first

shown

at the Berlin

Trades Exhibition in

1879.

It

ran

on

an oval track about

300 yards long

at a

speed of 4 miles per hour. In 1881 the

years later

the English scientist Michael Faraday built the first electric motor. Electric

motors work with magnets.

An

electrical

current passes along a coil which creates a magnetic field. This acts against the

and inventors. was

Two

a family

of engineers

His

Christian Oersted.

first

public

electric train ran

near Berlin.

magnet

and makes it spin. It is this spinning magnet that runs the engine. The first electric train was demonstrated by Thomas Davenport in the United States in 1835. In 1842 an electric train ran between Edinburgh and Glasgow in Scotland. Its top speed was 4 miles per hour. But it was another 37 years before the first serviceable electric train was built. in the engine

ELECTRIC

TROLLEY CAR This rather extraordinary electric train ran for

3 miles

on

rails

on

the beach between

Brighton and Rottingdean It

was

built

responsible for the in

England.

the seaside

in the early 1900s.

by Magnus Volk.

It first

He was

also

first electric train to

ran

on August

town of Brighton.

4,

be built

1883,

in


ELECTRIC TRAINS IN AMERICA The

first electric train

States

was introduced

United

to operate in the

1895. In June of that

in

year a passenger

York using

m

New

service near

km&3P B-^-44^ ykMpff

electric

trains ran for a

distance of 7 miles.

The

shown

train

here

is

the

first

freight train to use electricity.

on August

ran

It

first

&

1895, for the Baltimore

4,

nearly 4 miles.

Almost half of was why

this

(

)hio Railroad for

a

distance of

journey was through tunnels, which

electricity

was chosen rather than steam.

THE CITY

IN

Streetcars have run city streets for

and were

years

on

many first

pulled by horses. Steam

locomotives were not

welcome on the of many

cities

streets

because

of the noise and pollution they caused.

The

arrival

of the

electric train

meant

that streetcars in cities

many

THET(,\

could be

developed. For safety reasons they are usually

powered by overhead cables

and

like this

a pantograph,

Japanese streetcar.

Streetcars are

one of the

most important forms of public transportation in the world's cities.

RECEIVING POWER This picture of

a

Siemens

electric

train at the Paris exhibition of

shows how some their power.

arm known

On

many

trains there

pantograph, which collected

as a

from overhead

power from

the top of

cables.

Other

1881

electric trains received

electric trains

a third "live" track that

was

was an

electricity

took their

laid next to

the tracks that the train ran on.

One is

of the

an

fastest trains in the

a Grande Vitesse) Paris

world

The TG\

electric train.

first

and Lyon

in

Train

ran between

France

in

September 1981. By 1988 the was reaching speeds miles per hour

of

{MO

rGV

over 200 kph).


HOW A DIESEL ENGINE WORKS work using

Diesel engines fuel

is

a

system

injected into a cylinder.

The

known

as fuel injection.

air inside the

cylinder

is

Heavy

diesel

compressed

by a piston. The compression caused by the piston makes the

air

extremely hot. This causes the fuel inside the piston to catch light and this

The power of the engine

pushes the piston forward.

by the driver varying the amount of

On

cylinder.

diesel trains the piston

is

air inside

to wheels.

and the whole

cycle

starts again. In diesel-electric trains the piston

powers

dynamo

a

power needed

that produces the electrical

to turn the wheels.

THE DELTIC One

of the most successful diesel-electric engines built in Bri

was the

The

Deltic.

began

British

for their long-distance

steam

Second World War. This prototype was

to look for a

trains after the

built in the late 1940s.

It

replacement

end of the

for the Deltic

;/'-/

I

was put into

production in 1955 and 22 were built in the next 6 years. that ran

These

They

replaced the steam trains

between London and Edinburgh.

trains

could reach speeds of over 160

miles per hour and each one has traveled

over 2 million miles.

\

RUDOLF DIESEL There

flMB^^ r

'"^R^fc

^V

'

u

is

Diesel

as to who first invented Some people claim it was first

some dispute cn gi n e.

by Herbert Stuart Akroyd

built

However, most people agree that

German Rudolf Diesel who

French-born Dr.

the diesel engine.

and

1

for an

replacement for the

steam engine.

He

first

demonstrated

the diesel engine in 1893 but until

invented

Between 1880

890 he searched

efficient

engineer

1896 that he was able

first fully reliable

it

was not

to build the

engine. In 1913 he

disappeared overboard while crossing the

Channel

to England.

22

in 1890. it

was

named

a

controlled

then driven back

by the revolving rod and crank attached This compresses the

is

fuel that enters the


,

Diesel Trains

!

^^^rhe

/

y

power

third major source of

trains

engine

is is

A

the diesel engine.

for

diesel

a type of internal-combustion

engine that has

many

similarities

engine. Diesel trains were basis in

first

with a gasoline HIGH-SPEED TRAVEL

used on an experimental

1912 by the North

Locomotive Company. They were put into British

1957 the members

In

European

of the

regular service the following year

(

Community

Sweden. Diesel began to be used in the United States after 1923 and saw regular

in

network

TEE

diesel trains

The

(Trans Europe

Express) was an

attempt to

electric

and

ol last

reliable trains.

service in Britain after 1931.

Between them,

created

an international

and

fight ofl

the competition from

now

companies.

airline It

dominate railways all over the Western world.

was aimed

at

business people and

had only

Diesel engines are

Cars.

are

used either to

first-c lass

These trams

powered

all

b)

diesel engines.

power the engine of the train or, more usually, to run a generator, which then produces an electric current. electric

This then drives an

motor. These trains are

called diesel-electric locomotives.

THE DOMINANCE OF DIESEL

LACK OF ELECTRICITY There

are

many

Since diesel trains are relatively

countries where

cheap to buy and run.

not practicable to replace steam

is

trains

with

electric trains.

because there are

many

are not used very often

This

electric trains

is

is

not only

the most popular replacement tor

steam.

The United

States railroad

it

to

and the overhead

cables that are needed to run them.

Diesel

is

developing countries thai diesel

company, Amtrak, has nearly

would simply be too expensive buy

in

is

lines that

and

it

it

the preferred replacement.

24,500 miles of

track,

only 34

which are

electrified. In

trains ran

on these

of them

are

and 253 use

I

ol

1994, 318

tracks. Sixty-five

powered

b) electricity

diesel engines.


Great Train Journeys ^^TFne

/

building of railway systems

throughout the world made

many remote and

%r

inaccessible

Developments in railway engineering meant that there were no conditions that could not eventually be overcome. Deserts, forests, and mountains, once impassable, were no longer obstacles to travel. Not only had it become possible to travel to

places easy to reach.

THE ORIENT EXPRESS For

many

the Orient Express

(see p. 15)

was the most

glamorous of all journeys.

scene for

such

as

It

such Basil

were spectacular, passing through some of the

most awe-inspiring scenery

train

Agatha

thrillers

THE "BULLET

TRAIN'

Christie's

the Orient

This picture shows the Shinkansen runnii

There have been

past

Mount

romances on board,

The

line

Express. real-life

places, but the train journeys themselves

has been the

many

Murder on

new

as the millionaire Sir

Zaharoff falling in love

with a Spanish duchess while traveling to Istanbu

Fuji, a

Osaka opened and the at

in

1

trains travel

160 miles

per hour.

dormant volcano.

between Tokyo and

964

in the world.

&&


A TRAIN THROUGH AFRICA The Blue Train runs between Cape Town in South Africa and the Victoria

Falls on the Zimbabwean/Zambian border.

The

luxury trains ran

first

between Pretoria and Cape in

1939.

It

Town

was only with the end o

apartheid that

it

became

possible for

the train to continue through

and into the heart of Africa.

It

ACROSS THE FROZEN WASTES

Zimbabwe

passes near Table

The Trans-Siberian

Mountain, the diamond-mining center of Kimberley, the

Hwange Game Falls. It is

Reserve, the

Zambezi

River,

in the

and the Victoria

one of the most beautiful journeys

in the

railway runs from

west to Vladivostock

nearly 6,000 miles long and

world

of eight days to

travel

its

M<

in the cast. it

It

take

entire length.

ACROSS THE ROCKIES first

of Canada

train to travel across the length

m Montreal on June 28, Moody

a

week

1886, and arrived

later. It

was

later

set off

at Port

extended to

Vancouver. Another transcontinental line was

added

in

1915

first line.

the

to the north

On

this

Quebec

second

of the line

is

Bridge, which

is

#90*

over 3,000 feet lone.

fv

*

1

Til

*MfeÂŁfe

XT*

is


THE HIAWATHA Nobody knows which steam In 1

train first reached

1893 an American locomotive claimed

100 miles per hour.

to reach a top speed of

12 miles per hour. Eleven years later in 1904 a train in Britain was

supposed to have reached 102 miles per hour. Neither of these claims can be verified.

The

first train

designed to run faster than 100

miles per hour was the Hiawatha. This train began service in

1935 and ran between Chicago and Minneapolis/St. It

Paul.

reached an average speed of 80 miles per hour during

part of the 412-mile journey.

THE FLYING SCOTSMAN The

Flying Scotsman

famous steam in

is

train in Britain.

probably the most It

was

built

1923 and ran nonstop between

London, and

King's Cross station, in

Edinburgh. This was the longest

nonstop run

in the world.

It

was

eventually withdrawn from that line

1963, after 60 years of service.

in

1988-89

In

where

Australia

it

went on

a tour

of

set the record for

it

the longest nonstop run for a steam train, a distance of

422

miles.

THE ROCKET The

first

train

successful steam

was the

Rocket, built

by Robert Stephenson 1829.

It

in

established the

supremacy of steam over horsedrawn

trains

by

winning the Rainhill Trials. It

remained

working on the Liverpool and

Manchester Railway until the

when

it

end of 1830, was replaced by the Northwestern.

THE EVENING STAR In

March 1959,

the year before

all

steam locomotives were

withdrawn from Canadian Railways, the Evening Star'was the last

steam train to be built freight train but It

was

in Britain.

was eventually withdrawn from

Two

years later,

from service on

all

It

was

built as a

also used as a passenger train.

steam

trains

service in 1966.

were withdrawn

British Railways.


Great Steam Engines

A

lthough steam locomotives have been

people

replaced by electric and diesel trains all

over the world, there are

who

affection.

still

many

regard steam engines with

They seem

to symbolize the

THE MALLARD

power of the railway engine much more visibly than any modern train. Steam trains also represent a more elegant and stylish age. It is little wonder that many books and films set on trains, such as Murder on the Orient Express, choose

Ik- fastest

I

ifk -type

train called the Mallard. It

was

buili

engineer in

1

it

with

Nigel

set a

record for

been preserved

by the British

Sir

*

Iresley

938. In the same

year,

of the most famous steam

trains have

the

is

streamlined Pa<

a steam locomotive for their location.

Many

steam

locomotive

.1

a

speed

new world steam train of

1

26 miles

per hour while traveling

long after they ceased to be

between London and

commercially viable.

They

are

Edinburgh.

owned by

private railway preservation

companies or looked

after in

museums, where

transportation

they are available for

all

to see.

CLASSIC AMERICAN DESIGN This

train

many

was designed by

E. S.

of the features that

recognizable.

He

Norris

in

the 1860s and shows

make American steam

designed

his trains to deal

trains instantly

with the sharp

bends and gradients of the American railroad system.

met hod was

to give

them smaller w heeh


THE MOSCOW METRO The Moscow Metro

is

underground systems It

was

in the world.

But there was

of the 1930s

built in the early years

Joseph

Many

seen as one of the most opulent

Stalin, the Soviet leader,

and was opened

hard and

it is

a price.

order of in 1935.

The work was

of the laborers were prisoners.

constructing

at the

believed that thousands died while

it.

SMOKY TUNNELS This picture from 1863

an early

is

picture of a train running

on the

London underground.

shows

what appears

The

It

to be a clean tunnel.

fact that

steam

trains

were

used meant that traveling on the

underground was an unpleasant experience. This problem was

by a

special

that diverted

smoke

partly solved

mechanism

into the water tank.

By

the end

of the 19th century the use of electric trains

on underground

systems meant journeys became

much

cleaner.

LONDON __ Underground

CONFUSING MAPS

Railways

The first maps of the London underground were

CUT AND COVER

difficult to

understand.

In the 1930s an engineer

This picture from 1868 shows

how

the underground railway in

London was

constructed.

a system called "cut

A

and

It

used

cover."

hole was dug, the brick arches

of the tunnel were

built,

and

the hole was simply covered

in

London

called

Harry

new map.

Beck created

a

The

were linked

stations

by straight

lines

and

the central area was

much

larger than if

drawn

to scale.

over again.

Londoner (proud of the Tube

t 28

m

"

y)

Z:::::

-

there

'

s

e

system,

to

frunds

**£f°"


Traveling Underground

o

ne of the effects that the steam locomotive had on

major

cities

was

to allow people to live further

from

where most of them worked. The suburbs of many cities were created as a direct

the center of the

result

city,

SQUASHED

own problems

of the

as the streets

I

became congested with people and traffic. The ideal solution came in 1863 with the building of the first underground railway system in London. It ran from Paddington to Farringdon

The

miles.

encouraged other

Today the

1927,

known

being so

for the trains

congested that people are

employed

to

push

passengers into the cars to

make many

sure thai as

people

as

possible can he

squeezed

in.

concerned about

own rise

in

London

cities,

congestion in their

Tokyo,

perhaps DCS!

is

success of the in

in

which opened

of nearly four

underground system

systems.

he underground

system

city centers

Street, a distance

TOKYO

IN

of the railroad. This expansion caused

streets, to build similar

of the automobile has given

new environmental concerns and many are putting more money into their

rise to

cities

underground railway systems. AMERICAN SUBWAYS This picture shows people entering a subway ear

New York

City.

Although the subway

underground system it

was not the in

first

Boston

in

in the

United

to be built in

1897.

in

New

States,

is

in

certainly the largest

with over 240 miles of track,

America. The

New York

York

first

City opened

U.S. subway was built

its first

subway

in

1904.

THE

PARES Ml

I

RO

The underground railroad

Mctiv And was opened

in

Pans

in

is

called the

1900. The stations

in

the center of Paris arc very dose together and

can easily be identified.

The

entrances were designed by called iron,

r=:

29

a

distinctive station

famous

Hector (.uimard. using

and

glass

architect

and

are in the Art X< niveau style.

cast


The Future Prom the 1950s 4^* on,

were

^^T becoming past. was an

experimental train built by

George Bennie near Glasgow in

Scotland.

The wheels

ran

along a suspended monorail that train.

was placed above the

The

train

moved along

the track with the use of a propeller at the back that

pushed

it

forward. Although

the experiment was a success, the train was

because

it

fast

a relic of

a declining industrial

THE RAILPLANE In the 1920s there

railways

The

rise

of the

automobile gave people a far

more

flexible

form of

transportation. Airlines offered both higher levels of

comfort and lower prices to

compete with long-distance passenger trains. In Britain, for example, the

amount of

abandoned

was too expensive

to develop.

track has been cut by about

half from 20,000 miles of

track in 1950 to about

10,000 miles in 1990, and in the United States from

224,300 to 162,700 miles of track

in the last

40

years.

Yet in the past few years the train has begun to fight back. Recent technological developments that trains are reliable.

also as a

becoming much

faster

mean

and more

Concerns about the environment have

made many governments look better way of moving people.

to the train

GAS TURBINE TRAINS work by mixing

Gas turbine

trains

gas with air

and igniting

it.

expands and escapes. This spins a rotor

The

air

which provides the

engine with power.

The

first

gas

turbine train was built in 1941 in

Switzerland but was abandoned too expensive to run.

air

then

as


TRAVELING AT HIGH SPEED Many

high-speed trains

would need new

traeks,

which can be very expensive. In Italy a high-speed train called the Pendolino has

been developed with ;peeial tilting

SO that

bends

ABOVE THE GROUND

ean deal with

it

in the rails.

on two

a

mechanism

lines,

It

runs

One

one between is

Turin and Venice and the

many

trains for

other between Milan in

and Naples.

It

1901 and

has a

which

in

trains reduce congestion in cities

speed of

years.

is still

The

firsi

of the

rails

one was

used today.

powered by collecting

either

maximum

ways

of the

by using overhead monorails. There have been monorail built in

Modem

electricity

Germany

monorails are

from the side

or are Maglev trains (see below).

about 185 miles per hour.

UNDER THE ie

picture

on the

been plans to dig

right

SEA

shows that there have

a tunnel

under the Channel

between Britain and France

for

many

years.

The Channel Tunnel was completed 1992. High-speed

from the center of London of

Paris in

in

trains carry passengers

to the center

about 3 hours. The above

picture shows the British

two high-speed

and French

trains

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

the Eurostarznd TGV.

MAGNETIC TRAINS Man\' railway companies

wuh

Magle\

magnets

trains.

are

Both the

that levitate the

experimenting

nam

mu\ track have

tram and pull

it

along

using the principle that magnets either attract or repel each other.

the Yamanashi in

1996 and

run

at

nearly

is

This Maglev tram

Maglev

over 26 miles

is

in

[apan on

The line opened long. The trains can

test line.

350 miles per hour.


BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY

in

3 9999 03917 790

KNOW?

DID YOU Who

was the

Who

were the first passengers to ride through the Channel Tunnel? The railway

person to die in a

first

railway accident? The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was officially opened on

September

There were 8

15, 1830.

trains

tunnel between Britain and France was

opened on May

ready

600 invited guests, including the Prime Minister and the Duke of Wellington. Another of the guests was William to carry over

Mitterand of France and Britain's

British

Elizabeth

member of Parliament

Huskisson, the

Queen

of the first

He

and was

trains

killed,

becoming

a

also nearly killed

Where

by

a train.

difficult to breathe? In South America there are train services that run through the Andes Mountain range which goes through Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, and PeruAl/* On the track between Lima and La Oroya at La in

Peru the train climbs to

The Condor in

world

in the

at

is

heights the air

El

level.

Where

is

who

/

used the tunnel

highestesÂŁ$tion Bolivia.

At these

at all, such as Bhutan and Rvvaajda^hdfie iW"e^lso some

system.

and the tiny principality of Monaco have only J mile of track each. Even though railways in the United States have been declining over the p4stje\v decades, the United States of America still has.the most track of any country in the wo'rTd^li 1^990 the American Lesotho

height of

a

fe n^a^^^tem

""cbiTntri.es thatjha've a tiriy ->raiJw|y

i

-

have difficulty breathing.

railway

of

the straightest piece of railway

One

also

-

i

have emergency bottles of oxygen for any passengers

29, 1993,

British ambassador to France, Sir

-countries in the world that have no

ft

very thin and rarefied and cars

is

travel the

On January

Which countries have the smallest railway system? There are several

railway passengers find

15,806 feet above sea

1992,

and became the first person to travel to his new post without ever leaving land.

it

Cima

new

3,

Duke of

person to

Christopher Mallaby,

the

Austrian ambassador, Prince Esterhazy,

was

first

Queen

on April

Elizabeth's husband, the

the

The

tram.

year before

length of the tunnel.

stepped out into the path of one

person to be killed by

One

Edinburgh, was the

for

Liverpool and an influential backer of the railway.

II.

officially

1994, by President Francois

6,

in Africa

company had ovef*K4j/0O

miles

track.

How

rooms with bathroom and toilet. There is a point of the journey where the passengers travel in a straight line for 297 miles. This is the longest

rail lamps were developed? The United was the first country to put lamps on the front of its trains. In the early 1830s Horatio Allen, who started the South Carolina Railroad Company, placed a burning pile of pinewood in an iron basket on his trains. By the time of the Civil War in America most rail lamps used oil for fuel and had powerful reflectors to throw

piece of straight railway track in the world.

the light forward.

track?

of the most luxurious tram rides

world is the Indian-Pacific which runs between Perth and Sydney in Australia, a journey in the

of 2,386 miles. The

and

first-class

train

is

States

over 2,600 feet long

passengers have their

own

private

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would

like to thank:

Graham Rich, John Guy, and

Peter

No

All rights reserved.

book may be reproduced

in

any form, by

information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written

Done

permission of the copyright owner

for their assistance. All inquiries

Edition for the United States, Canada, and the Philippines published by

First

part of this

photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any

should be addressed

to:

Barron's Educational Series, Inc.

250 Wireless Boulevard, Hauppauge,

Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1998

New York

1

1788

http://www.barronseduc.com First

published

The

in

Great Britain

in

1998 by

Square, Hadlow, Kent, TNI

ticktock 1

Publishing Ltd., The Office,

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 98-70734

ODD, United Kingdom Book Number 0-7641-4)538-8

International Standard

Copyright Š1998

ticktock Publishing Ltd.

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(

Every

effort has

We would

been

:e the

be pie

it

copyright holders and

the appropriate

we

apologize

acknowledgment

MWS M l

in

in

m

any subs


1

1

'

1

INDEX A accidents

dynamite 12

32

16,

24,25, 32

Africa 11,

r

.

,.

,

,

Edinburgh,

32

Allen, Horatio

32

Amtrak

...

of

B

Eurostar 5

2

8,

28

Beck, Harry

Slnnkansen 24

London underground 28, 29 A

Siemens, Werner von 20, 21

Lyon 17,21

signal boxes

16-17

sleeping cars

14,

5J

20-21, 3

20

Queen 32

1

Maglev

trains

3

I

magnetic trains 3 mail

Mallard 2~

Evening Star 26

Mann Boudoir

Experiment 5

Car 14 mam 1&-2Q

F

30 Lx

South America 32 1

South Carolina Railroad 32

18-19

Mallaby, Sir Christopher

1

32

speed 26, 3

28

Stalin, Joseph

Sleeping

16-11

stations

steam engines 2, 3,

4, 5.

Stephenson, George

4,

Stephenson, Robert

4. 5.

6

5

26

10,

The

15

South Africa 24

Lustou, Loudon 16

Bennie, George Berlin Trades

II,

Seikan tunnel 12

18, 22, 26,

LI Condor, Bolivia 32

Elizabeth

Baltimore and Ohio

4,

29

'

electric trolley car

26

Railroad

,„

32

electric trains 4, 5,

23

18,

Australia

,

Duke

21,

Philip, c ,

'

,.

Akroyd, Herbert Stuart 22

altitude

Loudon

E

Best Frie Stockton and Darlington

Charlestowi Railway 5 Beyer Garratt

Stourbridge Lion 9

Bhutan 32

Sweden 23 Bleukinsop,Joh Switzerland 10, 12,

Blue Train 25 Boultou, Matti

TEE

brakes 19 bridges

telegraph

}

TGV

Kingdom 12 "

"Bullet Train

(Trans Europe

Expre

12, 13

Brunei, Isamba

1

7

(Tram

16

ticketing

Tom Thumb

30, 11, 12

Paciji

trams

Me

"Catch

8

2( tracks 2, 3.

Canadian

Grande

a

21,31

Vitesse)

(

Canada 25,

W

T

2

Win Trans-Siberian railway

25

Trevithick, Richard 2,

1,

Central Pacific F

Channel Tuum 1

12, 31.

tunnels

China

11,

5,

U

"class" of trove

Clinton,

De

\\

underground

'it

Coalbrookdale 2

Cooke, Willian .

.

Grampton 10

Railroad 8

1

'mied States

oj

2'>.

12

V

Cugnot, Nick ictoria, >lk,

\

Davenport, Th

Loudon

tlta.Alessandro

"

D'Herotu'ille, diesel engines

'•'

-

Brighton

MA

02136-3316

anvil.

Whitney

lieatsione, •eel

(

7

Sharks

anaitgi

UZOI

Z

Rudolf

diesel-electric lo

23

1

lames

att.

22-25 Diesel,

20

"" '*

Brighton Branch Ubrwy 40 Academy Hill Road

22

7

W r

Railroad 9

1

Magnus 20

Clin

Delaware and

Deltic

America \

IS, 20. 21. 23, 26,

Crimean War

De Witt

28

'nion Paciju

2".

crew 6

railroads

(

— 8-9,

1

,,

12

i

-

1"


THE HISTORY OF

r

RAILWAYS

r

DISCOVER... .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

The

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Who

or

what was Puffing Billy

The fastest steam .

How

effects

Great

train ever built

a steam locomotive works

of railways on American Indians

train

journeys around the world

How passengers

packed

are

like sardines

on

the Japanese underground .

.

.

Great steam engines, freight and the railway mail, trains

Take

of the future, and much, much more

.

.

.

journey and explore the history of Railways.

a

Discover the story of trains from the early days

of steam to the high-speed

trains

of today.

INCLUDING: The

First

Steam Railways

Great Train Journeys •

Passenger Comfort

• Freight and the Railway

Traveling Underground

• •

Trains of the Future

With more than 100 diagrams

color illustrations

—Railways

insight into the history

BARRON'S ISBN 0-7641-0538-

50595>

9

l

780764 105388 ll

$5.95

l

Canada $7.50

Mail

and

gives you a unique

and world of trains.

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