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FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep My ​goal is to make ​one​ loaf of bread. Based on the output of the recipe for the proportion I plan on making ⅓ of the bread.

These are my ingredients from the original recipe in the ingredients: ● Yeast​ (control) ● Baking Soda​ (experimental #1) ● Homemade Sourdough​ (experimental #2) ● Commercial Sourdough​ (experimental #3) ● Dennis’ Sourdough​ (experimental #4) YEAST (Control) Yeast Procedure: ●

Combine all of the ingredients in a large mixing bowl, For first-timers, "lukewarm" means about 105°F.Mix and stir everything together to make a very sticky, rough dough. If you have a stand mixer, beat at medium speed with the beater blade for 30 to 60 seconds. ● Next, you're going to let the dough rise, just let it stay there, covering the bucket with a lid or plastic wrap. ● Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the dough rise at room temperature for 2 hours. Then refrigerate it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days. ● When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with flour; this will make it easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be about the size of a softball, or a large grapefruit. ● Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a ball, or a longer log. ● Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or parchment-lined baking sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top. ● Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about 60 minutes or longer. ● If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven preheats. Place a shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack, and have 1 cup of hot water ready to go. Preheat your oven to 450°F while the loaf rests. ● When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 or 3 times, making a cut about 1/2" deep. ● Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into the shallow pan on the rack beneath. ● Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes. ● Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover bread in a plastic bag at room temperature. BAKING SODA (Experimental #1) Baking Soda Procedure:

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep 1. Preheat oven to 450 fahrenheit 2. Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk together. 3. Make a well in the center and pour in most of the buttermilk, leaving about ¼ cup in the measuring cup. Using a fork, or one hand with your fingers outstretched like a claw, bring the flour and liquid together, adding more buttermilk, if necessary. Don’t knead the mixture, or it will become heavy. The dough should be soft, but not too wet and sticky. ● When the dough comes together, turn it onto a floured work surface and bring it together a little more. Pat the dough into a roundabout 1½ inches thick and cut a deep cross in it. Place on a baking sheet. ● Bake for 15 minutes. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30 minutes more. When done, the loaf will sound slightly hollow when tapped on the bottom and be golden in color. One way to check if your bread is done is to use a thermometer. Cook until temperature in center reaches 195-200 degrees. HOMEMADE SOURDOUGH (Experimental #2) ●

First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and ½ cup of water into a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth. Everyday for a week you take half of the dough and put it in a separate jay, you then replace the missing dough with another cup of flour and another ½ cup of water. ● When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your starter, more flour, salt, and water. ● Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl ● Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl ● Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl ● Mix well ● Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes ● Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt ● Knead well for 10-15 minutes ● Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test ● Make the dough into a loaf ● Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour ● Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees ● Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked COMMERCIAL SOURDOUGH (Experimental #3) Commercial Sourdough Procedure: 1. Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together. Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a moist bread dough. 2. Knead the dough until it passes the “window pane test” (about 20 minutes): a small piece of dough will stretch

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to allow light to pass through. 3. Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan, proofing basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours. 4. Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very sharp knife or razor blade. 5. Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the size of the loaf, until the internal temperature reaches 210°F (use a meat thermometer inserted into the bottom or side of the loaf). Cool before slicing. DENNIS’ SOURDOUGH (Experimental #4) Dennis’ Sourdough Procedure: ● Make sure your sourdough culture is active ● Make the leaven (overnight) ● Test that the leaven is ready ● Dissolve the salt ● Mix the leaven and water ● Add the flour ● Rest the dough (30 minutes, or up to 4 hours) ● Mix in the salt ● Begin folding the dough (2 1/2 hours) ● Let the dough rise undisturbed (30 to 60 minutes) ● Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls ● Shape the loaves ● Transfer to the proofing baskets ● Let the dough rise (3 to 4 hours, or overnight in the fridge) ● Heat the oven to 500°F ● Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens ● Score the top of the loaf ● Bake the loaves for 20 minutes ● Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes ● Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes ● Bake another 15 to 25 minutes ● Cool the loaves completely

YEAST (Control)

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep

BAKING SODA (Experimental #1) Ingredient


3 1/2 cup all-purpose flour, plus extra for dusting


1 teaspoon sugar


1 teaspoon baking soda


1 teaspoon salt


1 1/2–2 cups buttermilk


Revised Amount

HOMEMADE SOURDOUGH (Experimental #2) Ingredient


Revised Amount

10 cups flour

10/3 = 3 1/3

3 ⅓ cups flour

4 t0 4 ½ cups of water

4/3 | 9/2 * ⅓ = 1 1/2

4/3 to 1 ½ cups of water

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep 3 ½ teaspoons of salt

7/2 * ⅓ = 7/6

1 ⅙ teaspoons of salt

¾ cup starter

¾ /3 = 1/4

¼ cup starter

COMMERCIAL SOURDOUGH (Experimental #3) Ingredient


Revised Amount

1/3 cup sourdough starter



1 scant tablespoon salt



1 - 1 1/2 cup water



3 1/3 cup white flour



DENNIS’ SOURDOUGH (Experimental #4) Ingredient


Revised Amount

1 tablespoon active sourdough starter


½ tablespoon

75 grams (1/2 cup) all-purpose flour or bread flour


¼ cup

75 grams (1/3 cup) water


⅙ cup

1 tablespoon salt


½ tablespoon

525 grams (2 1/2 cups) water

2½/ 2=

1 ½ cups

700 grams (5 1/2 cups) all-purpose flour or bread flour


2 ¾ cups

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep


Control Group

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

Dough rise time

60 minutes

No rise time

15 - 60 minutes

4 - 24 hours

4 hours

Oven temp.

450 F

450 F

400 F

400 F

450 F

Bake time

25 - 35 minutes

45 minutes

1 - 3 hours

30 - 60 minutes

55 minutes

Dough amount


Some of the significant differences between recipe variables are the different rise times and their dough amounts. For instance, both the Control Group and the Experimental Group #2 have the same dough amount. The time it takes for both doughs to rise are around 60 minutes. Compare that to the dough amount for Experimental Group #4 and you get a rise time of about 4 hours. A significant similarity are groups with a oven temperature of 450​o​F have a bake time around 45 - 55 minutes. 4. Inquire: ​What are you testing in this experiment? Write your ​research question​ here: 5. Guess: ​What do you think will happen? Write your hypothesis here (In the form of: "If I do _________, then ____________ will happen.") If I add yeast to a bread recipe, then the sugars will metabolize, and carbon dioxide and alcohol will be released into the bread dough, making it rise. -

Did you explain the difference between the ​control group ​and​ experimental group(s) and the significance thereof?

A control group is a baseline measure. The control group is the same as the experimental group being examined, except it doesn’t receive the same manipulation the experimental group receives. In this experiment, the control was a basic yeast bread recipe. Each of the breads in the experimental group either had a chemical leavening agent (baking soda) or they had different amounts of sourdough starter in their recipes.

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep

6. Observations​: After baking, measure the height of each loaf. Then taste each one and record your observations. Observation

Control Group

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4


2 ½ inches

3 ½ inches

3 inches

1 inch

6 ½ inches


Fresh bread smell

Cornbread smell

Slightly tangy smell

Strong tangy smell

Fresh sourdough bread smell

Appearance (holes, airiness)

Medium to large air pockets; thick crunchy crust

Dense; no air pockets; flaky crust

Large air pockets; thin crust

Medium to large air pockets; softer crust

Some air pockets; risen, but not fully baked; crisp crust




Medium soft




Dark crust

Golden crust

Light crust

Light to golden crust

Golden to dark crust

7.​ ​Analysis & Conclusion​: Explain your results. Your explanation should correctly use the following terms, and whether or not your hypothesis was proven or disproven: Upon observation and analysis, my hypothesis was confirmed. Yeast metabolizes the sugars in a bread recipe, producing carbon dioxide, which causes the dough to rise. A leavening agent is the baking ingredient that produces a porous structure within the dough or batter. Leavening agents include air, steam, yeast, baking powder, and baking soda. There are two types of leavening agents: biological and chemical. In this experiment, I used a biological leavening agent (yeast) in my bread. Leavening is achieved through the process of fermentation. Fermentation is a metabolic process that

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen, releasing carbon dioxide gas. This gas is what causes the dough to rise, or expand, giving the finished product that porous/air bubble appearance. Before rising, the yeast dough was one inch high. After 60 minutes, the dough rose two and a half inches. Chemical leavening agents are compounds that release gases when they react with moisture or heat. Most chemical leavening agents are a combination of acid and a salt of bicarbonate (baking soda). Baking soda is a base that reacts when it comes into contact with acids, like buttermilk, yogurt, or vinegar. Like yeast, this reaction also produces carbon dioxide in the form of bubbles, causing the dough to rise. The initial pH of a dough should be somewhere between 4.0 to 6.0. If the pH is higher or lower than this range, the yeast will be less active - causing it not to rise. As a dough ferments, the pH drops because of acid production. A fresh made dough will have a pH above 6. The pH will drop during fermentation due to the formation of lactic and acetic acid. The addition of salt in a bread recipe helps the loaf to hold on to carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. However, salt slows down fermentation activity in dough. In experimental bread loaf #3, there was no rise recorded. This was most likely due to the addition of salt early in the recipe. In conclusion, bread making is a science. But the science of rising dough doesn’t stop here. These chemical reactions can be found in many baking recipes, like cookies. They don’t need leavening agents, all they need is something already inside them to be activated by something like heat to force themselves out. Moisture is one of them, heat evaporates it into steam and tries to break free and creates air bubbles. Seems like a chemistry lesson right? Well, it is! That is what this class is about, the chemistry of food and what makes it. Knowing the chemical reactions occurring in your food can be a good thing. Keeping track of things like carbohydrate and protein intake is good for managing your daily nutritional value. Take this recipe as an example, different ingredients have different effects. Plus, different effects on your body. Did this leavening agent make you rise? 8.​ ​Calculate: ​Based on the amount of each ingredient in your bread recipe, find the total daily nutrition in your loaf of bread for the following values: Flour: Calories - .25 = 2.5 = .25x = 250 = 1,000 100 x .25 .25 Carbohydrates - .25 = 2.5 = .25x = 55 = 220g 22g x .25 .25 Fat - .25 = 2.5 = .25x = 0g = 0g 0g x .25 .25 Protein - .25 = 2.5 = .25x = 7.5g = 30g 3g x .25 .25 Yeast: Calories - 1 = 1.5 = 1x = 31.5 = 31.5 21 x 1 1 Carbohydrates - 1 = 1.5 = 1x = 4.5g = 4.5g

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep 3g x 1 1 Fat - 1 = 1.5 = 1x = 0g = 0g 0g x 1 1 Protein - 1 = 1.5 = 1x = 0g = 0g 0g x 1 1 Salt: Calories - .25 = 1 = .25x = 0 = 0 0 x .25 .25 Carbohydrates - .25 = 1 = .25x = 0g = 0g 0g x .25 .25 Fat - .25 = 1 = .25x = 0g = 0g 0g x .25 .25 Protein - .25 = 1 = .25x = 0g = 0g 0g x .25 .25 Daily Percentage: ●



1,000 = 50% 31.5 = 1.57% 0 = 0%




220 = 11% 4.5 = 0.22% 0 = 0%




0 = 0% 0 = 0% 0 = 0%

0 = 0%

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep ●



30 = 1.5% 0 = 0% 0 = 0%


​Materials: -

Spatula Knife Large Mixing Bowl Plastic Wrap Timer Oven Mitts Cutting Board Pencil/Paper Ruler Measuring Cup


FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep ●

First, we mixed all of the gathered ingredients in a large mixing bowl at about 105°F. We mixed them until we got a rough dough.

Then, leaving it in the bowl, we covered the bowl in plastic wrap.

For 2 hours in room temperature, we let the dough rise. Then refrigerated it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days.

When it was ready, we sprinkled the top of the dough with flour, which made it easier to grab a hunk. Greased our hands, and pulled off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough.

After that, the sticky dough was plopped onto a floured work surface, and then rounded into a ball.

We then placed it onto a piece of parchment and sifted a light coating of flour over the top.

We let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise for about 60 minutes or longer.

Then the oven was preheated to 450°F while the loaf rested.

It was ready to bake, we took a sharp knife and cut the bread twice about a ½ inch deep. It was in the shape of an X mark, and was used as an opening to release air.

We placed the bread in the oven and let it bake for 35 minutes. (an hour because we accidentally turned off the oven without noticing)

The bread was removed from the oven and cooled on a rack.

Finally, it was ready to be eaten.

Copy of eat2 bread prep rb  
Copy of eat2 bread prep rb