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EC_ SW6 1TR

2

GHILIC-MICU | MINEIKYTE


INTRODUCTION Body of proof

preamble

? WHAT IS THE EUROPEAN TOWER cases

COMMERZBANK TORRE AGBAR LINKED HYBRID BUNDLE TOWER SCALA TOWER

Foster Nouvel Holl Mass Studies BIG

Surveying existing conditions of the Euro-tower.


?

what is the European tower


THE TORSO Malmo SCALA Copenhagen

THE GHERKIN London

WTC H TORREN Amsterdam

TOWER CENTER Bucuresti

COMMERZBANK Frankfurt

AGBAR Barcelona


CASE STUDIES-PLAN MORPHOLOGY

CASE STUDIES

OFFICE COMMERZBANK HQ TORRE AGBAR

CASE STUDIES

NORMAN FOSTER ATELIERS JEAN NOUVEL

RESIDENTIAL / MIXED USE LINKED HYBRID BUNDLE TOWER SCALA TOWER

STEVEN HOLL ARCHITECTS (ENVIRONMENT) MASS STUDIES (PROGRAM) BIG (CONTEXT)


OFFICE COMMERZBANK HEADQUARTERS FOSTER + PARTNERS FRANKFURT I GER

SCT

40

6

6

4

38

4

7

COMMERZBANK

5

TO PROVIDE THE SPACES AND BUILDING LAYOUT NECESSARY TO CREATE SOME OF THE SUSTAINABLE FEATURES DESIRED, AN UNORTHODOX PLAN WAS ESSENTIAL. CREATING A CENTRAL ATTRIUM SPACE IN A HIGHRISE BUILDING IS NOT A SIMPLE TASK. FIRST OF ALL,THE TYPICAL BUILDING LAYOUT INCLUDES A CENTRALIZED CORE AREA FOR CIRCULATION, MECHANICAL, AND OTHER BASIC BUILDING NEEDS. TO ACHIEVE THIS, THE CORE FUNCTIONS WERE PUSHED TO THE OUTER CORNERS OF THE BUILDINGTO MAKE WAY FOR THE ATRIUM SPACE. THE DESIGN OF THE LAYERED, OPERABLE FACADE ON THIS PROJECT IS CENTRAL TO THE ISSUE OF SUSTAINABLITY. THESE FACADES ALLOW FOR VENTILATION ON THE SCALE OF THE OFFICE JUST AS THE WINTER GARDENS PROVIDE VENTILATION FOR THE ENTIRE BUILDING.*

* web.utk.edu/~archinfo/a489_f02/PDF/commerzbank.pdf


OFFICE TORRE AGBAR ATELIERS JEAN NOUVEL BARCELONA I ESP

AGBAR

L-29

42.00 17.00

17.00

L-31

38.00

AGBAR

17.00

AGBAR

L-25

TORRE AGBAR HAS 30,000 M² (323,000 FT²) OF ABOVE-GROUND OFFICE SPACE, 3,210 M² (34,500 FT²) OF TECHNICAL SERVICE FLOORS WITH INSTALLATIONS AND 8,351 M² (90,000 FT²) OF SERVICES, INCLUDING AN AUDITORIUM. THE AGBAR TOWER MEASURES 144.4 M (473.75 FT) IN HEIGHT AND CONSISTS OF 38 STORIES, INCLUDING FOUR UNDERGROUND LEVELS. TWO OF THE UNDERGROUND FLOORS HOST AN AUDITORIUM FOR 316 PEOPLE IN ADDITION TO OTHER SERVICES AREAS WHILE THE OTHER TWO ARE INTENDED FOR PARKING. OF THE 34 FLOORS LOCATED ABOVE THE GROUND, 28 ARE FOR OFFICES, THREE ARE TECHNICAL PLANTS HOSTING BUILDING FACILITIES, ONE IS DEDICATED TO MULTIPURPOSE ROOMS, ANOTHER HOUSES THE CAFETERIA AND THE LAST IS INTENDED TO BE A VIEWING PLATFORM JUST BELOW THE TOP OF THE TOWER.*

* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torre_Agbar


MIXED-USE I RESIDENTIAL LINKED HYBRID STEVEN HOLL ARCHITECTS BEIJING I PRC

L-33

28.00

LINKED HYBRID

40.00

LINKED HYBRID

L-04

LINKED HYBRID

30.00

10.00

28.00 12.00

L-04 R = 14.00

THE GROUND LEVEL OF THE 750 APPARTMENT COMPLEX OFFERS A NUMBER OF OPEN PASSAGES FOR ALL PEOPLE (RESIDENTS AND VISITORS) TO WALK THROUGH. THESE PASSAGES ENSURE A MICRO-URBANISMS OF SMALL SCALE. SHOPS ACTIVATE THE URBAN SPACE SURROUNDING THE LARGE REFLECTING POND. ON THE INTERMEDIATE LEVEL OF THE LOWER BUILDINGS, PUBLIC ROOFS GARDENS OFFER TRANQUIL GREEN SPACES, AND AT THE TOP OF THE EIGHT RESIDENTIAL TOWERS PRIVATE ROOF GARDENS ARE CONNECTED TO THE PENTHOUSES. ALL PUBLIC FUNCTIONS ON THE GROUND LEVEL, – INCLUDING A RESTAURANT, HOTEL, MONTESSORI SCHOOL, KINDERGARTEN, AND CINEMA – HAVE CONNECTIONS WITH THE GREEN SPACES SURROUNDING AND PENETRATING THE PROJECT. THE ELEVATOR DISPLACES LIKE A “JUMP CUT” TO ANOTHER SERIES OF PASSAGES ON A HIGHER LEVELS. FROM THE 12TH TO THE 18TH FLOOR A MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SERIES OF SKYBRIDGES WITH A SWIMMING POOL, A FITNESS ROOM, A CAFÉ, A GALLERY, AUDITORIUM AND A MINI SALON CONNECTS THE EIGHT RESIDENTIAL TOWERS AND THE HOTEL TOWER, AND OFFERS VIEWS OVER THE CITY.*

* http://www.archdaily.com/34302/linked-hybrid-steven-holl-architects/


MIXED-USE I RESIDENTIAL BUNDLE TOWER MASS STUDIES SEOUL I KO

BUNDLE TOWER

L-35

20.00

6.00

4.00

11.00

BUNDLE TOWER

L-27

20.00

6.00

4.00

11.00

BUNDLE TOWER

L-19

20.00

6.00

4.00

11.00

L-11 4.00

20.00

6.00

BUNDLE TOWER

THIS TOWER PROPOSAL IS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE CONVENTIONAL RESIDENTIAL/OFFICE TOWER PROTOTYPE OF COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS, WITH ITS DESIGN BEING SPECIFIC TO THE SITE'S CONDITIONS. STOCKY TOWER - GENERALLY, THE PLAN OF THIS TOWER TYPOLOGY IS DETERMINED BY THE MAXIMUM SITE COVERAGE (60% IN THIS CASE), AND THE MAXIMUM F.A.R. (800%), AND IS REPEATEDLY STACKED VERTICALLY. PROPORTIONATELY, THIS TYPOLOGY IS USUALLY ON THE STABLE, SHORT SIDE AND THUS REFERRED TO AS A "STOCKY" TOWER. IN THIS PLAN, A TOWER OF 14 FLOORS (800% รท 60% = 13.333) IS POSSIBLE. PODIUM TOWER - THIS TYPE IS POSSIBLE WHEN THERE IS ENOUGH VERTICAL ALLOWANCE. THE LOWER FOUR OR FIVE LEVELS, MOSTLY FILLED WITH HIGH-PROFIT COMMERCIAL ENTITIES, FORMING A PODIUM OF MAXIMUM SITE COVERAGE. SMALLER (AND THEREFORE LESS EFFICIENT) FLOORS ARE STACKED REPEATEDLY ON TOP OF THE PODIUM, USING EXTRA VERTICAL ALLOWANCE TO REACH ITS MAXIMUM HEIGHT. CORE TOWER - IS A REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION, THE OTHER TWO, OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. WITH THE CORE TOWER AT THE CENTER, THE SLIMMER STEEL CONSTRUCTION TOWERS LEAN AT VARYING ANGLES THAT STILL MAINTAIN STRUCTURAL SOUNDNESS.*

11.00

* http://www.massstudies.com/projects/strenue_txtEN.html


MIXED-USE I RESIDENTIAL SCALA TOWER BIG COPENHAGEN I DK

SCALA TOWER 2

6.00

L-33 2

8.00

6.00

2

6.00 2

7.00

6.00

SCALA TOWER

THIS BUILDING BY BIG IS CONCEIVED AS A REINTERPRETATION OF THE HISTORIC COPENHAGEN TOWER, CONSISTING OF TWO ELEMENTS: A BASE RELATING TO THE SCALE OF THE SURROUNDING BUILDINGS, AND A SLIM TOWER BECOMING A PART OF THE SKYLINE. THE BASE HOUSES SHOPPING, CONFERENCE CENTER AND THE NEW MAIN LIBRARY OF COPENHAGEN. THE TOWER IS A LUXURY HOTEL. THE TOWER AND THE BASE ARE MORPHED TOGETHER IN A SPIRAL-SHAPED CASCADE OF STAIRS LEADING TO A PUBLIC ROOF TOP PLAZA OVERLOOKING THE CITY HALL SQUARE. WHILE CREATED A HYBRID VIA A PARTICULAR RESPONSE TO THE CITY’S SKYLINE, THE TWISTING SHAFT OF THE TOWER OPENS UP IMMEDIATE VIEWS TO ITS SURROUNDINGS ON ITS RAISED PUBLIC SPACE. STEPS (SCALA) FROM THE STREET LEVEL (PARALLELING THE LIBRARY’S CIRCULATITON UNDERNEATH) PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE PLAZA, VERTICALLY ALIGNED WITH THE NEIGHBORING BUILDINGS.*

13.50

6.00

L-04

* http://www.archicentral.com/scala-tower-copenhagen-denmark-bjarke-ingels-group-bi g-8707/


ENVIRONMENTAL Context

THE SITE SITE IMPACT ON TOWER TOWER IMPACT ON SITE DAYLIT AREAS _ OPPORTUNITIES WIND PATTERNS Ecotect Assessment


THE SITE EARLS COURT SW6 1TR

EUROPEAN UNION

UNITED KINGDOM

LONDON 51°30’26”N 0°7’39”W


EARLS COURT SW6 1TR


THE SITE EARLS COURT SW6 1TR

Br

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Site selected for the development of a new tower as part of the Earls Court Project.

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OFFICE RESIDENTIAL RETAIL LEGEND

The Empress State Building is a skyscraper in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. It was built in 1961 and was 100 metres (328 ft) tall with 28 floors. It was renovated in 2003 to a design by Wilkinson Eyre Architects. Three floors and 17.3 metres (57 ft) were added to its height. 'Orbit' is the name given to the private revolving bar on the top floor which offers panoramic views of London. The building is named after the Empress Hall which formerly stood on the site, and in tribute to the Empire State Building.

EMPRESS STATE BUILDING


SITE IMPACT ON TOWER EARLS COURT SW6 1TR

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OFFICE RESIDENTIAL RETAIL LEGEND

The tower is not just acknowledging the site in a holistic and general manner, but draws much of its determining parameters from the existing contextual conditions. Situated right North-West of the Empress State Building, much of its Southern elevation is partly sheltered from the direct noon sunlight, opening possibilities for capturing sunlight in controlled areas. Furthermore, environmental site impact is one of the sets of parameters influencing both the overall massing of the tower, as well as the fine tuning of specific areas later in the design development stage.

EMPRESS STATE BUILDING


TOWER IMPACT ON SITE EARLS COURT SW6 1TR

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OFFICE RESIDENTIAL RETAIL LEGEND

Impact of the tower upon the surrounding site is also taken into account when working with the neighboring programs of the development. One of the considerations taken into account when choosing the location of the new tower was finding an area on which its presence would be least consequential. Many of the towers built nowadays are antagonized by the communities within which they are rising, because of the extreme impact in terms of solar shading patterns as well as wind impact. Currently, the Empress State Building does affect the site around it. The new tower would add only a minimal shading footprint to the existing one, thus making the case for its appropriate location. Furthermore, no main public areas are being obstructed direct light or natural air flow by the presence of the tower.

EMPRESS STATE BUILDING


DAYLIT AREAS _ OPPORTUNITIES EARLS COURT SW6 1TR

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OFFICE RESIDENTIAL RETAIL LEGEND

The site is subject to continuous environmental investigation while the tower is undergoing the reconfiguration testing protocols. This strategy is a twofold plan: A. Tower calibrates itself for achieving the least disturbing configuration for a building of its size and footprint B. The emerging ground conditions are carefully assessed for discovering eventual opportunities of using the collected data for fine tuning the micro-climate conditions at the base of the tower, as well as later developing strategies for the tower based on the surrounding environmental patterns. The site is thus a datascape by which the vertical emergence of the tower can be informed and controlled.

EMPRESS STATE BUILDING


WIND PATTERNS ECOTECT ASSESSMENT

Setting up the Analysis Grid

Prevalent Wind Chart Analysis


Cloudy day patterns over a year

Main Wind Directions Air movement on a site is a very important tool for passively ventilating the tower. Eventual air intakes at various elevations and orientations throughout the building could be feasible given a clear direction of wind over a year. The Ecotect studies have felicitously outlined the prevalent Western winds. Such obvious direction, could facilitate and interesting method of handling overheating on the West facade. The data collected will be further introduced in the algorithmic protocol to establish vectorial constraints for massing of the West elevation.

Prevalent Wind Direction

Overall Site Wind Conditions


URBAN Context

THE SITE SPIELRAUM LEGAL ENVELOPE


THE SITE

1

7 4 6

8

5 4

9 3

1

2

7


2

3

5

6

8

9


LEGAL ENVELOPE (SPIELRAUM) MALLEABLE VOLUME

VOLUME

SPIELRAUM

VOLUMETRIC TOLERANCES WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF THE LEGAL ENVELOPE. THE SPACE WITHIN THE SPIEALRAUM IS FLRXIBLE AND THEREFOR DEPLOYABLE EDGE CONDITION / FLEXIBLE VOLUMETRIC BOUNDARY PROTOCOL / SCALABILITY OPERATION / SCALAR SCAN AND ADOPTATION

VOLUME

PROGRAM

SITE SPECIFIC PROGRAM ADOPTATION EDGE CONDITION / FIXED THERMAL BOUNDARY PROTOCOL / SEALANT OPERATION / BUILDING PROGRAM SPECIFIC

SURFACE

PROGRAM


SYNTAX SPIELARAUM

A structure is system of transformations. Inasmuch as it is a system and not a mere collection of elements and their properties, these transformations involve laws: the structure is preserved or enriched by the interplay of its transformation laws. The processes of composition demand exact attention; the whole is nothing more than the resultant of these relations or compositions, whose laws are those if the system. The transformations inherent in a structure never lead beyond the system but always engender the elements that belong to it and preserve its laws. The idea of closure or boundary means that in the process of development of an embryo from a state of lesser to greater complexity, the old limits are not abolished.The laments of structure are organised in their own right. Thus, the search for the unorganised starting point is meaningless. The process of integrating substructures demands the concept of hierarchy as part of the idea of regulation of form. *Donna Jeanne Haraway Crystals, Fabrics, and Fields. Metaphors of Organicism in Twentieth-Century Developmental Biology


PROGRAM

autopoiesis of evolutionary parametrics

PLAN MORPHOLOGY GENERATION 01 CORE STUDIES CALIBRATING PROGRAM ASSESSING FITNESS GENERATION 02 CONTROL VECTORS


PLAN MORPHOLOGY CONTEXT (PROGRAM) FROM QUAD TO TRI TO 8

GEN 01 QUAD

0.04

0.057

AREA 930 M2

AREA 865 M2

AREA 945 M2

AREA 810 M2

SUBDIVISION = 3

AREA 700 M2

SUBDIVISION = 4

RATIO CORE TO FP 0.04

SUBDIVISION = 4

INITIAL STAGE OFFICE AREA 995 M2

AREA 900 M2


AREA 625 M2

AREA 450 M2

0.048

0.06

AREA 250 M2


PLAN MORPHOLOGY CONTEXT (PROGRAM) FROM QUAD TO TRI TO BF

AREA 450 M2

AREA 300 M2

0.06

0.09

INITIAL STAGE RESIDENTIAL AREA 550 M2 RATIO CORE TO FP 0.05

SPECTRUM INITIAL STAGE QUAD

TO A TRIANGLE

90°

90°

90

°

180°-270°


TO A ‘BUTTERFLY’ SCHEME

90° 360°

90

°

90°

TYPE DUPLEX


GEN 01 ROTATE 60° DISTRIBUTION

1/3

PLAN MORPHOLOGY 31.50

CONTEXT (PROGRAM) GEN 01

240°

270°

180°

180°

120°

90°

60°

180°


GEN 03 ROTATE 0째 DISTRIBUTION

2/3

31.50

31.50

GEN 02 ROTATE 90째 DISTRIBUTION

CENTRAL


PLAN MORPHOLOGY CONTEXT (PROGRAM) GEN 01

GEN 01

GENERIC ITERATION OF THE DIAGRAM VOLUMETRIC MASSING


GEN 01

GENERIC ITERATION OF THE DIAGRAM TECHNICAL BUILD-UP


SCISSOR STAIRS CONTEXT (PROGRAM) GEN 01

RESIDENTIAL FLOOR ELEVATORS 2 FLOOR TO FLOOR 2.90M CLEAR HEIGHT 2.70M

TRANSISSION ELEVATORS FLOOR TO FLOOR CLEAR HEIGHT

4 2.90M 2.70M

OFFICE FLOOR ELEVATORS FLOOR TO FLOOR CLEAR HEIGHT

4 5.80M 5.60M


RESIDENTIAL CORE ELEVATORS 2 FIRE ESCAPES 2

TECH PERSPECTIVE TRANSISSION ELEVATORS DROP FIRE ESCAPES

FROM 4 TO 2 2

SHADED VIEW


CALIBRATING PROGRAM PROCEDURAL MASSING FOR FLEXIBILITY +

A + B + C = 140 m

Seed 01

Seed 02

Seed 03

Vertical Organizational Principle

n

Program C = n floors * C floor height

List C

Program B = m floors * B floor height 0

Program A = l floors * A floor height

m

List B

0 l

List A

0

Seed 01

Seed 02

Seed 03

Algorithmic Representation: Lists


Flexibility is about gradients. It's a game of subtle extrapolations between instances. Between each two major floor plate benchmarks that fully comply to the different programs inhabiting the tower we present a gradient of spatial configurations that can fulfill both programs to a comfortable degree of occupation. This vertical blurring of boundaries constitutes a truthful step towards programmatic flexibility.


ASSESSING FITNESS GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR TOWERS GENERATION 1

STEP I : Obtain shape, discretize and extract assessment data.

Main Profiles

Interpolation

Mesh Discretization

Profiles / Floors

STEP II : Define intelligent protocol for data assessment and fitness adjustment.

EXTRACT

Individual Floor Areas

CALCULATE EXISTING

Average Standard Deviation

DEFINE IDEAL

Average Standard Deviation

COMPARE

COMPUTE if the discrepancy of

TO

is close to zero

IF NOT adjust and learn how the change affects the fitness. Mutate genome using the rules that deliver progress.


Seed 01 Graph Profiles

Occlusion

Envelope Ratio

Floor Area

Evolutionary Script generates Seed 01

Seed 01

Upon assessing its standard deviation and average and comparing it to the desired values, the graphs flag major deviations. (color red) Seed is unsuccessful and has to mutate.

Seed 02 Graph Profiles

Occlusion

Envelope Ratio

Floor Area

Evolutionary Script generates Seed 02 This time the deviations are dimished. Graphs are no longer in alert mode. (yellow), and the script knows it has to continue mutating the geonome in this logical direction. This impacts the floor profile configuration as well feeds back the tower massing.

Seed 02

Overall, this genome is more successful than its predecessor, hence will be re-instated in the mutation cycle. The differential between the two series of graphs represents the genetic evolution from one generation to the next. Genetic Evolution

Such iterative process is being pursued for programming, environmental performance as well envelope massing.


ASSESSING FITNESS GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR TOWERS GENERATION 1


Floor Plate Growth

Tower Wire Massing

Unfolding the Tower


PLAN MORPHOLOGY PROGRAM (CELL FORMATION) AREA 780 M2 CORE (A) 39 M2

INITIAL STAGE OFFICE AREA 995 M2

HIERARCHY DEMOCRATIC

HIERARCHY DEMOCRATIC

AREA 900 M2 CORE (A) 39 M2

AREA 820 M2 T-(01) 130 M2 T -(02) 130 M2

WET WALL

7.5M

T-01

T-01

T-01

T-01 T-02

CORE SYMMETRICAL

T-02

AREA 820 M2 ASY CORE CIRC (A) 27 M2

CORE ASYMMETRICAL

RATIO CORE TO FP 0.04

AREA 820 M2 SYM CORE CIRC (A) 34.5 M2


T-01

T-02

T-01

T-01

T-02

T-01

A hierarchy (Greek: hierarchia (χεραρχία), from hierarches, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another. Abstractly, a hierarchy is simply an ordered set or an acyclic graph. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or horizontally. The only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system that is largely hierarchical can also incorporate alternative hierarchies. Indirect hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another nevertheless can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, and then down again. *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hierarchy

The modern apartment, or thqt which is referred to as a studio or one-room apartment - is the material realization of a tendency toward cell-formation, which can be recognized as the architectural and topological analogue of the individualism of the modern society. <..> One can also read, in the evolution of apartment construction, that nothing is less based on presuppositions than the seemingly natural expectation that there should be at least one room for every person , or one living unit per head.

SYNTAX EGOSPERIC FORM

AREA 650 M2 T-(01) 60 M2 T-(02) 120 M2

SYNTAX FLAT HIERARCHY

LIMIT CRITICAL MIN AREA

LIMIT CRITICAL BOTTOM

AREA 650 M2

*Peter SLoterdijk Self-Container in Log10 2007 AREA 415 M2 T(01) 90 M2

LIMIT CRITICAL MIN AREA

PRIVILEGE RESIDENTIAL

AREA 550 M2 T(01) 120 M2

We will define apartment as an atomic or elementary ‘egospheric’ form - as a cellular world-bubble, the massive repetition of which generated individualistic foams.*

Cell

Blck,

Egospheres,


PROTOCOL GEOMETRY DIAGRAM

PROTOCOL GEOMETRY DIAGRAM

CORE SYMMETRICAL

SERIES CELL FORMATION

SERIES ANTI-MITOSIS

CORE SYMMETRICAL

CORE ASYMMETRICAL

PLAN MORPHOLOGY PROGRAM (ANTI-MITOSIS) EGOSPHERICAL FORMATIONS


AREA 7.50 M

7.50 M

275 M2

RATIO CORE TO FP 0.1

AREA

285 M2

RATIO CORE TO FP 0.09 GEN 02

CORE SPLIT

PLAN AREA

525 M2

RATIO CORE TO FP 0.045

AREA

525 M2

RATIO CORE TO FP 0.045

AREA

525 M2

RATIO CORE TO FP 0.045

995 M2 INFORMAL


CONTROL VECTORS INFORMING FLOOR CONTOURS

safe area one outline

safe area one outline

safe area one outline

safe area one outline

critical area split outline



Ghilic-Micu & Mineikyte _ Princeton Envelope Group Schematic Design Booklet