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January 28 2014 Published by PTK Corp.

of the River Region

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GLACIERS by Patricia L. Cook Glaciers form when fallen snow doesn’t melt but compresses over years of buildup into large, sometimes gigantic, thick snow masses. As the snow sits in one place it transforms into ice. • Ice masses that form glaciers are able to move like very slow rivers. There are smaller ones about the size of football fields but many grow to be over 62 miles long (100 km). Glaciers are found on most continents of the world, even Africa. The majority are found in Antarctica and Greenland. • The formation of glaciers depends on climatic and geographic conditions. Most occur above the “snow line,” in mountainous areas or at the polar regions. The snow line is an altitude at which more snow accumulates in the winter than will melt in the summer. While the snow line in Antarctica is at sea level, in Africa it is above 16,732 feet (5100 m), Washington State’s snow line occurs at around 5500 feet (1600 m). Because of a lack of snowfall, Siberia is an extremely cold area that has no glaciers. • Canada has the most glaciers in North America, covering over 77 square miles (200,000 km_). Glaciers cover 29 square miles (75000 km_) in the United States, including Alaska; and only 4.25 square miles (11 km_) in Mexico. • Approximately 10% of the land area on earth is covered in glacial ice. That is over 5.8 million square miles (15 million km_)! • About 75% of the world’s freshwater is stored in glaciers. The ice of Antarctica is over 2.6 miles (4.2 km) thick in some places. • According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) based in Boulder, Colorado, there are eleven types of glaciers: ice sheets, ice shelves, ice caps, ice streams/outlet glaciers, icefields, mountain glaciers, valley glaciers, piedmont glaciers, cirque glaciers, hanging glaciers and tidewater glaciers. • Ice sheets are masses of glacial land ice that extend more than 20,000 square miles (50,000 km_). There are two ice sheets on the earth today, covering most of Antarctica and Greenland. turn the page for more!

Vol 3 Issue 4 paul@riverregiontidbits.com


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Tidbits® of the River Region GLACIERS (continued): • More than 99% of the freshwater ice on earth is contained in the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. The Antarctic Ice Sheet covers an area about the size of the United States and Mexico combined. The Greenland Ice Sheet, which covers most of Greenland, is three times the size of Texas. • When ice from the gigantic ice sheets oozes into the sea or ocean which is cold enough for the ice to remain frozen, ice shelves can form. Ice shelves float over water but are still connected to land. The ice shelves can grow as they gain ice from the ice sheets or shrink if icebergs “calve” off at the edges. (Calving is the term used when icebergs break off.) • There are some large ice shelves on the northern coast of Canada’s Ellesmere Island. However, most of the ice shelves on earth hug the coast of Antarctica. • Ice caps are miniature ice sheets. They cover fewer than 20,000 square miles (50,000 km_). They are found in polar and sub-polar regions that are high in elevation and mostly flat. Iceland has an ice cap, as compared to the much larger ice sheet on Greenland. Ice fields are also similar with flow influenced by underlying ground that is not as flat. They are usually smaller than ice caps. • Ice streams are like little rivers that flow more rapidly than the glaciers they are surrounded by. The Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets have many ice streams that flow outwardly. • Mountain and valley glaciers are, as you may expect, named because of their locations. Mountain glaciers develop in high mountain areas and valley glaciers form from ice fields or mountain glaciers that spill into the valleys below them. • Valley glaciers tend to look like giant tongues when seen from above. They can sometimes reach sea level. • The largest mountain glaciers are found in the highest mountains of the world: the Himalayas in Asia, the Andes of South America, and the mountains of northern Canada, Alaska and on Antarctica. • When valley glaciers spill out onto flat plains they spread out into large lobes, forming piedmont glaciers. The Malaspina Glacier in Alaska is the largest piedmont glacier in the world. Formed by the spill-out from the Seward Ice Field and the Agassiz Glacier, the Malaspina fills the plain in southeastern Alaska. Since it does not connect to the Gulf of Alaska or any of its bays, it does not qualify as a tidewater glacier. The Malaspina Glacier spreads out over 1931 square miles (5,000 km_) of the coastal plain below the Saint Elias Mountains. • Glaciers that look like bowls high on mountainsides are called Cirque Glaciers. All of the glaciers in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado are cirque glaciers. The Matterhorn in Switzerland is an example of a “horn,” which is formed when the top of a mountain has been surrounded by cirque glaciers. • “Ice aprons,” or hanging glaciers cling to and as the name implies, hang from, steep mountainsides. These are common in the Alps and often have avalanches from their steep inclines. • When valley glaciers flow far enough to connect to the sea they are called tidewater glaciers. Many icebergs originate from tidewater glaciers. Hubbard Glacier, which is part of Glacier Bay National Park, is the largest tidewater glacier in North America. The highlight of most cruises to Alaska, the glacier was first mapped in 1895. Icebergs up to 200 feet (61 m) high break off fairly often causing spectacular splashing and crashing and giving tourists quite a show. Glacier Bay has 16 tidewater glaciers. • Glacier Bay and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in Alaska, along with Kluane National Park and Reserve in the Yukon Territory and Tatshenshini-Alsek Park in British Columbia, form a vast ecological area that covers 37452 square miles (97000 km_). The area is mostly untouched except for a historic First Nations presence (Native Canadians). A massive complex of high peaks and glaciers, the area is home to many grizzly bears and caribou as well as the largest non-polar icefield in the world. The entire area was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993.


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Tidbits® of the River Region

* On Feb. 11, 1858, Marie-Bernarde Soubirous, a 14-year-old French peasant girl, claims to have seen the Virgin Mary. The apparitions occurred in a grotto of a rock promontory near Lourdes, France. Today millions of people travel to Lourdes every year to visit the grotto, whose waters supposedly have curative powers. * On Feb. 12, 1912, Hsian-T’ung, the last emperor of China, is forced to abdicate. A provisional government was established in his place, ending 267 years of Manchu rule in China and 2,000 years of imperial rule. The former emperor was only 6 years old. * On Feb. 16, 1923 in Thebes, Egypt, English archaeologist Howard Carter enters the sealed burial chamber of the ancient Egyptian ruler King Tutankhamen. The chamber was virtually intact, with its treasures and the perfectly preserved mummy of King Tut untouched after more than 3,000 years. * On Feb. 13, 1945, the most controversial episode in the Allied air war against Germany begins as hundreds of British bombers descend on Dresden, Germany. With two days, the city was a smoldering ruin. Dresden had been regarded as one the world’s most beautiful cities for its architecture and museums. * On Feb. 15, 1950, Walt Disney’s animated feature “Cinderella” opens in theaters. Disney’s full-length animated feature films began in 1937 with “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.” Disney had risked $1.5 million of his own money on the venture. * On Feb. 14, 1962, President John F. Kennedy authorizes U.S. military advisers in Vietnam to return fire if fired upon. Kennedy was acknowledging that U.S. forces were involved in the fighting, but he wished to downplay any appearance of increased American involvement in the war.

Ambroshia Heard DOB: 9/21/1988 Black/Female 5’5” 200 lbs Hair: Black Eyes: Brown Outstanding Warrants: Failure to Appear Obstruction of Justice False ID Failure to Appear Identity Theft

* On Feb. 10, 1996, after three hours, world chess champion Gary Kasparov loses the first game of a six-game match against Deep Blue, an IBM computer capable of evaluating 200 million moves per second. Kasparov was ultimately victorious and bested Deep Blue with three wins and two ties and took home the $400,000 prize. (c) 2014 King Features Synd., Inc.

Ned Johnson Davis Black/Male 5’10” 225 lbs Hair: Black Eyes: Brown

Outstanding Warrants: Driving Under the Influence


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TRUMPETER SWANS When speaking of large birds most people think of the ostrich, emu, and “Big Bird” of Sesame Street. Those birds can’t fly, but swans can! • Three species of swans live on the continent of North America: the trumpeter swan, tundra swan, and the mute swan. The first two are indigenous, but the mute swan is a species that was introduced from Europe. All three types are large white birds. • Trumpeter swans are the largest swans and therefore the largest waterfowl in North America. They are also the heaviest flying birds on the continent. The “bustard” of Europe is the only flying bird anywhere that is heavier than a trumpeter swan. • Male trumpeter swans can weigh as much as 30 pounds (13 kg), be more than 5 feet (1.5m) from bill to tail and have a wingspan of more than 7 feet (2 m) from tip to tip. • A normal lifespan for a trumpeter swan is from 15-25 years but they can live to be 29-30 years old. They usually stay with the same mate for life, including migrating together. Sometimes when a nest fails to produce young cygnets mates will separate. The “divorce” rate among these swans is about 6%. • Trumpeter swans are fairly social and congregate in large groups except during breeding season when they are quite protective of their turf. • A male swan is called a “cob,” the female a “pen,” and baby chicks are known as “cygnets.” Cygnets are gray when they are born but lose those baby feathers and are completely white by the time they are one year old. • When a pen lays her eggs, she does so in an unusual way. She will lay one egg every other day until she has a total nest, usually three to eight eggs. She does not start incubation until her “clutch” (group or hatch of eggs) is complete so that all of her cygnets hatch within a 24 hour period. Nests are often built on top of beaver lodges or muskrat houses using stems, leaves, cattails and more. A pen only hatches one clutch of eggs per year and the incubation period is about 34 days. • Saskatoon Island Provincial Park near Grande Prairie, Alberta holds an annual Swan Festival every April, providing a fun time to learn about and observe trumpeter swans. • Another place to see the big birds is at Harriman State Park in Island Park, Idaho, near Yellowstone National Park. The population of resident trumpeter swans does not migrate but stays in the tri-state region of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. • These interesting swans actually go through a flightless period every year when they molt (or lose) all of their feathers. Typically occurring in July and August, they are not able to fly for 1-2 months. • Not surprising, trumpeter swans were sonamed because of their trumpet-like call. Deep and loud they can be heard from quite a distance. The most similar bird to the trumpeter is the tundra swan. They are most easily distinguished because of their sounds. Tundra swans sound more like geese, with a quavering high-pitched call. • It is easy to confuse geese, ducks and swans. Generally, swans are the largest with the longest necks. Geese have longer necks than ducks; ducks are almost always the smallest of the three types of waterfowl.

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Tidbits® of the River Region

1. In 2012, Miguel Cabrera became the first Tiger to have five consecutive years of 30 or more home runs. Which two Detroit players had four such seasons? 2. True or false: Hall of Fame shortstop Honus Wagner also was a major-league manager. 3. What was the first college football bowl game to feature teams ranked No. 1 and No. 2? 4. When was the last time before 2013 that the New York Knicks won an NBA playoff series? 5. Of the top five NHL players in career shorthanded goals, four are members of the Hockey Hall of Fame. Who is not? 6. In 2013, Sebastian Vettel became the first driver in Formula One history to have nine successive victories in one year. Who held the old mark? 7. Entering 2014, who was the last American male to win a Grand Slam singles title?

1. Is the Song of Solomon in the Old or New Testament or neither? 2. What Canaanite commander did Jael kill by driving a tent peg through his head? Sisera, Joash, Ishmael, Pekah 3. In 1 Kings 3, who solved a custody dispute by proposing a child to be cut in half? Samuel, David, Solomon, Iddo 4. What Persian queen refused to display her beauty at the court of King Ahasuerus? Esther, Abigail, Deborah, Vashti 5. The daughters of Jerusalem said they will make borders of gold with studs of “what”? Salt, Silver, Souls, Sins 6. How many suicides are recorded in the Bible (KJV)? Zero, 1, 7, 19


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by Samantha Weaver * It was famed cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead who made the following sage observation: ÒOne of the oldest human needs is having someone to wonder where you are when you don’t come home at night.Ó * If youÕre like the average American, you will eat about 150 bananas this year -- 26 poundsÕ worth. * Up until the 1500s, the accepted way of dealing with a patient who was hemorrhaging was to cauterize the wound, often with boiling oil or red-hot irons. It was in the latter part of the 16th century that a French surgeon named Ambroise Pare began tying off the broken blood vessels with cord. ThatÕs pretty much what surgeons do today. * ItÕs been estimated that a million pigeons live in New York City. * When pop star Christina Aguilera is on tour, she insists on having a police escort. She hates to be stuck in traffic. * Next time youÕre heading to Illinois, you can stop off in Metropolis and visit the self-declared birthplace of Superman. In honor of their hometown superhero, the citizens erected a 15-foot bronze statue of him on Main Street. * It was Abraham Lincoln who signed into law the legislation that created the Secret Service. That very night, he was assassinated. * Those who study such things say that on the 13th of every month, triskaidekaphobia causes a loss of $83 million to American business due to absenteeism from work and other disruptions. * In the United States, more babies are born on Oct. 5 than on any other day of the year. If you do the math, youÕll find that New YearÕs Eve is 9 months and 5 days before that. *** Thought for the Day: ÒShow me a hero, and I will write you a tragedy.Ó -- F. Scott Fitzgerald (c) 2014 King Features Synd., Inc.

BIBLE TRIVIA ANSWERS:

1) Old; 2) Sisera; 3) Solomon; 4) Vashti; 5) Silver; 6) 7

1. Hank Greenberg and Cecil Fielder. 2. True. He was 1-4 in five games for Pittsburgh in 1917. 3. In the 1962 season, No. 1 Southern Cal faced No. 2 Wisconsin in the Rose Bowl. 4. It was 2000. 5. Butch Goring, who is fifth on the list with 40 short-handed goals. 6. Michael Schumacher won seven consecutive races in 2004. 7. Andy Roddick won the U.S. Open in 2003.


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Tidbits® of the River Region By Samantha Mazzotta

Stuck Indoors? Don’t Just Sit There Q: I’ve heard plenty of my neighbors complain about being stuck inside this winter and unable to do much outdoor maintenance work. Well, I’ve been around long enough to know there’s plenty of work to do inside, too. Think you can remind folks about some important stuff they could be doing while waiting for the weather to break? -- Oldster Stan, Buffalo, N.Y. A: Stan, that’s very true. While being stuck indoors can be maddening, there are plenty of smaller homemaintenance tasks to take care of -- even if it’s too cold or snowy to get out to the home-improvement store. Here are a few: * Descale your coffeemaker or electric kettle: Check the manufacturer’s cleaning instructions online, but in most drip brewers you can flush several ounces of white vinegar through the system, rinsing thoroughly with clear water. * Clean your dishwasher: Remove any parts that can be lifted out easily, such as racks, utensil holders, wash arms and filter. Soak smaller parts in a sinkful of vinegar-water solution and wipe down the racks, dishwasher interior and the door seal. Rinse and replace all the items, then run the empty dishwasher through a cycle to finish. * Clean the garbage disposal by adding a few ice cubes and lemon peels and cycling it. Rinse with running water. * Clean the wash tub of your clothes washer by filling it with hot water and one quart of white vinegar. Let it agitate for a minute and then pause the cycle so that the water sits for an hour; then resume the wash cycle to rinse. * Vacuum the space your clothes dryer where the lint filter sits. Inspect the dryer vent for lint buildup and remove any lint you find. * Tighten the hardware on cabinets and drawers -knobs, handles and hinges. * Check child- and pet-proof latches and outlet covers, and replace any that are broken. * Vacuum out the heat registers in each room, being sure to replace the floor vent covers immediately afterward so pets don’t accidentally crawl in. * Change the air filter on your heating system (you knew I’d get that one in here). * Rotate houseplants, shifting them to new locations to vary the air and light they receive. HOME TIP: Take a tour of your home and make note of as many improvement or maintenance tasks that you can find. Then create a schedule to tackle a few of them at a time. Send your questions or home tips to ask@thisisahammer.com. (c) 2014 King Features Synd., Inc.


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