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1) What disseminators of American popular culture established distribution branches around the world in the second decade of the twentieth century? (tv, libraries, theatre, film, or radio?) Hollywood film companies began to set up distribution branches in Australia, Latin America, and Asia. (677)

2) Attitude of Western observers towards colonization just before 1914? Widespread Western optimism before 1914 had an international dimension. Imperialists believed that Western leadership was bringing new enlightenment to the inferior peoples of the rest of the world. (677)

3) Weaknesses of the international movement prior to WWI? First, it was based heavily on Western dominance and control of empires. A few other governments from North America, Latin America, and Asia fit in, but most of the initial arrangements were made

by Europeans and for Europeans. Furthermore, internationalization gained ground at the same time that nationalism was rising in Europe and elsewhere. (678)

4) What area of Europe that produced most diplomatic crises prior to WW I? Central and Eastern Europe: many nations tended to use military growth as a means of distracting people from difficult social tensions at home. (681)

5) Which events lead to the outbreak of World War I?

In July 1914, a Serbian nationalist shot the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand, the emperor’s nephew. Germany decided to support Russia, partly out of loyalty to a weak ally but mostly because they

believed war was inevitable and sooner was better than later because both France and Russia were

in early stages of military reforms. Russia promised to support Serbia to maintain influence in the Balkans, and France promised to help Russia.

Basically, Alliances in Europe pitted Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy against France, Britain, and

Russia. (679, 681)

6) The sea warfare during WW I consisted largely of Submarines (681)

7) By 1916, conflict on the western front was (describe area and type) On the western front, northern France was pockmarked with trenches, from which little

advancement was possible. The awesome technology of modern war was revealed in all its power as devastating artillery, machine guns, barbed-wire fences, and the use of poison gas added to the

horrors of the stalemate. Fighting in this area was mainly between France, Germany, and Britain.

(681)

8) Between 1914 & 1917, describe area & type warfare on the eastern front Most of the fighting on the eastern front took place in the western portions of Russia, but it also

spread to the Balkans, where Austria crushed Serbia, and the other small states aligned in the hope of gaining local advantage. (681)


9) During World War I, what was the position of the Ottoman Empire? How did they contribute to war? The Ottoman Empire, long attached to German military advisors, joined Germany in the war effort.

The Germans even hoped that the Turks could sponsor a Muslim uprising against British and French

holdings in north Africa, but this did not happen. Rather, the war weakened the already weak empire, and, after the war was over, it split apart. (684)

10) British promised support for Jewish settlement in Middle East in (document) Balfour Declaration of 1917 (684)

11) By 1917 the war on the eastern front (describe change) In March 1917 the pressures of war, added to the earlier strains in Russian society, caused a major revolution that toppled the tsarist government. Soon a new revolt, in October 1917, brought Lenin and the communists to power. (684)

12) In what year did the German forces on the western front sue for peace? November, 1918 (684)

13) Approximately how many people died as a result of the carnage of WW I? 10 million (684)

14) Which nations were formed from the Ottoman Empire at the end of WWI? A new Turkish republic was formed (Turkey). The rest of the Ottoman holdings were divided up as

mandates of the League of Nations, with Britain taking Palestine and Iraq and France gaining Syria and Lebanon. A few new or renewed monarchies, such as Iran and the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, sprang up in the Persian Gulf region. (687)

15) Describe the League of Nations created in the aftermath of World War I – its purpose and players The League was created to deal with future disputes and to make war unnecessary. It was an

international diplomatic and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I. The US, while heavily supporting this group, never joined it. (685)

16) In what year did the Great Depression begin? October 1929 (688)

17) Causes of the Great Depression -Structural problems, like the overproduction of food from the war, led to low prices. Furthermore,

many farmers in Western Europe and North America borrowed heavily to buy the new equipment, and were unable to pay it off, and fled.

-Most of the dependent areas in the world economy, colonies and non-colonies alike, were suffering badly. Because of this, they could no longer afford Western manufactured goods.

-Nationalistic selfishness: nations were more concerned about insisting on repayment of debts owed to them or enacting tariff barriers to protect their own industries than about balancing world

economic growth.

-Crashing of the New York stock market (687-688)


18) Social results of the Great Depression? Failing production meant falling employment and lower wages. Nearly 1/3 of blue-colar workers in the West lost their jobs for prolonged periods. The depression led to new welfare programs that stimulated demand and helped restore confidence, but it also led to radical social and political experiments such as German Nazism. (688, 689)

19) Which global economies were least affected by the Great Depression? Russia. (688)

20) In Japan, the effect of the Great Depression was: Japan, as a new industrial country still heavily dependent on export earnings for financing its imports of essential fuel and raw materials, was hit hard. Luxury purchases of silk exports collapsed, leading

to severe unemployment and a political crisis. Between 1929 and 1931, the value of Japanese exports

plummeted by 50 percent. The depression also increased suspicion of the West and helped promote new expansionism, designed to win more assured markets in India. (689)

21) After 1937, the government of Japan was dominated by Increasingly militaristic regimes (691)

22) In 1931, Japanese army marched into ____ and declared it an independent state. Manchuria (691)

23) Adolph Hitler was the political and ideological leader of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party in Germany (seriously? 691)

24) Who was the leader of fascist Italy? Benito Mussolini (691)

25) In the Spanish civil war (1936 to 1939), what nation sent effective support to the republican forces? Soviet Russia, while Germany and Italy supported the Spanish right (692)

26) The policy followed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at the Munich conference of 1939 came to be known as Appeasement (692)

27) Which of the following statements concerning warfare in the European theater during World War II is most accurate?

28) Japan's surrender in the Pacific was precipitated by American use of atomic bombs on two cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki (696)

29) What were results of the peace treaties signed following World War II? `

The United Nations was formed. China joined, giving it great status for the first time in modern history. (697)


30) Which of the following nations, created in the aftermath of World War I, lost their independence following World War II? Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia; The nations of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria quickly fell to the USSR. (699)

31) What phrase did Winston Churchill coin to describe the division between free and repressed societies after World War II? “iron curtain” (699)

32) Where was the focal point of the Cold War in Europe immediately after WW II? Germany (700)

33) The mid-1920s in Western Europe could best be described as a period of Stability, even optimism (708)

34) Hopes for permanent peace in Europe in 1928 were symbolized by a treaty outlawing war forever: which one? Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 (708)

35) Describe the economy of Europe during the "Roaring '20s" Economic prosperity buoyed hopes in the middle of the decade. Industrial produced boomed, though more markedly in the United States than in Europe. Mass consumption standards rose for several years. Radios became widespread, and new products were developed, such as the artificial fiber

rayon. Household appliances proliferated, and technology’s impact on daily life reached a new level. Advertising became more pervasive and visually alluring. (709)

36) Which of the following actions did governments take in 1929 with the onset of the depression? The weak Western governments responded to the onset of the catastrophe counterproductively.

They raised national tariffs to keep out the goods of other countries, but this merely worsened the international economy and weakened sales for everyone. (709)

37) FDR's program introducing social insurance programs in the U.S. was: New Deal (710)

38) Under Franklin Roosevelt, how did the U.S. government change? Under Roosevelt, the government became much more active, regulating banks and other economic

activities and sponsoring huge public works. A new social security system provided assistance to the

unemployed and retirees; correspondingly, older people began to expect less economic support from their families and more from the state. (710)

39) What led to the development of fascism in Germany? The impact of the depression, along with the shock of loss in WWI and the treaty arrangements that cast blame for the war on the German nation led to the development of fascism. Depression was the straw that broke the camel’s back, though. (710)


40) Describe Adolf Hitler's political program Hitler repeated standard fascist arguments about the need for unity and the hopeless weakness of parliamentary politics. The state should provide guidance, for it was greater than the sum of

individual interests, and the leader should guide the state. Middle-class elements were attracted to

Hitler’s firm stance against socialism and communism.

Hitler also focused grievances against various currents in modern life, from big department stores to feminism, by attacking Jewish influences in Germany. And he promised a glorious foreign policy to undo the wrongs of the Versailles treaty. Finally, Hitler represented a hope for effective action against the depression. (710)

Also, I recommend you read paragraphs 1-3 of page 711.

41) The type of government that Hitler established in Germany can best be described as Totalitarian—and evil (710-11)

42) What impact did World War II have on European colonies? Decolonization: European nations tried to restore colonial administrations worldwide, but they faced

growing resistance. It was soon clear that many colonies could be maintained only at a great cost, and the European nations decided that colonies were not worth the expense. (711)

43) What crisis emerged in 1956 that demonstrated the diminished powers of European nations in world affairs? Efforts by Britain and France to attack independent Egypt to protest their nationalization of the Suez Canal were quickly shut down. (712)

44) What French leader negotiated Algeria's independence in 1962? Charles de Gaulle (711)

45) U.S. opposition to Soviet aggression in west Europe was predicated on

46) "Resistance thinking" in post-World War II Europe included which of the following principles? Resistance thinking sought dramatic new solutions for previous problems, and included the

extension of democratic political systems, a modification of nation-state rivalries within Europe, and

a commitment to rapid economic growth that reduced social and gender tensions. (712)

47) Describe western European nations’ involvement in NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in 1949, under US leadership, to group most of

the western European powers and Canada in a defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression. American insistence on the partial rearmament of Germany and German participation in NATO set the groundwork for the European Economic Community. (716)

48) Describe the development of new governments in Europe after WW II Europe experienced a shift in the political spectrum toward fuller support for democratic

constitutions and greater agreement on the need for government planning and welfare activitiesNew


regimes had to be established in Germany and Italy after the defeat of fascist and Nazi leadership, whereas France established a new republic once occupation ended. France, Britain, and the US

progressively merged their occupation zones in Germany into what became the Federal Republic of Germany, encouraging a new constitution and outlawing extremist political movements.

Western Europe saw a movetoward more consistent democracy, including in Spain, Portugal, and Greece, which became more connected to the West. (713-14)

49) Why was the welfare state created? Describe its programs and development. Wartime planning had pointed to the need for new programs to reduce the impact of economic inequality and to reward the lower classed for their loyalty. (714) Paragraphs 3-6.

50) Which of the following represented a new political concern in the West following the upheaval of the 1960s? Student protests and rights movements (715)

51) What development signaled the trend to political conservatism in the US? New leadership in the United States Republican party, including the election of Ronald Reagan, and the triumph of a Republican congressional majority in the United States in November 1994 (716)

52) What factor accounted for the economic slowdown of the 1970s?

The oil producing states of the Middle East cut their production and raised prices, initially in response to a Middle Eastern war with Israel. (719)

53) The fastest-growing sector of the labor force in the West after World War II was (service, craft, military, agricultural, or factory) The Service Sector (718)

54) How were women’s rights limited in the West in the later twentieth century?

55) What work by Simone de Beauvoir signified the beginning of the new feminism in 1949? The Second Sex (721)

56) Who wrote The Feminine Mystique? Betty Friedan (721)

57) What British economist who emphasized government spending to compensate for loss of purchasing power during a depression played a significant role in the creation of the American New Deal? John Keynes


Chapter 28-9 WHAP review