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Chapters 33 and 34 Test Review AP World History Test Date: April 14th, 2011 1. What made colonial regimes particularly vulnerable to challenges from within? The fact that European colonial regimes had been built in collaboration with indigenous elite groups—including princes, landlords, and the new middle classes—and depended for their survival on these groups, as well as on soldiers and police recruited from the colonized peoples, rendered them particularly vulnerable to growing challenges from within. (802) 2. In 1885, regional associations of Western-educated Indians came together to form the: Indian National Congress Party (803) 3. A large portion of the Government of India’s budget went to: A large portion of the Indian government budget went to cover the expenses of the huge army that mainly fought wars elsewhere in the British Empire. The Indian people also paid for the generous salaries and pensions of British administrators, who occupied positions that the Indians themselves were qualified to assume. Whenever possible, as in the purchase of railway equipment or steel for public works projects, the government bought goods manufactured in Great Britain. (804) 4. Who was the first Indian leader with a genuine mass following? Tilak’s oratorical skills and religious appeal made him the first Indian nationalist leader with a genuine mass following. (806) 5. The radical wing of the Congress Party under Tilak proposed what formula as the basis for the party’s political program? Some leaders, such as B.G. Tilak, believed that because Hindus made up the overwhelming majority of the Indian population, nationalism should be built on appeals to Hindu religiosity. Tilak worked to promote the restoration and revival of what he believed to be the ancient traditions of Hinduism. On this basis, he opposed women’s education and the raising of the very low marriage age for women. (805) 6. Where was the terrorist movement most concentrated in India before World War I? By the 1890s, those in Bengal built perhaps the most extensive terrorist underground network. (806) 7. What British reform in 1909 provided educated Indians with expanded opportunities both to elect and to serve on local and all-Indian legislative councils? Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 (806)

8. Describe the leadership of the decolonization movement in India just prior to World War I? Tilak's removal and the repression campaigns against terrorists, along with British reforms, strengthened the hands of the Western-educated moderates in Congress. 9. British occupation of Egypt meant double colonization by the British and the: Turkish Khedives (806) 10. What British political officer dominated government policy in Egypt after 1992 and pushed for economic reforms to reduce the Khedival debt? In the decades after the British conquest, government policy was dominated by the strong-willed and imperious Lord Cromer. (806) 11. What group within Egypt took up the cause of national independence and decolonization? The cause of Egyptian independence was taken up mainly by the sons of the effendi, the prosperous business and professional families that made up much of this new middle class. (807) 12. Prior to World War I, the primary difference between Egyptian and Indian national movements was: In contrast to India, where lawyers predominated in the nationalist leadership, in Egypt, journalists (some educated in France) led the way. (807) 13. What was the Dinshawai incident? A party of British officers on leave was hunting the pigeons of the village of Dinshawai in the Nile delta when they accidentally shot the wife of the prayer leader of the local mosque. The angry villagers mobbed the greatly outnumbered shooting party, which in panic fired on the villagers. Both the villagers and the British soldiers suffered casualties in the clash that followed. In reprisal, the British hanged four of villagers. (807-808) 14. What was the outcome of the Dinshawai incident in Egypt? Although the incident at Dinshawai was seemingly a small clash resulting in limited numbers of fatalities, the excessive British response to it did much to undermine whatever support remained for their continued presence in Egypt. The harsh British reprisals aroused a storm of protests in the Egyptian press and among the nationalist parties. (808) 15. World War I had what effect on India?

16. What reforms offered in 1919 in India increased the powers of Indian legislators at the allIndia level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries? Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 (811) 17. What was the cause of the foundation of the Muslim League in 1906? Even though Muslims had been and continued to be prominent leaders in the Congress party, a number of leaders of the Islamic community warned that the party was dominated by Hindus, who had taken much greater advantage of opportunities for higher education and political advancement. To better support their demands for separate electorates and legislative seats, several mostly welleducated and well-to-do Muslims founded a rival party, the Muslim League, in 1906. (812) 18. In 1931, Gandhi renewed his civil disobedience to the British administration of India with the: Gandhi launched another round of all-India civil disobedience campaigns with the dramatic Salt March and satyagraha in early 1931. (812) 19. Despite promises of Arab independence, Britain and France created a number of _____ in the Middle East under the auspices of the League of Nations. Mandates (813) 20. Zionism refers to: The belief that Hebrew people should return to their ancient Middle Eastern lands of origin, and that an independent state of Israel should be established (813) 21. What occurred in Egypt in the aftermath of World War I? By the end of the war, Egypt was ripe for revolt. Mass discontent strengthened the resolve of the educated nationalist elite to demand a hearing at Versailles, where the victorious Allies were struggling to reach a postwar settlement. When a delegation of Egyptian leaders was denied permission to ravel to France to make the case for Egyptian self-determination, most Egyptian leaders resigned from the government and called for mass demonstrations. British withdrawal occurred in stages, beginning in 1922 and culminating in the British withdrawal to the Suez Canal zone in 1936. (814) 22. Describe the nationalist governments in Egypt after the British withdrawal in 1936. The Egyptian leaders of the Wafd party, as well as its rivals in the Liberal Constitutionalist and Union parties, did little to relieve the increasing misery of most Egyptian people. Locked in personal and inter-party quarrels as well as the ongoing contest with the khedival regime for control of the government, few political leaders had the time or inclination to push for the land reforms and public works projects that the peasantry so desperately needed. (815)

23. How did the Indian Congress Party and Nationalist leaders respond to British Participation in World War II? Congress leaders offered to support the Allies’ war effort if the British would give them a significant share of power at the all-India level and commit themselves to Indian independence once the war was over. These conditions were rejected, which led to a renewal of mass civil disobedience under the guise of the Quit India movement, which began in summer of 1942. (819) 24. What was the solution to the division in India between Muslims and Hindus in 1947? A separate Muslim state called Pakistan was to be created from the areas in northwest and east India where Muslims were the most numerous. (819) 25. What radical African leader helped to achieve independence in Ghana? Kwame Nkrumah (820) 26. By what decade had the European colonization of most of black Africa come to an end? 1960s 27. In what type of African colonies was the process of decolonization most violent? White Dominions 28. Failure of the British to deal with the leader of the largest nationalist party, Jomo Kenyatta, led to a violent and prolonged revolution in: Kenya (832) 29. The Afrikaner National Party in South Africa established a rigid system of racial segregation called: Apartheid (826) 30. Describe the creation of the state of Israel in 1948. In 1948, with sympathy for the Jews running high because of the postwar revelations of the horrors of Hitler’s “Final Solution,” the member states of the United Nations, with the United States and the Soviet Union in rare agreement, approved the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish countries. The Arab states that bordered the newly created nation of Israel had vehemently opposed the United Nations’ action. Not only did the Jews hold onto the tiny patchwork state they had been given, they expanded it at the Arabs’ expense, resulting in a short but bloody warfare. (827)

31. Why have ethnic rivalries and communal violence been endemic in decolonized African states? With the common European enemy gone, the deep divisions between the different ethnic and religious groups that had been thrown together in the postcolonial states became more and more apparent and disruptive. (831) 32. Explain the attitudes of African leaders with respect to altering unnatural boundaries created in the colonial era. Although Asian and African leaders have been acutely aware of the injustices and persecutions of minority groups that often precipitated these conflicts, none have seriously suggested changing the unnatural boundaries established in the colonial era. In fact, these divisions have become inviolable. African national leaders fear that a successful succession movement in a neighboring country might encourage dissident minorities in their own nation. (837) 33. What was the most formidable barrier to economic growth post-colonial Africa? Of the many barriers to the rapid economic breakthroughs postcolonial leaders hoped for, the most formidable and persistent were the spiraling population increases that often overwhelmed whatever economic advances the peoples of the new nation managed to make. (838) 34. What are the main causes of a high birth rate in Third World nations? With war and famine—two of the main barriers to population increase—much reduced, growth began to speed up. This was particularly true in areas such as India and Java that had been under European control for decades. Death rates declined, but birth rates remained much the same, leading to increasingly larger net increases. Improved hygiene and medical treatment played little part in this rise until the early 20th century, but efforts to eradicate tropical diseases, and to improve sewage systems and purify drinking water have led to further population increases. (838) 35. One of the chief by-products of population growth in Third World nations has been:

36. On what have Third World countries traditionally depended to finance industrialization?

37. In what export commodity have some Third World Nations been able to improve in terms under which they participate in the global economy, at least for periods of time? The pattern of exchange promoted in the colonial era left most newly independent countries dependent on the export production of two or three food crops or industrial raw materials. The former included cocoa, palm oil, coffee, jute and hemp. Key among the latter were minerals, such as copper, bauxite, and oil, for which there was a high demand in the industrialized economies of Europe, North America, and increasingly Japan. These goods are refered to as primary products. (843)

38. “Neocolonialism” refers to: The economy that resulted from continued dominance of first- and second- world nations of the world’s economy; the ability of the first- and second- world nations to maintain economic colonialism without political control (843) 39. What was Kwame Nkrumah’s response to the failure of his programs of social reform and economic uplift? Nkrumah’s response to these growing problems was increasingly dictatorial. He refused to give up or cut back on his development plans. (846) 40. Describe Kwame Nkrumah’s political and economic programs. Nkrumah sought to hold on to the loyalty of the masses and mobilize their energies by highly staged “events” and the manipulation of largely invented symbols and traditions that were said to be derived from Ghana’s past. Thus, he tried to justify his policies and leadership style with references to a uniquely African brand of socialism and the need to revive African traditions and African civilization. (846) 41. One of the most common elements of African and Asian governments since decolonization is: Military regimes (847) 42. Among the worst examples of military regimes in Third World nations was: At their worst, military regimes—such as those in Uganda (especially under Idi Amin), Burma (now Myanmar), and Zaire—have quashed civil liberties while making little attempt to reduce social inequities or improve living standards. (847) 43. The Muslim Brotherhood embraced which main beliefs? Although members of the organization were committed to a revivalist approach to Islam, the brotherhood’s main focus, particularly in the early years, was on a program of social uplift and sweeping reforms. The organization became involved in a wide range of activities, from promoting trade unions and building medical clinics to educating women and pushing for land reform. (848) 44. The man who emerged as head of the Egyptian government following the 1952 coup was: Gamal Abdul Nasser (847, info through 849) 45. How did Anwar Sadat alter Egyptian policies established by the military government after World War II? He dismantled the massive state apparatus that had been created. He favored private rather than state initiatives. During Sadat’s tenure in office, the middle class, who had been greatly restricted by Nasser, emerged again as a powerful force. After fighting the Israelis to a stalemate in 1973, Sadat also moved to end the costly confrontation with Israel as well as Egypt’s support for revolutionary

movements in the Arab world. He expelled the Russians and opened Egypt to aid and investment from the United States and Western Europe. (851) 46. In the first decades of independence, India was governed by: During the first decades of its freedom, India had the good fortune to be governed by leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru and his allies in the Congress party who were deeply committed to social reform and economic development as well as the preservation of civil rights and democracy. (851) 47. Perhaps more than any other Third World nation, India has been successful at: Democracy (851) 48. Who was bought to power in 1979 in Iran through a radical revolution? Ayatollah Khomeini (852) 49. From 1948, South African politics were dominated by: The Nationalist party (854) 50. What were the homelands established by the government in South Africa? Spatial separation was also organized on a grander scale by the creation of numerous homelands within South Africa, each designated for the main ethno-linguistic or “tribal� groups within the black African population. These areas tended to be overpopulated and poverty stricken. (855) 51. One of the signs of slightly diminished racial tensions in South Africa in 1990 was the freeing of: Nelson Mandela (855)

Chapters 33 and 34 Test Review