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HAND BOOK ON SAFETY IN MINES & DIMENSION STONE QUARRIES

Remember it only takes one unsafe act to cause an accident

Compiled by Mines Group Vocational Training Society, Hospet & Published by Mines Safety Association Karnataka


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Foreword Unlike conventional mining where smaller the size of product the better it is, in case of dimension stone mines, the bigger the better. In conventional mining shape is not a criterion but in dimension stone mining near regular geometrical shape is a must. This results in hazards unique to this activity. Dimension mining engages jack hammer drills in large numbers, uses manual methods for dressing to near geometrical shape thus employing large work force of Semi skilled category. Simultaneously it also engages larger capacity excavators, dumpers, wheel loaders cranes etc., to handle the block (Sized dimension stone). These activities are performed in closer vicinity. Yet another issue is the wrong notion amongst mining engineers about the need and degree of calibre required resulting their shunning themselves away from the dimension stone mines. Thus while the activities have increased safety matters were not getting addressed. In this background, at the instance of Director of Mines Safety, Bellary Region, a study was conducted in four different mines in Ilkal sector by Sri. B.Arunachalam, Manager, Mines Group Vocational Training Society, Hospet and Nagesh Shenoy, General Manager, M/s MSPL Limited, Hospet. The outcome of the study has been listed in Chapter 1. Safe procedures for various activities are dealt in the subsequent chapters. A separate chapter details measures to be taken to handle emergencies It is hoped that this would serve in identifying hazards in the respective activities and for applying of controls as needed

(V.Lakshminarayana) Director of Mines Safety Bellary Region


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Preface During the course of my inspections in safety weeks and also during my interaction with officials at the time of training in the Vocational Training Centre it was observed that quite few trainees were not aware of the unsafe acts, conditions etc.. Therefore they were not aware of the hazards. Dimension stone industry though has high level of mechanisation, levels of supervision has not kept pace with the development. Another area is the small mine that uses an excavator and few tipper trucks In these cases the standard of supervision is low. Graduates and Diploma holders shun away of from these mines and take up a job here is the last in their options As per the instructions of Director of Mines safety, Bellary Region, myself and Sri Nagesh Shenoy (General Manager of MSPL Limited) visited a few dimension stone mines in Ilkal Sector. The outcome of observations and suggestions are detailed in Chapter 1. In the succeeding Chapters safe operating instructions in simple English has been given. Some of these are repeated for emphasis. Few instructions in pictorial format has been given. To meet emergency situations basic details in rendering of first aid has been added. Extracts from 9th and 10th conference along with a note on implementation of Safety Management System that is mandatory is detailed in annexure Circulars were being issued on different aspects of safety for nearly six decades. While it is not possible to reproduce, for easy approach a topic wise list of circulars is added as annexure. I thank Sri V. Lakshminarayana, Director of Mines Safety, Bellary Region, for his guidance, Sri Nagesh Shenoy, for his assistance and Mines Safety Association Karnataka for publishing this hand book. The aim of the author that the book should be of use for mine supervisors I would be happy to receive feedback that could be mailed to me

(B. Arunachalam) Author barunachalam43@gmail.com


4 INDEX OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1

REPORT ON SAFETY SYSTEM IN GRANITE MINES

1.1.0

Introduction

1.2.0

The Process of Dimension Stone Mining in Ilkal Sector -Karnataka

1.2.1

Removal of Top Waste and Weathered Mass

1.2.2

Operation of Cutting Blocks

1.3.0

Manpower/ Machines Machinery Details of Sample Mines

1.4.0

Causes for Accidents

1.4.1

General

1.4.2.0 Methodology 1.4.2.1

Suggested Areas for Improvement

1.4.2.2 Drilling 1.4.2.3 Blasting 1.4.2.4 Excavation &Loading 1.4.2.5 Hauling Of Waste 1.4.2.6 Block Preparation (Stage 1) 1.4.2.7 Shifting of Blocks 1.4.2.8 Dressing of Blocks (Stage 2) 1.4.2.9 Loading of Blocks 1.4.2.10 Workshop 1.4.2.11 Electrical Safety 1.4.2.12 Fire Fighting 1.4.2.13 First Aid 1.4.2.14 Supervision 1.4.2.15 Material Management 1.4.2.16 Stack Maintenance 1.5.0

Conclusion

CHAPTER 2

CRACKING POWDER

2.1

Scope of Use

2.2

Properties

2.3

Application

2.3.1

Mixing

2.3.2

Curing

2.3.3

Secondary Breaking

2.4

Mechanism Of Cracking

2.5

Blown – Out Shot

2.6

Safety Precaution

CHAPTER 3 3.1

SAFETY IN DRILLING

Crawler Drills


5 3.2

When Operating Equipment near the Edge of a Slope,

3.3

Jack Hammer Drilling

3.4

Compressed Air

3.5

Hosepipe Connections with Claw Couplings

CHAPTER 4

SAFETY IN STORAGE, HANDLING, MANUFACTURE AND USE OF EXPLOSIVES

4.1

Handling of Explosives

4.2

Explosives Van

4.3

Explosive Magazine

4.4

Ammonium ·Nitrate Fuel Oil (Diesel) Mixing Shed

4.5

Storage of Ammonium Nitrate

4.6

Mixing Of Ammonium Nitrate

4.7

Sensitivity Test:

4.8.

Precautions with Explosives

4.8.1

General

4.8.2

While Drilling and Charging

4.8.3

While Stemming

4.8.4

While Firing With Safety Fuse

4.8.5

While Firing Electrically:-

4.8.5

Before And After Firing:-

4.9

Blasters’ Shelter

4.10Testing Of Electric Detonators 4.11

Testing Of Shot Firing Cables

4.12

General Precautions in Blasting

4.13

Precautions While Firing a Shot

4.14

Precautions to Be Taken In Case Equipment Left Near Blasting Zone

4.15

Precautions to Be Taken For Blasting During Bad Weather

4.16

Causes, Avoidance and Treatment of Misfires

4.16.1

Safety Fuse and Ordinary Detonator Blasting –

4.16.2

Electrical Detonators

4.17

Detection of Misfired Shot

4.18

Handling of Misfire

4.19

Precaution While Dealing With Misfire

CHAPTER 5

SAFETY IN MATERIAL HANDLING (EXCAVATOR, WHEEL LOADER & CRANES)

5.1

Starting the Engine

5.2

Operation

5.3

Hydraulic Excavators: Lifting With Slings

5.4

Crane Hazards and Safe Operating Procedures

CHAPTER 6 6.1

SAFETY IN TRANSPORTATION

Haul Roads For Trucks Etc.


6 6.2

Safety Features of Haul Roads

6.3

Braking Capacity of the Vehicle

6.4

Safety In Hauling (Operation) For Operators

6.5

Maintenance of Vehicle

6.6

Pre-Operation Inspection

6.7

Start Up and Shut Down Procedures

6.8

Truck Operation

6.9

Spotting At Loading Equipment

6.10

Operating On Grades

6.11

Brake Testing

6.12

Safety in Over Head Lines

6.13

Care In Waste Dumps

6.14

Stacking Procedures

6.15

Safety Features Required In Tippers / Trucks - DGMS Circular 5 Of 2010

CHAPTER 7

SAFETY IN MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES

7.1

Carrying Out Maintenance on Equipments

7.2

Hydraulic Hoses

7.3

Machine Guarding

7.4

Tyre Repairs

7.5

Safety - Proper Blocking

7.6

Safety in Blocking Of Raised Equipments

7.7

Safety in Use Drill in Work Shop

7.8

Safety in Use of Hammers and Striking Tools

7.9

Care and Use in Gas Welding Systems

7.10

Grinding

7.11

Personal Fall Arrest System

CHAPTER 7

HANDLING OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

8.1

Fire路 Classification

8.2

Types of Extinguishers

8.3

Salient Points on First Aid to the Injured A. In Case Of Accidents B. Extrication: Getting the Most from "The Golden Hour" C. Recognise Strokes Render First Aid D. Priority of Treatment by First Aider In Case Of Accidents

CHAPTER 8

SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

9.1

Recommendations Of The Ninth Conference On Safety In Mines Held On 2nd And 3rd February 2000, At New Delhi..

9.2

Recommendations Of The Tenth Conference On Safety In Mines Held On 26th And 27th November 2007, At New Delhi.


7 9.3

Safety Management System

Annexure 1

List of Records to Be Maintained, Precautions to Be Taken, Notices to Be Displayed & Returns To Be Sent

Annexure 2

General Safety Indices

Annexure 3

Contractor’s Quarterly Return

Annexure 4

Extracts From Explosives Rules 2008

Annexure 5

Salient Point’s Ammonium Nitrate Rules 2011 Part – 1 Application Forms Part – 2 Licence Forms Part – 3 Return Forms Annexure 6

Details of Circulars Issued By DGMS


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CHAPTER 1

REPORT ON SAFETY SYSTEM STUDY IN GRANITE MINES 1.1.0

Introduction

Accidents are generally the result of a chain of events and badly performed activities. Little corners cut here and there can add up to a big accident. But just as there is a chain of events leading up to an accident, there is a chain of safety events that can help prevent it. It is the three pronged approach that targets improvements in the areas of the People, Machines and Worksites, (Men, machine and Environment). As per the instructions of the Director of Mines Safety, Bellary region, a study in the granite dimension stone mines in Ilkal Sector on prevailing status of safety standards and safety awareness was conducted. A sample of four mines that are fully mechanised and having different levels of production and machinery population was identified. Director of Mines Safety constituted a team of two senior mining engineers for conducting such study. Creation of safe operating procedures would need identification of activities, dissecting to as many sub activities as possible, identifying controls for each sub activity, checking that a control for one sub activity does create for another and finally summing up. In the subsequent few of the activities have been looked into. A detailed, site wise analysis would be needed that would cover all activities in the area, level of competency, infra structure available etc.,

1.2.0 The process of Dimension stone mining in Ilkal sector -Karnataka The process of Granite Dimension stone mining can be broadly divided into following steps 1.

Removal of top soil

2.

Removal of weathered mass that would contain stones of assorted sizes

3.

Cutting of Trench/box to create free face – cutting two vertical cuts with wire saw and using Cracking powder to cut from behind

4.

Cutting larger chunks from parent mass with wire saw

5.

Inspection , marking and cutting out marketable size block

6.

Shifting blocks dressing edges etc with jack hammer and wedges

7.

Dressing of blocks manually to get a rectangular cuboids shape

8.

Shifting and stacking blocks for inspection by buyers

9.

Loading blocks that are approved with cranes into trucks and dispatch

10. Disposing off as waste, material that is not saleable. If necessary by reducing size with Pop shooting The activity of removing the mass to be cut is time consuming. Conventional drilling and blasting cannot be resorted to as size of stone without cracks etc. is the criteria. Larger size and aesthetic appeal result in better returns.

1.2.1 Removal of top waste and weathered mass Top usually is very uneven. A portion can be taken out with excavator/wheel loader and dumper combination. In the case of uneven crest all sides have to be exposed to look into the potentiality of cutting out a block. This would require line drilling with Jack hammers at spacing ranging from 15 to 30 cm. This is blasted with very light charge or cut with cracking powder having Trade name as Split Ag, This powder is mixed with water at room temperature and filled in the holes. After say 6 hrs the rocks starts cracking. Cracks follow line of least resistance that is the alignment of drilled holes. This powder is highly alkaline but not an explosive. Higher alkalinity could result in blindness when it comes in contact with eyes. This calls for precaution even though by itself this is not an explosive Thus it may be seen that tonnage handled is not the criteria but the size that takes time in taking out, turning sides of the block, loading of large size waste. Waste unless it is separated from parent mass and is a total reject,


9 cannot be blasted as is done in conventional mining. The efficiency of excavator cannot be judged on quantity handled as it does more of scavenging of collecting waste, prying out loose, rolling of blocks etc and loading waste that is mostly odd shaped. This activity of excavator also results in rough usage. Similarly, in the case of dumpers, time taken for loading is very high as the excavator needs to pick each waste boulder that may be quite unwieldy in shape and size, pull closer to, lift with care and slowly unload in the dumper. Activity of dislodging the boulder from the face requires great alertness of operator as boulder is locked in joints and excavator could tilt/ boulder fall on excavator cabin. Loading of dumper has to be done from rear to ensure minimum raising of bucket, discharge of load in centre, rearrange if need be .The dumper has to be closest to ensure that boom is as close to excavator as possible. Risk of rock falling on to excavator body exists when dumper is too close to excavator. Unloading into dumper has to be as slow and low as possible to avoid impact and/or rolling on to sides. Load that is not centred could lead to toppling of dumper while hauling or unloading. All these activities increase the level of risk of this operation. Waste should not roll and fall on haul road.

1.2.2 Operation of Cutting blocks Impact of any nature that could result in cracking could result loss of block. Therefore as far as possible cutting with wire saw is resorted to. For passing the wire, vertical and horizontal holes that meet at a common point are drilled. Diamond or hard chilled shot embedded wire is passed through the hole, brought from the other and crimped to make it endless. This is passed around a pulley and made tight. The pulley along with motor is mounted on skids. As the pulley mounted on motor rotates the wire cuts the granite. Motor is continuously moved away to keep wire taut. Continuous cooling is done with water. Rate of cutting depends upon hardness of grain, condition of diamond etc and takes more than 16 hours at a stretch and at times round the clock activity. Stage 2 will be reducing to marketable size; this needs expertise in locating the defects like quartz vein, planes of weakness like joints that run crisscross. These defects could result in braking of slabs after cutting, cracks due to impact in earlier stage, joints that could effect in getting a marketable block. This involves a thorough inspection. After marking, holes with jack hammer are drilled at 15 to 30 cm spacing to depths just less than the height of mass and split Ag (expansion powder) used if larger or Wedges used if the size is reasonable. Blocks thus retrieved are shifted away from face but inside the mine. Here all six sides are straightened by jack hammer drilled holes and splitting done with wedges. Ultimately bulges locally known as bushes are cut out manually with hammers. Edges are straightened manually by wedge shaped and V shaped hammers. The next activity is shifting and stacking the block out of pit. This is usually done by wheel loaders or forklifts. Such stacked blocks are inspected by buyers and after approval loaded on to Highway trucks with cranes. Recovery as reported is 7-8% of total handling by volume.

1.3.0 Manpower/ Machines machinery details of sample mines


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Details

Unit

A

B

C

D

Block (Average)

Cub.m

150

350

1500

100

Waste (Average)

Cub m

1992

4650

25000

800

Total Approx

Cub m

2142

5000

26500

900

Tonnage handled @2.7t/m3

(t)

5783

13500

71550

2500

Excavators

Number.

4

2

7

2

Compressor (Elect/Diesel)

Number

11

6

26

4

Wagon drills

Number

2

3

2

1

Jackhammers

Number

15

15

70

8

Wheel loader/Forklift

Number

3

2

2

1

Cranes

Number

1 ( Tata 320)

2(Tata 320)

5

nil

Dumper/ tippers

Number

6

7

14

4

Wire saw

Number

2

2

6

1

Above manager level

Number

1

nil

2

Manager

Number

1

1

1

Asst Manager

Number

Nil

Nil

1

Foreman

Number

2

2

Mate

Number

1

1

Blaster

Number

3

3

1

1

The above is a brief of sequence of operations

1.4.0 Causes for accidents 1.4.1 General Causes for accidents are broadly divided in three areas viz. act, conditions and environment Unsafe act due to human error in various activities was observed. This could be due to lack of awareness of dangers or safety standards that are required at various levels. Unsafe conditions that exist would get corrected to a large extent by awareness. Few of unsafe conditions are due to lack of proper equipment to meet the demand this requires managements action for correction. Unsafe environments are noisy, dusty as also moment of machinery and men in close proximity that could result in accidents over and above as occupational diseases Supervision though available is production oriented. These supervisors having come up from the rungs and in the absence of updated knowledge are neither aware of safety standards nor oriented towards it. Therefore safety consciousness is low. They do not have statutory qualification or responsibility and at times do not come under real control of Managers. PPE though is last line of defence is generally not used

1.4.2.0 Methodology In order to go in depth, major activities were dissected to small components to assess the risk under existing control measures. These were tabulated and those of High risk in nature were isolated. Areas having high risk have been detailed in this report.


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1.4.2.1 Suggested areas for improvement General safety awareness needs to be improved. This has to be a three tier activity as below a.

Owners and General manager

b.

Managers , assistant manager, foreman, mate, engineers

c.

Operators and workers should undergo systematic vocational training mainly on safety aspects Some hazard prone activities observed and suggestions are as below


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1.4.2.2 Drilling 11. Jack hammer drilling being a major activity should be mechanised where possible and to be replaced with newer versions of jack hammer / alternatives. This will reduce dust exposure levels. 12. Safety features in Jack hammer, loose clamp could result in jack hammer jumping and falling on leg. 13. Air line lubricators are not used. This would result in Dry running; wear on piston/chuck, tangential hit on drill steel, breakage of rod. These could result in driller falling down at times on top of sheared rod. 14. Handles are not shock proof, 15. Claw coupling usage against universal nut this could result in UN clamping of air hose and lash on the driller or any bye standard. The injury could be serious. 16. Collaring of hole is done with bare foot. This could result in leg injury 17. After completion the drill steel is taken out with bare hands. Handling of hot Drill steel can result in burn injury and also steel falling on legs 18. All drilling activities should be away from haul road as noise and dust are detractor to dumpers 19. Dust suppression in jack hammers lacking. This over and above a health hazard also reduces visibility in nearby haul road that is frequented by dumpers 20. Capacity of compressors should match with jack hammers. A jack hammer would consume about 80cfm and hooking on to a higher capacity compressor (300cfm) is not advisable. 21. Tractors are used to shift compressors in and out of pit. These tractors like other machines should undergo inspection for independent brake system of trailer. Also in view of shifting up gradient accidental unhooking should be considered and the locking mechanism of the hook should be in order. 22. Electrical compressors have armoured cable with plug and socket systems. Armour is not connected to earth nor is the compressor earthed. 23. Panel boards for electrical connections are kept in the open in bench edges. On the same haul road dumpers as well as excavators move. Out of control movement could result electrical accident. Also these boards should be protected from rain and dust. The system should be earthed and shock proof mat provided.

1.4.2.3 Blasting 1.

Explosives of whatever the quantity may be, needs to be handled with care. Lack of awareness of hazards could prove fatal

2.

Magazine Earth resistance checking needs to be done more so when instantaneous electric detonators are stored. In one location one lightning arrestor takes care of two sets of magazines. Adequacy of the mast height to cover installation inside cone of protection has to be ensured

3.

In one instance the approach to magazine is steep and blaster needs to carry detonators in hand. The path has loose stones as well that could result in slipping and fall down. Hand railing with rope and steps will be required

4.

Secondary blasting, Residences are within 500 m.

5.

Common boundary blasting arrangement bye laws/ SOP should be made. Documentation of daily pre blast clearance should be done. This applies for blasting done in case of mines in Close proximity.

6.

No rest shelter should remain within danger zone

7.

Handling of explosives safely, charging, checking continuity on face, charging of hole and drilling in progress, wireless in operation close by.

8.

Blasting done with Instantaneous electric detonator. Therefore cannot move out of danger zone. Design of Blaster’s shelter should confirm to the need to protect injury due to fly rock to the blaster who will be inside the shelter at the time of blasting.


13 9.

Gun powder is used in some cases for dressing /cutting of blocks. Safety aspects handling ,storing needs improvement

10. Split AG, a highly alkaline powder is used for cracking the block along desired lines. This has certain hazards like blindness when it comes into contact with eyes. There are cases of blow outs as well. Recommended hole dia. is 36 to 50 mm whereas presently 33mm Dial holes are used. Awareness and safety aspects in usage need to be made, through suppliers.

1.4.2.4 Excavation &Loading 1.

In excavators and loaders at the time of operation only operator should be present. These equipments stand on solid but uneven ground and has tendency to shake in vertical axis as well. This would be more prevalent while prying out the waste. Operator sits on a seat and fully supported whereas the helper etc do not have support and may get thrown out. The cabin door should remain closed

2.

Mainly waste of very odd shaped stone is loaded in dumpers. This has a tendency to roll sideward or fall backward this also could lead to loss of stability and toppling while hauling. Also they could fall on workers. . All dumpers should have scoop body and not flat bed.

3.

Wheel loaders do not have roll over protection. Also operator sits in an open cabin that has no protection from noise and dust. Presence of workers many workers all around leads to distraction.

1.4.2.5 Hauling of waste 1.

Safety features like audio visual alarms, canopy are not present. These are to be made available in dumpers

2.

Existing gradients are higher. This would result in rolling back of dumpers and injury. Haul roads should be within stipulated gradients.

3.

Steeper gradients will also result in rolling down of stone from the dumper body

4.

Men or machine should not be allowed to work or walk in line with haul road or closer to slope .Embankment may be with rejected blocks to be maintained all along the haul road .

5.

In order to avoid injury due to fall of stone and also roll back of dumpers Drilling, dressing of blocks etc should be away from side slopes of haul roads and should not be in line with haul road as well

6.

Turnings are sharp for negotiation, needs trimming and widening. Traffic signals in Kannada, the Local language should be exhibited. Danger of dumper tilting side wards are more as the waste loaded most of the time remains precariously perched and tends to tilt making the dumper lose its stability.

7.

Waste dumps in general are safe as only boulder material is unloaded. The area receives low rainfall. Therefore sliding or dump failure is not present. However over running in dumps is present. More so reporting of dumpers to dump will be infrequent. Dumps are far away and therefore may not get the attention as required.

1.4.2.6 Block Preparation (Stage 1) 1.

Wire cutting saw is operated with electrical motor. Power is supplied through a mini panel board. Wire needs continuous cooling with water. This results in humid conditions along with spray of dust mixed water. The operator should use gum dipped steel toed foot wear. (Word of caution people such foot wear should not approach water logged area as in case of slip / fall and drown they will not be able to surface out)

2.

Wire saw operations are a continuous process and not restricted to daylight hours only. There should be sufficient glare free illumination (Halogens create glare and temporary blindness while walking towards).

3.

While Wire saw is in operation the diamond embedded endless wire moves at a high speed. Snapping of wire could lead to slashing and serious injury. Secondly unintentional approach should be prevented. Therefore a temporary portable fence should be made.


14 4.

Illumination done with halogen fitting having tube in open. Halogen has heat generating and also blinding glare effect. This makes the illumination a hazard rather than a control for visibility. Open fixture, In the event of tube breakage Halogen tube can result in toxic injury. The fixtures are portable. Carrying of portable 220 v fixtures that too in an area where cooling water is splashing, sharp edged stone lying around collectively takes the activity to a higher risk level. A step down transformer bringing it down 12 v and glare free fixture should be available. Such step down transformer can be fixed in the panel that houses wire saw motor connections

5.

All jobs of block preparation are done inside the pit. The environment that is prevalent inside leads to manual workers accident proneness. Presence of manual workers inside the pit should be avoided by performing the dressing operations outside. This will also reduce noise and dust levels in both locations. Presence of workers inside the pit should be restricted to Initial selection, marking of block, cutting to size with wire saw and later with jack hammers. Final trimming removing bulges etc should be done outside

6.

Use of Feathers &Wedges for dressing of blocks

a)

A set of two feathers and wedge is used for dressing/ splitting out and removal of non saleable material

b) In type a- feathers remain on the collar of the hole and in the other the feathers go nearly to the bottom of the hole. The first one is generally made of mild steel. The wedge top tends to flare due to repeated hammering on top and eventually pieces will chip, that could strike the humans / enter into the body. c)

In the second case feathers go to the bottom of hole and long wedge prepared out of discarded drill steels are used. In this also hazard of flying metal as indicated above exists. Over and above, drill steels that are basically carbon steel and are hard, but brittle, tend to break if the blow is at tangent. This will result in the hammer man loosing balance and falling on the drill steel resulting in pierce injury.

1.4.2.7 Shifting of Blocks 1.

Blocks are shifted with forklifts that travel up on haul roads. As observed earlier the haul road gradient is steep. Roll back of forklifts or loss of control when travelling down gradient cannot be ruled out. Therefore it is necessary to ban movement of men on haul roads and presence of men sideways to a distance of not less than twice the height of ramp at that point. Simultaneously gradient should be reduced to safe limits

2.

It is also necessary to remove pot holes by filling to avoid fork lift loosing balance and toppling

3.

To avoid operator getting thrown out in case of blocking slipping out and falling, Forklifts should have ROPS Canopy and wearing of seat belt should be mandatory. No one other than operator should be allowed to travel in Forklift

4.

In case of shifting with cranes or by lifting with wheel loader, capacity of equipment should be able to handle Weight of stone in that gradient The equipment should have factor safety to handle emergency

1.4.2.8 Dressing of Blocks (Stage 2) Dressing the sides of block and removing of bulges is done manually with the help of sledge hammers. This job is outsourced and on piece rated basis. Some of the activities/locations that need to be looked into are 1.

Hammer handles conditions and fixing of handles on Hammers. Hammer can fly off resulting hammer man loosing balance and falling down. If the flying hammer hits bystander or helper it could lead to serious injury

2.

Heads of Feathers and wedges and Hammer face get flared due to repeated hammering. This would result in metal particles chipping out and getting embedded in the human body. In case of eye it could lead to blindness that is irreversible

3.

Slipping of hammer along with handle due to slipping though a minor issue the injury could be serious.

4.

If the block is not firmly seated , as a portion of block gets separated while dressing the block could loose stability , tilt and in turn can result in head injury

5.

The striking hammer chips out sharp pieces of stone and could result in eye injury


15

1.4.2.9 Loading of blocks 1.

After completion of dressing, blocks are inspected and approved by buyers. Only approved blocks can cross the seas. Depending upon size etc., those not approved are either redressed where possible or sold in local market subject to acceptability. The ones that exhibit tangential cracks may not have any taker and so goes to waste dump. Block is loaded at pit head with crane. Such loading is round the clock and depends upon reporting of truck that would cart it away. Activity of loading has the following hazard

2.

Illumination. The process of loading of blocks is to attach slings raise the load and either the truck reverses below load or load swung on to truck and unloaded. Illumination presently is with crane and truck lights only. Far end of block cannot be visible. Raised load cannot be judged by those standing on ground. Since blocks are loaded from an open area . Lighting towers or portable genets with lighting masts should be available. External pole mounted fixtures should be available

3.

Slings made of steel wire ropes are used for lifting of blocks. These should of proper size slings and clamped safely. Slings used should have a record of inspection and also a certificate from manufacturer for maximum load it can handle. .

4.

Slings cling firm on to sides of block. Block has sharp edges that could affect injury to the strands. A regular pre inspection should be in place. Also procedure for discard should be in place. Gloves should be provided for workers engaged in slinging operations

5.

In general a cubic meter of block would weigh about 2.7(t) Calculated weight as dimensions of buyer as against actual will not tally since the buyer keeps tolerance while measuring therefore the actual weight may be 5-10% more than calculated weight. While handling a load this has to be considered. Capacity of crane that is being used has a capacity of 18(t) at its closest. The capacity would reduce as the load is farther away or when the truck to be loaded is farther away Operation of crane should have clear Safe Operating procedures specifying inspection schedules, responsibilities, signals , authority etc.,

6.

During all loading operation a designated engineer should be available

1.4.2.10 Workshop 1.

Grinding wheel. These rotate at high RPM. Absence of guard, job rest etc can lead to breakage and can inflict fatal injuries. Also emergency cut off switches are to be provided

2.

Housekeeping does not only mean keeping things clean and tidy but also everything in its easily accessible place. Things that are required are in place and also obsolete materials written off. Housekeeping leaves a lot to be desired.

3.

General condition of tools and their proper utilisation needs improvement

4.

Inflation of tyres is yet another hazard that gets higher risk rating. In the absence of inflation cage, at the time inflation lock rings of tyres can fly out and result in fatal injury. A proper tyre inflation cage should be available

5.

Welding transformers mainly air cooled type , lag behind in safety , are not covered , leads are not insulated

6.

Use of oxy –acetylene gas cutting sets. Flash back arrestors are needed to meet emergency of flame travelling backwards in the hose piece. Condition of regulators should be improved

7.

Battery charging area should have exhaust to avoid exposure to toxic fumes. Crocodile clamps should be used. Twisting of bare wires will result in sparking, fire and wear out of battery terminals, the gases are toxic. Battery should be kept at waist level for ease of handling and to avoid back injury


16

1.4.2.11 Electrical safety 1.

Compressors are operated with electricity. 440 V Power is transmitted with intermittent panel boards and cables to face. These panel boards, cables, compressor are not earthed. Crossing of road, handling, protection against dust and water, should be improved.

2.

Lock out tag out with clear safe operating procedures should be in place

3.

Provision of earth leakage circuit breaker, periodical testing should be done ,

4.

Shock proof tested mat should be available in all panel board areas

5.

Crossing of cable above road should consider above raised dumper body, and also excavator that use the road

6.

SOP should include switching off during blasting and authority

7.

Electrical fixtures in workshop needs to be checked

8.

Addressing fire hazard in electricity should be done

1.4.2.12 Fire fighting Preparedness and arrangements for fire fighting. Is generally lagging behind. Awareness, type of fire and extinguisher to be used are neither understood nor addressed. This applies to all locations including workshop and material management areas. Awareness and method of use in case of emergency should be in place. Locations to be covered are Fuel dispensing, Workshop, excavator and loaders, stores

1.4.2.13 First aid First aid boxes are available, awareness and knowledge on first aid needs to be developed.

1.4.2.14 Supervision Population and aggregate horsepower will be criteria and not tonnage or manpower. Assistant mine mangers are not available. As an ongoing activity fresh diploma holders should be inducted to promote safety culture as well as improving standards of operation.

1.4.2.15 Material management 1.

Standard of material management has not kept in pace with aggregate hp of machines used. Housekeeping, bins, retrieval, inventory management would need to improve. Presently FIFO is not in practice nor any shelf life defined

2.

Items like Hydraulic hoses, transmission belts are not properly stacked, This could lead to damage

3.

Drill steels are kept on ground over which people walk. This could lead to slip, /trip and fall. Stacking to be separate to avoid injury. Also old , damaged drill steel should be isolated

4.

Fuelling of machines is done in stationary fuel dispensing area. This area has no barricade nor fire fighting facility

1.4.2.16 Stack maintenance The stacking areas should have Clear bays of sufficient width for manoeuvring of trucks and crane. Also process of identification of blocks should be system oriented and not individual oriented. Confusion in identifying could take place during dark hours resulting in lifting up and again getting it down. A forward plan and sequence of loading should be in hand that could be updated on a daily basis.

1.5.0 Conclusion


17 Areas that need attention are listed above. In general updating of knowledge with updated equipments, safety awareness, and training lag behind. Vocational training facility is generally not available. To improve safety standards Tenth conference recommends preparation and implementation of Safety management system. These mines may form a group and work out. While a general document may be in place hazards that may be site specific may have to identified. Activity wise Safe operating procedure for each operation should be formulated and implemented with sincerity. This should include the following. Drilling, Blasting including use of Expansion powder, Wire saw cutting, Block dressing Block loading, Waste handling In fine a site based detailed Item wise risk assessment and establishing control measures will have to be done.


18

CHAPTER -2

CRACKING POWDER (Non explosive material used in Dimension stone mining) Against conventional explosives now we have a powder (Under various brand names such as Crack AG, Split Ag, Bristar etc) that is mixed with water and poured in the drilled holes. This mix expands and exerts pressure on the drilled hole walls and cracks through the direction/alignment of holes. Soundless Cracking Agents are environmental friendly non-explosive demolition agent used in quarrying of dimension stone, demolishing of structures etc.. When mixed with clean and cold water to be mortar and poured into pre-drilled holes of rock and concrete, it swells and exerts expansive capabilities on the hole-wall at a unit value of more than 50 Mpa (500kg/cm2) which is strong enough to cut and crack concrete, marble and granite after a certain period without noise, vibration, ash, toxic gas or fly rock. It is safe, environmental friendly, nonexplosive. No special security required for storage. It hardens and expands and then causes cracks systematically. After that, the material with cracks can be easily removed with a pick hammer, a pneumatic breaker, an excavator, etc. Since it demolishes objects by expansive stress, it is used for various purposes. In particular, this is very suitable for demolition work in tight quarters where large-sized breaking machines or explosives cannot be used due to their causing environmental problems. The material comes in powder form. It expands considerably after mixing with water. This expansion, when is contained in pre-drilled holes, generates significant expansive pressures which cut or demolish any type of rock and concrete structures. Water and ambient temperature are the most important variables in influencing the generation of expansive pressure. The principles applied in using this is very much similar to those ones followed in traditional blasting techniques except that we use the powder as against explosives. (holes must be drilled to contain this mix). The powder must be mixed with a measured quantity of water and poured into the holes. Few minutes after pouring, reaction of hydration takes place generating heat, crystallizing and expanding while hardening. If hydration takes place under confinement, significant expansive pressure will result, This does not need detonator, ignition etc.

2.1 Scope of use Granite, marble, sandstone, limestone, quartzite quarrying and cutting •

Rocks pre-splitting, fracture, cut, demolish and removal

Concrete structures demolition and rocks removal when explosion not allowed

Rocks cutting for road

2.2 Properties Non toxic, greyish white powder. The expansive stress reaches maximum value in about 24 hours of reaction, however, it still increase afterwards. The expansive stress would grow up with rising temperature. The expansive stress would decrease if water ratio increases. The expansive stress would grow up with rising temperature and also increase in hole diameter. 1.

Hole Diameter:- Allowable range of hole diameter is 36 to 50mm.The larger the hole diameter, the greater the expansive stress and the wider the hole spacing

2.

Hole depth: - This varies with the shape of the object to be demolished. When the length is less than 3 times that of the hole diameter, less cracking will occur, the breaking effect is lessened and the time required for demolition is increased. Kinds of objects

Hole depth %

Boulder

80% of height

Bench

105% of height

Concrete

90% height


19

3.

Angle of Hole:- It is preferable to drill holes vertically, but in case of a thin material, consideration should be given so as to make a long hole by drilling it obliquely since a greater effect is achieved with a deeper hole

4.

Hole Spacing:-Hole spacing varies with the properties of rock, joint, volume to be removed, conditions of free surface, quantity of reinforcement bars, secondary breaking, work period etc. Kind of Rocks

Hole Spacing

Hard Virgin Rock

40to60cm

Soft Virgin Rock

50to70cm

Pre splitting of the above

30 to 60cm

2.3 Application 2.3.1 Mixing Requirements:-Container that could be a metal round-shaped bucket or clean can, Paddle for mixing , beaker for measuring water, Goggles, Dust mask .Powder 5 kgs , Water 1.5liters Yield volume: approxmately3.1liters. Note: standard water ratio to Split AG is 30% Method of Mixing :-Pour 1.5liters clean water that is not contaminated with oil organic substances etc and is below 15℃ when average atmospheric temperature is more than 30℃ and add 5kgs of powder gradually and mix well until it has good fluidity (cooler the water is the longer the mix would remain fluid) If the viscosity of the mixture is too high to pour into holes add a little water to get good fluidity. However do not exceed 34% of water ratio (1.7 litres) Mixing time using a hand-mixer is approximately 2-3 minutes it is recommended that a mechanical mixer be used for large-volume jobs. When mixing by hand be sure to wear rubber gloves Filling: - The mix should be poured into holes within 10 minutes after mixing with water. If left as it is more than 10 minutes it would gradually loose its fluidity and may be difficult to pour into holes. Also it could result in blown out shots If fluidity is reduced do not dilute with water as the strength would be greatly reduced The mix should be poured into a hole to the top In case of joints or large voids in the object to be demolished or if water is present use polyethylene thin sack equal to or slightly larger than the hole diameter into the hole and then pour. If there is water in the hole, the mix in the sack will displace the water in the hole there is no change in the breaking effect by the use of this kind of sack Also when a clayey layer of a rock creates a pocket in a hole during drilling be sure to use the polyethylene sack for filling because filling of mix without the sack may cause blown-out shots


20 When an object with two or more free surfaces is to be demolished perfectly, quantity as shown in the table is required. In case of demolition of boulders or bed rock, the required quantities of mix are 80% or 110% of indicated quantity in the table, respectively. In case of demolishing an object which has only one free surface or partial demolition etc. to smaller-sized blocks, the required quantities of would increase in comparison with those shown in the table.

Quantity of mix required per cubic meter of mass Kinds of Objects to be demolished

ROCKS

Quantity (kg)

Soft Rock

5-8kg

Medium Rock

8-12kg

Hard Rock

12-20kg

Plain Concrete

5-8kg

CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete

BRICK

Anti-fire brick

Concrete having less of re-bars

10-25kg

Concrete having more of re-bars

20-35kg 10-25kg

Hole Dia. (mm)

36

38

40

42

44

46

48

50

Quantity (kg/m)

1. 7

1. 9

2. 1

2. 3

2. 5

2. 8

3. 0

3.2

2.3.2 Curing Cover the filled holes with a plastic cover etc to avoid any accident caused by blown-out shots. Tamping with mortar or sand is not required at all after pouring .It is also not necessary to put on any restrictive cap。Just leave as it is and wait until cracks initiate The time required for crack formation in material at 20℃ is approximately 10-20 hours the lower the temperature is ,the longer the time for crack formation Spraying the surface with water after cracks initiate tend to expand the width of cracks and speed up the cracking process Note: be sure to wear protective glasses when checking for occurrence of cracks

2.3.3 Secondary breaking After cracks initiate secondary breaking is carried out with a hand –breaker a pick-hammer, a giant hydraulic breaker, a ripper, etc It is best to wait until the mix has worked to full depth before removing rock or concrete since premature removal at the first sight of a crack hampers the leverage effect .The crack time of traditional types take 6-8 hours after the completion of filling. The crack time can be controlled from 30 minutes to 24 hours by the dose of inhibitor added in to water. The speed of splitting is deter- mined by the reaction speed which is up to the temperature of the job site. The higher temperature, the shorter the reaction time.


21

2..4 Mechanism of cracking:- Expansive stresses gradually increases with time and reaches (+) 50 mpa . The material to be cracked undergoes a process of (1) crack initiation (2) crack propagation (3) increase in crack width. It is possible to determine the directions of the cracks as planned by appropriately arranging the hole spacing and its depth and its inclination. In the case of trenching, shafting or tunnelling, if all holes are drilled vertically and filled with mix, the crack width cannot increase but horizontal cracks initiate. Therefore, in order to obtain two free surfaces, inclined holes or pre-splitting must be required.

2.5 Blown – out Shot A blown-out shot is that the mix filled into a hole spurts out from the hole when it is not used properly. The blown-out shot occurs in succession 3-4 times after it occurs once, and it may occur in other holes. Therefore, do not rush to field when the blown-out shot occurs. The mix consists of an inorganic compound mainly made of a mixture of calcium oxide and calcium silicate etc., and it is not toxic. However, it is a highly alkaline product so that eyes may lose sight if mix comes in contact with them. To Prevent Blown-out Shots 1) Do not use beyond the temperature range(egs –charge holes immediately after drilling), hole diameter, water temperature etc.. 2) Do not mix more than one bag 5 kgs, with water at a time. 3) Mixed with water should be poured into holes within 10 minutes.(Do not leave in a mixing container. Remaining mix should be diluted with a plenty of water and then disposed of on open ground.) 4) Do not pour mix into vinyl chloride pipes.(In case of demolishing a temporary concrete structure, be sure to use spiral sheath pipes.) 5) Do not tamp the entrance of the holes with sand, mortar or any other materials. 6) Do not tamp holes with a bar. 7) Do not use hot water

2.6 Safety Precaution 1) Use Safety goggles, dust-proof mask, and rubber gloves while preparing, mixing and filling. 2) Plug the holes immediately after filling and cover the holes with straw mat. 3) Keep your face away from the holes filled by mortar. Stay away from filled holes at least 3 hours after filling to avoid blow-out shot. 4) Keep people away from job site after filling. 5) In case of contact with eyes and skin, either in dry or wet form, wash them immediately with large amounts of cold and clean water without rubbing. Consult doctor quickly.

Composition Name

CAS no

%

Calcium hydroxide

1305-62-0

60-100

Silica vitreous

60676-86-0

5-10

Diiron trioxide

1309-37-1

1-5


22 Aluminum oxide

1344-28-1

1-5

Shelf life when stored in sealed container 12 months when stored in dry place

CHAPTER 3

SAFETY IN DRILLING 3.0 General 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Train all personnel to help them recognize and understand procedures to safely perform tasks before beginning any work, Examine face and other work areas thoroughly and remove any loose material from the high wall. Face should be examined often, especially during periods of changing weather conditions. Position of the operators compartment should be as far away as possible from the face, preferably at least Ÿ the height of the face. Consider the location and orientation of open joint and other fracture planes when examining high walls. Conduct blasting in a manner so that there is no back break. Ensure that personnel follow the manufacturer’s procedures when adding drill steels. Never manually thread drill steels when the drill head is rotating. Do not wear loose fitting clothing when working around drilling machinery. Wear safety belt where there is a danger of falling.

3.1 Crawler drills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Ensure pre-operational checks are conducted and identified needs for maintenance are properly addressed. Ensure all jacks and levelling devices are functioning properly. Visually inspect levelling jacks for loose or missing bolts and broken welds. Ensure jack components are locking in position properly and the unit is level before positioning mast. Use adequate flat stones to prevent the jacks from sinking into the ground. Drill operators should not drill from positions that increase exposure to face hazards. Drill operators should not drill from positions that hinder their escape from high wall falls or spoil back slides. Check feed chain, rotation motor head fittings regularly.

3.2When operating equipment near the edge of a slope, Extra care is needed when working near the edge of a high wall or slope. When the support jack near the edge of the bench sinks into soft, unconsolidated material as the tower is being raised the drill can topple. 1.

Before setting up, check the top and face of the slope for indications for cracks, under cuts, back breaks, bench slope and softness of the material near the edge which may be too weak to support the equipment

2.

Be careful when ground conditions change to a softer or weaker material. Un compacted or dumped waste, may be loose and contain voids.

3.

Position equipment perpendicular to the edge of the slope to provide better stability.


23 4.

Be careful for signs of movement or inadequate bearing as the equipment is being positioned and during operation. Check level sensors frequently.

5.

Use bearing pads or blocking to provide adequate bearing-area when the ground is soft. Make sure blocking is readily available wherever soft conditions may be encountered.

Safety while Working Near the Edge Accidents also occur when operating equipment close to a face. Equipment cabs are not designed to protect against the large rocks falling from face

1.

Beware of Soft Areas

2.

Stay Perpendicular to edge

Always check the face and surrounding ground conditions. Position the equipment with the cab as far away from the face as possible. When performing maintenance, always have the equipment positioned as far away as possible from the falling material danger zone.

When using levelling jacks, be sure to: 1.

Check the pads for excessive penetration into the ground as the load is applied;

2.

Extend the jacks just enough to level the equipment, keeping the equipment as low to the ground as possible; and Avoid using the jacks in their fully extended position.

3.3 Jack Hammer Drilling 1.

Ensure that Area Boulder to Be Drilled is safely standing and does not contain misfire or socket

2.

Ensure that pipe is clean and clear before connecting ensure that hose pipe is properly secured

3.

Do not drag hose pipe on ground

4.

Hose pipe should be in good condition and securely clamped with hose nipple end

5.

Install airline lubricator at a distance of about 3 meters from jackhammer.

6.

Ensure that direction of airline lubricator is correct and is kept level.

7.

Adjust airline lubricator to get thin film of oil from exhaust.

8.

Use proper grade of oil

9.

Ensure that drill rods are properly sharpened.

10. While drilling deeper holes use matched rods(used shorter rod if followed by new longer rod could result in stuck up rods


24 11. Don’t use drill rod as crowbar 12. Use only sufficient pressure on jackhammer. Do not sit on the jackhammer. The rod can break and cause injury 13. Ensure drill chuck and shank are in condition 14. Change pawl and pawl springs periodically 15. Use proper quality rubber bushes in handle to avoid shocks. 16. Check and tighten side rods for proper tension. 17. Don’t use air to clean yourself or your dress. 18. Use dust masks where necessary 19. Ensure that diameter of hole is sufficient for cartridge size. 20. While trying to remove stuck up rod do not try to rotate with force on jackhammer handle.

3.4 Compressed air In mines Air compressors are used for running of drills. Before starting 1.

Ensure that compressor is parked on a level ground and wheels are blocked safe.

2.

Ensure that the toe rod support is firm on the ground

3.

Ensure that the side doors are safely blocked from falling down

4.

Before connecting hose blow out air to remove moisture

5.

Unroll hose pipe without kinks

6.

Lay hose out of traffic area

7.

Connect hose to compressor securely

8.

Again blowout air & then only connect to drill

9.

Do not drag hose pipes over rough stone etc

3.5 Hosepipe connections with claw couplings Check rubber seal is proper 1.

Check claw lobes are not broken, cracked or stone embedded

2.

Ensure the hose is straight for a distance at least 3 Meters on both sides of joint.

3.

Join both hose and ensure that lobes lock firmly.

4.

Ensure that lock pin holes are in line.

5.

Tie the clamp with binding wire. --000--


25

CHAPTER 4

Safety in Storage, handling, manufacture and use of explosives 4.1 Handling of Explosives 1.

All activities connected with explosives are to be done under the constant supervision of a competent person in-charge of the operation.

2.

Floor of the place over which the explosive is laid for loading and unloading or conveyed is carefully examined for anything likely to endanger safety of the explosives. It should be thoroughly cleaned and swept before and as well as after use.

3.

The packages containing the explosives shall not be thrown/dropped down/rolled/pulled along the floor but shall be passed from hand to hand and carefully deposited and stored.

4.

No person who has not completed the age of 18 years, or who is in state of intoxication; or who is of unsound mind shall be employed, allowed or in manufacture, storage, sale, loading, unloading or transport of explosives or to enter any premises licensed under these rules.

5.

In the case of any explosive which is liable to be dangerously affected by water, due precaution shall at all times be taken to prevent water from coming in contact with such explosive.

6.

Package containing explosive shall not be allowed to remain the sun or exposed to' excessive heat.

7.

No person shall commit or attempt to commit any act which may tend to cause a fire or explosion in or about any place where an explosive is manufactured, stored or transported.

8.

After the handling of explosives has commenced, the operations shall proceed with due diligence and without unnecessary stoppages.

9.

Handling of explosives is avoided between hours of sunset and sunrise. If at all it is necessary to handle explosives during dark hours, it can be done, if proper illumination is provided in the area and the place is guarded.

10.

No person shall smoke, and no fires, lights and other substances of flammable nature or liable to spontaneous ignition, or to cause or communicate fire or explosion shall be allowed.

11.

No person in or near any place, where explosives are stored and handled, is allowed in his possession any matches, fuse or other articles which produces ignition or knives or other articles made of iron or steel or wear boots/shoes with iron nails.

12.

Explosives, other than detonators and fuses, are issued for use in mines should be in the original cartridge form in which they are received.

13.

Explosives are taken in mine in case or container of substantial construction and securely locked. Such cases and containers are made of iron or steel should be heavily galvanized. As an alternative to galvanizing, the inner surfaces of the containers are covered with panels of wood/pressed wood/plywood, and the outer surface may be protected with a heavy coat of paint.

14.

Case or container shall not contain more than 5 kg of explosives and one person shall not have in his possession more than one such case/container, at one time, in one place. Provided, in case of deep hole blasting in open cast mines, carrying of larger quantity of explosives in a single case/container or the use at one time, in one place of more than one such case/container can be possible with prior permission of Chief Inspector of Mines.

4.2 Explosives van Explosive van is meant for carrying explosives from one place to another in a safe manner. (A) Check 1.

transit document indicating details of explosives being carried.


26 2.

fire extinguisher

3.

wiring is insulated and secured and there are no loose or open joints

4.

fuel tank and lines are not leaking

5.

chassis, engine, body are free from oil and clean

6.

brakes and steering are in good condition

7.

spare tyre is available and ready

8.

loaded van is not fuelled

9.

is not stopped in public places

10.

driven defensively

11.

wheels are always blocked all when parked

12.

if parked in the night on the road with explosives, parking lights are kept on

13.

that two fire extinguishers of 2 kg capacity each are provided at an easily accessible location.

14.

mobile cell phones are not used in the vicinity of explosives and also while fuelling.

(B) In case of fire move away and clear a distance of not less than 300 meters (C) Driver should be trained in fire fighting.

4.3 Explosive Magazine An explosive magazine is the place where explosive is stored. 1.

These are located far from inhabited area and close to place of use.

2.

The minimum distance to be maintained will be based on quantity of explosives permitted to be stored

3.

It should be used only for storing explosives as permitted in the licenses

4.

Explosives if spoiled should not be stored but disposed as per procedure

5.

The interior of magazine should not have any exposed iron material

6.

Magazine should be kept clean

7.

Magazine should be protected from entry of water inside

8.

Explosives shall be stacked in such a way so that atleast one person can move all around to check condition of all boxes and read details like date of manufacture, batch no, size etc.

9.

Resistance of lighting conductor to earth should not be more than 10 ohms.

10.

A distance of 15 meters around magazine shall be kept free from grass trees or any other combustible material

11.

Not more than 4 persons shall be allowed inside a magazine at any time

12.

No empty carton shall be kept inside the magazine

13.

Magazine should be fenced all around with barbed wire and compound wall or earth mounding as need be to be made

14.

Sufficient number of Fire extinguishers and buckets filled with sand should be provided at the entrance to magazine

15.

To control forest or bush fire from spreading inside trench, of about 0.6 m wide and 0.6 m deep should be provided outside the fence.

16.

Explosives magazine shall be under the control of security personnel who should not allow unauthorized person


27 17.

In case of areas where wild animals roam the guard room is kept in stiletto platform

18.

Solar lights should be used at safe distance all around magazine for security during dark hours

19.

Security personnel should be provided with methods of communication

20.

Sufficient number of earth pits should be provided and watered regularly.

21.

Earth pit connecting copper strips should be regularly checked .

22.

Earthing of doors, windows and ferrous fixture if any should be connected to earthing circuit.

4.4 Ammonium 路Nitrate Fuel oil (Diesel) Mixing Shed When Prilled or unprilled ammonium nitrate is mixed with 5-7% diesel oil it becomes an explosive. Such mixture it not cap sensitive. It requires a cap sensitive, slurry or booster to initiate. The percentage of booster to be used will be depend upon the strength of cap sensitive explosive, and diameter of hole, presence of water type of strata (deck charge)method of charging (direct or inside plastic tube )etc. 1.

Ammonium nitrate has to be kept in water proof bags stacked in a separate shed away from the Diesel stock area

2.

Only required quantity of ammonium nitrate and diesel should be brought separately to the mixing shed

3.

Approach to mixing shed to be clear and free from obstacle

4.

Mixing or Ammonium nitrate with diesel has to be done In an approved location

5.

Mixing can be done manually or with an approved mixing equipment

6.

Ensure that the mixing tray is clean

7.

Ensure all tools as required are available (Wooden hammer, Wooden shovels, knife for opening bag, measuring can)

8.

No smoking or open fire should be within 9m of this area

9.

Use wooden mallets for breaking lumps

10.

Do not use any galvanised material as it may react

11.

Mixing should be done by hand covered with gloves

12.

No metal tools should be used

13.

No Dry grass or combustible should remain within 9m from the shed

14.

Four foam type extinguishers and Sand in Buckets should be available outside the entrance to shed

15.

Mixing area should be regularly washed with water and such water should be collected in a pit decanted and oil taken

16.

Mixed ANFO should a far as possible be packed @one bag per hole to be charged or not more than 25 kg per bag

17.

Explosives van carrying Anfo mould be regularly washed and all spillage of Anfo /diesel to be cleaned

4.5 Storage of ammonium nitrate 1.

The ammonium nitrate (AN) shall not be stored with explosives in the magazine or premises used for storing explosives

2.

It shall be stored, until used, in water-proof bags, and in quantities not exceeding 50 kg.

3.

The storage building shall be of non combustible/fire-retardant material.

4.

The floor of the storage building shall be of concrete, with no open or piped drains, into which molten AN could flow and be confined in case of fire.

5.

The building shall be of water-proof construction, built on ground not liable to flooding, and kept dry and clean inside.


28 6.

Any metallic substance, in the powder form. Combustible materials (including diesel oil, etc.), or acids shall not be kept in the same storage.

7.

There shall be no possible source of heating (steam pipes/electric wiring) in the storage, and its interior hall be kept cool and well ventilated.

8.

The AN bags shall be kept in piles, each pile being not more one meter in high, and shall be readily accessible in case of fire.(Water is essential for combating the AN fires, .Therefore supply of water and fire-fighting equipment shall be readily available. Wherever possible, the store building should be equipped with an automatic water quenching system of adequate capacity, including its remote control operation).

9.

The AN shall be used in the sequence of its delivery so as to prevent the accumulation of old material.

10.

There shall be no smoking, and no naked lights/open flames shall be carried in the vicinity of the AN.

4.6 Mixing of ammonium nitrate 1.

The mixing of the ammonium nitrate (AN) and fuel oil (FO) shall be done near the shot holes, immediately before use.

2.

The mixing shall be carried out in a lightly constructed shed, observing, at all times, the safety distances specified in the plan of the license, as approved by the Chief Controller of Explosives.

3.

The shed shall have a smooth cemented platform, standing at least 30 cm above the surrounding ground. The floor shall be surrounded by a brick all at least one metre height, with openings for entrance and exit on opposite sides.

4.

The mixing shed and the area within 9m thereof shall be surrounded by a fencing not less than 2m high. The entire area so fenced off shall be kept free from rubbish. Dry grass, empty bags, or other combustible materials.

5.

The fuel oil used shall be deemed to include liquid derivatives of petroleum, coal, or shall with a flash point not below 38째C.

6.

The ingredients shall be mixed in such proportions as to form an oxygen-balanced mixture, and there shall be no excess oil .

7.

The mixing shall be done either by hand in an aluminium or internally aluminium-lined wooden vessel, or by a machine which has been approved in writing by the Chief Controller of Explosives No other liquid hydrocarbon fuels with higher volatiles shall be kept in the vicinity.

8.

The management shall abstain from any act whatsoever which tends to cause fire or explosion, and shall take all due precautions to prevent.

9.

Contamination of the explosive or its ingredients with grit or any extraneous matter, which is likely to increase the sensitivity of the explosive, or adversely affect Its characteristics,

10.

Ingredients in excess of the quantity required for immediate use shall not be kept in the place where the explosive is mixed or within 9 m thereof.

11.

The total quantity of explosives, together with the quantity of its ingredients, kept in the mixing shed, shall not, at anyone time exceed the licensed quantity.

12.

There shall be no smoking,.

13.

No naked light/open flame shall be carried (a) while mixing, handling, or using the explosive. Or (b) within 9 m of any person carrying on such operation

14.

The detonators, priming cartridges, and the detonating fuse shall be kept in secure receptacles at a safe distance, till actually required

15.

Only such quantity of the mixture, as is required for immediate use, shall be field-mixed. However, if extra mixture is available, it should be packed in double packing, consisting of a thick polythene bag as


29 the inner cover. and of wood, solid fibre board, or aluminium - but not iron or steel as the outer cover, and stored in a duly approved magazine, but separately from detonators and explosives. 16.

Portable wooden boxes (1.5 x 1.0 x 0.5m), capable of handling about 100 kg at a time, may be used for pre-mixing near the shot holes, to prevent accidental contamination with grit or other foreign matter, as such contamination may be dangerous. The above container should be thoroughly cleaned and washed after use, preferably with hand, using rubber gloves.

17.

During inclement weather, pre-mixing shall be done in a portable shelter.

18.

The pre-mixing shall never be done in the building where the bulk AN is stored.

19.

The mixture shall be kept in water-proof bags until the time of use.

20.

Only the minimum necessary persons shall be allowed at the site.

21.

The mixture shall be carried only in the wooden or similar containers, and not in metallic containers, with covers/lids. The lid shall be fitted with a suitable fastening device to prevent the mixture becoming damp, or the accidental opening of the lid and the spilling or contamination of the contents. The mixture may also be carried in closed polythene bags of adequate thickness and strength. The contents of either type of container may not exceed 25 kg. However, the mixture may be conveyed in bulk containers approved by the Chief Inspector.

22.

The discarded empty AN-bags shall be burnt or buried in isolated areas.

23.

All spillage of explosives shall be collected and destroyed at a safe place away from the mixing shed under the supervision of an experienced person.

24.

All containers and mixers, after use, shall be thoroughly cleaned with a suitable detergent solution and washed with water.

25.

Accidents by fire or explosion shall be immediately reported to the nearest police station, the Chief Inspector and the Chief Controller of Explosives.

26.

The cap-sensitivity of the field-mixture shall be tested at regular intervals.

4.7 Sensitivity test: Insert an electric detonator in the cartridge, sack or other package of the mixed ANFO, and place on soft ground in an isolated area. Provide an amply safeguarded spot for the blaster and his helpers, and fire the detonator. The size of the crater formed ill the ground indicates the cap-sensitiveness of the mixture Any explosive which on test, indicates cap-sensitivity, shall forthwith be packed in an inner package which is of such strength as to prevent the escape of the explosive or oil, and may be of polythene. The outer package shall be of wood, solid fiber-board, or aluminum. Such explosive shall be removed to a magazine licensed for the storage of such explosives, and the Chief Controller of Explosives informed ill writing for instructions regarding its disposal.

4.8.Precautions with Explosives 4.8.1 General 1.

While Storing, transporting or using explosives. Do not smoke or have matches, naked lights, etc.

2.

Do store explosives in dry, clean and well ventilated magazines

3.

Do not keep explosives and detonators in the same box or the same magazine.

4.

Separate persons should carry explosives and detonators while transporting these to the blasting site.

5.

Do not use tools made of iron or steel for opening Cases Use hardwood or brass implements.

6.

Do not leave explosives lying in the hot sun.

7.

Do replace the cover of the case after the required quantity has been taken out.


30 8.

Do not carry explosives in your pockets.

9.

Do not make up primers near large stacks of explosive.

10.

Do not insert anything but a fuse inside a detonator.

11.

Do not handle or be near explosives during an electric storm All persons should retire to a place of safety..

12.

Do not use damaged or deteriorated explosives and accessories.

13.

Do not break explosives cartridges.

4.8.2 While drilling and charging 1.

Do not start drilling until you have made sure that rock face contains no unfired explosives. Never drill into the explosives.

2.

Do check condition of shot hole with stemming rod before inserting cartridges.

3.

Do not force cartridges into a hole.

4.

Do not keep large unwanted stocks of explosives near the Shot hole.

5.

Do cut detonating fuse from the reel immediately after the primer has reached the bottom of the hole

6.

Do not force a detonator into a cartridge. Make a hole in the cartridge with a pricker

7.

Do not try to ‘soften’ cartridges of hardened explosive by hitting or by rolling on the ground.

4.8.3 While stemming 1.

Do not use metallic rods for stemming. Use only wooden rods.

2.

Do not apply pressure directly on the primer cartridge Always put a few inches of stemming after the primer is in position inside the hole

3.

Do not use sharp particles in the stemming

4.

Do not damage fuse, lead wires or detonating fuse while stemming

.

4.8.4 While firing with safety fuse 1.

Do not use short fuse. The minimum length should be 1.2 m, make sure you have time to reach a place of safety before the explosive detonates

2.

Do use only approved crimpers for securing detonators on to fuse.

3.

Do use fuse lighters. If matches have to be used, slit the end of fuse, hold the match head in the slit and rub the side of an empty matchbox against the match head

4.

Do not use explosive cartridges for lighting fuse. It is extremely dangerous

4.8.5 While firing electrically:1.

Do not use electric detonators during dust storms or near any other source of large static charges.

2.

Do keep firing circuit insulated from the ground, bare wires, rails, pipes or any other paths of stray currents .

3.

Do test the firing circuit with an ohmmeter or circuit tester from the firing point.

4.

Do make sure that all joints are firm, clean and dry.

5.

Do keep lead wires short-circuited until ready to fire.

4.8.5 Before and after firing:1.

Do not fire until you have made sure that all surplus explosives have been removed and all persons, vehicles and equipment are at a safe distance.


31 2.

Do not return to the blasting site too soon after a misfire.

3.

Wait five minutes when firing electrically or wait 30 minutes if firing with safety fuse

4.

Do handle misfires with great care.

4.9 Blasters’ Shelter Blasting shelters are provided in a mine working area for the blaster and his helper to take shelter and to protect them from being hit by flying fragments at the time of blasting. 1.

Blaster shelter should be fabricated out of 10 mm thick mild steel plates with stiffeners all around

2.

Blaster shelter should be covered with sand bags all around and top, leaving the entrance fully free and without obstructions

3.

Blaster shelter should not be used as place to store material and should be completely free

4.

Blaster shelter should not be kept on bench edge or places likely to collapse in event of vibration due to blasting

5.

Blaster shelter should be placed away from haul road

6.

Blaster shelter should be easily approachable with vehicles

7.

Door when provided should open outside and designed to remain normally open

8.

The opening to shelter should be away from the direction of blast

9.

The opening should not be close to face in which case stone could hit and re-bounce into the shelter or any stone getting dislodged from the face in vicinity can fall and roll into the shed

10.

In order to enable to see the blasted area after blast, blaster shelter should be located at higher benches. This will also reduce the distance and height of trajectory

11.

Blaster shelter should as far as possible located away from the direction of wind to avoid inhalation of after blast fumes

12.

There should be proper arrangement to take the shot firing cable inside without getting damaged

4.10 Testing of Electric Detonators Before electric detonator is tied to detonating fuse or inserting into explosive cartridge it is checked for continuity between two terminal of its own. For testing purpose 1.

Check each detonator is checked at safe place and at a safe distance from the blasting site.

2.

The detonator is placed into a steel pipe, so that in case of accidental explosion, it is harmless.

3.

One lead wire is hooked in one terminal of safety ohmmeter and the other lead wire is intermittently hooked upto the other terminal of ohmmeter.

4.

If by pressing ohmmeter switch the needle shows deflection. the continuity as well as resistance of a detonator that can also be read from scale.

5.

If there is no deflection during the above process of hooking up of lead wire then detonator is declared as faulty and finally it will be simply destroy it should be destroyed

6.

If ohmmeter shows more resistance than it should normally have then also detonator is faulty.

4.11 Testing of shot firing cables 1.

Shot firing cables should be tested for any breaks or defect in insulation between conductors by means of ohmmeter before each blast to avoid misfires and unwanted delay during firing of shots.

2.

Shot firing cables are short circuited at the ends and the other two ends are connected to ohmmeter- If needle shows deflection with proper resistance then cable is continuous otherwise it is faulty.


32 3.

To check short circuiting between the two conductors of the twin core cable, both ends of each conductor are connected to ohmmeter and resistance is checked. If the ohmmeter reading is near to the standard resistance then it is not short circuited but if it shows more resistance then it is short circuited.

4.

Check for physical deformities. And ensure that the cable is proper then it is used for firing of holes.

5.

The resistance of every 100 m of single conductor is as follows

Twin core cable

4/0.46

mm

Single core cable

3/0.92 mm

2.4 ohms. 0.8 ohms.

Testing of circuit Connect two lead wires of one end of the shot firing cable with the two lead wires of detonators circuit separately. The two wires of other end of the shot firing cable are connected to continuity tester terminals. Press the switch of the continuity tester. The glowing of neon indicator indicates the continuity of the circuit.

4.12 General Precautions in Blasting 1.

Do not blast more holes than capacity of exploder.

2.

Do not use match stick for firing safety fuse. Make use of properly glowing unit.

3.

Do not allow explosive lying nearby while blasting.

4.

Do not subject the explosives boxes to jolts or impacts while handling explosive. Explosive boxes should never be pushed, dropped, dragged, rolled over or hit.

5.

Do not prepare primers beforehand till you are ready for charging of holes.

6.

Do not try to remove detonator once it is primed

7.

Do not allow smoking through out the operation of handling of explosives

8.

Detonators and primers should only be carried by a blaster.

9.

No mechanically propelled vehicle should be used for the transport of explosives unless it is of a type approved in writing by the Chief Inspector, provided that a jeep may be used for the transport of detonators from the magazine to "Priming Station" or site of blasting, subject to following conditions a.

Not more than 200 detonators are transported a vehicle at a time.

b.

The detonators are packed suitably in a wooden box.

c.

The wooden box, containing detonators, is placed inside all outer metal case of a construction approved by the Chief Inspector.

d.

The outer metal case shall be suitably bolted to the Door of the vehicle or otherwise fixed in a wooden frame so that the container is not displaced while the vehicle is in motion.

e.

No person shall ride on the rear portion of the vehicle.

f.

Explosives and detonators shall not be transported in the same vehicle at a time.

10.

Detonators should only tied up/priming is done only when face is ready for charging.

11.

During thunder storm the electric detonators shall not be used. As far as possible blasting is to be carried out by using non electric system.

12.

No shot hole should be charged until all the shot holes in that round have been completely drilled.

13.

Only that number of shots should be charged and fired as the shot firing apparatus can fire safely.

14.

Not more than one hole shall be in the process of being charged at anyone face at any one time.

15.

All charging and stemming shall be done while standing on the solid, that is to say, on the side of holes remote from the quarry face (i.e, bench edge).


33 16.

Explosive shall be delivered first to the hole farthest from the "Priming Station" so as to avoid persons walking among piles of explosives.

17.

Primer should be prepared in priming station only.

18.

No detonator shall be inserted into a priming cartridge until immediately before it is to be used.

19.

The priming should be sufficiently powerful to ensure, even in the open air, complete detonation of the primed cartridge with delay detonators,

20.

The primer cartridge should be in the leading cartridge. To avoid any pull on the fuse head of detonator it should be gripped properly.

21.

The charge in any shot hole shall consist of one or more complete cartridges of the same diameter and the same type of explosives. To charge different types of explosives in any shot holes (i.e. OCG +ANFO, GN + ANFO, Pentolite +ANFO. Aquadyne + Supergel/Energel Etc.) Permission shall be obtained from DGMS.

22.

No hole should be over charged or under charged to perform the task.

23.

Every shot hole shall be stemmed with sufficient and suitable non-inflammable stemming so as to prevent the shot being blown out.

24.

When decking is done,ensure that primer cartridge is available for all decks for detonation.

25.

In charging or stemming a shot hole, no metallic tool, scraper, or rod shall be used other than aluminum or brass Pricker, Crimper and knife etc.

26.

While charging. No explosives shall be forcibly pressed into a hole of insufficient size. Forcing d cartridge of explosive down a shot hole is always fraught with danger, particularly when it is stuck up. It is equally dangerous to when attempts are made to press or force a cartridge, stuck up in a shot hole of bigger size, either due to some obstruction in the shot hole, or due to the cartridge having fallen diagonally. Such shot holes should always be dealt with in the manner laid down in the regulation for misfire.

27.

No person shall remove or attempt to remove, any explosive or stemming from any charged hole, either before firing or after a misfires.

28.

Do not make any loops or kinks in trunk lines of detonating fuse.

29.

Do not use lighting signalling line for blasting

30.

Do not check the circuit of electric detonator except by a proper approved ohmmeter as faulty instrument can lead to premature detonation.

31.

The electric power at the blasting site shall be disconnected as far as practicable before charging the explosives where electric operated equipments are used.

32.

No work other than that associated with the charging operations shall be carried out within 15 meters of the holes unless otherwise specified to the contrary by the licensing authority

33.

When charging is completed, any surplus explosive, detonators and fuses shall be removed from the vicinity of the holes and stored at a distance which would prevent sympathetic detonation in the event of a charge detonating prematurely in any hole.

34.

The holes which have been changed with explosives shall not be left un-attended till the blasting is completed.

35.

Care shall be taken to ensure that fuse or wires connected to the detonators are not damaged during the placing of stemming material and tamping.

4.13 Precautions while firing a shot 1.

The blaster shall ensure that before a shot is charged, stemmed and fired all persons, other than his assistants if any in the danger zone have taken proper shelter.

2.

He shall also take suitable steps to prevent any person from approaching the shot and shall himself take adequate shelter, along with his assistants, if any, before firing shots.


34 3.

The inadvertent entry may be prevented by:

4.

Posting guards at all possible entrances and

5.

Fencing them if possible.

6.

The shot fires shall not fire the shot unless:

7.

Sufficient warning, by efficient signals or other means (field Siren, loud speakers etc) as may be approved by Manager is given.

8.

Where any part of a public road or railway line falls within danger zone, two persons are posted as guard, one each in either direction at the two extreme points of such road or .railway. These guards shall by an efficient system of telephonic communication or hooter or loud speaker or thunder whistles. or other means approved by the DGMS, indicate clearance of traffic to the blaster and also main passer by and whenever possible the vehicles also, if any, which has passed by such road or railway.

9.

In many opencast mines a number of blasters are engaged side by side for simultaneous blasting operation in some or adjacent block of mines. a)

As shots fired by all such blasters are likely to go off together, it is difficult to count them for ascertaining whether there has been any misfire or not. In case, there is a slight time stagger in blasting operations, some of the blasters may be injured by missiles thrown-off by other blasting in neighbourhood as they may not be able to take proper shelter time. It is therefore prescribed that where a number of blasters are employed in proximity to each other i.e., within safety zone (500 m), only one blaster at a time may fire shots and the interval between two blaster's firing shots should not be less than 30 minutes.

b) To avoid any misunderstanding. Such guards / fencing / obstacles positioned at all entrances to danger zone to prevent entry of persons and to be withdrawn only alter completion of blast and after making the area safe. 10.

The end of the safety fuse should be freshly cut before being lighted primed.

11.

The exploders shall be regularly tested and maintained in good condition for use in firing.

12.

An exploder shall not be used for firing a circuit above its rated capacity.

13.

The electric circuit shall be tested for continuity before firing. All persons other than the shot firer and his assistants, if any, shall be withdrawn from the site before testing the continuity.

14.

For the purpose of joining, the ends of all wires and cables should have the insulation removed for a maximum length of 5 cm and should then be made clean and bright for a minimum length of 2.5 cm and the ends to be joined should be twisted together so as to have positive metal contact.

4.14 Precautions to Be Taken In Case Equipment Left Near Blasting Zone Due To Break Downs In mines, equipment shifting is not always possible due to break downs just before blasting. To prevent the equipment from any damage the following precautions are taken. 1.

If necessary blast is postponed to next day or from mid day 12 noon to 4 pm. in the same day within day light hours provided machine can be repaired within that period.

2.

If equipment can be toed then it will be toed to safe place with the help of other equipment.

3.

If the above is not possible and the equipment is very near the blast site then sand bags and old conveyor belt pieces as well as wooden sleeper/planks and G.I sheets are put over the equipment to cover the equipment from flying fragment .

4.

In the holes closer to equipment if possible, increase the height of stemming column by reducing the charge per hole to reduce flying fragment as well as throw for the holes nearer to the equipment or the total blast if equipment is near and in front of that blast.

5.

The blast should be done by muffle-blasting technique. A good way of “Muffling� the shots is to use a carpet of inter linked chains ropes on each hole, adequately weighed down by sand bags. Sheet covers of old belt conveyors may placed over that in addition to the above items.


35

4.15 Precautions to be taken for blasting during bad weather Following precautions should be taken 1.

Do not uncoil or use the wires electric blasting caps during electrical or dust storms.

2.

All blasting operation should be stopped till the storm is over.

3.

All the person and machinery working near by area (danger zone) should be withdrawn and should take proper shelter till the storms over.

4.

All the members of blasting group should also take proper shelter till storms over.

5.

If blasting detonators have been tied up already in some holes before the storms set in, then quickly coil the lead wire of electric detonator and put only non conductive material (i.e, stone pieces or wooden pieces) to cover the coil of lead wire or insulate with insulation tape. .

6.

If whole blast is ready before thunder storms set in it should be quickly blasted before storms reaches .

7.

As far as possible blasting operation should be avoided during bad weather. But if it becomes essential to blast then the following methods can be used as alternatives to the electric blasting system. a.

Charge the holes with the use of detonating fuse in the holes. Use detonating cord relay (non electric) for surface delay with detonating fuse trunk lines. Then tie up one electric detonator for initiation at starting point, when storm is not there and blast the round.

b.

Use raydet (non electric system) in the same way for in-the-hole delay and on surface use trunk lines and then for initiation at one point plain detonators with safety fuse is tied up and blast the same when there is no storms or rains.

4.16 Causes, avoidance and treatment of misfires Regulation 167 of MMR 1961 specifies handling of Misfires unless it is certain that all the shot are fired no person shall re-enter the place until 30 minutes in case of ordinary blasting. 1.

Entrance of working place shall be fenced/mark the place with red flag.

2.

No work to be done other than locating and dealing with misfire.

3.

Tamping in the hole to be taken out with compressed air/Water pressure.

4.

Re-prime / Re-connect the lead wires/fuses and fire

5.

Relieving hole to be drilled parallel to the existing at a distance of 30 cm to be charged and blasted.

6.

Careful search to be done for explosive

7.

If misfire is not dislodged repeat the above process again / securely plug the hole.

8.

Inform to the reliever about the progress and record in misfire record.

4.16.1 Safety fuse and Ordinary detonator Blasting – Causes 1.

Gun powder of safety fuse becoming wet

2.

Water entering detonator

3.

Water present in drill hole

4.

Too tight crimping

5.

Improper cutting resulting in gun powder falling out of safety fuse

6.

Fuse getting Cut while stemming


36 7.

End of safety fuse becoming wet

8.

Detonator coming out of safety fuse

9.

Not lighting the fuse properly

10.

Flying pieces of previous holes, cutting the fuse

11.

Trying to light too many fuses

12.

End of fuse not contacting priming charge of detonator

13.

Cartridge falling out of primer at the time of charging

Prevention 1.

Store fuse in cool, dry place. Use water proof fuse in wet hole.

2.

Warm frozen fuse at 20 to 25 *c for eight hours before uncoiling.

3.

Crimp tightly. Use cap sealing compound. Dip the joint in the compound and allow it to dry before making up the primer. Do not use grease for waterproofing.

4.

Use fine material for stemming and stem; gently using a wooden rod.

5.

Use freshly cut fuse only.

6.

Cut fuse straight across with a sharp knife.

7.

Remove all sawdust and dirt from detonators. Make sure that the end of the fuse is in close contact with the detonating composition.

8.

Tie fuse securely and do not pull during stemming.

9.

Use a proper crimper. Do not crimp with teeth or ordinary pliers.

10.

B sure that each fuse is burning before lighting the next fuse.

11.

Store detonators in a dry place.

12.

Do not blow in to a detonator to remove sawdust.

4.16.2 Electrical Detonators Causes 1.

Broken bridge wire of detonator

2.

Detonator coming out of primer

3.

Defective exploder resulting in few holed getting fired

4.

Defective blasting cable

5.

Blasting cable touching power line, railway line.

6.

Defect in circuit connection

7.

Cutting of lead wire while charging

8.

Detonator pulled out of primer.

9.

Faulty exploder or faulty operation of exploder.

10.

Wrong wires connected with each other.

11.

Faulty cable.

Prevention 1.

store in dry, well ventilated place.


37 2.

do not pull or jerk lead wires.

3.

stem gently.

4.

make clean, firm joints and keep them dry.

5.

check exploder regularly and see that it is capable of firing the required number of shots. Keep exploder dry. Use fully force when turning the key.

6.

avoid sharp particles in stemming and stem gently.

7.

keep wires of blasting circuit away from metal objects.

8.

insulate all joints and keep them above wet ground.

9.

make proper series connection and check with ohmmeter.

10.

place primer cartridge at the back or bottom of the hole when using delay detonators.

11.

check cable regularly with ohmmeter.

4.17.Detection of misfired shot While blasting with safety fuse it is easy to locate the misfired shot by simple visual examination. When firing electrically, however, the following procedure has to be adopted to find the faulty shot. Where the electric detonators are connected in series, the first step is to divide the circuit at the face in half, connecting one half to the shot firing cable and testing it from the firing point, all men having been withdrawn from the blasting site. This procedure will indicate in which half of the circuit the defect lies. The defective half of the circuit is again halved, the test repeated, and the faulty quarter of the circuit discovered. By further repetition of this method the faulty shot will be finally located. The remaining shots can be fired after tying the leading wires from the defective shot to a suitable marker. A search should be made afterwards for undetonated cartridges and detonator, assuming that the misfired hole has been dislodged during the blast. Where a misfire occurs with safety fuse, the exposed fuse should be examined after a lapse of thirty minutes. If a sufficient length of sound fuse is found projecting from the hole, then it should be re-lighted. Where the fuse has burnt to a point inside the stemmed holes, the following procedures should be adopted. These procedures will also apply to misfires with electric detonators.

4.18 Handling of Misfire Where the misfire is of general nature, the following procedures are adopted. 1.

Returning to the blasting site after a misfire - After a misfire – wait thirty minutes when blasting with plain detonators and safety fuse, before returning to the blasting site. Wait five minutes, when using electric detonators or delay detonators.

2.

Guard the area and admit only a authorized person with team of blasters to investigate the amount and extent of misfired explosives.

3.

If electric detonators are used wait for 5 minutes and for ordinary detonators with safety fuse wait for 30 minutes to allow the holes to cool-off and stabilize before approaching the blast area.

4.

Where the misfire is due to faulty cable or faulty connections, the detonators are to be fired as soon as practicable, after the defect is removed.

5.

Look for un-blasted detonating fuse and explosives in the partially blasted material.

6.

While studying the face conditions with the idea of location and isolating unexploded explosive and/or detonating fuse, the following point should be born in mind.

7.

A careful study should be made of the sizes of the blasted fragments, their proportionate distribution and disposition.

8.

Any hard mass should be closely examined for unexploded explosive and detonating fuses in it.


38 9.

Stemming may be sludged out with compressed air or water under pressure. The hole there after be reprimed and fire.

10.

Another shot shall be fired in a relieving hole, which shall be placed, and drilled in such a direction, that at no point shall it be near than 3 metres, in case of large diameter blasting in open cast mines, from the misfired hole. This distance of 3m can be reduced to 0.3m in case of small diameter jackhammer holes.

11.

The relieving hole shall be, as far as practicable, parallel and of equal depth, to the misfired hole.

12.

After the relieving hole has been fired, a careful search for cartridges and detonators, if any, shall be made, amongst the material brought down by the blast.

13.

If a misfire hole is not dislodged by a relieving shot, the above procedure of drilling and blasting a reliving hole and searching for the explosive is repeated.

Recovering the charge by removal of stemming – Attempts should be made to remove the stemming by blowing out with compressed air or flushing out with water. The air blast or water should be introduced through rubber or non-ferrous metal pipe. No tools should be used for digging out stemming, since there is the risk of detonation of the charge by friction or shock. After the stemming has been removed, it may be possible to withdraw the primer. A fresh primer should then be used for firing the remaining cartridges in the shot hole.

Displacement of charge by relieving hole – If it is not possible to fire the charge by inserting a fresh primer, then are leaving hole, not more than 3ft. long, should be drilled parallel to, and at least 30cm. away from, the misfired shot. After firing the relieving shot the debris must be carefully searched and the undetonated cartridges and detonator recovered.

Misfired shot containing Detonating fuse – With charges in large diameter holes primed with detonating fuse , the stemming should be removed to expose a short length of detonating fuse. A primer should then be secured to the detonating fuse and fired; this will most likely detonate the misfired charge. If, however, the detonating fuse cannot be exposed, then relieving holes, not more than 1.5 in. diameter and 3ft. long, should be drilled and blasted in such a way that the rock is “benched” away from around the misfire

4.19 Precaution while dealing with misfire The following precautions are adopted while dealing with misfire. 1.

Mark the place of misfire with red flags.

2.

Authorized competent guards should be posted around the danger zone for preventing inadvertent entry of person.

3.

Any such operation should be conducted under constant supervision of blaster who would position himself in a safe place from where he can clearly observed the process of removal for blasted mass from the misfired area.

4.

Handling of misfire should be carried in broad day light.

5.

A proper code of communication is established and is explained to all person concerned. This code of signal is by a whistle.

6.

The shovel operator is instructed to operate the shovel in accordance with the instructions of the supervisory crew communicated by blowing of whistle

7.

A careful study should be made of the sizes of blasted fragments, their proportionate distribution and disposition. If the bucket touches any hard mass, immediately it should be retracted and a through search should be made of the place because unexploded explosives and detonating fuses are most likely to be found in the vicinity of big slabs or boulder


39 8.

Scooping of every bucket reveals a new condition and hence it is essential that the face condition is properly ascertained by the shovel operator and the supervisory crew. As there could be generation and liberation of cloud of dust while scooping and as it would reduce visibility for the shovel operator and supervisory crew , is essential that bucket should not be “Crowded” into the face unless the dust disappears and the face is clearly visible.

9.

Shovel operator’s cabin glass should be replaced by steel wire mesh/thick metallic sheet with only eyeholes provided for observation.

10.

The ‘Spotter” guiding the dumper should take position inside the shovel at the time of scooping.

11.

The dumper should be parked in a manner that would ensure prevention of injury to the dumper operator under any circumstances.

12.

While dealing with the misfire, only two dumpers should be employed with the shovel and one dumper is always parked at a safe distance and in a safe manner while the other dumper is being loaded.

13.

In case there is any doubt that some explosive or detonating fuse has been loaded into dumpers, the material should be unloaded at a pre-determined place where the supervisory crew can search for explosive and/or detonating fuse.

14.

A misfired hole, which cannot be dealt within the prescribed manner, shall be securely plugged with a wooden plug. No person, other than a blaster or an official shall remove or attempt to remove the plug.

15.

When a misfired shot is not found, or when a misfired shot is not relieved, the blaster shall give the intimation of the failure to blaster/official who take over charge from him. He shall also record the same in the register maintained for the purpose.

16.

The blaster of the next shift shall locate and re-blast the misfired hole. However if, after a through examination of the place where the misfire was reported to occurred, he is satisfied that no misfire had actually occurred, he may permit drilling in the place. ---000---000---


40

CHAPTER - 5

SAFETY IN MATERIAL HANDLING (Excavator, Wheel Loader & Cranes) 5.1Starting the engine  Make sure that all control levers are at the neutral position.  Set the accelerator lever at the Mid. Speed position.  Turn the starter switch to the '' ON '' position.  Activate the starter by turning the starter switch.  Immediately after the engine starts, release your hand from the switch.  Return the fuel lever to the low idling position.

5.2Operation 1.

Check brakes and other warning devices are in working order.

2.

Where the machine is required to work after daylight hours, check that the lights are in working order.

3.

Do not take the machine out for work unless satisfied that it is mechanically sound and in good working order.

4.

keep the cabin window clean so as to ensure clear vision at all times.

5.

Walkways in or about the cabin of any shovel shall be kept free of loose tools, grease containers or other materials that might fall or present a falling or tripping hazard.

6.

Do not operate the machine when persons are in such proximity as to be endangered.

7.

Do not swing the bucket over the passing haulage units.

8.

While trucks/dumpers are being loaded swing over the body of the truck/dumper and not over the cabin .

9.

Before leaving the machine, lower the bucket to the ground.

10.

Do not leave machine unattended.

11.

At the end of the shift handover the machine to reliever or lock the cabin

12.

Consult Supervisor for specific instructions and safety equipment required. For instance, you may need (i) Hard hat, (ii) Safety shoes, (iii) Safety goggles, (iv) Hand Gloves.

13.

Recognise all safety and warning devices like Flags and flares, barricades, signs and other markings lights to avoid hazards.

14.

Do not wear loose flapping clothing as they can get caught in machinery and cause injury. Wrist watches, rings and other accessories can be dangerous.

15.

Learn the traffic rules at the work site. Know the hand signals used on the job and who is responsible for signalling. Take signals from only one person.

16.

Be familiar with the safety devices on your machine such as: (1) Seat belts. (ii) Canopies, (iii) Roll over protective structures (ROPS), (iv) articulated steering frame back. (v) Shields and guards (vi) visual or audible warning devices, emergency steering, emergency brake etc.

17.

Learn to recognize the machine's protective devices. They will alert you to conditions such as low pressure or high temperature that may make it hazardous to continue operating.

18.

Know the weight limitations of any floors, ramps, and docks on which you will operate.


41 19.

Watch out for slippery or soft spots on an other wise smooth surface.

20.

Know the clearances in the work area. A little time spent checking side and over head clearances, including power lines, can save a lot of trouble later.

21.

Be careful of dust, smoke, or fog, which may obscure your vision.

22.

All guards and other protective devices should be in place and secure.

23.

Disconnect articulated steering frame lock and store in carrying position. A locked vehicle cannot be steered.

24.

Watch out for fire hazards, when refuelling. Do not smoke. Shut off engine.

25.

Avoid standing down windward where spilled fuel could drench you.

26.

Be sure nozzle contacts filler before starting fuel flow to prevent a static spark.

27.

Replace caps securely.

28.

Fasten doors so that they do not block your vision.

29.

Check engine compartment for trash, which could cause fire.

30.

To reduce the danger of slipping, remove oil, grease, or mud from the grab irons, hand rails, steps or floor on operators' compartment.

31.

In monsoon watch out for pooling of water and slippery conditions.

32.

Remove or fasten any loose items in the operators' compartment such as bolts, chains, water bottles or scrap. They can jam the control or cause you to slip.

33.

Before getting into the machine, walk around the machine, to be sure there are no workmen next to, under or on it.

34.

In any work area people constitute a series safety Hazard. Always look out for the other person. Warn near by members of the work crew that you are starting up.

35.

If there are by-standees in the work area warn them and do not start until they are out of danger.

36.

Always use handrails, ladders, or straps.

37.

Be alert for slippery conditions. Do not get on your machine or operate it with wet or greasy hands or muddy shoes.

38.

Do not use the steering wheel or other controls as Hand holds when entering the operators compartment.

39.

Ensure three Point contact for getting into or out of machine(two hands and one hand or two hands and one leg should always in contact with ladders etc)

40.

Adjust the seat to your most effective operation position and fasten seat belt when provided.

41.

Check controls, to be sure they are in neutral to prevent sudden movement when the machine is started.

42.

Start the engine only from the operator's seat.

43.

Give warning before you start up.

44.

Follow the manufacturer’s recommended starting procedure. After engine has been started, check all gauges and instruments be sure that every thing is operating properly.

45.

When using a cold weather starting aid, follow the manufactures recommendations. Some starting aids are highly flammable. Never smoke while you are using them. When disposing off a container do not burn or puncture it as it can explode.

46.

If jumper cables are used to start an engine, connect negative to negative and positive to positive. Be careful not to create sparks, which could cause an explosion. Ensure battery vents are clean and cap loosened also to avoid pressure build up and bursting of battery.

47.

Exhaust fumes can kill. If necessary to start an engine in an enclosed area be sure to provide adequate ventilation.

48.

Test the service and parking brakes to make sure you will be able to stop and stay stopped.


42 49.

To be sure you can control direction of travel and speed shift the transmission through all gear ranges and test the speed control.

50.

Recheck lights, back up alarms and other warning and safety devices.

51.

Operate bucket blade and equipment controls through a complete cycle. Check for faults.

52.

Sit properly in an alert position. Check out controls in a safe area while moving slowly.

53.

Steer machine both right and left to be sure the steering is operating properly.

54.

Do not take chance with the defective machines; report it to your Foreman.

55.

Never allow anyone stand or ride in the pivot area of an articulated machine. When you turn he could be crushed. Stay clear of this area whenever the steering wheel machine may steer rapidly even with the engine off.

56.

Never carry an un authorised rider.

57.

Never move a load over the head of the other men or over truck cabs.

58.

Before you back up look to be sure, every one is clear.

59.

Be careful when backing to hook up attachment of equipment. Watch the ground mans signal before moving.

60.

Take it slow in congested areas, over rough ground and on slopes. Keep your speed slow enough so you are in complete control at all times.

61.

Give loaded vehicle the right way. Follow traffic rules. Watch out for the other vehicles.

62.

A bucket or attachment should not be used as a brake except in an emergency.

63.

Carry the bucket or attachment low so that it does not block your vision where travelling.

64.

Avoid crossing obstacles such as ridges logs or rai tracks. If you can not avoid them use caution when crossing.

65.

Stay back from edge of dumps and pits. Edges can cave in or your machine can loose its footing and slide over the edge.

66.

When loading try to keep the machine on level grounds. Start and stop smoothly when carrying a load.

67.

Keep a loaded bucket or attachment close to the ground for stability. If a overload causes the machine to tilt forward, do not be panic. Lower the load.

68.

For better visibility on windy days carry the load low and dump with the wind to your back if possible.

69.

When dump into trucks or other haul units, be careful not to head the truck with load or bucket.

70.

Operate straight up and down slopes whenever side hill operation could cause the machine to roll over.

71.

Stay in proper gear when travelling down hill. Never coast in neutral. Maintain engine RPM to give you control when you need it. It is generally recommended that the same gear range should be used for travelling up or down a grade.

72.

Whenever possible two men should work together in hazardous areas one to operate the machine and the other to direct him to watch for dangers.

73.

Never enter a dust cloud or a dark area such as an underpass or tunnel before checking it for obstructions or hazards you can not see.

74.

Watch out for overhead dangers, such as overhanging trees or falling rocks. If undercutting is absolutely undercutting is absolutely unavoidable use overhead precautions.

75.

Keep the proper distance from overhead power lines and check for buried power and utility lines before you dig.

76.

Even a minor defect can become serious. Report any machine defect to your supervisor.

77.

If possible, haul a disabled machine to a repair area. Avoid towing it,

78.

If towing is unavoidable, and the steering or backing systems are faulty, use a rigid tow bar. Always follow the manufacturer’s recommended towing procedure.


43 79.

If you must leave the machine unattended then the following precautions should be strictly observed. a.

Lower the bucket or attachment flat to the ground.

b.

Shut engine off.

c.

Engage parking brake if provided.

80.

Do not do any horse play or practical jokes on the job.

81.

Do not use alcoholic beverages while on the job.

82.

Beware of medicines, tranquilizers or other drugs which can make you sleepy.

83.

Give the job your full attention: Even a moment's distraction while you are in operation can be dangerous.

84.

Keep the work area as smooth as possible. Avoid spinning your wheels and running a smooth area with dangerous ruts.

85.

When using cable to move a load be sure that cable is of adequate size and inspect them for flaws. Keep the cable tight, move slowly .When taking up slack or the sudden when taking up slack or the sudden pull could snap the cable causing it to whip around dangerously. Clear by- standees form the area.

86.

The machine should never be used as a battering ram.

87.

Use lights after dark to see and be seen.

88.

On dangerous overhead jobs such as clearing any woods, it is preferable to use a machine with overhead protection.

89.

Park on level ground whenever possible. If you must park on a grade, park machine at right angles to the slope and block wheels to prevent movement.

90.

Park in a non-operating area or designated parking place. Use warning signals, flares, and barriers when needed.

91.

Make sure the machine is parked on a firm footing to prevent it from tipping or becoming struck.

92.

The exact shut down position varies for different machines so always read and follow the operators manual carefully.

93.

Lower the bucket or other attachment flat to the ground. Place all controls in neutral or parking position.

94.

Always apply parking brake. Lock transmission control or ignition lock to prevent unauthorised steering. Remove keys.

95.

Bleed accumulators if recommended in the manufacturer's Operator manual.

96.

Be careful of slippery conditions on stepping point and on the ground.

97.

Get out of loader or dozer only when it is fully stopped. A machine in motion, can lead to an accident .

98.

Do not jump off. Use grab irons or hand rails provided. Face the machine when getting off for greater safety. Ensure three point contacts.

99.

Always park the equipment in designated area. Do not park the machine near the face or valley edges.

100. Do not let any one ride in the bucket. 101. When you operate on a slope, do not swing the bucket down- hill if possible. 102. When you swing heavy loads to the side of the tracks, avoid tipping the excavator. 103. When the bucket is loaded, careful when you swing or lift the boom. 104. When you operate, move, or haul the excavator, avoid contact between boom or arm and overhead obstacles. 105. Before you dig, check the location of cables, 106. Do not dig under machine


44 107. If engine stops during operation on a hillside, lower bucket to ground. Start engine immediately. 108. If, by accident you do run over the shovel on electric cable. Do not get off the shovel, Call your supervisor. 109. Do not contact with electric lines (Serious injury or death can result) 110. Do not use the bucket as a hammer or pile driver; such operation will damage the bucket and other front attachment parts. 111. When the boom hits overhead wires, the following procedures should be followed. i)

Call your supervisor

ii) Stay on the machine until the boom is cleared or the current is cut off. iii) Do not allow anyone on the ground touch the machine. iv) If you have to leave the machine, then jump and do not step off. 112. Never swing the bucket over ground crew. 113. Never swing over the cabin of a truck or over trailing cabin. 114. Do not swing the load over the truck cab while loading. 115. Be sure everyone is in the clear before backing up. 116. Watch the bucket, or load, while it is moving. A moving load can be a weapon of destruction when out of control. 117. Do not overload the Trucks: 118. Do not drop the load into the truck and bang the body. 119. Ensure trucks are evenly loaded to avoid overloading of axles. 120. Ensure that trucks are not loaded to the point where earth and rocks run over the sides. 121. Use proper drive chain tension as a chain which is too tight will wear rapidly and a chain too loose will result in destructive jerks, when propelling is started or stopped. Heavy timber mats can be used to support the machine when working on soft ground. The mats should be kept level and as clean as possible. 122. Position Crawler Correctly 123. Work with the crawlers drive motor towards the rear, away from the excavation as direction of travel will be moving up towards the excavation. 124. Keep suspended load on rear when moving. When travelling with the suspended load, for better travel of crawler, move with the load behind. 125. When marching in tight quarters, post a look out to help guard against collisions or bumping into buildings. 126. Only qualified people should operate the machine. 127. Learn the location and purpose of all controls, instruments, indicator light, and labels. 128. Fasten a first-aid kit and a fire extinguisher to the machine. 129. Keep the extinguisher fully charged. Learn to use it correctly. 130. Inspect your excavator carefully each day before you start it. 131. Do not start or operate the excavator unless you are in the operator's seat. 132. When you operate the excavator, do not let another person on the machine. 133. When you get on or off the excavator, use hand rails and steps. 134. Start the engine only in well-ventilated area. 135. Be sure to stop the engine. 136. Place a notice board ''under inspection and maintenance'' on the cab door or control lever.


45 137. Never get under the machine while it is jacked up by the boom and arm. 138. When inspecting or servicing the machine with raised boom and arm, always use safety blocks, safety supports, etc. 139. Before you move the excavator, find out which way to move propel pedals for the direction you want to go. 140. If propel motors (A) are in front of the cab, push down the rear of the propel pedals (B) to move forward. 141. Do not travel without a signal person for guide. 142. Do not travel near the edge of a ditch, gully, or excavation. 143. Travel carefully where room is limited, over rough ground, and on slopes. 144. Before you leave the cab. a)

Lower bucket to ground.

b) Stop engine. c)

Put control lever in neutral position.

d) If you park the excavator on a slope, put blocks against tracks. e)

Do not park excavator with tracks pointed downhill.

f)

Take the engine key and cab door key with you.

145. Be sure you understand a service before you work on the excavator. 146. Do not run engine while you service the excavator unless the procedure is approved. 147. Do not start or operate the excavator unless you are in the operator's seat. 148. Do not lubricate or work on the excavator while it is moving. 149. Place the machine on level ground. 150. Lower the bucket to the ground. 151. Place a notice board “under inspection and maintenance " on the cab door or control lever. 152. Never get under the machine while it is jacked up by the boom and arm. 153. When inspecting or servicing the machine with raised boom and arm, always use safety supports, 154. Each part attains high temperature just after operation. Do not touch these parts.

5.3 Hydraulic Excavators: Lifting with slings An excavator is used primarily to dig and load. A crane is the preferred method for lifting materials or equipment; however, there may be times when using an excavator is a practical solution to an immediate need. If using the excavator is the practicable solution, good planning will maximize both the safety of the workers involved and the efficiency of the lift.


46 The lifting, lowering, or moving of workers in the bucket or suspended from the boom or bucket of the excavator is not permitted. 1.

Are the load charts applicable for the excavator and available in the cab?

2.

Is the operator qualified to make the lift?

3.

Is the rigger qualified to rig the load to be lifted?

4.

Does the excavator have the rated capacity to lift the load safely?

5.

Is the manufacturer’s lifting point or engineered attachment for the purpose of attaching slings rated for the full capacity of the excavator?

6.

Will the lift be made from level and stable ground? (refer to manufacture’s manual)

7.

Have work procedures been established that will minimize the risk to works near the boom or bucket? •

Lifting or lowering in close proximity to workers when there is the possibility of the worker being struck

Using open hooks when it may cause a hazard to workers.

Lifting loads without calculating weights or making test lifts Travelling with a slung load unless the manufacturer has addressed it

Performing a single lift with two excavators without first informing all the workers involved and without the supervision of a qualified supervisor.

5.4 Crane hazards and safe operating procedures Few Hazards In Crane Operation 1.

Improper load Rating

2.

Working too close to power lines

3.

Excessive speeds

4.

No hand signals

5.

Improper exhaust system

6.

Shattered/ Cracked windows

7.

Inadequate inspection/Maintenance

8.

Lack of steps/guard rails/Walkways

9.

Unguarded parts

10.

No boom angle indicator

11.

Unguarded swing area

12.

Not using out riggers

13.

Two blocking

14.

Dragging of load

15.

Unloading beyond reach by swinging

16.

Unstable area

17.

Weak /kinked slings

18.

Improper illumination

19.

Keeping load suspended

20.

In competent operator


47 Activity, hazard identification & Safe operating procedure CRANE OPERATION Potential accidents or Hazards

Recommended safe procedures

1. Conduct walk around check of crane A)Heat stroke, exhaustion

A) Dress to suit weather conditions.

B) Slips or trips, struck by flying objects such as dirt or splashed fluids, mechanical hazards.

B) Check oil spills on ground and debris while making safety checks. Be careful of ruts, uneven ground, . Use suitable access if necessary to mount and dismount crane to check engine or other area of machine.

Check

1.tires and wheels on truck mounted cranes for wheel nuts, cracked rims, cuts, tire pressure, embedded stones, or abnormal wear. 2.tracks on crawler cranes for tightness and rollers, idlers, and sprockets for damage. 3 area around, under, and on crane for people or obstructions. 4. bolts, guards, covers, safety devices, and mechanical components of crane to make sure they are in place. 5.visually for oil leaks. 6.engine compartment for dirt, debris, oily rags, covers firmly when removing. Get help if needed.

tools. Grasp engine

7.fluid levels. Wear safety glasses with side shields and gloves. 8.hydraulic oil and coolant lines and hoses for breaks, leaks, rubbing lines or loose fittings. Pay particular attention to hydraulic hoses which flex in normal operation of crane. 9.fire extinguisher (to be kept outside of machine) to make sure it's fully charged. 10.bolts and pins for looseness or excessive wear. 11wire ropes for obvious frays, kinks, or broken strands. 12.wire rope terminations and sheaves, drums and rollers for improper installation, wear and damage. 13.load hooks for damage, cracks, spreading, or twisting. 14.surrounding area where crane is parked by checking; clearances under bridges, overhead lines, or any overhead obstruction, side clearance, when tight, to be sure there is clearance for tail swing. 15. ladders, steps, hand holds, and handrails for loose bolts, breaks, cracks, missing parts, or bent and twisted steps. c) Potential uncorrected.

hazards

going

C) Report and, if possible, repair any defects found. Do not use machine with uncorrected safety defects.

2 Check truck cab prior to driving truck mounted crane and crane cab prior to operating crane A) Slips / falls, clothing caught on control levers/projections.

A) Wear tight fitting clothing. Keep ladders and boots free of mud, grease, and oil

B) Falling from ladder.

B) Use belt hooks, pockets, etc., for carrying materials up to cab. Keep both hands free for climbing. Ropes can be used to hoist bulkier items. Face ladder and use three points of contact when climbing (two hands and one foot, or two feet and one hand, in contact with ladder at all times). Take only one step at a time. Use grab rails or hand holds and select firm footing.

C) Being thrown from ladder, struck by machine.

C) Notify operator when mounting machine that is already in operation. Do not get on or off a moving crane.

D) Tripping, slipping stumbling hazards.

D) Keep the cab, deck, footholds and handholds free of mud, ice, snow, grease, and oil.

and


48 E) Missing or inoperative extinguisher.

fire

E) Check fire extinguisher.

F) Struck by flying objects, jammed controls, projecting control levers.

F) Remove or secure any loose objects in cab. Avoid projections.

G) Accident caused by poor visibility.

G) Inspect and clean windows. (Clean and adjust mirrors if applicable.)

H) Machine malfunction.

H) Check all instruments and gauges before start-up to be sure they aren't stuck. Make sure all controls are in the proper shutdown position.

3. Start crane and complete pre shift Examination A) Hitting or running over persons or objects in area, striking interior of cab if crane moves suddenly.

A) Check machine for warning tags. Check controls to be sure they are properly positioned. Warn any members of nearby work crews that you are starting your machine by sounding start up signal. Check backup alarm (if applicable) after start-up.

B) Engine or auxiliary equipment malfunction.

B) Let engine run until it reaches normal operating temperature. Check all gauges, indicators, and warning lights again for normal readings.

C) Loss of control, improper operation.

C) Test all controls to be sure they are properly adjusted according to manufacturer's recommendations.

D) Electrocution.

D) Be cautious of overhead power lines at all attention to clearance.

E) Thrown against cab interior or thrown out of the machine.

E) When driving truck mounted cranes, wear seat belts

times. Pay particular

4 General Operation A) Overloading, tipping the crane.

A) Know the rated capacity of your crane for various boom angles, and be sure to check boom angle indicator. When figuring the weight of the load be sure to include the weight of the hook, block, or any material handling device such as a concrete block, magnet, etc. Safe ratings are based on operating the machine on firm, level ground.

B) Overloading.

B) Determine (if possible) the weight of the load, or estimate it, before lifting.

C) Tipping the crane.

C) Check stability before lifting loads. Ensure the outriggers are firmly positioned on solid surfaces, crane is level, brakes are set, and load is properly rigged. Lift load slightly off the ground and confirm stability before hoisting further.

D) Tipping overloading.

the

crane,

E) Dropping load, tipping crane.

the

D) Do not operate crane too fast. Avoid fast swings, hoists or sudden breaking. E) Lift only the proper types of materials. Do not handle large heavy loads in strong winds, as the wind could create an unstable condition.

F) Fall to ground. Crushed against a stationary object.

F) Do not allow anyone to ride the load or load hook.

G) Striking nearby personnel or equipment.

G) Make a "dry run" in tight areas to help determine the safest way to operate under existing conditions.


49

H) Electrocution, electric shock, fires.

H) Keep boom away from overhead lines. NEVER ALLOW ANY PORTION OF THE MACHINE OR LOAD TO PASS WITHIN HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINE. Consider every overhead line energized If you do hit a power line remember:, 1) Stay inside cab, if possible, until line is cleared or power is shut off. 2) Warn all persons in the area to keep clear of the crane and the suspended load. 3) If you must leave the cab, such as in the event of a fire, be sure to jump clear of the machine. Do not contact any part of the machine or the load.

5. Lifting , Transporting &lowering of material A) Catching ground personnel in pinch points, dropping load, striking personnel or obstructions.

A) Ensure that proper signal procedures are established between ground personnel and crane operator. Crane operator should communicate with only one signal person; however, crane operator should observe any stop or emergency signal.

B) Caught in pinch point, struck by dropped or swinging load.

B) Ground personnel must ensure proper rigging, stay out of pinch points, and stay clear of hoisted loads. Tag lines permit steadying or guiding a load from a safe distance.

C) Dropping load, setting load on persons or obstructions.

C) Ensure the area beneath the load is clear of all obstructions and personnel. Make sure the load is well secured and that lines are not kinked.

D) Boom failure damage.

D) Make sure the hoist line is vertical. Do not make side loadings.

E) Overloading, overturning, losing control load, machine damage.

E) Avoid sudden starts and stops. Keep speeds low when lifting and lowering loads.

F) Additional strain on rigging, rigging coming off hook, hazards in hooking and unhooking loads.

F) Do not hoist two or more separately rigged loads in one lift, even though the combined load is within the crane's capacity.

G) Overheating hoist losing control of load.

brake,

G) When lowering load always use power-controlled lowering, if possible. When lowering heavy loads, keep hoist brake as a reserve.

H) Boom or jib damage or failure.

H) Avoid boom whipping". Do not let load strike boom or outriggers. Avoid hitting nearby structures with boom.

I) Wire rope or load attachment failure.

i) Allow maximum clearance between hook and head sheaves.

J) Overturning from unbalanced load, loss of brakes.

J) Use the shortest boom possible. Keep near-capacity loads as close to the ground as possible.

K) Overturning from excessive load for boom angle loss of brakes.

K) Test stability before fully lifting load by 1) lifting load slightly off the ground 2) checking the machine for movement, and checking to be sure the brakes hold with the load elevated.

L) Overturning from unbalanced load.

L) Beware of centrifugal force when swinging. Swing crane slowly to avoid outward swings of load. If necessary, attach tag line to the load to control the swing.


50

M) Damaging or over-stressing boom, boom failure.

M) Watch for boom "kickback". Never operate with boom at a higher angle than shown on the capacity plate. Know what controls give you emergency stopping.

N) Striking equipment or people with boom.

N) Always control load. To prevent excess motion during travel, use taglines to guide or snub the load. Never carry suspended loads over personnel.

0) Hoist line failure, boom failure or damage.

0) Watch for "two-blocking". "Two blocking" happens when hook block collides with boom point sheaves. Continuing pull on hoist lines can break the cables, or pull boom over cab on some types of machines. With hydraulically telescoping booms, be sure to payout hoist line when extending and reel in hoist line when retracting. If your crane has a twoblocking warning device check it occasionally by a safe means.

P) Tipping of crane.

P) Always use outriggers to make any lifts, except light loads with pickand-carry units. Lower outrigger jacks to completely remove all machine weight from tires and level unit to safely reach the full capacity of the machine. Recheck and, if necessary, reset outriggers between heavy lifts.

Q) Striking truck cab with boom.

Q) Watch out for the truck cab on truck-mounted units. Keep boom high enough, when swinging the boom, to be sure it clears the truck cab.

R) Carrier shifting or rolling.

R) Lock carrier air brakes "on" when operating crane and check air pressure frequently.

6. Loading &moving crane A) Personal injury from improper procedure.

A) Always use ramp when loading machine on trailer. If ramp is not available, use blocking to build one.

B) Striking obstructions while transporting, machine damage.

B) Lock turntable before travelling . Use house lock or swing brake, and lower boom into rack to prevent swing.

C) Striking objects, tipping of crane. Drowning

C) Carefully observe the area when travelling your machine. Check river depths by lowering line and hook to gauge depth. Swing side-to-side and check depth before proceeding.

D) Collision on highway, bridge collapse under weight of crane.

D) Obey all traffic rules when travelling on highway. Use proper warning flags and signs. Check bridges before crossing to make sure they will support the weight of the machine.


51

EMBANKMENTS Embankments on the side of road should be strong and sufficiently wide to prevent trucks running into and toppling. Embankments should be visible Free width of road should be sufficient in order not hinder traffic and to pull out when necessary Height of embankment should be not less than the tyre height of the largest vehicle using the haul road

CHECK WHERE YOU WORK FOR STABILITY Check the stability of the ground before operating equipment near Bench edge. Brake tests should be performed, before testing the brakes on the steepest typical operating grade. Brake holding tests should only be conducted near the base of the grade. Operator should wear seatbelt whenever the vehicle is in motion.

Always Start from the edge and proceed towards center

Do not use the breaker tool as levering tool


52

FOR DRAGGING LOOSE BOLDER

Right method

Wrong method

Working with the tool against a surface that isn’t perpendicular to the breaker can very easily lead to severe fracture forces in the tool, which may break as a result

The wrong way of working causes increased wear of the bushings. Worn bushings in turn increase the stresses on the tool and on the striking surface of the piston

Maximum permissible time for the breaker operation at the same place is 30 seconds. Move the tool to another position. Otherwise the temperature at the working tool increases and the tool gets blunt.

Ideally the breaker should not work on the same paint for more than 15 – 20 seconds. Move the tool to another Position


53

Never press hammer pedal when the working tool is not contact with ground. Even a single idle blow will cause enormous stress on working tool, retainer bar, retainer pin, etc. hence abnormal wear on shank of working tool, retainer bar, etc.,

Working tool should be free in the hammer. When you lift the hammer vertically, the working tool fall down. This is necessary to get full efficiency of the hammer

Keep a watch on abnormal vibrations on the pressure and return hoses, Abnormal vibrations indicate that the pressure in the high pressure nitrogen accumulator is low. Refer the maintenance manual

The tool shank must always be well lubricated. The grease tends to ‘dry up’ during operation and must therefore be re-applied regularly. Adapt the quantity of grease and the lubrication intervals to suit the kind of work being done and the wear characteristics of the tool and tool bushing.


54

If the feeding force is too low, the breaker will not be fully effective. Mechanical vibrations will then be transmitted to the excavator resulting structural damage.

Do not apply more feeding force to the breaker than necessary. As shown in the picture if the carrier begins to lift itself from the ground to much force has been used and this will create unwanted forces on the tool and bushing.

THE ENGINE SPEED: Match the speed of the diesel engine to the hydraulic pressure. Excessive engine speed will only result in excessive heat and fuel consumption

When the breaker is working at its most efficient position, the vibrations will be at a minimum.


55

Maximum permissible movement of the breaker during operation is 5 degree. This also keeps the hole clean and allows faster breaking. If the angle is more then there is a fair chance of tool breakage.

Working tool lubrication should be carried out every two hours (Maximum permissible duration) Deepening upon the temperature and quality of grease the lubrication should be carried out more frequently. If Conti Lube II is fitted on your machine, check if the greasing is OK

Do not start in the middle of a large boulder.

A FUNDAMENTAL Requirement for efficient material breakage is that the tool always works perpendicular to the object that is to be demolished. Keep the tool at a 90 degree angle to the work piece at all times. If the work piece moves or the surface is demolished, correct the able of the tool immediately.


56

Worn out wear bush can damage the piston, cylinder, other wear bush, etc. cost of replacement of these parts shall be very expensive

For Heavy duty breakers the breaking force is adequate when the distance between the buffer and the breaker body is between 5 and 10 mm. the buffer is not a shock absorber and must therefore be separated from the breaker body when the breaker is working.

1.

Grease gets accumulated between working tool and piston

2.

Greasing is carried out with the working tool hanging

Chisel should be pressed against the ground during greasing without fail.


57

Record the wear measurements of bush in log book, In case if the wear exceeds the normal, then investigate and take up the maintenance.

Ensure that everyone is well back from the tractor when operating a front-end loader. Add recommended wheel ballast or counterweight. Move wheels to widest recommended setting. Travel with the load as close to the ground as conditions permit. (If the rear of the tractor lifts, the bucket will hit the ground before the tractor tips.) Operate controls from the operator's seat only. Watch for overhead power line, depressions, obstructions, and uneven ground. Operate and turn tractor at low speeds. Avoid traveling downhill with a loaded bucket. Drive the loader in a straight line while loading the bucket. Keep the load in the bucket balanced. Lower loader to the ground, stop the engine and lock the brakes before leaving operator's platform. Travel in a straight line when raising the bucket to unload. Go as close to the dump site as possible before raising the bucket.

WHAT SHOULD YOU AVOID? • Do not try to load and turn at the same time. Hitting a solid object could easily overturn the tractor. • Do not turn with a load raised above the tractor. A quick turn can tip the tractor. • Do not allow anyone to ride or work in the bucket of a front-end loader. Do not use the bucket as a work


58 platform.

Do not leave loader in raised position.

• Do not stand or work under a raised loader. • Do not allow anyone to walk under bucket, even by accident. •

Do not drive with an elevated load

KEEP TRACK PERPENDICULAR TO FACE ALWAYS KEEP SPROCKET AT THE REAR

Stabilty is better when sprocket is in the rear. Also it protects the final drive

EFFECTIVE METHOD OF DIGGING

When bucket, cylinder and link and arm cylinder are at 90 degrees to each other pushing out force of each cylinder is maximum. When digging with arm keep the arm


59

KEEP EXCAVATOR IN STABLE POSITION

DIGGING POINT AFFECTS STABILITY

If the digging point is far from machine the centre gravity shifts to the front and causes instability. Keeping digging point close increases the digging force.

DIGGING POINT AFFECTS STABILTY

Digging the side more unstable than digging the front. If the digging point is far from the machine, it will become unstable (check ground for likely collapse before moving the machine)


60 EFFECT OF REAR COMING OFF THE GROUND

The track would slacken and track roller may come off the link. In hard ground a heavy back thud will have adverse effect on under carriage.

DO NOT SWEEP WITH BUCKET BY SWINGING

This will cause twisting and bending. Be extra cautions when you have to do it.

DO NOT USE IMPACT FORCE

Using impact force will cause dmage and breakage to bucket etc., It will also cause high peak pressure and swelling inside the cyliner.


61

STEERING

Steering speed is comparatively fast when travelling down steep slopes. Avoid changing directions if necessary, stop machine, rotate track backwards on the side to which you want to turn.


62

OPERATIONS USING WEIGHT OF MACHINE Using of

weight

machine as a method of digging brings excessive load on equipment and shock to chassis. USE HYDRAULIC FORCE FOR DIGGING OPERATION

OPERATIONS WITH IMPACT AT THE END OF CYLINDER STROKE

Piston is equipped with cushion mechanism that gradually releases back pressure. If impact load is applied at the end of stroke, piston will directly hit the head or bottom ends and damage.


63 UNLOADING ON DUMPER

Keep load close to bottom of dump body. When loading boulders first load soil into the body. Also park the truck in such a position from where operator will have clear view while pacing load.


64


65

CHAPTER 6

SAFETY IN TRANSPORTATION 6.1 Haul Roads for Trucks etc. 1.

All roads for trucks, or other mobile machinery, shall be maintained in good condition.

2.

Where practicable, all roads in and from the Opencast workings shall be arranged to provide one way traffic.

3.

Where this is not practicable no road shall be of a width less than three times the width of the largest vehicle plying on that road unless, definite turnouts and waiting points are designated.

4.

All corners and bends in roads shall be made in such a way that the operators and drivers of vehicles have a clear view for a distance of not less 30-meter's, along the road.

5.

Ordinarily, no road shall have a gradient steeper than 1 in 16 at any place. Provided that in case of Ramps over small stretches a gradient up to 1 in 10 may be permitted.

6.

Where any road exists above the level of the surrounding area, it shall be provided with strong parapet walls or embankment not less than the diameter of the largest vehicle using the road or one meter height whichever is more to prevent any vehicle from getting off the road.

7.

Road signs shall be provided at every turning point for the guidance of drivers specially at night time.

8.

At every curve, parapet walls or vertical posts with 'Zebra' lines shall be provided to help the drivers to keep the vehicle on the track specially at night time.

6.2 SAFETY FEATURES OF HAUL ROADS 6.2.1 Braking distance Distance a vehicle would move from the time of thinking to the time of application of brakes will amongst others depend upon a)

mental stage of driver (old or young, influence of alcohol or drugs which induce drowsiness like cough syrup)

b) degree of reflex c)

visibility (fog, twilight, rain, blinding eyes by oncoming vehicle or halogen lights)

d) accessibility to brake pedal and ease of operation e)

physical fitness

f)

fatigue

g) monotony of repeated job h) climate i)

illumination

Braking capacity of the vehicle On a level ground a vehicle with gross weight of 40(t) should come to a stop within 30 metres when travelling at 30 kmph. This will vary depending upon the slope, tyre tread pattern, surface condition of road, weather, repeated application of brakes, height of camber etc.


66

On an average 1.5 seconds is the time taken between seeing an object and applying of brake and 0.5 seconds is the time taken for brake system to get actuated. During this period the truck continues to move in the same speed and in case if the operator gets panicky may pick up a higher speed as well Sight distance: This is the area visible to the vehicle operator. It is necessary that the sight distance is sufficient to stop the vehicle in the defined speed before reaching the hazard. Visibility could get restricted due vertical curve or horizontal curve or both in the defined speed before reaching the hazard as illustrated below a.

Ver tical

curve and its correction would be as below b.

Horizontal curve affecting visibility Correction would be as below

c.

For designing curves stopping distance at defined speed is one among the major criteria In hilly terrains as well as in approaches from one bench to another the trucks will need to negotiate turnings. Roughly in turnings the width of road for one way traffic will be a minimum of 9 (m) and two way 16(m) including a central strong median but excluding drains &embankments on the sides. The width will also depend upon the width of the largest truck and its turning wheel radius, surface condition, weather, type of illumination etc

Points to be considered for designing horizontal and vertical curve


67 a.

Do not introduce sharp horizontal curvature at or near the crest of a hill. The driver will have problem in visibility especially at night. The light ahead will go into space. The transition has be uniform

b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b. Avoid sharp horizontal curves at the foot of hill or after long gradient. Normally trucks are at a higher speed. and bad visibility could lead to accidents c.

Avoid intersections near crest verticals and sharp horizontal curves. Intersection should be as flat as possible, taking into consideration visibility from all approach roads

Super elevation:-To take of care or skidding away of the truck from the road in turnings due to centrifugal forces, super elevation @ 4cms per meter width up to 30 kmph speed is to be given. For every additional 10kmph speed addition of 1cm per metre width is recommended. Higher super elevation will introduce stress on the suspension system. Lower super elevation will drag the truck outwards

Camber: -. Roads in general should be elevated in the centre and slope on both sides. These slopes should be steep enough for water to flow but gentle enough not to drag the trucks to one side. Shallow slopes will result in stagnation of water and formation of pot holes while steeper slopes will result in erosion of road surface. The thumb rule would be 3 to 4 cm of camber per meter width of road. In case of drain being in one side the total width should be considered. In case if drain exists in both directions the camber will be from middle of road tapering to both sides. Do not introduce culverts in turning. Keep atleast 30 mtrs straight road on both sides

Embankments: - In order to prevent trucks loosing control, going to edge of road and toppling, embankments are made. Where possible they should be cut as in-situ mass. If it is an embankment artificially made, the height should be equal to the tyre diameter of the largest vehicle using the road. The width should as per natural angle of repose. However in the case of turnings the height of embankment should be more as it could get a frontal attack by direct hit. We should also install luminescent markers or red reflectors. Inward slopes of embankments should be pitched and painted zebra lines. In case if there are trees on the sides of haul roads, the stem should be painted white to ensure visibility. In case of ‘U’ turns install mirrors properly oriented to view traffic coming down from the other direction.

Drains: -


68 a) Approaches to benches: - A good road can get spoiled by bad drain or the lack of it. Water is the number one enemy of road surface. It erodes, creates pot holes and if not attended to in time more pot holes. Pot holes result in downtime, spillage, increased travelling time, fatigue on men and machine. The rainwater has its own role to play on all surfaces. . Thus it is necessary to ensure minimum contact time is maintained and water is drained out. Such water should properly be coursed out to avoid cutting of embankments or the slopes. Both sides of embankment should be pitched. Size of drain should be sufficient enough to cater to maximum rainfall on unit time in the catchments area. Drain cross slopes should be 4:1 or less. Drains should be made in-situ or masonry lined b) On benches: - A portion of benches forms part of haul road. These roads should confirm to requirements like embankment, camber, signals, drains etc for smooth functioning. In order to maintain drains it is advisable that all benches other than ramps have longitudinal slope of 1 % to assist water flow

Culverts: - These are made to ensure that water from external sources does not come into contact or cross the road. Locating of culverts is based on topography and contour. Size of culvert should take into account the quantity of water and catchments area. Entrance to culvert should be protected from logs stone or other material blocking the flow. Width of culvert should be equal to or more than the width of road. The side walls should be strong to prevent trucks hitting and toppling. A check dam or retention wall should be made to arrest the velocity and its direct impact on the culvert sides. Drains which carry water from the slope on the sides of road should discharge water through pipe or lined channel to avoid erosion of sides.

Road Width:- The effective width will be clear width which shall exclude, embankment, side drain, median a) for one way traffic the effective width should be minimum of 3 times the width of truck b) for two way road having central meridian and uni- directional movement the total width of road required is five times the width of truck plus the width of median c) in the case turnings the width will be depend upon visibility, surface, mechanical characteristics of truck, weather, direction of travel of loaded truck Down gradient/up gradient and position with respect inner or outer lane, normal cruising speed

Road Gradient:-The general gradient stipulated under legislation is 1 in 16. Such gradient will also depend upon a) direction of travel of load b) braking capacity of the vehicle c) topography, d) visibility in turning e) distance between turnings f) weather condition g) density of traffic and number of lanes h) moisture condition of material being hauled and direction of travel ( the material may be slushy and spill heavily on the road) i) tyre dia., tread design and condition, width of tread j) Surface condition and its effect on rolling resistance

Illumination: - This aspect will need to be considered in designing of road. Pole should be located away from road but accessible for repairs. To ensure that they are visible and also locate them during dark hours it is advisable to fix red reflectors on all poles at a height of 3 metres from road level. They should face the direction


69 of travel. In case if median exists the poles can be fitted inside the median. Type of fixtures should be non glare type

Road signals. These are fixed to assist operators and hence should use standard signals and positioned at vantage points. The Signals fall in three categories Type

Colour

Encircling shape

Mandatory

Red

round

Cautionary

Blue

Round

Informatory

Blue

Rectangle

They should be visible, kept facing the direction of travel and kept clean.

Dust suppression: - Dust is a hazard in mining operation as it affects health . Also visibility is reduced in a dusty atmosphere. The visibility levels further go down in foggy atmosphere as well as during dark hours. Reduced visibility leads to accidents. To suppress dust where water is used it spoils the road surface . Dust is controlled with plain water or with additives to water. Water should be used judiciously to ensure dust is suppressed. Dust depending upon its physical and chemical characteristics adversely affects visibility. As well as on the health. Spraying of water is generally done with tankers on gravity flow with perforated pipes. Drenching of roads with water erodes the surface and creates dust. Pot holes are created by over wetting

6.4 Safety in hauling( Operation) for Operators 1.

Stopping distance for your truck

2.

Maximum grade and speed

3.

Gear/speed/grade information

4.

Secondary (emergency) brakes and secondary (emergency) steering operation

5.

Appropriate use of retarder

6.

Fire suppression and other emergency equipment and procedures

7.

Operating procedures under varying weather and road conditions

8.

Gauge readings indicating vehicle systems within specified range

9.

Do not operate or drive unsafe equipment.

10.

Do not operate or drive in unsafe conditions

11.

Do a complete walk around inspection of the truck before boarding.

12.

Conduct a safety check of the truck and test systems before driving.

13.

Check lights.

14.

Always use seat belt.

15.

Check gear position before starting and gear before moving

16.

Warn people around the truck that you are preparing to move it. This is especially necessary if the truck has been in idle.

17.

Pay attention to your machine and your surroundings. Watch out for animals, people, other vehicles, changing road surfaces, odd sounds, slopes, face and haul road conditions, downed or low wires, lighting or visibility problems, and unusual response of vehicle controls. Tell your supervisor so the problem can be fixed.


70 18.

Avoid miscommunications and unexpected movements by talking with your co-workers before, during, and after field repairs or maintenance.

19.

Watch your speed at all times.

20.

Set the parking brakes, place all controls in "off" or "shutdown", and turn the wheels into the hill or use chocks when leaving the truck cab for any reason.

21.

When using wheel chocks always place them on the driver’s entry side. This will remind you to pick up the chocks before returning to the cab.

22.

Backup alarms should be audible above the surrounding noise level.

23.

Check all mirrors prior to moving mobile equipment to be certain no one is in your intended path.

24.

Ensure that all persons are clear before moving equipment.

25.

Sound your horn to warn unseen persons that you are about to move and wait a few moments to give them time to get to a safe location.

26.

When approaching large mobile equipment, do not proceed until eye contact is made with, or approval obtained from, the equipment operation.

27.

Ensure that foot traffic restricted in areas where mobile equipment travels.

28.

Establish procedures that require smaller vehicles to maintain a safe distance from large mobile equipment until eye contact is made or approval obtained from the equipment operator. Provide training in those procedures.

29.

Securely block raised equipment to prevent accidental movement before working beneath such components.

30.

Reduce or eliminate the potential for hydraulic fluid discharging through hose failures onto hot engine components by installing a solid shroud or shield to deflect hydraulic fluid away from these hot surfaces.

31.

Ensure that adequate pre-operational checks on mobile equipment are performed and that all defects affecting safety are recorded and reported. Such defects must be corrected before the equipment is used.

32.

Thoroughly examine all hoses, fittings, and gaskets and replace according to manufacturer's recommendations.

33.

Take equipment out of service immediately if a hazardous fluid leakage is observed.

34.

Install a fire suppression system on all mobile equipment to increase the likelihood of a safe escape should a fire develop

35.

No person shall be permitted to ride on the running board of a vehicle.

36.

As far as possible, no loader labourers, shall be allowed to ride trucks, whether loaded or empty. Where this cannot be avoided due to provide separate compartment at the back of the truck in which workers may take a seat.

37.

Sufficient stop-blocks shall be provided at every tipping point and these shall be used on every occasion material is dumped from the vehicle.

38.

When not in use every vehicle shall be moved to and stood on proper parking place.

39.

No person shall be permitted to work on the chassis of a vehicle with the body in a raised position until after the body has been securely blocked in position. The mechanical hoist mechanism, if any, alone shall not be depended upon to hold the body of the vehicle in raised position.

40.

No unauthorised person shall be permitted to enter or remain in any dumping yard or turning point.

41.

Always make sure equipment operators see you before entering any area where heavy equipment is being used. If possible, make eye contact with the equipment operator.

42.

Personnel who work after dark, or in any poorly lighted area, wear reflective clothing .Use of V.H.F to communicate would assist with these types of situations.


71 43.

Pedestrians should always communicate their position to equipment operators. Before entering an area you normally would not enter, let the equipment operator know you are there.

44.

When moving to a different area, inform the equipment operator before leaving the area.

45.

All equipment should be painted with large numbers (a foot high or more) on all four sides of the equipment for proper identification.

46.

If the vehicle is required to work after day-light hours (i.e. half-an-hour after sunset and half-an-hour before sunrise) ensure that the lights are in working order.

47.

The competent person shall not permit the vehicle to be taken out for work nor shall he drive the vehicle unless he is satisfied that it is mechanically sound and in efficient working order.

48.

The competent person shall maintain a record of every inspection in a bound paged book dept for the purpose. Every entry in the book shall be signed and dated by the person making the inspection

49.

Before commencing work in a shift, the driver shall generally examine the vehicle for its road worthiness, and in particular check the tyre air pressure, brakes, horn and lights, if he finds any defect which will make the driving unsafe, he shall report the matter to the competent person and get the defect remedied before operating the vehicle.

50.

The driver shall not drive too fast, shall avoid distractions, and shall drive defensively. He shall not attempt to overtake another vehicle unless he can see clearly far enough ahead to be sure that he can pass it safely. He shall also sound the audible warning signal before overtaking.

51.

Before crossing a road or railway line, the driver shall reduce his speed, look in both directions along the road or line and shall proceed across the road or line only if it is safe to do so.

52.

The driver shall sound the audible warning signal while approaching 'blind' corners or any other points from where persons may walk in front unexpectedly.

53.

The driver shall not operate the vehicle in reverse unless he has a clear view of the area behind the vehicle or he has the assistance of a 'spotter' duly authorised in writing for the purpose by the manager. He shall give an audible warning signal before reversing a vehicle.

54.

The driver shall make sure of clearance before driving through tunnels, archways, plant structures etc.

55.

The driver shall not operate a vehicle in fog or mist without taking adequate precautions, as may be specified by the manager.

56.

The driver shall not operate the vehicle while being in a state of drunkenness, and without due care and attention having regard to all circumstances including the nature, condition and use of the road or other place over which the vehicle is being driven and the visibility at the time.

57.

The driver shall see that the vehicle is not overloaded and that the material is not loaded in a truck, so as to project horizontally beyond the sides of its body and that any material projecting beyond the front or rear is indicated by a red flag during day and red light after day-light hours.

58.

The driver shall not allow any unauthorised person to ride on the vehicle. He shall also not allow more than the authorised number of persons to ride on the vehicle.

Do not get in or out of a truck when it is in motion. You may slip, fall down and run over. Wear Seat belts. In case of brake failure or truck going out of control, you may be thrown out of truck or get banged on to the wind shield


72

6.5 Maintenance of Vehicle 1.

The vehicle shall be maintained in good repair, and examined thoroughly once at least in every week by the engineer or other competent person appointed by the manager in writing for the purpose.

2.

The competent person shall maintain a record of every such inspection in a bound-paged book kept for the purpose. Every entry in the book shall be signed and dated by the person making the inspection.

3.

If the engineer or other competent person making an inspection notices any defect in the vehicle the vehicle shall not be used until the defect has been remedied.

4.

Any defect in a vehicle reported by its driver shall be promptly attended to.

5.

Any vehicle found to be in an unsafe operating condition shall be gagged at the driver's position "OUT OF SERVICE DO NOT USE" and its use shall be prohibited until the unsafe condition has been corrected.

6.

Every vehicle shall be regularly serviced and over-hauled as per the recommendation of the manufacturer. A written record of each servicing and over hauling-shall be maintained.

7.

Except for testing, trials, or adjustment which must necessarily be done while the vehicle is in motion, every vehicle shall be shut down and positive means taken to prevent is operation while any repair or manual lubrication is being done.

8.

Any vehicle, equipment or part thereof which is suspended or held apart by use of slings, hoists or jacks shall be substantially blocked or cribbed before men are permitted to work underneath or between such vehicle, equipment or part thereof

.

6.6 Pre-Operation Inspection The machine should be in a safe location before conducting the pre operation inspection. 1.

Fluid levels engine oil, hydraulic oil, steering oil, brake oil, coolant, and fuel

2.

Steering components

3.

Tires, wheel nuts, wheels and flanges

4.

Frame and bed for cracks and damage

5.

Mirrors, windows, windshield wipers, etc.

6.

Power train engine, torque converter, transmission, differential, and final drive

7.

Hoist cylinders mounts, pins and pin keepers

8.

Brakes test all brakes to ensure they hold to manufacturer's specifications

9.

Warning devices gauges, lights, buzzers and backup alarm

10.

Fire suppression system/extinguishers pins & keepers in place, tags current, hoses, etc.

11.

Wheel chocks available for use

12.

Ladders, handrails and steps

13.

Head lights, clearance, turn signals, tail, and brake

14.

Heaters

15.

Cab doors open and close properly

16.

Loose objects secured in cab

17.

Air Pressure System

18.

Belts and Guards


73

6.7 Start Up and Shut Down Procedures 1.

Before starting engine, ensure that all is clear (do not proceed if visibility is impaired)

2.

Warn others before starting

3.

Warn others before moving (Sound horn)

4.

Warn others before moving (Sound horn)

5.

Follow prescribed procedures for cold or warm engine starting

6.

Allow time to warm up before operating

7.

Choose safe location to park truck

8.

Allow time to cool down before shutdown

9.

Set park brake and turn off lights

10.

Set wheel chocks if necessary

6.8 .Truck Operation 1.

Sit in an upright position with the seat belt fastened at all times

2.

Test all braking systems to ensure proper function before operating truck

3.

Test all steering functions prior to operation

4.

Working Procedures

6.9 Spotting At Loading Equipment 1.

Check clearances

2.

Visually check loading area on approach to be sure that no equipment or persons are behind your truck before reversing

3.

Pay close attention to face

4.

Watch closely for other equipment, persons, small vehicles, etc.

6.10 Operating On Grades 1.

Use correct gear when descending grades.

2.

Follow manufacturer's grade profile charts.

3.

Shift to lower Gear before descending the grade.

4.

Use retarder to maintain proper speed.

Housekeeping 1.

Keep haul truck free of combustible materials.

2.

Secure all loose items in cab.

3.

Keep ladders, walkways and cabs clear of extraneous material and tripping hazards.

6.11 Brake testing For the purposes of checking the brakes and to ascertain the fitness of a vehicle brake testing ramp is used


74 1.

This should be away from regular traffic areas

2.

No person other than the driver, mechanic should be present in the area

3.

Checking should be done during day light only

4.

There should be a high wall made of loose fines or clay at the dead end to take care in the event of a brake failure

5.

The width of ramp and brake test area should be not less than 4 times the width of the truck

6.

The length brake test area should be more than two times the stopping distance of maximum speed permitted in the mine

7.

The floor of brake test area should be hard, compact and level

8.

Watering if need be should be done much before and moisture should not be present on road surface which will reduce brake capacity

9.

Moisture will be against brake action and will assist in skidding.

10.

Near the dead end there should be a ramp of 10-15 m long having the maximum permissible gradient to conduct parking brake test

11.

Embankments should be provided on both sides of the road

12.

Not more than one truck should be taken in a brake test area

13.

Driver doing brake test should have good reflex to react to emergency

14.

The driver as well as any other occupant should use seat belt. Such seat belts should be checked regularly.

15.

On the side of road, distance markers at 2 meters apart should be provided to check the distance covered by a vehicle from the time brake is applied to the time it comes to halt in which a vehicle and to take corrective measures if any

16.

When brakes are applied dragging or locking of any of the brakes should be checked. Such dragging should be investigated for i)

Unequal inflation

ii)

Delay in application of any individual brake(look out drag mark on road surface)

iii)

Difference in tread pattern

iv)

Uneven loading

v)

Defects in suspension system

vi)

Improper alignment of tyres

vii)

Excessive Free play in steering

viii)

Road surface not in level

6.12 Safety in over head lines Overhead conductors or "lines" are usually bare wires supported by poles or structures, traversing across the mine. Danger exists for personnel when mobile equipment, such as trucks, drill rigs, cranes, etc. contact these lines. Overhead lines near the following areas and activities can pose serious hazard: 1.

Storage yards and delivery areas (where cranes may operate).

2.

Mobile equipment maintenance, parking, and fuelling areas.

3.

Haulage and access roads, particularly those near dump/load points, areas on these roads (dump-bed trucks running with beds up, cleaning beds, and raising tarpaulins).

4.

Stockpiles dumps, loading areas, and benches and active pit areas in general, particularly near blast hole drilling operations.


75 5.

Adjacent to mine plant structures, such as processing plants,

6.

Exploration/test drilling sites.

7.

Construction sites, particularly if cranes or scaffolds are in use.

8.

Unintentional build up of roadways under overhead lines.

There are several ways to avoid accidental overhead electric power line contacts and resulting injuries: 1.

Install and maintain non-contact power line proximity devices. These devices can provide audible and visual alarms,

2.

Position "spotters" to alert equipment operators of the proximity of their equipment to energised power lines

3.

Recognise potential hazards. Train workers to "Look up" prior to starting work install physical barriers under overhead lines.

4.

Erect signs to identify a danger zone

5.

Raise problem sections of overhead line.

6.

Erect guard wires.

7.

Have high visibility spheres installed on energized lines to help make the line location obvious to all workers. .

8.

Fallen electrical power lines can be the source of electrical shock while working at the mine. Do not go near a fallen electric power line. Always assume it is energised. Touching it could be fatal

9.

Notify the mine electrician as soon as possible to disconnect the power.

10.

If you see someone touching a downed power line, don't try to rescue them yourself.

11.

If the fallen power line comes into contact with a rail or fence, keep away. The power line could energise the rail or fence, creating a hazard along the entire surface. .

12.

Never drive over fallen power lines. Although they may not be energised, they can become entangled in your equipment.

13.

If contact is made with an energised power line while you are on or in a piece of equipment or vehicle, remain calm, and do not get out unless it is on fire..

If you must get out of the equipment because of fire or other safety reasons, do your best to jump completely clear making sure you do not touch the equipment and the ground at the same time. Land with both feet together and shuffle away in small steps to minimize the path of electric current and avoid electrical shock. Be careful to maintain your balance. If one part of your body touches a high-voltage zone while another part of your body touches a low-voltage zone, you will become a conductor for electricity.


76

6.13 CARE IN WASTE DUMPS unsafe-dump conditions 1.

-no embankment, or an inadequate embankment. Makes the edge location difficult to judge; offers inadequate resistance to keep a vehicle from going over the edge.

2.

-an embankment that’s too narrow at the base. Allows the heavy loading of the truck to get so close to the edge of the pile that the edge material may not be strong enough to support the weight.

3.

-an edge of a dump that has been weakened because the dump has been loaded-out at the toe and over-steepened. Edge material may not be able to support the truck weight, in addition to its own weight. A portion of the embankment may have been removed reducing embankment’s capability to provide required resistance.

4.

-cracks, settlement, or a slide near the edge of the dump. Means the edge may be unstable and may not support the additional truck weight.

5.

-a soft area near the edge of the dump. May cause tires to sink in and the truck to topple over as it attempts to dump.

6.

-a dump runs downgrade to the embankment Gives drivers less control while reversing, and can soften the dump area from poor drainage.

7.

-a dump placed on a soft or weak foundation. As the dump gets larger, the slope may become unstable due to the foundation giving away underneath.

8.

-inadequate illumination for nighttimes operations, or poor visibility during bad weather. Makes driver judgments, and detection of unsafe conditions, more difficult.

9.

-inadequate clearance between equipment and overhead power lines. Two particular issues are that truck beds are raised at dump points, and as piles get larger the clearance may be gradually reduced.

Unsafe equipment practices:


77 1.

-attempting to dump over the edge of the pile even though there’s no embankment, or the embankment is inadequate.

2.

-attempting to dump over the edge even though the area below the dump point has been loaded-out and made steeper than the material’s angle of repose.

3.

-attempting to dump over the edge in an area where there are cracks.

4.

-backing up at an angle to the edge. The driver may not realize that the rear tires opposite the driver’sside are closer to the edge than intended, or have gone through the embankment.

5.

-hitting into the embankments when positioning to dump. Using the embankment. To help stop the truck creates the risk that the vehicle may go through the embankment. or cause the embankment. to give way.

6.

-running the rear tires up onto the embankment. So that material can be dumped over the embankment.. Can cause the embankment. To give way, or cause the truck to go through the embankment.

7.

-jamming on the brakes while backing near the edge of a pile. Puts additional forces pushing down and out on the top of the pile, which can cause the edge to give way.

8.

-raising the bed too high when the material sticks in the bed. As the bed is raised, the truck can become unstable and tip over.

9.

-operating equipment while not wearing the seat belt.

10.

-using a truck with defective brakes.

Safe dumping practices near the edge of a pile The way that equipment is operated at a dump point has a direct effect on the safety of dumping operations. During the course of your inspection encourage mine operators and dump-point workers to use the following good practices. 1.

The top of the dump should be kept sloped a small amount, of 2 to 3 percent, so that in backing up to dump, the trucks will be going up a slight grade. This gives the driver better control. It also provides a better opportunity to get the truck out if any shifting of the ground occurs and keeps the dump point better drained. (Note that a 2% slope means that the top of the dump would rise a vertical distance of 2 mtrs over a horizontal distance of 100 mtrs.)

2.

The top of the dump should be kept level - from side to side - so that trucks do not tend to tip on their side whenever the bed is raised.

3.

Drivers should stay back from the edge of the pile on their approach and in making their turn at the dump point. Staying back a truck length from the edge is a good rule-of-thumb. Approaching with the dump point to the left side of the truck gives the driver the best opportunity to check the condition of the dump area just prior to dumping.

4.

Drivers should back-up perpendicular to the edge, or with the driver’s-side tires leading just slightly. In many dump-point accidents, the tire tracks have revealed that the truck was backing at an angle, with the rear tires opposite the driver leading. In these cases the driver-side mirror would have indicated that the driver still had a distance to back up, while the opposite side rear tires were already contacting the embankment or going over the edge.

5.

The embankment should be used as a visual guide only. The embankment should not be used to help stop the truck but only as a visual guide to judge where to stop.

6.

Trucks should back slowly and come to a gradual stop at the dump point. As a truck backs up and the brakes are applied, dynamic forces are produced which push down and out on the pile. The more abruptly a vehicle stops, the higher these forces are. These forces are applied at the contact between the tires and the top of the pile and can make a marginally stable edge give way.

7.

Rearward looking cameras, or other sensing devices, mounted on trucks can help truck drivers at dump by providing better information on their position and alignment relative to the embankment.


78 8.

Adequate illumination needs to be provided for nighttimes operations. This is especially critical where trucks back right up to the embankment. The area must be illuminated well enough to allow signs of dump- embankment instability, such as cracks, to be detected. If the dump area is not adequately lit or if visibility is poor due to bad weather conditions, trucks need to be dumped back from the edge.

9.

Drivers need to be alert to material sticking in the bed of the truck. Such material can make the truck tip over or can cause a more critical loading condition on the edge of the pile, as the bed is raised. A rule-of-thumb is that if the bed gets about two-thirds of the way up and material is still sticking, the driver should lower the bed and find another means of getting the material out, such as by using a backhoe. When material sticks in the bed, drivers should never try to jar it loose by jamming on the brakes as they back up. The truck could tip over or if this is done near the edge of a pile, the added force could cause the edge to collapse.

10.

Drivers should space the trucks out when more than one truck is dumping at the same time. This leaves room in case a truck tips over to the side while attempting to dump. It also better distributes the truck loadings along the edge of the pile.

11.

Drivers should wear their seatbelts. Accident experience has shown that staying in the cab with the seatbelt fastened offers the best opportunity to avoid a serious injury or death when a truck goes out of control.

12.

Special precautions should be taken on stockpiles because of the added danger posed by the removal of material from the toe of the pile. Check whether the following procedures are being used: The operations of dumping material on the pile and loading material out from the toe should be coordinated so the trucks are not exposed to the hazard of dumping above an area where the pile has been, or is being loaded-out. It is important that the stockpiling procedures used at the mine prevent this from occurring.

13.

Drivers should understand that embankment that appear to be in good condition from their viewpoint on the top of the pile, may actually have been undercut and may not be a full embankment at all. Backing-up to such an embankment would be dangerous. This situation can be avoided if truck drivers can examine the dump area from the bottom side as their vehicle approaches the stockpile, or if the front-end loader operator notifies drivers of this condition and takes action to block access to the dangerous area, or if drivers routinely dump back from the edge.

14.

There should be communication between the front-end loader operators and the truck drivers since the loader operator is in a good position to know when unsafe dumping conditions exist.

15.

Front-end loader operators should be trained to recognize unsafe dump conditions and either take prompt action to correct the situation or barricade the unsafe area.

16.

The bed-height and bed-overhang on some of the larger trucks now in use allows these trucks to dump material over the top of an axle-height embankment even when the truck is not backed up all the way to the embankment The heavy weight of these larger trucks makes it prudent to keep the rear tires back from the embankment as much as is practical in these situations.

Safe procedures in dumps 1.

Embankment is required in the back, and it should be full tyre height.

2.

Like road side embankments, these are not there to prevent a vehicle from going over, they are only there to let drivers know, as they’re backing, when they’re touching it, that is – when they’re at the back.

3.

Another important function of the embankment is to have a wide base to keep the heavy loading on the rear tyres from getting too close to the edge of dump where the material could give way. Realise that the area near the edge of a steep slope may not support the weight of a loaded haul truck.

4.

Do not dump over the edge of a pile in an area where the pile has been loaded out at the toe or over steepened.

5.

Dump at a minimum distance of one truck length back from the edge or any indication of cracks, subsidence etc.


79 6.

Wear seat belts

7.

Check dump before dumping first load at the beginning of shift, for cracks, for slope steeper than natural angle or repose or for other signs that may not support the weight of haul truck. Do not drive in doubtful areas.

8.

Maintain adequate embankments or bumper blocks.

9.

Do not rely on embankment or bumper block to stop the truck.

10.

Do not come to an abrupt stop

11.

Keep the dump sloping between 2-5 degrees upwards.

12.

Back up at perpendicular to dump at driver side.

13.

Check the dump area: for cracks along its top edge, steep slopes, sunken areas, and soft areas. (The weight of truck near an unstable edge can result in sliding down of truck).

14.

Watch the weather. Rain, can weaken the dump area and lead to unstable slopes.

15.

Make sure the dumping area is level or slopes slightly upward toward the edge. This will help you to more easily control the truck when backing up.

16.

Be sure the dump area is adequately lighted.

17.

Cross windrows at an angle, one wheel first to prevent jarring the load, the truck, and yourself.

18.

Approach the dumpsite from the driver’s side. When in doubt keep at least one truck width away from the embankment.

19.

Make sure the dumping embankment is in place.

20.

Make your turn to back up at least one truck width away from the dumping embankment. to avoid overloading the dump edge.

21.

Keep at least two truck widths apart if more than one truck is dumping at a time to help prevent collisions or weakening the dump area.

22.

Back up perpendicular or at a slight angle to the dumping embankment. So the truck's left rear tire approaches the embankment first. This can help you keep the truck from penetrating or going through the embankment.

23.

Do not expect the embankment or bumper blocks to stop the truck.

24.

Back up slowly and come to a gradual stop at the dump point. This prevents overloading the truck's rear axle or causing the edge of the dump area to break away.

25.

Stop just before the truck reaches the embankment or bumper blocks..

26.

Set appropriate brakes when dumping.

27.

Do not use the retarder brake when dumping.

28.

Contact kills! Make sure your truck is clear of overhead power lines, people, and other equipment before raising the truck bed and dumping the load.

29.

Watch for material stuck in the truck bed it can make the machine unstable.

30.

Be sure your truck is clear of overhead power lines, people, and other equipment before lowering the truck bed.

31.

Completely lower the truck bed before leaving the dump area. For better vision turn left (whenever possible) when leaving the dump area.

32.

Establish procedures that require smaller vehicles to maintain a safe distance from large mobile equipment until eye contact is made or approval obtained from the equipment operator. Provide training in those procedures.

33.

Securely block raised equipment to prevent accidental movement before working beneath such components.


80 34.

Reduce or eliminate the potential for hydraulic fluid discharging through hose failures onto hot engine components by installing a solid shroud or shield to deflect hydraulic fluid away from these hot surfaces.

35.

Ensure that adequate pre-operational checks on mobile equipment are performed and that all defects affecting safety are recorded and reported. Such defects must be corrected before that equipment is used.

36.

Thoroughly examine all hoses, fittings, and gaskets and replace according to manufacturer’s recommendations.

37.

Take equipment out of service immediately if a hazardous fluid leakage is observed.

38.

Install a fire suppression system on all mobile equipment to increase the likelihood of a safe escape should a fire develop.

39.

Ensure that foot traffic restricted in areas where mobile equipment travels.

40.

Provide training to dump workers on recognizing dump hazards, taking appropriate corrective measures and using safe dumping procedures.

41.

Supervise dumping operations regularly to ensure that unsafe conditions are being corrected and safe practices are being followed.

42.

Instruct dozer operators to maintain adequate embankments, keep the dump properly graded, and correct or barricade unsafe dump areas.

43.

Avoid the hazards associated with dumping near the edge of a pile by routinely dumping back from the edge and pushing the material over, preferably with a track-dozer.

44.

Dump directly over the edge of a pile ONLY when all proper safety precautions are taken. These include ensuring that close supervision is provided; an embankment with sufficient height and basewidth is maintained; and truck drivers are well trained on the potential dangers.

45.

Instruct truck drivers to always dump a truck-length back from the edge in areas where the embankments are inadequate or where the dump area is cracked, settled, or too soft.

46.

Instruct truck drivers to always dump a truck-length back from the edge if the pile below the dump point has been loaded-out and over-steepened.(The distance to be kept will also depend upon the height of the dump)

47.

Establish procedures for stockpiles that prevent the possibility of trucks attempting to dump above a point where the pile has been loaded-out and over-steepened. Methods to do this are to dump a truck length back from the edge or to block the pile’s access ramp during loading operations. Route truck traffic so that drivers have the best opportunity to routinely observe the condition of the dump area, both above and below the dump point, on their approach.

48.

Consider the practice of “driving left” on the dump to allow drivers a better opportunity to observe the dump area on the approach.

49.

Instruct dump workers to examine both the top of the pile and the area below the dump point for signs of instability.

50.

Provide for communication between dump workers.

51.

Provide adequate illumination of the dump-point area for night operations.

52.

Ensure that the location of overhead power lines does not present a hazard for the trucks. Be especially alert to this problem as the size of stockpiles increases.

53.

Provide training to truck operators on safe driving procedures, specifically the proper use of the transmission and brakes while backing and dumping the truck.

54.

Ensure that equipment is properly maintained and that safety features are operational.

55.

Ensure that truck drivers stay in their cab while being loaded at a stockpile.

56.

Make use of new technologies such as the use of vehicle-mounted cameras that can improve both dump safety and efficiency. A rearward-looking camera, for example, can assist a truck driver in backing up square to the embankments and in knowing how close to the embankments the vehicle is positioned.


81

Erosion of waste dumps slope results in environment degradation. A waste dump can be protected by using Coir matting


82

6.14 Stacking procedures Stacks are especially hazardous when there are activities at the top edge and the toe. Loading out material at the toe causes sliding which can cover the loader. It can also over steepen the slope, making the top edge of the pile unstable for trucks which may be dumping at the top. 1.

Pay attention to the stockpile and its surroundings.

2.

Always dump in an area where there are no activities immediately.

3.

Never dump over an over steepened slope.

4.

Dump at least one truck length away from the edge.

5.

Too much moisture can weaken the pile be careful.

6.

Watch for overhead obstructions, chutes, gratings, stopping blocks, and guide rails. Look over the area before pulling in to dump to check for any damage to any of these features. Dumping at these areas is very repetitive and special efforts are needed to maintain driver awareness.

6.15 Safety features required in Tippers / Trucks - DGMS Circular 5 of 2010 1.

Cabin Guard Extension: Canopy shall cover the operator's cabin fully.

2.

Exhaust/ Retard Brake Device to control the speed of truck while operating down the gradient. Refer DGMS (Tech) circular 02 of 2004

3.

Propeller shaft guard: Propeller shaft guard as specified in DOMS (Tech) circular 10 of 1999.

4.

Tail gate protection of operator against collision either by head on or head to tail

5.

Limiting speed device: Enable mine management to decide the maximum speed of vehicle to be operated in mine. The device may be Electronic or mechanical type speed governors.

6.

Audio-visual alarm while reversing The audio-visual alarm provided should confirm to DGMS (Tech.) Circular No 01 of 201O.

7.

Provision of two brakes one of brakes shall be fail safe. For details refer DGMS circular 09 of 1999.

8.

Body lifting position locking arrangement: A hooter along with an indication is provided to indicate the body is still in lifted position.

9.

Fire suppression System Refer DGMS circular 10 of 2004. The fire suppression system shall be a factory fitment and of approved type from Directorate

10.

Blind spot mirror Operator can have view in blind spot area.

11.

Fire resistant hoses at hot zone: To decrease chance of fire

12.

Electric Wires and sleeves are to be of fire resistant quality: To decrease chance of fire

13.

Turbo Charge Guard and exhaust tube coated with heat insulated paint: To decrease chance of fire

14.

Battery Cut off Switch: To decrease chance of fire

15.

Retro reflective reflectors on all sides: For visibility of truck during night

16.

Seat belt reminder To alert operator for using the seat belt

17.

Proximity warning device To alert operator when approaching ai1er vehicles I obstruction.

18.

Rear Vision System To assist operator during reversing .Refer DO Circular No. 12 of 2009

19.

Auto dipping System To reduce glaring on eyes of operator during night operation.

20.

Load indicator and Recorder Enables management to detect and prevent over loading

21.

Raised body locking system to prevent body coming down while repairing hoist system.


83

Closer to dumper, Visibility on both sides is poor. Blind areas all around is a major cause for accidents


84

CHAPTER-7

SAFETY IN MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES 7.1Carrying out maintenanace on equipments 1.

The machine should be on level ground for maintenance.

2.

Before you start work, make sure the machine is blocked.

3.

Disconnect battery to prevent accidental starting.

4.

Lower the bucket or other attachments flat to the ground or block securely if they must be raised. If the machine has a lift arm safety bar for this purpose, use it.

5.

Before working in the pivot area of an articulated machine, securely attach steering frame lock to prevent machine from turning.

6.

Diesel is highly inflammable and should never be used as cleaning fluid. Use a good commercial non flammable solvent.

7.

Store flammable starting aids in a cool well ventilated plane out of the reach of unauthorised personnel.

8.

When charging, leaving battery compartment open for ventilation.

9.

Never check battery charge by placing a metal object across the posts. The sparks can cause an explosion. Use the voltmeter or hydrometer.

10.

Never use a open flame to check battery, fuel or coolant level or to look for anywhere in the equipment.

11.

Fires can occur, know which fire extinguisher to use, where it is and how to use it.

12.

Keep the maintenance area clean and dry. Oily or wet floors are slippery. Wet spots are dangerous around electrical equipments Greasy rags are a fire hazard.

13.

Keep the equipment clean and free of dirt and oil so you can spot loose or defective parts.

14.

Before working under a machine be sure to tag the controls so on one else will start it. If more than one man is working on a machine, each must be familiar with the controls and aware of what the others are doing.

15.

Never adjust pressure relief valves to get higher operating pressures. The Manufacturer's recommended pressures give the safest performance with the longest life.

16.

Remove all pressure caps carefully. Bleed pressure from Accumulators. Wait until coolant is below the boiling point before removing the radiator cap.

17.

Relieve hydraulic pressure before working on machine by working controls in both directions when the engine is off. Follow the operator's manual. Loosen cap slowly when filling or venting the system.

18.

Be careful of hot oil when working with hydraulic lines or draining engine oil. If possible, allow the machine to cool before working on it.

19.

Keep brakes adjusted. Improperly adjusted brakes could cause an operator to loose control.

20.

Wear gloves to protect your hands when changing cutting edges or cables. Block the attachment before you start so you do not get caught.

21.

If you must move a defective machine, use a trailer if available or tow it carefully following the manufacture's recommendations.

22.

If you have to crawl under a machine be sure you are out of traffic and the machine is securely blocked.

23.

Exhaust gases are deadly. If necessary to start a machine inside a building, make sure there is adequate ventilation and get the machine outside as soon as possible. Periodically check exhaust system for leakage.

24.

Before you remove the inspection covers, stop the engine. Do not let tools and loose objects from your pockets fall into the opening.

25.

Lower attachments flat to the ground and stop the engine before cleaning or lubricating.


85 26.

Always shut off the engine when checking or adjusting belt tension. If necessary to make other adjustments while the engine is running, keep your hand clear of moving parts.

7.2 Hydraulic hoses • Fluid Injections - Fine streams of pressurised fluid escaping from a damaged hose can enter the body and cause tissue damage. • Whipping Hoses - Whip action of hose ends after hose separates can strike a person with deadly force. • Fluid Burns - Fluid escaping from a damaged hose can burn skin even without igniting. • Fires and Explosions - Escaping fluid exposed to a source of ignition may burn or explode. Guard hoses from exposure to ignition sources. • Electrical Shock - Hoses can contain conductive reinforcement material or conductive fluid. Avoid routing near electrical equipment. • Mechanical failure - Machinery driven or supported by hydraulics can move unexpectedly when a hose supplying that machine fails and results in loss of hydraulic pressure. Actions: 

Inspect hoses regularly for leaks, damaged or corroded fittings, exposed reinforcement wires, excessive dirtier grease build up, missing guards, shields, and clamps

Install abrasion protection such as spiral wrapping, sleeves, and guards

Install guards and shields around ignition sources (exhaust manifold, turbo, muffler, etc.) and operator areas to keep out fluid if a hose fails.

Use properly rated hose (working pressures are printed on the hose body) and hose fittings as well as proper hose lengths for the application. Replace hoses only with those that meet equipment manufacturer's specifications.

Ensure proper hose routing to eliminate abrasion damage and exposure to ignition and electrical sources.

Use hose clamps where appropriate to prevent excessive free motion of hoses.

Routinely change out hoses. Avoid costly environmental cleanups, potential injury, unscheduled down time, and damage to other components in the system.

Make certain that pressure is relieved before working on any hydraulic circuit.

Only trained personnel using proper fittings and crimping tools should construct new hydraulic hoses!

Do not inter-mix manufacturers. Use the same manufacturer's products for all parts of the assembly (end fittings, hose, etc.) and make sure you use the corresponding manufacturer's hose machine for crimping

7.3 Machine Guarding Specifications for machine guarding :Reach & other key dimensions (as per As 1755) The basic principle is that unless a danger point is safe by virtue of its position, the machinery should be provided with an appropriate safeguard, which eliminates or reduces danger before access to the danger point is possible. It is difficult to guarantee that the machinery is safe by virtue of its position under all circumstances and where the risk of access and therefore injury is reasonably foreseeable, safeguarding must be provided. In applying the above principle, the following points should be taken into account: 1.

Dangerous parts should ideally be eliminated or effectively enclosed at the machine's design stage. If they cannot be eliminated, then suitable safeguards should be incorporated as part of the design and if this is not possible, provision must be made for safeguards to be easily incorporated at a later stage.

2.

Provision should be made to facilitate the fitting of alternative types of safeguards on machinery if it is known that the work pieces to be accommodated will vary in size and shape.


86 3.

Where a moveable guard, cover etc. is used as a safeguard, it must be interlocked with the drive mechanism of the dangerous parts. Maintenance operations may therefore require complete isolation of the machinery from the power supply.

4.

Lubrication and routine maintenance facilities must be incorporated outside the danger area wherever practicable.

5.

Suitable supplementary lighting should be provided at operating points a lighting fitting which is portable and easily adjustable should preferably be supplied from a low voltage supply.

6.

Every mechanism and control forming part of the safeguard should as far as practicable be of fail-safe design.

7.

All safeguards should be of sound design and adequate strength.

8.

Guards may be made of metal, timber, laminated or toughened glass, suitable plastics or a combination of these as may be appropriate to the conditions. The shatter resistant properties of materials may need to be considered.

9.

Whatever safeguard is selected it should not itself present a hazard such as trapping or shear points, splinters, rough or sharp edges or other sources likely to cause injury.

10.

Safety and hydraulic fittings (Remember, hydraulic fluid is TOXIC)

11.

When not properly maintained, any hose used in a hydraulic system or connected to a pressure source is a potential danger. Hazards include:

LOCATION

DISTANCE (MM)

Minimum distance above floor before guarding of nip points is not required

2500

Minimum distance of guard from danger point if mesh opening is up to and including 9mm

Working clearance only

Minimum distance of guard from danger point if mesh opening is above 9mm up to 50mm square

150

Minimum distance of guard from danger point if it is possible to get wrist through mesh or guard.

280mm

Minimum distance of guard from danger point if it is possible to get elbow through the mesh or guard

500mm.

Minimum distance of guard from danger point if it is possible to get entire arm though the mesh or guard

1000mm

Maximum distance of underside of guard from the floor (in the case of gates, fences or guards providing protection from floor level)

250mm

Maximum size of mesh (in the case of gates or fences

50mm2

Minimum height of fencing

1600 mm

7.4 Tyre repairs •

Before you place a jack in position, block the wheel on the other side of the vehicle.

Always block the machine so as to prevent it form moving inadvertently.

Remove valve core carefully and exhaust all air form the tyre. Run a piece of wire through the valve stem to make sure it is not plugged.

Deflate the tyre before removing rocks or prying objects from the tyre tread. Keep your fingers clear of bead breakers and rams and stand to one side when you apply pressure.


87 •

If bead breaker slips, it can fly off with enough force to cause severe injury.

Be careful to clean all dirt and rust from the ring gutter.

Always use an inflation cage, safety cables or chains when removing tyre rings or inflating tyres.

Use a long enough hose and self attaching air chuck. Stand to one side when inflating tyres.

Never begin to inflate a tapered bead tyre unless bead seat band has been pried out over lock ring.

If tapping of lock ring is required to assist seating, use extreme caution.

Never mix rim parts of different sizes or use damaged parts.

Inflate a spare tyre only enough to keep rim parts in place. A fully inflated tyre can fly apart when it is not installed on a vehicle. Use care if you must transport a fully inflated tyre, a safety chain may be required.

Check tyres only when the vehicle is empty.

Use caution with reworked wheel parts. Improper welding, heating or brazing weak them and can cause failure.

Never cut or weld on the rim of an inflated tyre.

7.5 Safety - Proper Blocking


88 x

Failing to block against hazardous motion is one of the most frequently observed reasons for serious accidents. Proper blocking against motion requires a risk assessment to evaluate the various pivot points and studying the job to ask, "what can happen?” Proper blocking includes using manufacturer provided safety pins, frame locks, and/or wooden blocking to prevent unwanted or sudden movement. Some hazardous locations a)

Working or travelling in the loader's articulation area without engaging the steering frame lock or without using another means of preventing motions.

b) Working on a raised bucket wheel loader or truck body without supporting against falling down c)

Removing toggle seat wedge bolts on a jaw crusher so that the broken pitman toggle seat could be replaced. (The safety pins, provided by the manufacturer, should be installed or other steps taken to block/secure this component. Otherwise the pitman assembly can shift and pin the mechanic against the crusher framework)

d) The front and rear sections of the front end loader when separated at the articulation joint, each section should independently be supported with jack stands. Securely block equipment against all hazardous motion at all times while performing maintenance work. If the equipment being blocked has multiple degrees of movement of freedom, exercise extreme caution because some instability modes may not be obvious.

To prevent blocking of motion accidents: •

Study the manufacturer's maintenance manual for safety precautions and recommended blocking securing procedures BEFORE initiating repairs.

Always use the manufacturers provided safety device or features for securing components against motion.

Avoid steel on steel blocking if at all possible as these two surfaces together can easily slide thus reducing the effectiveness of the motion prevention design.

Avoid using long, slender members as blocking in situations where the blocking will be loaded in compression. These types of members may be prone to buckling failure.

The ground on which the blocking is to be placed must be capable of supporting the loads transferred from the equipment. To prevent the blocking from punching into the ground, larger plates or blocking may be necessary to spread the load over a wider area.. Such ground should not be slippery

7.6 Safety In Blocking of raised equipments Practices to follow when blocking raised equipment: •

Ensure that there is sufficient space around the equipment to enable work to be performed safely and out of travel ways.

Prepare the area under the equipment to ensure that the bottom layer of the blocks or jack stand will lie within a flat and level area.


89 •

Use bearing plates to increase the contact area with the ground under the blocks or jack stand if the ground's ability to support the load is questionable.

Do not use a wooden block that is significantly lighter than the others being used.

Do not use blocks which show rot, splits, and twists.

Ensure adequate contact area with equipment components being supported to avoid crushing the blocks and to increase stability.

Observe blocking and jack stands during loading and ensure they remain solid without any tilting or sliding.

Ensure that wooden blocks stacked in a cribbing fashion have their middle portions supported by lower layers to prevent block bending.

Always treat the system as unblocked until the blocks or jack stands are fully loaded and equipment stability has been verified.

Remember that metal to metal contact may slide much easier than wood or other materials against metal. This is a strong reason to ensure everything remains level and evenly loaded. Also, remove any grease, etc. from the machine area that will contact the blocking.

7.7 Safety in use Drill in Work shop With a drill press, the operator must be protected from the rotating chuck and cuttings that is produced by the drill bit. Specially designed shields can be attached to the quill and used to protect this area. A telescoping portion of the shield can retract as the drill bit comes down into the piece-part. On larger gang or radial drills, a more universal type shield is usually applied. A drill is a cutting machine that uses a multiple-cutting-edged rotating tool to remove material and produce a hole in the stock. Normally, drilling machines are vertically arranged with the tools having variable speeds and feeds. They may also have multiple spindles for gang drilling. The most commonly used drilling machine is a single-spindle, floor-mounted, belt-driven machine for non-production drilling. Belt-driven spindles may require manual belt shifting for spindle speed changes. Feed rates arc also adjustable and may be manual or automatic.

Operator Involvement 1.

The drilling machine operator may or may not be a skilled worker. The common drill is used often by anybody in the shop and Injuries can occur because of carelessness. The operator must position the stock, Install the drill, operate and observe, and maintain housekeeping. The operator also must change speeds and feeds when required.

2.

One of the most common causes of accidents that occur on a drill press is poor operator judgment. Often the operator will attempt to hand-hold the stock while drilling. When the drill enters the work, it can catch and twist tile stock from the operator, which results in an un controlled rotating piece. Other point –of -operation hazards include the rotating drill, which is rarely guarded, and hot chip generation.

3.

Operating controls often are simple on-off push buttons with no emergency stop devices.

4.

Power transmission components often are exposed. Because the drill is such a commonly used machine, it often is cluttered with chips and scraps, which create a hazardous work area.

5.

This machine is less hazardous than others only because of its simple operation;

6.

Nevertheless, familiarity with its operation is required,

7.

Guarding at the point of operation is difficult because of the nature of the drilling process. The drill gradually feeds into the work, it is changed very often, chips must be able to escape, and the stock must be moved around which all reduce the possibility of using guards at the drill. If guards are used, they probably will have to be removed during the actual drilling process. Whenever possible, a hold-down fixture should be used rather than the hands.

8.

Automatic machines and high-production machines should use barricades or enclosures to separate the worker from the entire drilling machine.


90 9.

Power transmission components should be enclosed entirely on those machines that have adjustable belt drives. The enclosure should have an interlocked access door to facilitate speed changes.

10.

Push button controls should be shrouded and an emergency shut-off switch installed near the machine. A main disconnect is necessary.

11.

Good housekeeping and operator training are absolute musts.

7.8 Safety In use of Hammers and striking tools 1.

Always use a hammer of the proper weight and size for the task

2.

Do not strike the surface at an angle. The hammer face should contact the striking surface squarely, so the two are parallel.

3.

Do not use a hammer if the handle is damaged or loose.

4.

Use a hammer face that is one centimetre larger in diameter than the striking tool.

5.

Never weld, heat or regrind a hammer head.

6.

Remove from service any hammer exhibiting signs of excessive wear, cracks, mushrooming or chips.

7.

Do not use one hammer to strike another.

8.

Do not use the wrong hammer for the job; mach the proper type of hammer to the task it is designed to perform.

7.9 Care and use in Gas welding systems A blowtorch produces an exceptionally hot flame and harnesses that heat to mold and cut metal. It does this by using highly combustible gases in the right proportions, which means that it is also a dangerous tool. Improper pressures, mishandling of the equipment, excessive sparks and messy workshops can all lead to fires, or even fatal explosions. Regulators on the cylinder heads control the pressure and flow of the gas. Adjusting them to the appropriate pressures is essential to preventing explosions. A regulator has two gauges: the highpressure gauge reads the gas pressure in the tank, and the low-pressure gauge reads the gas pressure for delivery to the hose and torch. The hoses that connect the steel cylinders to the torch are made of strong, flexible material, usually rubber. To avoid confusion, the hose containing oxygen typically is green, while the fuel-gas hose is red. The torch head has two needle valves, which are circular knobs that control the flow of either the oxygen or the fuel gas. The tip attaches to the torch head, and people change it according to the task being performed and the gas used. When a blowtorch is used for cutting metal, an oxygen pipe sends an additional stream of oxygen directly to the centre of the flame, increasing its intensity. Finally, an igniter. It's a unsafe to ignite these torches with a cigarette lighter or a match because of the dangerously high temperature of the flames.


91 Check valves attached to the regulators and the torch head will help to prevent the gas from flowing back through the hose or cylinder. The pressure in the hose should always be greater than the pressure in the torch head. If this changes and the pressure in the torch head surpasses that of the hose, then the check valve closes, shutting off the gas supply.

Blowtorch Safety Before turning on a blowtorch, welders should put on a few protective items, like gloves, an apron and, most important, goggles or full face masks with tinted lenses (because of the intense brightness of the flame). In addition, ensuring good ventilation, having a fire extinguisher handy, frequently checking for leaks and wearing clothes without grease or oil stains are critical steps in preventing injuries. Even better: wear flame-retardant clothes and hard-toed shoes. You'll be grateful for this layer of protection if something goes wrong while you're using a blowtorch, like a backfire or flashback. Backfire occurs when the flame extinguishes with a loud pop. Insufficient gas pressure or touching the torch tip against the work causes these backfires, which, although startling, won't hurt you. Flashback happens when the flame retreats into the torch because of improper pressures or a clog. If you think flashback is occurring, immediately shut off both gas cylinders, as it is extremely dangerous. A shower of sparks flying from a blowtorch workstation also can be trouble. Despite their beauty, an abundant amount of sparks can indicate problems. When the sparks sputter out excessively and far, this can mean that the gas pressures are too high or you may be in danger of causing a fires The flashback arrestor fastens to a regulator and typically consists of both a check valve and a flame barrier, which allows gas through but not flame. These arrestors prevent flashbacks,

Lighting Up: Using a Blowtorch After gearing up, a welder follows certain steps to turn a blowtorch on and off. As different torches have different safety procedures, refer to the specific manufacturer instructions before operating a blowtorch. A stepby-step procedure for turning on an oxyacetylene torch Turn the acetylene regulator screws out to allow gas through and adjust the working pressure of the gas. 1.

Open the acetylene cylinder slowly, but only a third to a half turn. This allows for the release of acetylene.

2.

Open the acetylene needle valve on the torch head and adjust the acetylene regulator to the best working pressure (about 5 psi).

3.

Close the acetylene needle valve. This stops the flow of acetylene so that you can start the oxygen safely.

4.

Turn oxygen regulator screws out so that oxygen can flow and you can adjust the working pressure.

5.

Open the oxygen cylinder valve slowly until completely open. This allows for the release of oxygen.

6.

Open the oxygen needle valve on the torch head. At this point, you can adjust the oxygen regulator to attain the best working pressure (about 5 psi for welding purposes).

7.

Close the oxygen needle valve so that you stop the flow of oxygen and can later light the gas safely.

8.

Pause and test for leaks in any of the valves and hoses.

9.

Open the acetylene needle valve again so that the gas is released and it can light.

10.

If the blowtorch is not equipped with an internal spark ignition device, light the acetylene with a friction lighter held about one inch from the tip.

11.

Wait for the black smoke to stop and slowly open oxygen needle valve. Adjusting the oxygen needle valve affects the type of flame you get. A neutral flame is commonly preferred and is made up of equal parts acetylene and oxygen.


92

To switch off the torch, follow these steps: 1.

To switch off the torch, close the acetylene needle valve first, which extinguishes the flame.

2.

Close the oxygen needle valve. This cuts off the flow of oxygen.

3.

Turn off the acetylene cylinder valve and then turn off the oxygen cylinder valve. This stops the release of the gases from their cylinders.

4.

Open the acetylene needle valve until gauges read zero pressure and turn out the pressure adjusting screws on acetylene regulator. Close the acetylene needle valve. This drains any remaining acetylene pressure left in the hoses and torch.

5.

Open the oxygen needle valve until gauges read zero pressure and turn out pressure adjusting screws on oxygen regulator. Close the oxygen needle valve. This drains any remaining oxygen pressure left in the hoses and torch.

7.10 Grinding 1.

Never use a grinder without protecting your eyes. Grinders generally have safety shields

2.

While fitting a new wheel ensure that the synthetic bush is seated properly

3.

In case of air operated grinder the speed of grinding wheel is high. A broken piece can go off at a speed of nearly 70 kmph. And that speed the piece can hit like bullet. If it hits the chest the injury could prove fatal

4.

Use properly balanced wheels

5.

Over and above the rotary switch. The on / off switch should be at close to grinder and easily accessible.

6.

Use correct grinding wheel for the job. The grain size and bonding is important.

7.

Keep the hand rest as close to the wheel as possible, and a little above the centre of the arbor. If this is not done, there is a possibility of work getting in between the wheel and the rest.

8.

Do not stand directly in front of a wheel while grinding. Many new wheels crack suddenly when in use.

9.

Do not use excessive force while grinding. This can result in damage and breaking of wheel.

10.

Keep the face of the wheel free from oil. The spot that has oil on it does not wear while grinding as the other parts. The wheel is thrown out of balance and breaks.

11.

Do not grind on the side of the wheel.

12.

Never hold small pieces with the hand for grinding, but with a proper clamp.

13.

Be careful in grinding a larger piece on a light stone, the piece may break the stone and cause serious damage.

14.

Do not grind soft metal such as aluminium, brass copper on a grinding wheel. It will clog the wheel and the wheel will become smooth. The wheel becomes useless for grinding and dangerous for grinding steel.

15.

Dress the wheel if necessary.

16.

Do not grind hot metals on the wheel. It heats the stone and makes the bond of the wheel weak.

17.

Keep one set of goggles with proper glass specification close to the grinding wheel.

18.

Ensure lighting is proper and does not cause strain to eyes.

19.

Keep grinder in well ventilated area and do not inhale the dust

20.

Removed grinding wheel should be broken and put in scrap

21.

Do not use water on a wheel, which is designed to grind dry.

22.

While grinding drill bits select proper stone, hold bit properly do not over grind or apply excessive pressure to make the tungsten turn blue

23.

Use hand gloves to avoid burn injury while grinding bit


93 24.

Use correct air pressure, secure hoses properly

25.

Grind with template for drill bits.

7.11 Personal fall arrest system

 ensure workers are trained and understand the proper use of fall protection devices  use harness and lines where there is a danger of falling  attach fall protection to a secure anchorage  provide self retraction lanyards when possible  train equipment operators to use theree points of contact when getting in or out of equipment Good body reaction time

0. 2 seconds

Travel distance in 0.2 seconds

2.0 M (6.5 FEET)

BY THE TIME YOU REACT YOUR DODY WILL BE 2M (6.5 FT) BELOW FROM WHERE YOU WERE STANDING. FALL PROTECTION DEVICES GUARD RAILS,SAFETY NETS FENCES,,BARRICADES,,LIFE LINES,BODY HARNESS


94 Prevention starts with guardrails Guardrails are the first line of defence in fall prevention. They should be installed along the open sides of any area where a worker may fall 2.4 meters (8 feet) or more or into water, operating machinery, or hazardous substances. Areas to be protected include Guardrails should have a top rail, mid-rail, and toe board secured to vertical posts or supports.Guardrails must meet the following minimum dimensions: •

top rail between 91 cm (3 feet) and 1.07 meters (3 feet, 6 inches) high

toe board at least 10.2 cm (4 inches) high and installed flush with the surface

posts not more than 2.4 meters (8 feet) apart.

These components should be secured to the inside of the posts. Toe boards should be installed on all open sides of a scaffold or work platform. Guardrails should be installed as close to the edge as possible and must be capable of resisting any load likely to be applied. If guardrails must be removed, the opening edge should be roped off and marked with warning signs. In addition, workers should use a fall-arrest system properly anchored travel restraint. Where guardrails or other protection is not in place, use a fall-arrest if the danger of falling is  into or onto a hazardous substance or object.  more than 3 meters  into operating machinery  into water or another liquid

Fall Arrest Fall arrest is the most common system. It stops a fall within a few feet of the worker's original position. A full body harness is required with a fall-arrest system. A typical system consists of the following parts connected together: •

full body harness

lanyard (with locking snap hooks or D-clips)

rope grab


95 •

lifeline

lifeline anchor.

Inspection essential Fall-arrest systems can only prevent fatal falls if they are used properly. Correct use includes inspection. Harness •

Always check the tag for date of manufacture. Most web-type harnesses have a service life of five years. If the harness doesn't have a tag, don't use it.

Look for cuts, fraying, broken stitching, and other damage to webbing. Check for chemical or heat damage.

Inspect metal buckles for distortion, cracks, and sharp or rough edges. All buckles should slide easily for adjustment.

Check for worn, cut, or frayed fibbers where buckles attach to harness.

Inspect D-ring for distortion, cracks, sharp or rough edges, and chemical or heat damage.

Ensure that the plate holding the D-ring in position is free from cracks, heat damage, and other defects. The plate must keep the D-ring from sliding out of place.

Lanyard Most lanyards have a service life of five years. Check tag for date of manufacture. Inspect lanyard for worn, broken, or cut fibers; signs of stretching; evidence of chemical or heat damage; and cracked or distorted connecting hardware.

Snap hook •

Check for cracks and corroded or pitted surfaces.

Ensure that bill and eye sections are not twisted or bent.

Check that locking mechanism works properly. Push the keeper into the open position with the mechanism still engaged. If the keeper opens, discard the snaphook immediately.

Ensure that spring has enough tension to close keeper securely.

Open the keeper and release. The keeper should sit into the bill without binding.

Safety belts usually support the falling weight in the shoulder and waist area below waist also is taken care by waist only. In the case of full body harness load is distributed between shoulder waist and thighs. This makes safety than conventional belts while working at heights. These are used with single or double lanyards. Depending on locations. At places retractable fall arrestors are also used are also used Full body harness a)

Check harness for web damage

b) Check stitching for loose or cut threads c)

Check buckles, D rings for rust, cracks or distortion

How wear a full body harness with work positioning belt 1.

Hold harness by dorsal ring

2.

Insert arms into shoulder straps and close chest buckle

3.

Pull leg straps one by one around thighs outwards to your front

4.

Close the buckles one by one


96 5.

Tighten all straps to ensure a close but comfortable wear by inserting palms and checking

6.

Wrap around the work positioning belt and buckle

7.

Attach dorsal D ring to lanyard

8.

Fix lanyard to a safe location and ensure that the rope does not rub against sharp objects

9.

Check the buckles etc before taking support on the Belt

While removing the lock pins, hammering on a metal object take adequate precautions against metal chips flying out and getting embedded in the body

ATTACHING TEETH TO A BUCKET Lower the bucket and shut-off the machine before performing maintenance, Never travel or work under a raised loader bucket.

It can get unbalanced and tipped over, and cause injury PrecautionsWhen an object is in danger of falling over brace it with blocks to prevent it from falling

* Never loosen hydraulic hoses or components without First determining if they may be holding something up or trapping * Never work or travel in the loader’s articulation area without engaging the steering frame lock or without using another effective means of preventing motion if the lock cannot be used.


97 Dismantling Recoil springs Just as the nut is about to come the recoil spring can fly off from the repulsion, and hit the worker’s hand. Precautions Use a jig specifically designed for assembly and disassembly. Perform work only after discussing work procedures in advance.

Use of jigs Precautions 1.

Inspect jigs for cracks

2.

Ensure that the load applied will not result in breaking of welds or plates keep in safe location

3.

Use ties where possible

SLINGING OF LOAD TO CRANE HOOK SHIFTING OF LOAD 1. While shifting loads ensure that they do not get unbalanced (In this case the piston of the cylinder came out and injured the operator)

PrecautionsWhen placing objects that can turn easily onto a tie, use rotation stoppers. Keep body parts out of the direction in which objects might turn. Observe the fundamental rules of carne operations, and take safety precautions before performing work.


98

DISMANTLING THE CYLINDER HEAD OF A ROCK BREAKER At times after loosened the nut of the cylinder head, and when hit it with hammer. The internal pressure will cause the head to suddenly fly off and hit the. Precautions When disassembling and assembling machines, always be fully knowledgeable about what you are doing, or work with another person who has more experience. Hitting something with a hammer can either damage parts or cause debris to fly, so always use a removal jig. Leave the loosened nut attached to the bolt, rather then completely removing it. Keep out of the pathway of potential gushing fluids or flying parts

USING GAS TO CUT A BUSHING Precautions Use a designated bushing removal tool. If gas must be used to do the cutting, first clean thoroughly. Create an opening to release pressure. When performing gas cutting, be sure to wear a face shield or protective mask.


99 REMOVING THE ARM CYLINDER OF A HYDRAULIC SHOVEL Hanging the shovel’s arm and using the handle of a small hammer to hit the pin while a wire suspended From a crane held the cylinder rod can result in cylinder bounce up, the edge of the cylinder and crushing the worker’s finger. Precautions 1.

When removing a pin, use a bar designed for removal work, and hit the hammer on the bar

2.

Carefully check the status of the hanger, and keep it balanced so it is not overstretched. Work from a stable position using a work platform or steps tool.

Before starting to operate equipment ensure that no body would be injured.

ASSEMBLING OF COMPONENTS Precautions 1.

When lining up the holes on a suspended load, use a pinch bar or guide pin, not your fingers or hands.

2.

Whe working with a crane, workers should always use signals and communicate clearly with the crane operator.

3.

Slinging work should be performed in such a way that the load is kept level. Use a designated.

1.

Ask another worker to help with this kind of work to keep socket wrenches from slipping of or wobbling.

2.

When working with parts that require a lot of

torque, or


100 when working in any unstable location, use a torque wrench with a pipe extension.

REMOVING OF HIGH – PRESSURE HOSE Precautions 1.

When disassembling high-pressure pipes, always remember to release residual pressure first.

2.

When loosening joints, do so slowly while monitoring them carefully If a hose comes off and oil spurts out, the hydraulic cylinder or attachment could move. Thus, be sure to stabilize the front or the hydraulic machine before performing this kind of work.

GETTING DOWN FROM A HYDRAULIC SHOVEL Precaution 1.

Watch you footing when climbing down from a vehicle

2.

Select the flattest area possible when parking equipment. Maintain 3 paint contacts.

REMOVING OF TRACK CENTER GUARD OF HYDRAULIC SHOVEL Hand can get crushed between the guard and the wrench. While supporting the head of the ratchet wrench from the bottom to make the work easier, the bolt can suddenly come out causing the wrench to fail down. Precautions 1.

Avoid potentially dangerous activities (implement hazard prediction training).

2.

Use the proper tools (an L-wrench). Ensure that co-operative works are all familiar with


101 safety confirmations and signals.

To remove the bucket from the arm of a machine Link pin is pulled out and then a round bar is used to remove the bucket pin. As soon as the pin comes out, the arm lifts, raising the round bar and crushes the fingers between the pinhole and the bar. Precaution 1.

When removing a pin, check that the pinhole is centered (in this case, by slightly adjusting the position of the arm) Use a round bar that is considerably longer than the pin, and be careful not to get your hands too close to the pinhole.

SHIFTING OF LOAD WITHIN A BUCKET Precautions 1.

Ensure that load is fully supported.

2.

Perform a safety check before doing work involving unstable objects. Be diligent about taking safety precautions when working with others.


102 DISMANTLING THE UNDER GUARD OF A EQUIPMENT Precautions 1.

Support the under guard before dismantling if necessary with a jack

2.

Check the weight of under guards in advance.

3.

Always to use blocks or transmission jacks.

4.

Be careful about taking safety precautions when working with unstable objects.


103

CHAPTER -8

HANDLING OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Fire fighting classification and combating measures 8.1 FIRE路 CLASSIFICATION According to the British Standards Specifications (BS:454 7 -1972), all fires are classified as follows. CLASS A - are fires involving solid materials, normally of an organic nature (compounds of carbon), in which combustion generally occurs with the formation of glowing embers. The most effective extinguishing agent is generally water in the form of a jet/spray. A water type fire extinguisher is C02 cartridge gas pressure type, containing a cartridge of C02, which is pierced when the extinguisher is activated and forces the water out of the extinguisher. Such fires might reignite if not adequately cooled. CLASS B - are fires involving liquids of liquefiable solids, Flammable liquids may be inscribe or immiscible with water. Extinguishing agents are chosen according to this division, and may include water spray, vaporizing liquids, C02 and dry chemical powders. Foam extinguishers may also be used. The air foam types are preferred since they produce about 8 times of foam from a solution of foam compound and water and are quicker acting. CLASS C - are fires involving gases. Foam or dry chemical powder can be used to control fires involving gages, while water spray in generally used to cool the gas containers or liquefied gases. CLASS D - are fires involving metals? Extinguishing agents containing water are ineffective and even dangerous. C02 and sodium bicarbonate class of dry chemical powders may be hazardous if applied to most metal fires. Powdered graphite, powdered talc, soda ash, limestone and dry sand are the suitable agents. Special fusing powders have been developed for fires involving radioactive metals. ELECTRIC FIRES - are now given a separate classification since any fire, started by electrical equipment or involving it, must be in Class A, B, C or D. The electricity is cut off and the extinguishing method used appropriate to whatever is burning. Only when this cannot be done will special extinguishing agents be required which are non-conductors of electricity and non-damaging to the equipment. (These include Carbon tetrachloride type - only on surface and C02 type. Chemical powders can be damaging to the delicate electrical apparatus.)

8.2 Types of extinguishers Water Type - This includes water, antifreeze, soda - acid, wetting agent, and loaded - stream extinguishers. These extinguishers are intended primarily for use on Class A fires. The stream should be directed at the base of the flames, and after extinguishment of flames, directed generally at smouldering or glowing surfaces. Application should begin as close as possible to the fire. Deep-seated fires should be thoroughly soaked and may need to be "broken apart" to effect complete extinguishment. These Extinguishers are not suitable for the protection of water soluble flammable liquids, such as alcohol, acetone, esters, ketones, etc., unless specifically referenced on the nameplate.

Foam (Chemical) Type: Foam Extinguishers are similar in external appearance to soda acid Extinguishers. The Extinguishers has an inner chamber or cylinder that contains aluminum sulphate solution. The main Extinguisher shell is filled with solution of sodium bicarbonate and a foam stabilizing agent. To operate, the Extinguisher must be inverted which allows the intermixing of these agents. Carbon dioxide gas is formed to expel the liquid foam extinguisher which expands at the ratio of about one eight. Antifreeze additives cannot be used to provide protection against freezing temperatures. The general method of placing this extinguisher into operation is the same as for the soda - acid Extinguisher.

Compressed Gas Type: The type of Extinguisher is primarily intended for use on Class B and Class C fires. They have a limited range and are affected by draft and wind; thus, initial application must start reasonably close to the fire. On all fires, the discharge should be directed at the base of the flames. The discharge should be applied to the burning surface even after the flames are extinguished to allow added time


104 for cooling and to prevent possible re-flash. On fires involving electrical equipment, discharge should be directed at the source of the flames. It is important to de-energise the equipment as soon as possible to eliminate the potential of re-ignition. The compressed gas agent Extinguishers by diluting the surrounding atmosphere with an inert gas, so that oxygen levels are keep below the percentage required for combustion. When this type of Extinguisher is used in an unventilated space, such as a small room, closet, or other confined area, prolonged occupancy of that space can result in the loss of consciousness due to oxygen deficiency.

Carbon Dioxide Type: The carbon dioxide is retained under its own pressure in a fluid condition at room temperature. The agent is self - expelling and is discharge by operation of a valve which causes the carbon dioxide to be expelled through a horn in its vapour and solid phase. To operate, the extinguisher is held in an upright position, the locking ring pin is pulled and operating valve is opened. The discharge horn is attached to the valve assembly by a metal tube I swing joint connector. Dry Powder Type: These Extinguisher and agents are intended for use on Class D fires and specific metals, following special techniques and manufacture's recommendations for use. The extinguishing agent may be applied from an extinguisher or by scoop ad shovel. The technique of applying the agent to the fire may vary with a type and form of the agent and combustible metal. The application of the agent should be of sufficient depth to adequately cover the fire area and provide a smothering blanket. Additional applications may be necessary to cover any hot spots which may develop. The material should be left undisturbed until the mass has cooled before disposal is attempted. Care should be taken to avoid scattering the burning metal. Fires in finely divided combustible metal or combustible metal alloy scrap which is moist, wet with water or water-soluble machine lubricants, or on water wetted surfaces, is likely to burn rapidly and violently. This may even be of an explosive nature. They can develop so much heat that they cannot be approached closely enough to permit proper application of the Extinguishing medium. Where the burning metal is one a combustible surface, the fire should be covered with dry powder.

Principles of selecting extinguishers Selection of the best portable fire extinguisher for a given situation depends on the nature of the combustible which might be ignited, the potential severity (size, intensity, and speed of travel) of any resulting fire, the effectiveness of the extinguisher on that hazard, the case of use of the extinguisher, the personnel available to operate the extinguisher and their physical abilities and emotional reactions as influenced by their training, the ambient temperature conditions and other special atmospheric considerations (wind, draft, presence of fumes), suitability of the extinguisher for its environment, any anticipated adverse chemical reactions between the extinguishing agent and the burning materials, any health and operational safety concerns (exposure of operators during the fire control efforts) and the upkeep and maintenance requirements for the extinguisher. Where energized electrical equipment is involved in a fire, non-conductivity of the extinguishing media is a utmost importance, and only extinguishers expelling dry powder, carbon dioxide (without metal horn) or vaporizing liquid should be used. Once electrical equipment is de-energized extinguishers suitable for the class of the risk involved can be used safely.

8.3 SALIENT POINTS ON FIRST AID TO THE INJURED SAFETY FOR THEMSELVES AND THE VICTIM IS THE FIRST CONCERN FOR ALL EMERGENCY RESPONDERS. EMERGENCY RESPONDERS SHOULD ALWAYS HAVE THEIR OWN PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT WHEN WORKING AROUND AN EXTRICATION SITE. THESE MAY INCLUDE: HELMET WITH FACE SHIELDS OR SAFETY GLASSES, GLOVES, FIRE TURNOUT GEAR OR FLAMERESISTANT COVERALLS, AND STEEL TOED BOOTS. HOWEVER, NONE OF THIS EQUIPMENT WOULD BE HELPFUL IF THEY DIDN’T HAVE THE PROPER TRAINING AND SAFETY MEASURES IN PLACE.


105

General First aid - Why is it to be rendered? From the second an injury occurs the medical well-being of an injured person will begin to get worse. Some of these victims may die at the scene before they reach the hospital. There is a “Golden Hour” which is the first hour after the incident when a traumatized patient has the best chance for recovery from that trauma if he can be safely delivered to an emergency medical facility with a trauma team. Getting the victim out may use most of that hour if you don’t have the knowledge of first aid combined with presence of mind, to use available resources of men & material.

Safety for themselves and the victim is the first concern Ensure that there is no danger to the patient or him self Emergency responders should always have their own personal protective equipment when working around. These may include: helmet with face shields or safety glasses, gloves, fire turnout gear or flame-resistant coveralls, and steel toed boots. However, none of this equipment would be helpful if they didn’t have the proper training and safety measures in place.

What should not be done when rendering first aid 1.

Do not try to set a dislocated joint

2.

Do not use spirit near the eye or an open wound

3.

Do not apply bandages too tight so as to impede circulation

4.

Do not neglect Dog or Monkey bite

5.

Do not induce vomiting when the person is unconscious

6.

Do not give key bunch or iron article in the hands of the person having epileptic fits

7.

Do not give oil to one who has taken rat poison

8.

Do not give salt solution to the person of opium poisoning

9.

Do not give anything to eat to injured who is suspected to have internal injury

10.

Do not waste too much of time in the case of head injury,

11.

Do not waste too much of time in the case of internal bleeding

12.

Do not apply oil, ink etc on burns and scalds

What should be done when rendering first aid 1.

Attend the injured as soon as possible

2.

Get as much details of the accident as possible

3.

Make the injured and yourself comfortable while giving first aid

4.

Remove only as less of clothing as required for treating the injured

5.

Transport an unconscious in a ¾ prone position

6.

Transport a lower jaw fracture injured person with face down or sitting position

7.

Stop bleeding first

8.

Spine/pelvis/leg injured must be lifted with blanket

9.

When in doubt treat the injured part as a fracture

10.

When there is vomiting turn the face towards a side

11.

If you use constrictive band to stop bleeding ensure to loosen once in every fifteen minutes


106

A.IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS Approach to injured In general people hesitate to handle an accident victim as they are afraid of legal implications later. Supreme Court has in the case of an appeal bearing no (civil) 919 of 2007 ruled that as a bye standee the responsibility of first aider ceases after reaching the injured to a hospital. It is the hospital who has to inform police. Copy of judgment as downloaded from Web site. http://www.Judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp

Copy of Supreme Court Ruling Quote

Right to Emergency Care Date of Judgment: 23.02.2007; Case No.: Appeal (civil) 919 of 2007 The Supreme Court (India) has ruled that all injured persons especially in the case of road traffic accidents, assaults, etc., when brought to a hospital/ medical centre, have to be offered first aid, stabilized and shifted to a higher centre/ government centre if required. It is only after this the hospital can demand payment or complete police formalities. In case you a bystander and wish to help someone in an accident, please go ahead and do so. Your responsibility ends as soon as you leave the person at the hospital. The hospital bears the responsibility of informing the police, first aid, etc.” Unquote Please do inform your family and friends about these basic rights so that we all know what to expect and what to do in the hour of need. There is often confusion and panic after an accident because most of the people present are confused as to what is to be done first and the order of priority. First aider should take control of the situation In the case of road accident  Get someone to control the traffic  Turn off the engine, take out key and try to take the injured without aggravating his injuries  Look out for other passengers who might have been thrown out or jumped out  Do not allow any one with naked flame or cigarette unless you are fully sure that there is no leakage of fuel

B.EXTRICATION: GETTING THE MOST FROM "THE GOLDEN HOUR" From the second a vehicle collision occurs, the medical well-being of a trapped and injured person will begin to get worse. Approximately 50% of these victims will die at the crash scene before they reach the hospital. There is a “Golden Hour” which is the first hour after the incident when a traumatized patient has the best chance for recovery from that trauma if they can be safely delivered to an emergency medical facility with a trauma team. Getting the victim out of a crushed vehicle may use most of that hour if you don’t have the right equipment or training.

Vehicle extrication is not just opening a door. It is the process of removing a person from a vehicle that has been involved in a motor vehicle accident when conventional means of exit are impossible or unadvisable for safety concerns. This is typically accomplished by utilizing hydraulic tools, including cutters rams and spreaders or other non-hydraulic tools, chisels, saws, axes, chains, and jacks.

The basic extrication process consists of, but not limited to these six steps: 1.

Protection of the accident scene to avoid the risk of another collision from on-coming cars. This is handled by using emergency vehicles as a block and placing early warning signs of the accident scene with flares, cones or barricades. Also, protection of fire and other hazards by turning off the ignition,


107 disconnecting the battery, placing absorbents on oil or fuels and using a fire extinguisher or hose for actual fires. 2.

Medical assessment and prioritize sick or injured people for treatment according to the seriousness of the condition or injury. Once the area is considered safe, then a medical professional should make access to the victims and determine the severity of injuries and give some immediate life threatening treatment such as opening an airway, stopping severe bleeding, and immobilizing the patient’s cervical spine,

3.

Stabilization of the vehicle to avoid the movements of the vehicle itself on unsafe ground or movement of the vehicle during extrication. This is handled by the use of props, jacks and chains to secure the vehicle.

4.

Opening of the vehicle to allow the intervention of a medical professional inside the vehicle to better assess the patient and begin care such as starting an intravenous fluid line, giving oxygen or advanced airway, and immobilizing patient for movement out of the vehicle. Also, the victim should be covered for protection.

5.

Removal of a section of the vehicle to make a larger opening to remove the victim easier and safer without causing further movement or injury. It usually means the removal of a door, roof, or a dashboard and steering wheel. This is the main part of the extrication process that uses the hydraulic tools and other hand tools.

6.

Removal of the victim from the vehicle with as little movement as possible and securing the patient onto a backboard and a cervical collar around their neck. The patient is then taken into the ambulance where further treatment and transport to the nearest trauma facility is initiated.

7.

There are other additional risks with new vehicle technologies to be concerned about. Active systems such as airbags make cutting into a vehicle more complicated. If the airbags didn’t activate from the accident, then extrication may make them go off and possibly injuring the victims or rescuer. The airbag systems can remain active up to 20 minutes after disconnecting the battery. Some vehicles have an additional auto-gas or LPG pressurized gas tank. If these lines are cut or the tanks crushed, it could cause a fire or explosion. Finally, for passenger safety reasons, new cars are being built with stronger reinforced metal posts and beams that make it hard for some tools, even hydraulic, to cut though or bend them out of the way.

C. RECOGNISE STROKES RENDER FIRST AID The main risk factor for both kinds of stroke is high blood pressure, consistently elevated above 140/90 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) this risk factor, which can be controlled with medication, is present in 70 percent of all occurrences of stroke

Routine blood pressure checks can keep a major stroke risk factor under control. If you're at risk for heart disease, you've likely heard about steps such as quitting smoking, lowering cholesterol, becoming more active with exercise and eating a healthy diet to fight obesity. Working to address these issues not only wards off heart disease, but eliminates many of the major risks for stroke as well. Heart disease is a risk factor for stroke because the heart's ability to pump blood becomes compromised. But, these factors for heart disease are also factors for stroke as well. For example, smokers have a 50 percent higher risk of stroke than non smokers, Diabetics face three times the risk of stroke, but this also can be controlled by keeping their blood sugar count in check Symptoms A. Sudden weakness or numbness in the face or extremities B. Sudden problems with speech or comprehension C. Sudden issues with vision, such as blurriness or blindness D. Sudden coordination issues, including dizziness or difficulty walking E. Sudden severe headache F.

Sudden nausea or vomiting


108 The key word you might notice in all these symptoms is "sudden." That's a huge tip-off that the symptom might be related to a stroke. You may just write off a headache accompanied by blurry vision as a bad migraine. Some stroke symptoms don't necessarily "hurt" the way other symptoms do, like chest pain hurts a heart attack victim. Many people try to ignore these symptoms and hope that they'll go away, but this is an extremely serious mistake

Sudden dizziness is a symptom for stroke. Sometimes you may receive advance notice of a major stroke in the form of a mini-stroke; about 10 percent of all strokes are preceded by a mini-stroke everything from the blocked blood flow to the bodily symptoms occurs, but for a very short time with no lasting effects. Even though the symptoms disappear on their own, you should still head to the hospital for evaluation. A major stroke could be on its way, either in a matter of days or in a few years. Doctors may determine that surgery can be performed to open slightly obstructed arteries, or they may do something as simple as prescribe an aspirin a day, which can help prevent clots by thinning the blood. It may be hard for a stroke sufferer to know that they're experiencing a stroke. An observer who can witness symptoms like facial drooping can ask questions to determine mental and verbal capacities. If you're on your own, don't ignore any sudden symptoms. In the case of a stroke, it's better to be safe than sorry. People with these symptoms should be taken to hospital immediately. In the case of electrocution switch off the current after taking full precaution against electric shock

D.PRIORITY OF TREATMENT BY FIRST AIDER IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS 1.

EXAMINATION &DIaGNOSIS

2.

Artificial Respiration

3.

Control BLEEDING: Bleeding is a common cause of DEATH IN accidents

4.

Treat shock

5.

Attending to fracture

6.

Treat burns

7.

Eye, nose, ear injuries

8.

Superficial injuries,

9.

Transportation

Breathing: - Check if airway is open and he is breathing. If not start artificial respiration Bleeding: - Check if there is serious bleeding control it Broken bone: - Immobilize all serious fractures before moving the injured After attending to vital needs which have priority find out what happened If the patient is conscious ask him where he is hurt. This will often identify the site of fracture. Examine the injured carefully start at the head and neck, then check spine, trunk, the upper and lower limbs Compare the sides of the body. If something looks abnormal see what the other side looks like Examine the colour of the skin Smell the breath Count the pulse, note strength and rhythm Check body temperature Remove only that much of clothing as required for diagnosis and rendering first aid Detailed below are circumstances a first aider would need to handle and the actions a first aider should take

In case of Wound


109 1.

The job of first-aider is to remove or reduce the problems that hamper healing such as dirt, infection, movement, etc. Leave the wound undisturbed. Clean the wound by washing them with running water. If there are splinters, thorns and pieces of glass inside the wound remove them with a pair of tweezers so as to avoid infection.

2.

In case of Chest or Abdomen injury

3.

In abdominal wounds the intestines may come out. The only thing you can do as first-aider is to cover the wound with a very wet clean cloth and get the patient quickly to a hospital. The wet cloth will keep the intestine from drying out, and will stick to the intestine.

4.

Open wounds of the chest could be sucking in the air, making it hard for the patient to breathe. Covering of the wound with a piece of polythene and putting a bandage on the top of this may help to reduce air being sucked into the chest. Get the patient quickly to hospital.

1 BLEEDING In case of Profuse Bleeding The easiest way to stop bleeding is to apply direct pressure on the wound. This can be done with any clean folded cloth. Lean on the wound with the heel of the hand instead of your fingers BLEEDING. Symptoms (A)If the bleeding is from the surface of the body it is called external bleeding (B) If the bleeding is within chest, skull or abdomen it is called internal bleeding. Internal bleeding cannot be seen immediately but later the blood may ooze out through nose, ears, coughed out from lungs or vomited from the stomach. . Bleeding may occur from (A) Arteries when it will be bright red and come out in jets. This kind of bleeding can cause death quickly (B)Veins, the flow will be continuous and dark red in colour Š Capillaries Blood oozes out slowly, if it is on the surface of the body it is not serious The aim of first aider is to stop bleeding quickly

a)

In the case of External bleeding Actions to be taken 1.

Bring the sides of wound together and press firmly

2.

In case of injury to scalp, do not attempt to probe or disturb the wound .It may be bleeding freely Apply a large pad bandage to stop bleeding

3.

Place the injured in a comfortable position and raise the injured part(if no bone fracture is suspected)

4.

Press the pressure point firmly for 10-15minutes


110

b)

5.

Apply a clean pad larger than the wound and press it firmly with the palm to reduce bleeding and stop.

6.

If the bleeding continues, do not take off the old dressing, but add more pads.

7.

Finally bandage firmly but not too tightly.

8.

Treat for shock.

9.

Take the injured to hospital

In the case of Internal Bleeding (THE AIM OF FIRST AID IS TO PREVENT CONDITION FROM GETTING WORSE)

Actions to be taken 1.

Lay the injured with head low. Raise his legs

2.

Keep him calm and relaxed. Reassure him . Do not allow him to move

3.

Keep up the body heat with thin blankets, rugs or coats.

4.

DO NOT GIVE ANYTHING TO EAT OR DRINK .HE MAY HAVE TO BE GIVEN ANEASTHESIA LATER

5.

Do not apply hot water bottles or ice packs to chest or abdomen

6.

Take to hospital. Transport gently

AN

2-SHOCK Shock could be due to Cause Severe bleeding. it may develop at once or delayed Bleeding may be seen outside when coming out of a artery or vein. The faster the blood loss the faster the onset of shock. 1.

Severe burns when more than 15% of skin surface is affected

2.

Heart Attack when blood supply to heart is obstructed

3.

Crush injuries

4.

Loss of body fluid

This could be when a portion of the body is caught between two objects like falling of machines, masonry or beams and are under pressure for hours. These injuries may appear simple with swelling, redness, blister formation or numbness of the whole limb. But after some time of release the swelling increases, becomes hard due pouring of fluid from the blood stream. There is loss of blood substance-Plasma and in addition poisonous products from crushed cells mixes with the blood stream. This leads to shock Shock also could be due to severe injury, internal bleeding or burns Shock is indicated by Symptoms 1.

lower Blood pressure,

2.

cold skin,

3.

paleness

4.

fast feeble pulse.

5.

Shivering and in some case unconsciousness

Actions to be taken 1.

Rest the person in a comfortable position

2.

Loosen his clothes

3.

Turn head to one side if there is vomiting

4.

Cover the body with warm blanket etc.,


111 5.

Do not place hot water bottles inside covering

6.

If no internal bleeding is present, give SIPS of water, tea or coffee

7.

Do not give alcoholic drink

8.

Shift in a comfortable position

3) WHIPLASH INJURY When a truck is suddenly stopped the chest gets injured with fracture of ribs by knocking on the steering wheel. The neck gets jerked back which tears off the neck ligaments and muscles Symptoms 1.

The injured is restless

2.

Difficulty in breathing,

3.

Face becomes blue because air breathed in does not get out

4.

Chest wall becomes tender due to fracture and on breathing in the chest wall is sucked in and on breathing out the chest is blown out(opposite to regular breathing)

Actions to be taken Loosen tight clothing The chest wall has to be fixed to prevent it falling inwards during inspiration and coming out during expiration. The fore arm and hand is used to splint with pad over the flail chest and bandaged to give support 4) AMPUTATION Actions to be taken If a part of the limb has been cut off it may be possible to reattach it to the body. Put it inside a clean polythene bag and place this bag in another bag with cold water. If you can easily get ice put some in the water to keep it cool. Make sure that the limb does not get soaked in water. If nothing else is available, carry the amputated part in a clean cloth quickly to hospital. In large crush injuries or in amputation avoid washing the wounds, as it will lead to more blood loss. Just cover the wound with clean cloth and tie a pressure bandage quickly. If possible keep the limb raised. Avoid using raw cotton wool to cover a wound as it gets stuck to the wound, and is difficult to remove and delay healing Advances in surgery have made the reattachment of amputated limbs, fingers and toes possible the chances of a good result are greater the sooner the injured and the severed parts are taken to the Hospital. Always place the severed parts in a suitable container to protect it. Avoid use of liquids or putting antiseptic while carrying the severed part. 1.

Control bleeding using elevation and direct pressure.

2.

Take care not to damage the stump

3.

Place the severed part in a clean plastic bag and prevent it drying out

4.

If possible put the bag in an ice container.

5.

The bag should suitably be wrapped to prevent severed part coming into contact with ice

6.

Mark the package clearly with name and time of occurrence

5) ELECTRICAL SHOCK.


112 If any part of the body comes into contact with live wire directly or indirectly through pipe etc., a person gets electric shock. Electricity passes more quickly if the surface is wet. In wet conditions even lower voltage may be dangerous. A strong current passing through lower limb may be less dangerous than weaker current passing through chest, especially so when it enters through hands. Intelligent and prompt action is required. If the first aider is not cautious, he may also receive severe electric shock or even die along with electrocuted person. Symptoms 1.

There may fatal paralysis of the heart

2.

There may be sudden stoppage of breathing due to paralysis of muscles used in breathing

3.

Heart may continue to continue to beat, while breathing has stopped. In this case the face will appear blue.

4.

There may be burns either superficial or deep, depending on the electric current causing injuries

Actions to be taken 1.

In the case of low voltage, if the person is in contact with live electric source, switch off the current. If the switch is not to be found or not approachable remove the plug or cut off the current by breaking the wire. While doing ensure that you stand on dry piece of wooden board, rubber, piles of paper. Do not use scissors, knife etc.

2.

If the current is of high voltage, stand away from the injured and drag him with dry pole, walking stick, dry rope etc.

3.

If the injured is not breathing give artificial respiration

4.

Treat for shock

5.

Treat for burns

6.

Shift injured

6-FRACTURES A fracture is the partial or complete bend, crack or breakage of bone TYPES These could be Simple (Closed) fracture. Compound (Open) fracture or complicated fracture In case of a Fracture Actions to be taken In case of a fracture do not apply direct pressure; instead use a splint, combined with as gentle pressure bandage. It is safer not to give the patient anything to eat and drink. This is to protect the patient from vomiting in case he needs anesthesia and surgery, or has a head injury. If the wound on the arm or the leg is bleeding profusely, it can be raised. This reduces the blood flow to the wounded area. Symptoms Fractures are indicated by 1.

Pain at the spot of fractures and /or around it

2.

Tenderness that is pain on gentle pressure over the injured spot.(Do not press hard)

3.

Swelling of the area and discoloration

4.

Loss of normal movements of the part

5.

Deformity of the limb. The limb may loose its normal shape. Sometimes muscles will pull up the lower free end causing apparent shortening of the limb.

6.

Irregularity of the bone. If as in the leg bone the break is under the skin, the irregular

7.

Crepitus (grating) when one end of the broken bone moves against the other, crackling sound can be heard

8.

Unnatural movement at the spot of fracture can be felt


113

Fractures often occur in major accidents. Therefore it is common to find other injuries also. The first aider must decide which is most urgent. Actions to be taken 1.

Heavily bleeding and severely wounded parts are more urgent and should be treated first

2.

There may be more than one fracture in the same patient or even in the same limb

3.

If there is immediate danger to life temporary attention to fracture is enough

4.

Treat fractures on the spot, so that the fractured ends are established and patient is ready to transport

5.

Handle the patient gently Avoid all unnecessary movements to the injured part

6.

Treat for shock

7.

If the broken ends of bone are seen outside do not wash the wound or apply antiseptics to the ends of the bone

8.

Do not handle the fracture unnecessarily. The simpler first aid the better

9.

Do not attempt to bring the bones together or bring to normal position

10.

Do not give anything by mouth as the injured may have to be given anaesthesia later

11.

Steady and support the injured part immediately so that no movement is possible. This stops further injury and helps to stop bleeding. Moreover the broken bone will not further damage artery or vein. Use bandages and splints to immobilise the area.. do not apply bandage at the site of fracture. Bandage should be firm but not too tight.

7) Burns and scalds Burns are injuries that result from dry heat like fire, flame, hot metal, and contact with live electrical wire Scalds are caused by moist heat due to boiling water, steam, hot oil, tar etc., Chemical burns are caused by strong acids The danger from burns depends on the area of the burns rather than the degree. Superficial burns over a large area is more dangerous than the complete charring of a limb Percentage of burns can be decided as below Part of body

percent

Head

9

Upper chest

9

Upper back

9

Arm(Left)+ (right)

9+9

Abdomen

9

Lower Back

9

Thighs (Left)+ (right)

9+9

Lower legs (Left)+ (right)

9+9

Any burn over 15% in adult and 10% in children of deep degree requires immediate hospitalisation Degrees of Burn First Degree

Skin is only reddened

Second degree

Blisters on the skin

Third degree

Destruction of deeper tissues and charring


114

Actions to be taken 1.

Keep the injured quiet and comfort him

2.

Wrap him in a clean cloth

3.

Do not remove adhering particles of charred clothing

4.

Cover burnt area with sterile or clean dressing

5.

Keep hands and feet elevated

6.

If face is burnt sit up or keep him reclined

7.

Do not open blisters

8.

Treat for shock

9.

Transport to hospital

10.

Remove items like bangles, rings, shoes as it would be difficult to take them out later

11.

If there is delay in getting medical help of more than an hour and if the victim is conscious and not vomiting give a weak solution one spoon salt and half spoon baking soda mixed in one glass of water to be sipped slowly. Discontinue if vomiting occurs.

12.

Do not apply ointment, grease or anything over the affected part

8) In case of an Eye Wound Actions to be taken Do not attempt any cleaning or washing of an open eye injury. Cover the eye with a clean soft cloth; place a stiff covering on top to prevent any pressure coming on the eye. This is important because the contents can be squeezed out even through a very small wound.

9) In case of Bleeding from Ear Actions to be taken Bleeding from ears mean either injury to the ear alone, or serious head injury. Avoid putting anything in the ears to stop bleeding as this could further damage the eardrum Get the patient to lie down with the injured ear facing down.

10) In case Bleeding from Nose Actions to be taken Bleeding from nose could also mean a head injury. If the patient is conscious and can sit up, ask him to pinch his nose and breathe through his mouth. If he can lean forward, then that could prevent blood from going to his wind pipe choking him. If the patient is unconscious he should lie with the face to one side, for the blood to come out easily, so that there is no choking.

11) STROKES The main risk factor for both kinds of stroke is high blood pressure, consistently elevated above 140/90 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) This risk factor, which can be controlled with medication, is present in 70 percent of all occurrences of stroke Routine blood pressure checks can keep a major stroke risk factor under control.


115

If you're at risk for heart disease, you've likely heard about steps such as quitting smoking, lowering cholesterol, becoming more active with exercise and eating a healthy diet to fight obesity. Working to address these issues not only wards off heart disease, but eliminates many of the major risks for stroke as well.. Heart disease is a risk factor for stroke because the heart's ability to pump blood is compromised. But, these factors for heart disease are also factors for stroke as well. For example, smokers have a 50 percent higher risk of stroke than non smokers, Diabetics face three times the risk of stroke, but this also can be controlled by keeping their blood sugar count in check Symptoms 1.

Sudden weakness or numbness in the face or extremities

2.

Sudden problems with speech or comprehension

3.

Sudden issues with vision, such as blurriness or blindness

4.

Sudden coordination issues, including dizziness or difficulty walking

5.

Sudden severe headache

6.

Sudden nausea or vomiting

The key word you might notice in all these symptoms is "sudden." That's a huge tip-off that the symptom might be related to a stroke. You may just write off a headache accompanied by blurry vision as a bad migraine. Some stroke symptoms don't necessarily "hurt" the way other symptoms do, like chest pain hurts a heart attack victim. Many people try to ignore these symptoms and hope that they'll go away, but this is an extremely serious mistake. Sudden dizziness is a symptom for stroke. Sometimes you may receive advance notice of a major stroke in the form of a mini-stroke, About 10 percent of all strokes are preceded by a mini-stroke Everything from the blocked blood flow to the bodily symptoms occurs, but for a very short time with no lasting effects. Even though the symptoms disappear on their own, you should still head to the hospital for evaluation. A major stroke could be on its way, either in a matter of days or in a few years. Doctors may determine that surgery can be performed to open slightly obstructed arteries, or they may do something as simple as prescribe an aspirin a day, which can help prevent clots by thinning the blood. It may be hard for a stroke sufferer to know that they're experiencing a stroke. An observer who can witness symptoms like facial drooping can ask questions to determine mental and verbal capacities. If you're on your own, don't ignore any sudden symptoms. In the case of a stroke, it's better to be safe than sorry. People with these symptoms should be taken to hospital immediately. 12)HANDLING A CASE OF SPINAL INJURY Prepare the stretcher; the soft bed of the canvas type stretcher must be stiffened, preferably by placing short boards across the stretcher. If no stretcher is available door or board of the length and width of patient could be used Whenever the injured is to be lifted he must not be bent. One bearer must apply gentle but firm support to the head and face so as to prevent neck movement and another bearer must steady and support the lower limbs to prevent trunk movements 13)HANDLING AND TRANSPORT OF INJURED It is important in the early stages of any accident to decide whether the injured should be treated where the accident had occurred or whether by moving him. Before moving the injured, unless life is endangered by falling material, fire or poisoned atmosphere it is important if he is conscious to carry out a quick but systematic examination of the head and neck, chest, limbs which if injured must be supported during transportation. After removal from danger or to enable treatment to be carried out satisfactorily, do not forget to carry out the remainder of the examination. Two common mistakes made in the first aid practice are


116 1.

to move the injured without making proper preliminary examination resulting in insufficient or incorrect support to the injured parts after removal from danger

2.

to complete the examination of the injured because a preliminary examination was made in these cases additional injuries could be caused the position assumed by the injured or in which he has been placed must not be disturbed unnecessarily

3.

Through out transport, careful watch has to be kept for general condition, condition of dressing, recurrence of bleeding etc.,

4.

While shifting an injured it is very necessary for person accompanying to know the cause of injury, position of injured after injury, how he was taken out, whether any liquids were given. Means as much of details as could be gathered within the shortest time available

5.

Ensure that he is not hurt more.

6.

The patient should be carried on firm board of stretcher so spine remains stable.

7.

While shifting, the patient's back, neck and airway need to be protected from further injury. So always take help of another person.

8.

If the patient is unconscious, gently place a large folded cloth or towel under the neck so that the neck doesn't sag against the ground.

9.

The vehicle used to carry the patient to the hospital should have enough space to keep the patient's back straight and the person accompanying should be able to care for and resuscitate the patients if necessary.

10.

During transportation keep a watch on whether the patient's airway is clear, whether the patient is breathing and whether you can feel the pulse in the patient.

11.

If there is only one limb injury the patient can be safely taken to hospital on a chair in a sitting position. Take care to splint or protect limb injuries or bleeding.


117

CHPTER 9 SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 9.1 Recommendations of the ninth conference on safety in mines held on 2nd and 3rd February 2000, at New Delhi. Extract with reference to Open cast mines 1.2 In mines where long or arduous travel is involved, arrangement for transport of men should be made. 1.3 In respect of small-mechanised mines, which are operating in non-coal sector, it may not be feasible for a small organisation to create aspecial department on Occupational Health Services. For such small mines, it is suggested that an Association of small mines operators creates common facilities and infrastructure for occupational health services. Creation of such facility is specially needed for asbestos, manganese and mica mines. Simultaneously with creation of facilities for occupational health services, it is also necessary to improve quality of life of employees working in mining industry by provision of well planned housing colonies provided with all modern facilities such as good drinking water, good sanitation, drainage and recreational facility. 1.5 All front-line supervisory officials like Sirdars/Mates, Overmen/Foremen, Surveyors, Electrical/Mechanical supervisors/Chargemen/Foremen as well as persons supervising other surface operations should be imparted structured training in safety management, for at least two weeks, once in every five years, covering about 20% strength every year. 1.7 Audiometry should be introduced, as a part of mandatory medical examination, for persons seeking employment in mines and for persons engaged in operations/areas where noise level exceeds 90 dB(A). 1.8.1 The portion of surface haul road in mine premises where there is heavy traffic of men and machines, should have a separate lane properly fenced off from the haul road for pedestrians and two wheelers. 1.8.2 Trucks and other heavy vehicles, not belonging to management should not be allowed in the mine premises without a valid pass issued by the competent authority of the mine. Before the pass is issued the mine engineer should check the roadworthiness of such vehicles. In order to check entry of unauthorised vehicles in mine premises, each mine should establish properly manned check gate(s) at the entrance(s) where record of entry and exit of each such vehicle should be maintained. At the check gate the license of the drivers should also be checked for eliminating the possibility of unlicensed persons driving the vehicles. 1.9 Persons engaged in surface operations and, in particular, the contractors' workers, who incidentally are often inexperienced and least informed about job-safety matters, need closer and more competent supervision. To minimise accidents due to surface operations it would be ensured that: All persons engaged at any work within the mine premises through the contractors have received relevant training and other job-related briefings and that the drivers of vehicles belonging to contractors entering the mine premises have additionally been explained the salient provisions of "traffic rules".


118 Each mining company should draw up appropriate training schedules and modalities in this regard and implement the same. In case of smaller mines, such arrangement may be made by association of mine operators. 2.0 Preventing Mine Disasters from Inundation 2.1 Each mine shall be critically examined for its proneness to inundation and assessment regarding danger of inundation and precaution to be taken should be reviewed and updated yearly preferably before the onset of the monsoon. The recommendations may be deliberated in the (Pit) Safety Committee of the mine and information disseminated as widely as possible. 2.2 Suitable infrastructure at area level may be provided for drilling advance bore holes to detect presence of waterlogged workings in advance. 2.3 Embankments provided against river and jore to guard against inundation should be designed properly keeping in view the engineering parameters. The details of such construction should be properly shown in the underground plan and water danger plan. 2.5 Detailed precautions against inundation may be laid down while working beneath or in the vicinity of river and major water bodies. This may include framing and implementing standing order for safe withdrawal of persons, including system of information both manual and automatic, effective communication system and system of safe and timely withdrawal of persons to safety. 2.6 Mechanism may be developed for warning mines about impending heavy rains similar to warning of impending cyclone issued in coastal areas for taking necessary action. Also coordination with concerned agencies/departments about opening of dams in the rivers on the upstream side should be examined. 2.8 Effective communication may be established within the mine and between mines for safe withdrawal of persons. Necessary standing orders in this regard need to be framed and enforced.. 4.0 Risk Management as a Tool for Development of Appropriate Health and Safety Management Systems. 4.1 Every mining company should identify one or more mines and should undertake a formal risk assessment process aimed at reducing the likelihood and impact of mishaps of all kinds in mines. Subsequently risk assessment process should be extended to other mines. 4.2 Risk assessment process should aim at effective management of risks, by identifying, (i) which risks are most in need of reduction, and the options for achieving that risk reduction, (ii) which risks need careful on-going management, and the nature of the on-going attention 4.3 The risk assessment exercise should follow an appropriate process. 4.4 Risk management plans shall be prepared on the basis of risk assessment and implemented in the identified mines. 8.0 Occupational Health Surveillance In Mining Industry 8.1 Occupational Health services as recommended by 7th Conference where ever not yet established shall be established within a period of one year. 8.2 Each mining company operating mechanised mines shall computerize all records of medical and environmental surveillance. 8.3 Every PME Centre shall be provided with the facility for chest radiographs, lung function tests, arrangement for classification of chest radiographs and also wherever required facilities for audiometry. 9.2 All chest radiographs of Initial and Periodical Medical Examinations shall be classified for detection, diagnosis and documentation of pneumoconiosis in accordance with ILO classification for pneumoconiosis. 8.5 The PME Medical Officer in every PME centre shall be trained in occupational health and use of ILO classification for pneumoconiosis. 8.6 Each mining company operating mechanised mines shall set up an Occupational Diseases Board consisting of one occupational Health Physician, one radiologist and one general physician. 8.7 Occupational Diseases Board shall formulate guidelines for referral, re-evaluation, classification of cases of pneumoconiosis and necessary remedial actions at workplace as well as rehabilitation of affected persons(s).


119 9.0 Increasing Effectiveness Of Worker’s Participation In Safety Management. 9.1 All mechanised mines and mines using heavy earth moving machinery for exploitation of minerals, where 100 (hundred) or more number of workers are employed, should appoint Workmen’s Inspectors. 9.2 In large mines sectional/departmental safety committees under the main safety committee may be constituted for specific area of operation. 9.3 The tenure of the Safety Committee shall normally be for a period of two (2) years. 9.4 Arrangements shall be made to train the trainers of the Safety Committee members. 9.5 One of the agenda items in the periodic meetings of the Boards of mining companies shall be “Safety Performance Appraisal” of the company. 9.2 RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE TENTH CONFERENCE ON SAFETY IN MINES HELD ON 26th AND 27th November 2007, AT NEW DELHI. Extract with reference to Open cast mines

2.0 Contractor work vis-à-vis Safety 2.1 Employer’s responsibilities a) Suitable clauses (in consistence with risk of the work allotted) shall be included in tender document (including NITs) stating how the risk arising to men & material from the mining operation / operations to be done by the contractors shall be managed. b) Ensure that contractors are familiar with the relevant parts of the statute, health and safety management system and are provided with copies of such documents prior to commencing work.

c) Ensure that contractor’s arrangements for health and safety management are consistent with those for the mine owner. All the rules, regulations and bye-laws as applicable to the mine owner are also applicable to the contractor. Details of the contractors’ workmen should be maintained in the owner’s Form-B Register. Whereas, C, D & E Registers for contractor men may be maintained independently by the owner. All the above Registers shall be kept in the mine office of the manager. d) Ensure that contracts should preferably be of longer period (three years), so that there is adequate scope of management of safety by the contractor. e)

Ensure that contractor’s provide the machinery, operator and other staff with written safe work procedures for the work to be carried out, stating clearly the risk involved and how it is to be managed. Monitor all activities of the contractors to ensure that contractors are complying with all the requirements of statute and the system related to safety. If found non-compliant of safety laws directing the contractor to take action to comply with the requirements, and for further non-compliance, the contractor may be suitably penalized. Clause to this affect may be a part of the agreement between the employer and the contractor.

f)

Where a risk to health or safety of a person arises because of a noncompliance directing the contractor to cease work until the noncompliance is corrected.

2.2 Contractor’s responsibilities (a) Prepare written Safe Operating Procedure (SOP) for the work to be carried out, including an assessment of risk, wherever possible and safe methods to deal with it/them.


120 (b) Provide a copy of the SOP to the person designated by the mine owner who shall be supervising the contractor's work. (c) Keep an up to date SOP and provide a copy of changes to a person designated by the mine owner. (d) Ensure that all work is carried out in accordance with the Statute and SOP and for the purpose he may deploy adequate qualified and competent personnel for the purpose of carrying out the job in a safe manner. (e) For work of a specified scope/nature, develop and provide to the mine owner a site specific code of practice. (f) Ensure that all sub-contractors hired by him comply with the same requirement as the contractor himself and shall be liable for ensuring compliance all safety laws by the sub or sub-sub contractors. (g) All persons deployed by the contractor for working in a mine must undergo vocational training, initial medical examination, PME. They should be issued cards stating the name of the contractor and the work and its validity period, indicating status of VT & IME. (h) Every person deployed by the contractor in a mine must wear safety gadgets to be provided by the contractor. If contractor is unable to provide, owner/agent/manger of the mine shall provide the same. (i) The contractor shall submit to DGMS returns indicating – Name of his firm, Registration number, Name and address of person heading the firm, Nature of work, type of deployment of work persons, Number of work persons deployed, how many work persons hold VT Certificate, how many work persons undergone IME and type of medical coverage given to the work persons. The return shall be submitted quarterly (by 10th of April, July, October & January) for contracts of more than one year. However, for contracts of less than one year, returns shall be submitted monthly.

2.3 Employee’s responsibilities (a) An employee must, while at work, take reasonable care for the health and safety of people who are at the employee’s place of work and who may be affected by the employee’s act or omissions at work. (b) An employee must, while at work, cooperate with his or her employer or other persons so far as is necessary to enable compliance with any requirement under the act or the regulations that is imposed in the interest of health, safety and welfare of the employee or any other person.

3.0 Safety Issues in mines in unorganized sector 3.1 The States in general may grant mining/quarrying leases of a size not less than ten hectares each for an appropriate period, depending on technical feasibility, so that the lessee can make medium to long-term plan for investment in infrastructure and work the mines in a safe and scientific manner. In case smaller lease needs to be granted, it should be ensured that the Central Laws, including the Mines Act are complied with. 3.2 In case of stone quarries on hillocks, whole of the hillock should be given out as a single lease so that necessary development could be done from top-downwards after making approach road to reach to top of the hillock before starting extraction of stone. A condition to this effect may be incorporated before granting such leases. 3.3 In the lease document, reference should be made to the Mines Act and the Rules and Regulations made there under for compliance. The DGMS may prepare, in consultation with Ministry of Mines a model document for grant of leases by the state governments so that the conditions of leases are such that there is a uniformity and compliance with central laws. 3.4 A copy of the lease document should be sent to the DGMS and lessees explicitly asked to send notice of opening of mine to DGMS in accordance to the Provisions of the Mines Act.


121 3.5 The Conference has noted that there have been instances in some States where leases have been granted in close proximity of inhabited area and within 45 m of Railway acquired land and land acquired for National and State highways, public works without consulting the appropriate statutory authority. The conference recommends that the States may grant mining leases in conformity of Central Laws. 3.6 DGMS should organize Orientation Programmes for officers of State Mines and Geology Departments to inform them about safety laws. 4.0 Occupational Health Surveillance and Notified Diseases. 4.1 Noise mapping should be made mandatory of various work places in the mine premises based on the various machines being used in concerned mines along with personal noise dosimetry of individual workmen exposed to noise level above 85 dbA. 4.2 Vibration studies of various mining machinery required to be done before their introduction in mining operations as per ISO standards. 4.3 Ergonomical assessment of all latest machines, before their introduction into mining operation as per ISO standards. Ergonomical assessment should include: * Assessment of work process. * Assessment of working Aids/tools * Assessment of working posture 4.4 Potability tests of drinking water supplied to the mine employees, to be made mandatory once in a year irrespective of its source, preferably after Rainy seasons, the sample of water should be collected from the points of consumption 4.5 Initial medical examination shall be made mandatory for all mining employees whether permanent, temporary or contractual, before they are engaged in any mining job. 4.6 The frequency of periodic medical examinations should be brought down from existing five years to three years for the mining employees above 45 years of age. This should be implemented in three years. 4.7 Standards of medical examinations for both Initial and Periodic should be modified as mentioned below in order to ensure early diagnosis of more diseases caused or get aggravated due to employment in mines. (a) In addition to measurement of blood pressure, detailed cardiovascular assessment of employees should be done. This should include 12 leads electrocardiogram and complete lipid profile. (b) Detailed neurological examinations including testing of all major superficial and deep reflexes and assessment of peripheral circulation to diagnose vibrational syndromes. (c) In addition to routine urine, fasting and post-parandial blood sugar should be included for early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. (d) Serum Urea and Creatinine should be included for assessment of Renal function. (e) Hematological tests like Total count, Differential count, percentage of Hemoglobin and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate should be included to diagnose Blood Dyscrasias. 4.8 Special tests should be included in the PME for employees exposed to specific health hazard; (a) For employees exposed to manganese, special emphasis should be given to behavioral and neurological disturbances such as speech defect, tremor, impairment of equilibrium, adiadochokinesia H2S and emotional changes. (b) For persons exposed to lead, PME should include blood lead analysis and delta aminolevulinic acid in urine, at least once in a year.


122 (c) Employees engaged in food handling and preparation and handling of stemming material activities should undergo routine stool examination once in every six months and sputum for AFB and chest radiograph once in a year. (d) Employees engaged in driving/ HEMM operation jobs should undergo eye refraction test at least once in a year. (e) Employees exposed to ionizing radiation should undergo Blood count at least once in a year. 4.9 It is proposed to include following diseases in the list of Notified diseases under Section 25 (1) of Mines Act, 1952: (a) All other types of Pneumoconiosis excluding Coal workers pneumoconiosis, Silicosis and Asbestosis. This includes Siderosis & Berillyosis. (b) Noise induced hearing loss. (c) Contact Dermatitis caused by direct contact with chemicals. (d) Pathological manifestations due to radium or radioactive substances. 4.10 For smaller mines where PME facilities are not existing, medical examinations can be done through other competent agencies. .

9.0 “Safety Management System”: Strategies for Implementation and Path Forward 9.1 Every mine should employ a sound risk analysis process, should conduct a risk assessment, and should develop a safety management plan to address the significant hazards identified by the analysis/ assessment. 9.2 The managements of every mining company should adopt the process of safety management system and commit itself for proper formulation and implementation of the same in totality. Necessary resources should be allocated for implementation of the control measures identified by the risk assessment process. 9.3 Necessary training of all employees of mining companies should be organized with the help of experts, both national and international, for optimal adoption of the safety management system

9.3 SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM References DGMS Circular 13 of 2002, 9th and 10th Conf recommendations Why we need SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  Corporate responsibility to maintain health and safety  Social Obligation  Legal commitment  To remain in business DEFINITIONS Hazard: Source of potential harm, injury or loss Risk: combination of the likelihood of a specific unwanted event and the potential consequences if it should occur Risk Assessment:. Is a process that involves measurement of risk to determine priorities and to enable identification of appropriate level of risk treatment (used also to describe the overall process of risk management)


123 Risk Control: Implementation of strategies to prevent or control hazards Risk Rating: The category or level or risk assigned following risk assessment (eg. High, Medium, Low etc.) . Risk Management: Overall description of the steps taken to manage risk, by Identifying hazards and implementing controls in the work place. The employer cannot ignore his duty just because: •

the hazard has been looked at before;

there has not yet been an injury from a hazardous way of doing work;

Risk Assessment Process •

Risk assessment is to be performed on a regular basis.

The following workflow diagram illustrates the areas involved in performing a risk assessment session.

THERE ARE THREE BASIC STEPS TO RISK MANAGEMENT 1)Identifying the hazards: things that may cause injury or harm to the health of a person, (egs ) 

flammable material,

ignition sources

unguarded machinery.

2) Assessing the risk: looking at the chance of injury or harm to a person if exposed to a hazard. 3) Controlling the risk: introduce measures that will remove or reduce the risk of a person being exposed to a hazard to a level that the work can be done safely.

Identifying the Hazards Identifying hazards is the most Important part of the whole risk assessment process. Hazards are only discounted when they have been assessed not to pose a risk. Until that is done all possible hazards should be identified and noted down.  Assemble the team – This is more A BRAIN STORMING SITUATION. A team approach is recommended to establish hazards in the work place. It is best to use a cross section of employees (eg. manager, engineer, safety officer, supervisor, workers from different aspects of the operation to provide different perspectives on views, likelihood)The members of the team should be varied from session to session to gain a broad perspective of the hazards across a site.  checklist for a of equipment or substance to looking at a number of related work processes.  Methods of finding workplace risks include: 1)

making up a risk checklist;

2)

looking around the workplace (walk-through surveys

Sources for hazard identifications 

information from designers or manufacturers;

unsafe incidents, accident and injury data


124 

work processes;

talking with workers;

material safety data sheets

product labels;

from people who have special knowledge (specialist practitioners, consultants and representatives).

type of work done, such as mechanical hazards, noise, or the toxic properties of substances.

from equipment and machine breakdowns, or by machines being misused, or by control or power system breakdowns

chemical spills, and structural failures (for example, cracks in wooden beams, rust in steel supports

 prepare a list when considering these hazard types and look for work-related hazards to make sure that you think about all the hazards there are. Types of hazards and specific examples include the following: 

Gravity: falling objects, falls of people.

Kinetic energy: projectiles, penetrating objects.

Hazardous substances: skin contact, inhalation.

Thermal energy: spills and splashes of hot matter.

Extremes of temperature: effects of heat or cold.

Radiation: ultraviolet, arc flashes, micro waves, lasers.

Noise: hearing damage.

Electrical: shock, burns.

Vibration: to hands and body.

Biological: micro-organisms.

Stress: unrealistic workload and expectations.

Hazards may be related to: 

the work environment (for example, slippery floors, poor lighting);

the way the work is organised (for example, having to carry heavy loads a long distance);

the plant, equipment, tools or substances used (for example, toxic chemicals, unguarded machines);

lack of information, training and supervision; and

poor or ill-fitting personal protective equipment (PPE).

Normally the host process is to proceed step by step through a task. 1.

Previous experience of accidents or occurrences on the mine. .

2.

Work process evaluation

3.

Consultation with employees who may have experience in the job

4.

Off-site specialists with experience at other mine sites (consultants).

5.

Determine underlying issues and hazards that might not be evident at first glance. .

6.

Safety statistics for this or other mines..

7.

Significant incident.. near miss or accident reports

8.

Inspections in the mine

9. Another method is to consider the hazards that could occur from an unwanted release of energy (eg. Mechanical, Electrical. Gravity, Fluids or air, Chemical. Nuclear. Heat. Light, Noise)


125 10.

Decide how to divide up the workplace. e.g.; 

By activities (or processes) e.g. drilling & blasting, load and haul. crushing;

By equipment, machinery e.g. mobile plant, trucks, conveyors, crushers:

By geographical areas 3. eg. pit. compound, workshop:

By specific job activity:

1.

Look at specific issues and jobs. Break processes up into nodes.

2.

Examine each node independently and look at failure modes or-things that can go wrong for each node.

3.

Examine accident-prone jobs of situations carry

4.

Identify all hazards. Hazards will be identified that are likely or less likely, have major and minor impact and importance.

5.

At this stage collect do not exclude ideas, be defensive or squash potential hazards that are raised. Record findings. Whichever method is used for the Identification of the hazards, they should all be noted down so that a record of their existence is kept. This can be used to save time and effort when further rounds of risk assessment are being done.. There should also be a mechanism for reporting of hazards by staff as they are found which is separate from the formal risk assessment process. Hazards to be recorded before staff forgets about potential hazards or are not selected for the risk assessment team.

RISK ASSESSMENT Where? 1.

Potential for mishap -with serious consequences

2.

Presence of large number of risks with varying degree of consequence and likelihood

3.

Mines having limited resources

4.

Availability of early warning in way of “near miss” situations

5.

Changed circumstances

6.

New equipment, methods, etc

7.

Modification of method, machines, etc

Why Conduct a Hazard Risk Assessment? 1.

To evaluate hazards in terms of the likelihood and the damage it would cause

2.

Consider all of the possible hazards that could be encountered.

3.

Some hazards, more likely to cause problems than others at a given mine and some would result in greater damage than would others.

4.

These differences are identified by conducting a risk analysis.

5.

The outcome of the analysis is used to target resources at the types of events that are most likely to occur and/or are most destructive.

6.

Emergency situations that are very likely to happen and would do considerable damage to people and property should be targeted for immediate remediation and/or plans should be made for effective response if remediation isn’t possible.

7.

Potential situations that are less likely or that would have less severe consequences are identified for attention after the more serious hazards have been addressed..


126

Assessment of the Risk& Ranking Objectives of risk ranking are to:1.

Identify which risks are most in need of attention, and the options for achieving that risk reduction.

2.

Identify which risks need careful ongoing management, the nature of the ongoing management ,the indicators that show that the risk is being managed.

3.

Identify triggers which might be used to monitor that hazard and initiate remedial action If elimination is not feasible

4.

Risk Ranking is carried out by considering both the Likelihood of the occurrence of each Hazard and the potential Consequence should the Hazard occur.

5.

Each can be estimated or calculated by engineering principles.

6.

This will enable the risk ranking to be carried out. Risks are ranked according to the level of risk ie. the highest risk to the lowest risk..

7.

It is important that the risks are ranked to identify those requiring immediate attention and maximise benefits from the efforts. 

Likelihood is the risk of any hazard is dependent upon the chance that it will occur In some cases personnel are only exposed to the hazard for part of the time. Replacing Likelihood by Exposure (% time personnel are present) and Probability (chance that they will be harmed).

Consequence is the impact of an occurrence – is the size of the loss or damage. is the degree of harm that could be caused to people exposed to the hazard, is the potential severity of injuries or ill health and / or the number of people who could be potentially affected.

Dealing of consequence of a hazard will not only be In terms of safety criteria but could also be In terms of a money loss, Incurred costs, loss of production, environmental impacts as well as public outrage. Risk score = Probability x Exposure x Consequence

The values used for Likelihood/Consequence, Exposure or Probability need to be agreed by the risk assessment team.

Risk ranking can be determined by qualitative and quantitative means.

The best choice of method will depend on the circumstances and preferences at the mine at the time the exercise, is done. Risk Ranking will set priorities for Hazard control, The. most important purpose in Hazard Identification.

Risk Assessment and Ranking is to draw up and implement plans to control these hazards.

These plans are then included in the safety Management Plan.

Likelihood=Probability X Exposure

Risk score=consequence X likelihood

Risk score = Consequence x Probability x Exposure

Maximum risk rating =500

Risk

>_ 20 to be referred to management for action Risk rating Criteria

Consequence

Exposure

Probability

Several Dead

5

Continuous

One dead

1

Frequent(Daily)

5

Quite possible/likely

7

0.3

Seldom(weekly)

3

unusual but possible

3

Significant chance of fatality

10

Expected/almost certain

10


127 one permanent chance of disability

0.1

Unusual(monthly)

2.5

only remotely possible

2

Small chance of fatality

0.1

Occasional (Yearly)

2

conceived but unlikely

1

Many lost time injuries

0.01

once in 5 years

1.5

practically impossible

0.5

one lost injury

0.001

once in 10years

0.5

virtually impossible

0.1

small injury

0.000 1

Once in 100 years

0.0 2

Treatment controls and Action Plans 

Examine the high priority risks. Consider the potential to reduce or. eliminate the risk by using the hierarchy of controls. This assists establishing methods to reduce the risk. From experience, the effectiveness of each method is given as .a percentage after each of the control descriptions.

Elimination: Remove step to eliminate the hazard completely (100% )

Substitution: Replace with less hazardous material, substance or process (75%)

Separation: Isolate hazard from person by guarding, space or time separation (50%)

Administration: Adjusting the time or conditions of risk exposures (30%)

Training: Improving skills making tasks less hazardous to persons involved (20%)

Personal protective equipment: Used as the last resort, appropriately designed and properly fitted equipment where other controls are not practicable (5%)..

Control measures, can reduce either the Likelihood or Consequence of the event or both;

Depending on the level of reduction of the hazard there could still be a residual risk that needs to be monitored, so that, a secondary prevention process can be initiated when trigger points are reached.

The team should develop an action plan recommending actions, responsibilities and. when it should be completed.

Decision-making authority to review if necessary &Make a decision to proceed.

Allocate tasks, monitor progress. Review implementation effectiveness and determine if other hazards have been created.

Pursue continuous improvement. 

A number of forms are made for carrying out this activity.

Alternatively, the use of software tools will enable the recording of controls and allocation of responsibility for controls. Whichever method h used It should be formatised and controlled. periodically.

Induction, Training & Continuous Improvement 

Each mine will have training programs for employees, which need to be reviewed against safety criteria.

The updating of training requirements should include retraining of existing personnel to the new skill level. This can be performed on-the-job.

When the new skill, procedure, etc. has been taught to an individual and they have been assessed to have achieved that Competency, this should be recorded. This allows the mine to track staffs that are qualified to perform particular tasks.

In some instances, staff should be prevented performing tasks until they have been correctly trained in new procedures and are considered competent to perform a task safely

Accident / Incident Reporting & Investigation


128 

This would be a Standing Order to ensure compliance with Regulations and to inform mine personnel of responsibilities and reporting requirements. It should cover

Responsibility of those on the site

immediate response and Emergency backup

Notifying Key staff of accident

Securing the site

Treatment of any injuries

Investigation and Reporting

Review of any recommendations and determining actions

Auditing & Review/Revise 

Reviewing the effectiveness of programs within the. Safety Management plan. should be an ongoing process.

This should show whether policies, Regulations and expectations are being met or where systems can be made more effective.

Both internal and external audits should be considered. Auditors need training to conduct audits

What Happens When You Are Finished? •

The task of risk assessment is an ongoing activity. Any time the work environment changes, the risk assessment will need to be updated and the priorities reevaluated.

Your risk assessment will be most useful to you if you never consider it finished. Instead, always think of it as a draft document that needs to be updated as things change.

1.

Management of safety issues based on assessment of risks not only, integrates safety with productivity but also can be used as a very good tool for-.reduction of costs.

2.

The systems stand on the premise that. all risks need not be eliminated and different control measures can be adopted for different levels of risks.

3.

The key here , is to aim for ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable), which eventually depends on cost considerations.

4.

The system allows prioritization of allocation of scarce resources thereby cutting costs and reducing wastages. This assumes great importance in the current Indian scena The other merits of the system are In this system, grey areas are minimized; responsibilities for action are pinpointed and scopes for auditing and improvements are always present It is created by the mine operators themselves through considerable brainstorming. This approach let the mine .operators/users feel ownership of the system, something that is not cast upon by experts. Govt. agencies or outsiders, and hence chances of. successful implementation is much' more.

SAFETY SIGNS as hazard indicators These are indicators of Hazards likely to be present Requirements. •

Signs should be universal ,easily understood

should be put where everyone can see them,

should be looked after, be clean, well-lit and easy to read.

should relate to the hazard. When the hazard is removed, sign should be removed..

people working in the mine must obey all signs.


129 •

Safety signs provide information about situations affecting health and safety and are not a solution for accident prevention.

The function and meaning of signs should be included in employee induction training program.

Employees need to be told about any new sign or changes to an existing sign, before it is displayed HIGH-RISK PERMITS

High-risk permits are needed for work done in places that are always dangerous and need extra precautions to make them safe.

Permits are good only for a short time and are only given out when the person in charge has checked that the workplace is safe to carry out the work. The person in charge of handing out permits must sign all permits.

Workers should know about the type of work or the places where permits are needed, and must have special training for that type of work.

The permits and the type of work they cover should be checked from time to time. Changes should be made to the permits where workers have experienced extra risks or the supervisor has seen other risks when working on a high-risk job.

There are a number of jobs on mine sites that need high-risk permits. Some examples of these are:

storing explosive, fuel, gas cylinders; isolating energy sources; working alone in a hazardous area; working in confined spaces; working in high-voltage areas; working at heights; I.

Annexure 1

II. LIST OF RECORDS TO BE MAINTAINED, PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN, NOTICES TO BE DISPLAYED & RETURNS TO BE SENT III. A.

UNDER MINES ACT’1952& MMR’1961, V.T. RULES & ELECTRICAL RULES

Records

Displays

Types

Particulars

1. Fifth Schedule

Abstract of Mines Act, 1952- Rule 79 (1)

2. Notice- Rule 48(1)

Form A Notice of commencement and end of work- Rule 48(1)

3. Notice- Rule 54

Form L Information regarding leave with wages (before 20th February)

4. List

List of First Aiders

Registers

Returns

1. Form B- Rule 77

Employees

2. Form D- Rule 78

Persons employed in O/C working during week

3. Form E- Rule 78

Persons employed in A/G during week

4. Form F- Rule 49(4)

Compensatory days of rest

5. Form G- Rule 53

Leave account during the year

6. Form H- Rule 53

Leave wages account during the year

7. Form I- Rule 59

Overtime wages

8. Form J- Rule 76

Reportable accounts (Minor Accidents)

1. Form J- Rule

Quarterly- Return of Reportable accident

2. Form II- Reg. 4

Quarterly- Under MMR, 1961 before 20th Jan, Apr, Jul, Oct

3. Form III- Reg. 5

Annual- Under MMR, 1961 before 20th Feb


130 4. Form K- Rule

Annual- Return of Minor accident before 20th Jan

5. Form T- Rule 29(P)

Annual- Return of medical examinations before 20th Feb

Records

Plans

Surface plans, Water Danger plan, Geological plan with sections

Diaries

Manager, Asst. Managers, Foremen, Mates, Blasters, Misfires

Inspection reports

Fencings, white washing canteen, latrines and urinals

Exemption letters

-

Proceedings

Pit safety committee meetings

Explosives

License, registers of receipts/issues, use/return.

Test reports

Exploder, ohm meter (quarterly)

Medical exams

Medical reports in Form O, updated statistics and list of persons

Vocational

Permission to join GGVTC, certificates, updated statistics and lists

training

Daily and weekly maintenance records and registers

10.

Machinery

11.

Tests reports

Compressors hydraulic test (every 3 years), Pontoons, Fire extinguishers

12.

Trucks

Daily maintenance records, drivers B register driver’s attendance.

13.

Electrical

Daily& Weekly maintenance records & registers, log books

14.

Lists

Of machinery, competent Persons

15.

Counterfoils

Authorizations to competent persons

16.

Certificates

Drinking Water potability Tests

Sign boards

At Mines, Plants, D/yards, Roads

Fire extinguishers

At machines, workshop, plants, HSD, oils, Explosive storage, electrical

Rest shelter

At mines, plants

First Aid Station

Doctor/Compounder–Stretcher, Splints, Blankets, Triangular Bandage etc

Latrines & Urinals Precautions

Drinking Water

Keep open-ensure is in clean condition

Canteen

At Mines, workshop, plants

Personnel

At Mines/ Plants

Pontoons

Safety Shoes, Helmets, First Aid Kits, Whistles, Safety Belts

10.Explosive van

Life Buoys, Life Jackets If explosives being used.

1. Records License Registers Returns

Types

Particulars

Form LE 1&3

License to possess explosives for use/own use

1. Form RE-3- Rule 24

Account of Receipts of Explosives

2. Form RE-5- Rule 24

Account of explosives used by licensee

Form RE 7- Rule 24

Monthly –Explosives Return (Under condition 15 of license)

II. Returns

UNDER EXPLOSIVES ACT & RULES

Form A- Rule 33/34

UNDER CESS (WELFARE) RULES Monthly- Return of actual production &disposal of Iron Ore


131 A. Returns

UNDER MATERNITY BENEFIT RULES

Form- L, M, N, O

Annual returns under Rule 16.

INDIAN BUREAU OF MINES (UNDER MCDR) Plans

Registers

Returns

Plans

Mining Plan, Environmental Plan.

Plans

Mining scheme, Environment Management Plan.

Bound paged

Afforestation details

Bound paged

Top Soil Management

Bound paged

Drainage System & Protective Bunds.

Bound paged

Water Treatment Records.

Bound paged

Reclamation details.

Form F1- Rule 45

Monthly – Before 15th of every month

Form H1- Rule 45

Annual – Before 1st July

Form G- Rule 45

Annual – Explosives before 1st July

I. Register

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIES & MINES

Bound paged

Date wise & Month wise ROM production and rejection.

Bound paged

ROM dispatches & Stocks. Analysis Reports of ROM

Records

Royalty Payment. Daily ROM weighment.

Returns

Form- Rule 27

Monthly – Form under MCDR

UNDER PAYMENT OF WAGES (MINES), MINIMUM WAGES & EQUAL REMUNERATION RULES

Displays

1. Abstract- Form VII

Abstract of Payment of Wages Act’1936-Rule 21

2. Abstract-Form IX-A

Abstract of Minimum Wages Act’1948-Rule

3. Notice- Rule 12

Notice of Names & Addresses of the inspectors

4. Notice- Rule 12

Approved List of Acts & Omissions

5. Notice- Rule 8(1)

Notices about disbursement of wages, with i. Wage period for which the wages payable ii. Date of payment of wages to employees iii. Rates of wages & scales of allowances payable (In Form IV) iv. The days on which the wages & unpaid wages to be paid


132

Registers

Records Returns B.

1. Form I- Rule 3

Fines (Part I & Part II), under Payment of Wages Rules

2. Form I- Rule 21

Fines, under Minimum Wages Rules

3. Form II- Rule 4

Deductions for damage or Loss, under P.W. Rules

4. Form II- Rule21

Deductions for Damage or Loss, under M.W. Rules

5. Form III- Rule 5

Wages, under Payment of Wages Rules

6. Form X- Rule 26

Wages, under Minimum Wages Rules

7. Form IV- Rule 25

Overtime, under Minimum Wages Rules

8. Form V- Rule 26

Muster Roll, under Minimum Wages Rules

9. Form VI- Rule 19

Advances, under Payment of Wages Rules

10. Form D- Rule 6

Register under Equal Remuneration Rules

Form XI- Rule 26

Wage Slips, under Minimum Wages Rules (to be issued a day prior)

Form III- Rule 21

Annual-Under Minimum Wages Rules before 1st February

Form V- Rule 18

Annual-Under Payment of Wages Rules before 1st February

UNDER CONTRACT LABOUR (R & A) ACT, 1970 & RULES, 1971

BY PRINCIPAL EMPLOYER Display

Records/ Registers

1. Abstract- Rule 79

Abstract of Contract Labour (R & A) Act & Rules

2. Notice- Rule 18

Copy of Certificate of Registration

1. Form II- Rule 18

Certificate of Registration

2. Form VI-A/VI-BRule81

Notice of Commencement/Completion of Contract Work Register of Contractors

3. Form XII- Rule 74 Returns Precautions

Form XXV- Rule 82

Annual Return-Before 15th February (in duplicate)

Wages- Rule 72

Disbursement of wages-Attestation of employer’s representative

BY CONTRACTOR Display

1 Notice- Rule 25

Copy of License at contract place.

1. Form VI- Rule 25

License of Contractor (if the workmen exceeds 20)

2. Form XIII- Rule 75

Register of persons employed by contractor

3. Form XIV-Rule 76

Employment Cards

4. Form XVI-Rule 78

Muster Roll

Records/

5. Form XVII-Rule 78

Wages

Registers

6. Form XIX-Rule 78

Wage Slips (to be issued at least a day prior)

7. Form XX-Rule 78

Deduction for Damage or Loss

8. Form XXI-Rule 78

Fines

9. Form XXII-Rule 78 10Form XXIII-Rule 78

Advances

Form XXIV- Rule 82

Half Yearly-Before 30th Jan & 30th July (in duplicate)

Returns

Overtime


133

Annexure 2 GENERAL SAFETY INDICES A. Accident - The term 'accident' means an unintended occurrence arising out of and in the course of employment of a person resulting in injury. B. Disabling injury (Lost time injury) - An injury causing disablement extending beyond the day of Shift on which the accident occurred. C. Non-disabling injury - An injury which requires medical treatment only, without causing any disablement whether of temporary or permanent nature. D. Reportable Disabling injury (Reportable Lost Time Injury) - An injury causing death or disablement to an extent as prescribed by the relevant statute. E. Days of Disablement (Lost Time) - In the case of disablement of a temporary nature, the number of days on which the injured person was partially disabled as defined. In the case of death or disablement of a permanent nature whether it be partial or total disablement as defined in G and H, man - days lost means the charges in days of earning capacity lost due to such permanent disability or death. In other cases the day on which the injury occurred or the day the injured person returned to work are not to be included as man-days lost; but all intervening calendar days (including Sundays or days off, or days of mines shut down) are to be included. If after resumption of work, the person injured is again disabled for any period arising out of the injury which caused his earlier disablement, the period of such subsequent disablement is also to be included in the man-days lost. F.

Partial Disablement - This is of two types: disablement of a temporary nature which reduces the earning capacity of an employed person in any employment in which he was engaged at the time of the accident resulting in the disablement; and disablement of a permanent nature, which reduces his earning capacity in every employment which he was capable of undertaking.

G. Total Disablement - Disablement, whether of a temporary or permanent nature, which incapacitates of workman for all work which he was capable of performing at the time of the accident resulting in such disablement, provided that permanent total disablement shall be deemed to result from every type of injury or from any combination of injuries where the aggregate percentage of the loss of earning capacity amounts to one hundred percent. H. Man - Hours worked - the total number of employee - hours worked by all employees working in the industrial premises. It includes managerial, supervisory, professional, technical, clerical and other workers including contractors labour. 1.

Frequency rate: The frequency rate shall be calculated both for lost time injury and reportable lost time injury as follows: FA = Number of lost time injury x 1 000000 Man-hours worked FB = Number of reportable lost time injury x 1 000000 Man-hours worked Note1: If the injury does not cause loss of time in the period in which it occurs but in a subsequent period, the injury should be included in the frequency rate of the period in which the loss of time beings. Note 2: If an injury causes intermittent loss of time, it should only be included in the frequency rate once, that is, when the first loss of time occurs. Note 3: Since frequency rate FB is based on the lost time injuries reportable to the statutory authorities, it may be used for official purpose only. In all other cases, frequency rates FA should be used for comparison.


134 2.

SEVERITY RATE The severity rate shall be calculated from man-days lost both of lost time injury and reportable lost time injury as follows: SA = Man days lost due to lost time injury x 1000000 Man-hours worked S8 = Man-days lost due to reportable lost time injury x 1000000 Man-hours worked Note: Since seerity rate SB is based on the lost time injury reportable to the statutory authorities, it should e used for official purposes only. In all other cases severity rate SA should be used for official purposes only. In all other cases severity rate SA should be used for comparison purposes.

3.

INCIDENCE RATE: Incidences rate is the ratio of the no. of injuries to the no .of persons during the period under review. It is expressed as the no. of injuries per 1000 person employed. It may be calculated both for lost time injuries and reportable lost time injuries as follows: Lost time injury incident rate =

Number of lost-time injuries x 1000

Average number of person employed Reportable lost-time injury = incidence rate

Number of reportable lost time injuries x 1000 Average number of persons employed


135

ANNEXURE 3 CONTRACTOR’S QUARTERLY RETURN From To The Director of Mines Safety, Name of the Mine

:

Name of the Owner

:

Mine Code

:

( DGMS Return to be submitted quarterly by 10th April, July, October & January as per recommendation of 10th Conference of Safety in Mines). Sl.No.

Description

01.

Name of the Firm

02.

Registration Number (Contract Labour Act)

03.

Name & address of the Person heading the Firm.

04.

Nature of Work

05.

Type of deployment of work persons:

Status

No. of Skilled Persons No. of unskilled Persons Total Number of work persons deployed 06.

Number of work persons holding vocational Training Certificate

07.

Number of Work persons undergone IME

08.

Type of medical coverage given to the work persons.

Signature: Name & Designation: On behalf of __________________ company


136

ANNEXURE 4 EXTRACTS FROM EXPLOSIVES RULES 2008 IV. SCHEDULE IV Part 1 (See rule 99) Licences and licensing authorities A. 1 (d) Licence to manufacture at site, ANFO explosives not exceeding 200 kilogrammes at any one time Form LE-1 Controller of Explosives. B. 1 (e) Licence to manufacture liquid oxygen explosives (LOX). LE-1Chief Controller or Controller of Explosives authorized by Chief Controller. C.

1 (f) Licence to manufacture site mixed explosives (SME) LE-1Chief Controller

D. 2 (c) Licence to possess for use, explosives of Class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 in a magazine LE-3 Chief Controller or. Controller of Explosives authorised by Chief Controller E.

Licence to transport explosives in a road van. LE-7 Controller of Explosives

V. B. Licence fee – The following fees shall be payable per year for each licence issued under these rules d.

1 e .site mixed ANFO explosives

Rs 1000

VI. License Forms

LE-1 Licence to manufacture(d) at site, ANFO explosives not exceeding 200 kilo grammes at any one time; or (e) liquid oxygen explosives (LOX); or(f) site mixed explosives (SME)[See article 1(a) to (g) of Part 1 of Schedule IV of the Explosives Rules, 2008]

LE-3 (c) possess for use, explosives of Class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 in a magazine;

[See articles 3(a) to (d) of Part 1 of Schedule IV of the Explosives Rules, 2008] 3

LE-7 Licence to transport explosives in a road van

(See article 7 of Part 1 Schedule IV of the Explosives Rules, 2008) VII.Forms

RE – 1 Application for Renewal or revalidation of licence or certificate (See rule 112 of the Explosives Rules, 2008) RE-2 Form of account to be maintained by a licensee Accounts of explosives manufactured

RE-3 Form of account to be maintained by a licensee Accounts of receipt of explosives (See rule 24 of the Explosives Rules, 2008) (other than fireworks) A. RE-5 Form of account to be maintained by a licensee B. (See rule 24 of the Explosives Rules, 2008) Accounts of explosives used by licensee (other than fireworks)

RE-6 Form of records to be maintained by a licensee Records of explosives transported by road van

C.

Schedule VII

D.

Specification-2 Specification of magazines other than that of fireworks

E.

Specification-4 Specification for a road van for carriage of explosives

F.

Specification-6 Specification of metal containers for conveyance of explosives


137

ANNEXURE 5 Salient point’s ammonium nitrate rules 2011 Definitions (b) "Ammonium Nitrate" means the compound having the chemical formula NH4NO3 and includes any mixture or compound having more than 45 per cent. Ammonium Nitrate by weight including emulsions, suspensions, melts or gels (with or without inorganic nitrates) but excluding emulsion or slurry explosives and nonexplosives emulsion matrix and fertilizers from which Ammonium Nitrate cannot be extracted by any physical or chemical process; (k) "emulsion explosive" and non explosives emulsion matrix" shall have the same meaning as defined under the Explosives Rules, 2008. (m) "licence" means pre-requisite document to manufacture, convert, import, export, stevedoring, bagging, transport, possess, sale and use of Ammonium Nitrate. (p) "slurry explosive" and "Site mixed explosives" shall have the same meaning as defined under Explosives Rules, 2008; Rule 9. Marking on Ammonium Nitrate packages. Rule 11. Special precautions against accident. Rule 12. Restriction on unauthorized persons and provision of guards.Rule 14. Maintenance of records and submission of returns. Rule 15 . Safety and Security Management Plan Rule 20 Procedure to be followed( For transport of ammonium Nitrate) Rule 23. Procedure on accidents (during transport) Rule 26. Accountability and transaction of Ammonium nitrate Rule 29 Prior approval before construction. Rule 30. Application for grant of licence. – Rule 31. Period of validity of licence. Rule32. Documents to be submitted for seeking approval or licence. The following documents shall be submitted for approval or licence, namely:(1) Application in appropriate Form as per Part¡1 of Schedule II. (2) Safety and Security Management Plan prepared as required under rule 15. (3) The plan of the proposed buildings or storehouse and the site showing approach road to the storehouse or stevedore's transit store or manufacturing or conversion premises, all buildings in and around. (4) The particulars of - person employed for handling of Ammonium Nitrate their qualification and experience. The applicant shall file an affidavit regarding their character and antecedents. (5) Passport size photographs of the occupier along with documentary evidence of nomination as occupier. (6) The scrutiny or Licence fee as per sub rule (1) of rule 28. (7) The certificate of completion duly endorsed by Chartered Engineer. (8) No Objection Certificate from the concerned District Authority, where the District Authority is not the licence issuing authority. Rule 33. Procedure to be observed for issue of no objection certificate and grant of licence by the District Authority. -


138 (1) The applicant desiring to obtain a licence from the Chief Controller or Controller shall apply to the District Authority with copies of the site plan showing the location of the premises for issue of a certificate to the effect that there is no objection to the applicant receiving licence for the site proposed. (2) (a) all receipt of the application for issue of no objection certificate or grant of licence, the District Authority shall verify the antecedents of the applicant, lawful possession of the site, genuineness of the purpose, interest of public and any other verifications or enquiries as may be specifically required by the licence issuing authority to be carried out, if any, and on any other matter as deemed necessary if the area of the proposed site does not fall within the purview of Indian Mine Act 1952 (b) The Director General of Mines Safety shall be the authority to grant no objection certificate if the area of the proposed site comes under the Indian Mines act, 1952. (c) For verification of the interest of public, the District authority shall forth with cause a notice to be published calling upon the public to submit objection, if any, with reasons thereof, within a period of one month from the date of publication of the notice and specifying the date, time and place for consideration of objections by him. (d) Where the site of the proposed premises ties within 1.5 kilometers of the limits of the jurisdiction of any town planning, municipal authority or port or air port or satellite or space craft launching station or similar establishment of nation importance, the District Authority shall cause the notice to be served to such authority or establishment. (e) The day of hearing for consideration of objections shall be fixed as early as possible, after the expiration of the period of one month from the date of publication of notice. (f) On receipt of objection the District Authority shall call the person or persons raising objection and also the applicant, giving not less than seven clear days before the day fixed for hearing for consideration of the objection. (g) On the day fixed for the hearing or any day to which such hearing may be adjourned from time to time, the District Authority shall hear any objection relating to the issue of either enquiry as deemed necessary; the District Authority shall assess justification of such objection. (3) The District Authority or the Director General of Mines Safety, as the case may be, shall make verification of lawful possession of the site, genuineness of the purpose, any other verification or enquiries as may be specifically required by the licence issuing authority to be carried out, if any, and on any other matter as deemed necessary. Provided that no No objection Certificate from Director General of Mines Safety is required for storage of Ammonium Nitrate within mines area for the purposes of manufacture of Ammonium Nitrate fuel oil explosive at the site having valid licence in licence form LE 1 granted under the Explosive Rules 2008 (4) The District Authority shall complete the enquiry within a period of three months or as expeditiously as possible and such authority shall after being satisfied, grant no objection certificate in Form C-2 of Part 4 of Schedule – II or grant of the license, as the case may be, along with site plan duly signed and sealed by such authority. (5) If the District Authority or the Director General of Mines Safety, as the case may be, objects to the grant of the no objection certificate on any of the grounds relating to the purpose of no objection certificate, no licence shall be granted by the licence issuing authority except with the sanction of the Central government. (6) The District authority or the Director General of Mines Safety as the case may be, shall grant no objection certificate or licence or convey his refusal for granting no objection certificate or licence: as the case may be, with reasons therof in writing to the applicant as expeditiously as possible but not later than a period of six months from the date of receipt of application from the applicant. Table Serial

Authority

Jurisdiction

Number 1

All District Magistrates

Their respective jurisdiction


139 2

All Executive Magistrates subordinate to the District Magistrate

Their respective jurisdiction

3

All commissioners of Police or Police officers of rank not below that of a Sub-Inspector of Police

Their respective jurisdiction

4

The Director General of Mines Safety or officers subordinate to him

Their respective jurisdiction

5

The Chief Controller or Controller of Explosives

All parts of India

51.

Notice of any loss or theft - The licence holder shall give a notice of any loss or theft involving Ammonium Nitrate or Ammonium Nitrate melts in his jurisdiction where the loss deviates from the amount of loss that typically occurs during routine production, storage, transportation, or use of Ammonium Nitrate to the licensing authority and concerned District Authority giving details of circumstances leading to accident, loss or theft and the notice of loss or theft shall also be reported to the nearest local police station.

52. Notice of accident.(1) The notice of an accident required to be given under section 8 of the Act shall be given within a period of twenty four hours of the happening of the accident by telephone, telegram, E-mail, fax or in any other electronic mode or by special messenger followed by a written report signed by the occupier or authorized person to the same authorities giving particulars of circumstances leading to accident, 1055 of human life, injury to persons, damage to property, emergency action taken etc, to the(a) Chief Controller; (b) Controller in whose jurisdiction accident has taken place; (c) District Magistrate; and (d) Officer-in-charge of the nearest police station. (2) Pending the visit of the Chief Controller, or his authorized representative or instruction received from the Chief Controller or his representative that he does not wish any further investigation or inquiry to be made, all wreckage and debris shall be left untouched except in so far as its removal may be necessary for the rescue of persons injured and recovery of the bodies of any persons killed, by the accident or in the case of aerodromes or railways, for the restoration of thorough communication. (3) The Chief Controller or his authorized representative, if so required by them, shall be provided with all assistance by the officer in charge of the nearest police station


140

SCHEDULE II PART – 1 Application Forms (See Rule 32 of Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2011)

Form No.

Purpose

A–1

Application to possess and sale ammonium Nitrate, from a storage attached to Ammonium Nitrate manufacturing or conversion plant

A–2

Application to stevedore and bagging of Ammonium Nitrate

A–3

Application to Possess for sale or use of Ammonium nitrate from a storehouse

A–4

Application to transport Ammonium Nitrate in a Truck or Tanker

A–5

Application to import or Export Ammonium Nitrate PART – 2 Licence Forms (See Rule 33 of Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2011)

Form No.

Purpose

P–1

Licence to possess and sale ammonium Nitrate, from a storage attached to Ammonium Nitrate manufacturing or conversion plant

P–2

Licence to stevedore and bagging of Ammonium Nitrate

P–3

Licence to Possess for sale or use of Ammonium nitrate from a storehouse

P– 4

Licence to transport Ammonium Nitrate in a Truckor Tanker

P–5

Licence to import or Export Ammonium Nitrate PART – 3 Return Forms (See Rule 14, 20, 21 and 26 of Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2011)

Form No.

Purpose

R–1

Application for renewal of Licence

R–2

For of Account to be maintained by Licence holder Account of Ammonium Nitrate manufactured, converted

R–3

Declaration to be submitted to the Chief Controller by an importer on dispatch of Ammonium Nitrate from the place or port of loading

R–4

This declaration should be filled up and forwarded in triplicate to Chief Controller as soon as any consignment of Ammonium Nitrate is cleared from the place or port of import.

R–5

Form of Account to be maintained by Stevedoring Agent Account of Ammonium Nitrate


141 stevedored, bagged and dispatched. R–6

Form of records to be maintained by a Licence Holder Records of Ammonium Nitrate or Melt transported by truck or tanker.

R–7

Form of Account to be maintained by Licence holder Account of Ammonium Nitrate sold.

R–8

From of Account to be maintained by Licence holder Account of Ammonium Nitrate used.

R–9

Returns of Form of Ammonium Nitrate

R – 10

Form of indent for Ammonium Nitrate to be issued by consignee

R – 11(a)

Form of intimation to be submitted to the Superintendent of Police by the Consignor before dispatch of consignment

R – 11(b)

Pass issued by the consignor for transport of consignment a Ammonium Nitrate.

ANNEXURE 6

Legislation

Details of circulars issued by DGMS

Details of circulars issued by DGMS

Circular No

Year

Amendment to Regulations 15 (2), 15(3), 16(1). & 16(2) of the Metalliferous Mines Regulation 1961

2

2004

Mine codes

2

1993

2

1948

19

1958

Address for correspondence

4

1970

Notice of appt/ termination of Engineers

8

1968

Notice of temporary authorisation

24

1972

37

1956

30

1960

Chapter of MMR

Nil 4 5

8

Monthly &Annual returns

9

Death by failure or other natural causes

9

Necessity for post mortem in all cases of sudden death

50

1970

9

Correct information in notice of accident

79

1963

Revised forms IV -A,IV -B, IV- C Notice of accident

2

1993

Man shifts lost in accident, for compensation

9

1974

Intimation of reportable accidents

4

1976

Accident analysis at Mines

15

1963

Improving quality of accident report

1

1986

Accident analysis at Mines 14

Certificate of experience for training

58

1963

15

Validation of certificate issued by licentiate Doctor

7

1965


142 Particulars of licentiate doctors

4

1966

Acceptance of medical certificate issued by licentiate medical practitioner for the purpose of examination

5

1971

Measures to expedIte scrutiny of application for statutory examination for subordinate supervisory staff

1

1975

21

payment of examination fees under reg. 21 of MMR1961

24

19

1972

manager to return certificate

59

1963

charge report of manager

41

1961

other important matters from the point of view of safety required to be attended by the incoming manager

38

1962

manager's charge report : additional information - of safety directives

25

1966

charge handing over : reference manual of safety directives

9

1976

16

1969

residence of assistant managers

1

1947

information to be sent in the event of regular manager proceeding on leave

45

1964

manager's permit

17

1956

appointment of electrical supervisors

56

1967

enforcement of reg 36(1) of MMR 1961 (appointment of engineer)

10

1975

notice of temporary authorisation of engineer

24

1972

size of foreman's district

34

1974

appointment of surveyors in opencast metalliferous mines

15

1972

supervision on afternoon and night shifts

19

1959

notice to be given in the event of death of a certificate holder

42

1959

authorisation of persons to handle electrical apparatus/jobs

6

1975

appointment of managers : need for checking manager's certificate

36(1)

36 - 39

employment of uniocular persons

40

41 41A

1959

57, 14

1966, 1972

preparation of roster of officers on duty on holidays

48

1973

number of officers to be kept on duty on holidays

41

1974

1

1998

employment of uniocular officials

37

1971

measures to make I S O effective

38

sleeping on duty

4

1951

41

duties and responsibilities of manager

13

1974

duties of safety officers

55

1974

41A


143

43(8) (b)

58

format of daily report of mining sirdar/mining mate for mechanised opencast mines All geological disturbances to be shown on plans accompanying applications

1990

44

1971

Standards of accuracy of mine plans and sections: Specifications of Limits of Error

20

1966

42

1967

Important surveys

28

1966

Genl.2

1980

Plans of old workings

6

1955

Joint Survey plan

12

1958

Water courses to be re-surveyed

44

1959

Use of polyester film for original mine plans 59

3

Particulars of dams to be shown on plans

1959 13

1958

30

1969

Tech 1

1976

4

1971

Geological Plan

3

1958

Scale of Geological Plan

65

1964

Legis.2

1981

7

1967

Submission of Abandoned Mine Plans under Reg.63 of MMR 1961

Legis.2

1987

Submission of Abandoned Mine Plans (A.M.P)

Legis.3

1992

Survey instruments and materials

75

1965

Mine Surveyors: Facilities and workload

18

1972

63

Numbering of plans

19

1960

106

. DGMS/SOMA/(Tech) Cir.No.6 of 2004 Dt. 22/06/2004. Sub.: Monsoon preparation and Precaution against danger of inundation from surface water

6

2004

Subject: Accident due to side fall and fall of persons in opencast mines during monsoon season.

7

2004

Preventing fires in Heavy Earth Moving Machineries.

10

2004

Sampling of Airborne Respirable dust levels in mine atmosphere

2

2006

Water Danger Plan Water Danger Plan: Measures to give warning of danger of inundation Plans showing the extent of workings of adjacent mines

Scale of mine plans 61

64

Accuracy of plans of abandoned or discontinued workings


144 Respirable Dust Measurements and Control to Prevent Pneumoconiosis in mines

1

2010

3

2006

1

2008

AVA 01

2010

Advanced Early Streamer Emission Tvpe lightning protection System

7

2008

Modified standard condition stipulated under regulation 106 of Metlliferrous Regulation 1961 for Using HEMM in Open cast mines.

9

2008

Tech.1

2009

12

2009

Accident due to fall of persons while working at height.

Audio Visual Alarm for surface transportation Machineries other Heavy earth Moving Machineries Audio visual Alarm for surface transport Machinery & other Heavy earth Moving Machinery

Surveyed off equipment in the open cast mine Provision of Rear Vision system in Equipments Fire Suppression and Control System to be used in Mines 106

Advantages of inclined holes at hard rock faces Height and width of benches in hard and compact ground Conditions for use of heavy machinery/deep hole blasting

Tech.1 71

1963

42

1965

36

1972

Conditions for adopting a system of deep-hole blasting and/or working opencast mines with the help of heavy machinery for digging, excavation and removal of ore etc. under Reg.106(2) (b) of MMR 1961

36

1972

Tech.17

1977

Precautions with heavy earth moving machinery

Tech.3

1981

Precautions against inadvertent movement of HEMM during repair

Tech.11

1983

Precautions in tyre inflation

Tech.9

1979

Dump working

Tech 13

1977

11

1973

Tech.4

1979

Precautions while reversing vehicles

Tech.7

1977

Precautions while reversing vehicles

Tech.12

1999

Accidents due to dumpers, trucks and tractors etc.in opencast mines

Tech 2

1986

2

2004

Model code of precautions for truck transport in opencast mines Model code of precautions for dumpers and other vehicle

Accidents due to tippers in Opencast Mines


145

Measures to reduce accidents in opencast mines (as recommended by Seventh Conference on Safety in Mines)

Tech 1

1989

Precaustions while working near edges of high benches in opencast mines

Tech.12

1982

Transportation of mineral or material by tractor-trailer combinations in opencast mines

Tech 1

1987

Accidents by consumers trucks in mine premises

Genl 1

1978

Fatel accidents caused by wheeled trackless transportation machinery in opencast coal mines

Tech.4

1993

Tech.5

1993

Use of Tractor-Trailer combination for transportation of material in opencast mines and on surface

Tech.1

1994

Fatal accidents due to transportation machinery during the years 1980 and 1981

Tech.10

1983

Fatal accidents by wheeled transportation machinery during the year 1993

Tech.2

1995

Fatal accidents to contractors employees engaged in transportation work in mines

Tech.9

1996

Tech.1

1995

Blasting in fire areas

Tech.2

1990

Accidents due to dumpers: sudden stoppage of engine & failure of braking system

Tech.3

1999

Tech.9

1999

Tech.10

1999

Tech.2

2001

Tech.9

2003

4

2005

8

2009

Tech.

2009

Fatal accidents caused by wheeled trackless transportation machinery in opencast metalliferous mines

Danger due to lightning/storm during blasting operation in mines

Accidents due to failure of brake in tippers (tipping trucks) provision of propeller shaft guard in dumpers and tippers Accident due to failure of slope in an opencast coal mine Provision of proper Audio Visual Alarm during reversing of vehicles Recommendations of Godavarikhani No. 7 (LEP) Court of Inquiry, System study and Safety Audit for the purpose of eliminating the Risk of Accidents & Dangerous Occurrences. Recommendations of 10th National Conference on Safety in Mines held on 26th & 27th December 2007 at New Delhi

(SOMA) 1


146

Recommendations of Central Saunda Court of Inquiry

Tech.6

2006

62

1973

Statutory inspection on rest days

70

1967

Sirdar's report to be descriptive

4

1958

Genl 3

1985

3

1990

3

1952

81

1963

Provision of suitable footpaths in opencast mines

Tech.3

1976

Providing footsteps on floor of all wet and slippery sloping roadways

Tech.9

1983

Accidents due to defective design of ore chutes

Tech.3

1997

Tech.9

1997

2

1947

Tech 3

1980

Tech.4

1980

Tech.5

1985

Genl.1

1981

15

1960

57

1964

65

1965

13

1956

re-adjustment of boundaries: Applicability of Reg.107

116

Format of daily report of Mining Sirdar/Mining mate for mechanised opencast mines Appointment of sirdars in mines worked by sub-contractors etc Use of flame safety lamps fitted with relighters

Identification for newly recruited inexperienced mine workers EXPLOSIVES AND SHOTFIRING 153

Only dry gunpowder should be issued

Use of LOX in opencast mines: prevention of below through into u.g.workings Danger associated with use of ANFO in pyrite bearing ores Quality and condition of explosives provided for use in mines Storage of explosive beyond its shelf life Temporary storage of explosive near the entrance of a mine Safe destruction of blasting explosives Temporary storage of explosives near the entrance of a mine 155

Preparation of gun powder cartridges


147

9

1957

Pilferage of explosives through authorised persons

44

1963

A scheme for prevention of pilferage of explosives through authorised persons

33

1964

Tech.3

1992

Approval of mechanically propelled vehicle for transport of explosive under Reg.164 A of CMR 1957

2

1986

Reserve Stations

24

1962

Tech.6

1980

Stemming material

49

1959

Length of fuse outside the cartridge in fuse firing

45

1963

Forcing down of explosive cartridges

Tech.1

1975

Charging and firing of explosives in a crack, i.e.in an improperly drilled, charged and stemmed shot hole

Tech.5

1999

Accidents due to explosives

Tech.7

2001

Specifications of cable for shot-firing

70

1966

Indian Standards for shot-firing cable

25

1974

4

1965

Tech.5

1975

Tech.3

1987

43

1972

26

1967

Overhaul and repair of ME-6 exploder

61

1966

Circuit Testers

3

1973

7

1992

Tech.1

2000

11

1961

Tech.2

2005

Measures to be taken for preventing pilferage of explosives

159

Storage of explosives in reserve stations

162

163

Maintenance and repair of exploders

Servicing and repair of exploder Approval of indigenous make batteries for ME-6 exploder

Use of circuit tester during electric shot firing in mines Danger during testing of electric detonators 164

Hours of Blasting in opencast mines Use of mobile phones and two-way radio transmitters during charging of explosive and infilling stations.


148

Simultaneous blasting with fuse in opencast workings

1

1967

33

1974

Blasting in quarries beyond day-light hours

Tech.8

1976

Zone of influence of blasting

Tech.11

1977

Danger zone in opencast mines

Tech.15

1977

Taking shelter

Genl.3

1979

8

1982

Accidents due to blasting

Tech.15

1982

Damage of structures due to blast induced ground vibrations in the mining areas

Tech.11

1999

Dangers due to blasting projectiles

Tech.2

2003

Precautions in case of sockets etc.

23

1970

Tech.9

1985

23

1970

Precautions against blasting fumes

Tech.4

1984

167

Accidents due to drilling into misfired holes

Tech.2

1983

167

Accident due to misfired charges

Tech.10

2001

169

Statutory report of shotfirer

Genl.6

1983

Shotfirer's Daily Report

Genl.6

1983

Format of daily report of blasting over man/blasting foreman for mechanised opencast mines

Genl.3

1990

Gen.3

1985

Genl.3

1985

1

1992

Tech.5

1994

5

2004

Tech.11

2004

Provision ofWiper cum Dust collector Trolley at tail end drum of conveyor belt.

Tech.4

2004

Precautions in use of grinding wheels

Tech.7

1979

Blasting at two sites at a time

Danger from blasting operations in opencast workings

168

Inspection after shotfiring Blaster/Mate who charges holes is to inspect after blasting

Daily report of Blasting Overman/Foreman in opencast working Blaster's Daily report book Quality control of equipment purchased by mines for safety purposes Approval of equipment 172

Precautions to be observed during the operation and maintenance of Derrick Cranes. Intimation of accidents burn injuries due to electric flash / spark

172


149 Precautions in tyre inflation

Tech.9

1979

Tech.4

1977

Tech.6

1977

Failure of drill rods

Tech.5

1978

Checklist for inspection of drills and compressors

Tech.3

1990

Audit/Inspection of equipment on hire/contract

Tech.1

1999

Tech.2

1999

Tech.10

2002

Tech.12

2002

Tech.8

2003

10

1966

Tech.7

2003

Tech.12

1983

11

1959

Precautions while reversing vehicles

Tech.7

1977

Protection of workers against noise and Vibration in the working environment

Tech.18

1975

Protection of workers against noise

Tech.5

1990

Noise Levels and Noise Induced Hearing Loss among mine workers

Tech.3

2007

Approval of Safety Goggles, Reusable Earplug and visibility Harness.

Lagis.2

2007

Approval dust suppression / Prevention System in drilling machines used in mines

5

2008

Approval of Dust Suppression / Prevention System in Drilling machines used in mines

1

2009

74

1973

Tech.1

1985

Accidents caused by compressed air due to use of sub-standard equipment, poor maintenance and defective installation accidents from use of sub-standard or defective equipment and faulty practices in welding and cutting by oxy-acetylence gases

Accidents in coal handling plants/crushing plants in mines Safe use of mobile cranes : Code of practice Providing flash back arrestors in gas welding/Cutting sets Proper layout of workshop located in the precincts of opencast mines 173

Safe operation of air compressors Testing and examination of apparatus under pressure

174

Danger in cleaning a running belt conveyor: Provision of guards and fences

177

Fencing

182-182 A

Use of safety helmets and protective footwear by workmen Use of synthetic fibre clothes and non conducting featwear by shotfires/blasters and their helpers


150 Use of protective footwears by female workers

Tech.8

2002

72

1967

Legis 2

1975

Replacement of harness of safety helmets

32

1974

Use and supply of protective goggles or shields to the workers to prevent eye injuries

29

1974

Tech.1

1983

Use of line-men's safety belt

28

1967

Application for permissions, exemptions etc.

40

1968

Genl.1

1975

Tech.5

1979

Applicability of Mines Act to sidings etc

3

1952

Mines worked through contractors

3

1952

Use of safety helmets by loaders Interval for free supply of helmets to mine workers

182 B

Use of gloves

Reclassification of circulars Recommendations of the Jeetpur/Kessurgarh/Chansnalla & Sudamdih Courts of Inquiry

Mines Act 1952 2

3

Limitations of District Magistrate as Inspector

1953

Appointment of District Magistrate as Inspector

1954

Change of designations in the Mines Inspectorate

22

1967

Stmt.19

1970

5

Authorisation Under Sec.5(1)

18

Responsibility for enforcement of Mines Act. Etc

6

1956

19

Provision of drinking water in mines

65

1967

22

Communication about defective workings to mine workers

23

1968

23

Death by heart failure - See circulars under Reg.9

25

Intimation of notified diseases

76

1973

29

Work on rest day in lieu of festival holiday

43

1959

38

Reports about employment of persons in contravention of the Act

7

1952

49

1982

Legis.1

1982

11

1956

52

1965

Stmt.20

1970

26

1961

Submission of notices 45

Prohibition of presence of children in any part of the mine aboveground

48

Attendance of labour Employed by contractors

75 76

Ownership of the mine

No.4(2)70 83

Exemption from application of Mines Act Genl.13719G

1972


151 Exemptions under Mines Act

.

Exemption to oil mines in respect of working hours

stmt.13

1968

Accident Statistics-minor Accidents Register; anaysis of records of accidents

Genl.3

1978

Legis.1 & 4

1979

Legis.3

1988

Tech.5

1996

The Mines Rules 1956 29 A

Date of application of provisions of chapter IV-A of Mines Rules Provision of adequate medical attention to persons injured Notice of Occurrence of Notified disease

29 B

29 J 29 K

Occupational Health Services in mining industry (Recommendations of Seventh Conference on Safety in Mines)

1989

Legis.5

1989

Constitution of Appellate Medical Board

Legis.7

1987

Re-constitution of Appellate Medical Board under Rule 29K of Mines Rules, 1955

Legis.1

2005

Legis.4

1992

Legis.8

1987

Legis.3

1990

49

1964

21

1966

49

1973

Tech.15

1979

12

1956

Welfare.1

1978

47

1960

Procedure for Medical Re-Examination by Appellate Medical Board, Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad

Annual Report on Radiological Results of Medical Examinations

29 Q

Orientation training of Workmen's Inspectors Orientation training of Workmen's Inspectors for Oil Mines Constitution of Pit Safety Committees Activising of pit safety committees Recommendations of the silewara Court of Inquairy : functions of Pit Safety Committees

30

2006

Tech.1

29 P

29 T

Legis 1

Drinking water bottles for underground workers Quantiy of drinking Water

37

Approval of chemical closets as underground latrines

38

Need for improved sanitation u.g

13

1970

40

Provision of Ambulance Van

38

1967

42

Training in First-Aid

14

1962

Genl.2

1979

38

1968

First-Aid Services in mines

Training of First-Aiders


152

Refresher training of persons holding First-aid Certificate

33

1968

Active immunisation with tetanus toxoid

34

1973

Technical instruction regarding active immunisation for prevention of Tetanus

10

1974

Record of blood grouping

50

1973

62

Rest Shelters

25

1972

63

Temporary Rest Shelters

64

Mobile canteens

22

1959

Sale of snacks at canteens

21

1959

44 45 A

1957

1957

Design of canteens Working hours of mine canteens

1958 Welfare.1

1981

68

Management of canteens

21

1961

70

Prices to be charged in a canteen

21

1961

72

Approved qualifications of Welfare Officers

Genl 1

1986

Appointment of Women welfare Officers

34

1960

74

Consulting DGMS before discharge/dismissal of a Welfare Officer

37

1968

75

Proper maintenance of Attendance Registers at mines

61

1967

Register-keepers to sign the registers

9

1971

Attendance of Labour employed by contractor

52

1965

Definition of 'absence'

4

1955

Timely discovery of missing to workers

39

1971

Genl.4

1976

76

1973

Welfare.1

1975

18

1966

54

1966

78

81

Kit for determination of blood alcohol concentration

82

Case of pneumoconiosis or silicosis to be reported Training of doctors in mining diseases

The Mines Vocational Training Rules, 1966 The mines Vocational Training Rules 1966 1

Application of Vocational Training Rules to coal mines situated in the states of Bihar and West Bengal


153 Application of V.T.Rules to copper, gold, Iron ore and manganese Mines

83

1966

3

1967

50

1967

Vocational training of workers

55

1973

Training of new persons

34

1970

Legis.2

1976

27

1969

45

1971

33

1969

28

1972

37

1971

Facilities required at Group Training Centers and standard of training (Rule 6,7,8,9,10 & 11 of the The Mines Vocational Training Rules.1966)

Tech.3

2002

Revised Training schedules and introduction of Full-day Release Training System

Legis.4

1975

34

1972

Legis.1

1977

Tech.8

2001

Application of V.T Rules to limestone mines and mica mines Application of V.T.Rules to mines other than coal, oil, copper, gold, iron ore, Manganese, limestone and mica mines 6&7

8

Standard and training duration for different categories of mines workers under Mine V.T.Rules

9

Mines Vocational Training Rules, 1966- Application of Rule 9 for Refresher Training Refresher training of persons holding First-aid certificate

17

18 & 19

Training of Shotfirers, Mining Sirdars, Overmen, Machine Operators Timber Mistries etc. in gas-Testing Improvement of standard of vocational training centres and training imparted

Mines Creche Rules, 1966 11

Appointment of Crech-in-Charge Competent Authority under Mines Creche Rules

The Indian Electricity Rules 1956 The Indian Electricity Rule 1956 Jurisdiction of electrical accidents in residential areas 32

Accidents due to shock by electricity

55

1963

36

Distance of light fittings from live conductors

10

1967

3

1989

67

1973

47

1974

34

1969

Accidents on overhead lines and sub-station sturctures 60

Electrical testing equipment for mines Defective Design of an Ammeter


154 77 79-80 122

Clearance aboveground of the lowest conductor Accident due to shock by electricity: Maintenance of clearances Jointing of high voltage cable Use of aluminium conductors/cables in metalliferous mines Insulation resistance of cables

123

Code of Practice for operation and maintenance of flexible trailing cables associated with mobile machines Pilot earth core protection

44

1965

28

1964

Tech.2

1989

33

1972

31

1972

Tech.2

2002

Tech.14

1977


HAND BOOK ON SAFETY IN MINES & DIMENSION STONE QUARRIES