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Psychology Concepts and Connections 9th Edition Rathus Test Bank Full clear download (no formatting errors) at: http://testbanklive.com/download/psychology-concepts-and-connections9th-edition-rathus-test-bank/ Psychology Concepts and Connections 9th Edition Rathus Solutions Manual Full clear download (no formatting errors) at: http://testbanklive.com/download/psychology-concepts-and-connections9th-edition-rathus-solutions-manual/

Chapter 1 Part A--What Is Psychology? Student:

1. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of A. behavior and mental processes. B. diagnosis and treatment of behavioral disorders. C. conscious and unconscious mental processes. D. the mind. 2. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes describes A. behaviorism. B. ps yc ho an al ys is. C. ps yc ho lo gy . D. clinical psychology. 3. Eduardo DeLeon is engaged in scientific research involving the study of behavior and mental processes. DeLeon is a A. ps yc hot her api st. B. ps

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yc ho an aly st. C. ps yc hia tris t. D. psychologist. 4. When a psychologist tells a client to use mental imagery in an attempt to help the person cope with a problem, she is attempting to reach which goal of psychology? A . d e s c r i b e B . e x p l a i n C . p r e d i c t D . c o n t r o l 5. A satisfactory theory of alcohol addiction should allow us to predict 2

A. the types of individuals who are at risk for developing this problem. B. what type of intervention is successful for recovery.


C. both a and b. D. none of the above. 6. An educational psychologist who advises teachers on how to establish classroom discipline is applying which of the following goals of psychology? A. prediction B. control C. explanation D. description 7. An unsatisfactory psychological theory of thirst would not A. be able to predict when people will or will not drink. B. be able to describe age-related drinking behavior. C. both a and b. D. none of the above.

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8. A conception of apparent relationships among observed events defines A . s c i e n c e . B . t h e o r y . C. prediction. D. the school of psychology. 9. When a psychologist forms conclusions regarding a client's chance of recovery, he is attempting to reach which goal of psychology? A . d e s c r i p t i o n B . e x p l a n a t i o n C . p r e

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d i c t i o n D . c o n t r o l 10. Which of the following is the best definition of psychology? A. The study of human behavior. B. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. C. The study of why people behave in abnormal and unique ways. D. The study of how the mind works. 11. Mary is crying in her teacher's office. Which goal of psychology does this represent? A . d e s c r i b e B . e x p l a i n C . p r e d i c t D .

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c o n t r o l 12. Braden's score on his SAT suggests he will do very well in an advanced English class. Which goal of psychology does this example represent? A . d e s c r i b e B . e x p l a i n C . p r e d i c t D . c o n t r o l 13. Psychologists often help judges and juries decide whether a criminal in jail will commit another crime if released. Which goal of psychology does that example represent? A . e x p

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l a i n B . d e s c r i b e C . p r e d i c t D . c o n t r o l 14. Dr. Jones is interested in determining the effects of marijuana on learning in a classroom setting. This type of research is: A. pure. B . a p p l i e d . C . n a t u r a l .

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D. situational.

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15.

research has no immediate application to personal or social problems and has been characterized as research for its own sake. A . P u r e B . A p p l i e d C . C o n c e p t u a l D . O b s e r v a t i o n a l

16. Research examining how the nervous system works conducted for no other reason than to determine "how it works" would be considered research. A . a p p l i

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e d B . p u r e C . e x p e r i m e n t a l D . e x p l a n a t o r y 17. Dr. Garces is interested in assessing the driving reaction times of the elderly for the purpose of driving improvement classes. She is doing what type of research? A . c l i n i c a l B . p u r e C . a p p

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l i e d D . n a t u r a l i s t i c 18. Psychologists seek to formulate principles of human behavior through research such as A. studies of memory disorders. B. surveys and experiments. C . i n t r o s p e c t i o n . D . i n s i g h t . 19. Which of the following is not true of psychological theories? A. Theories make assumptions about behavior. B. Theories explain behavior and mental processes. C. Predictions 11 are derived from theories. D. Theories are always discarded as new observations are made.


20. The clinical psychologist's aim in applying prediction and control principles to a client's behavior is to A. decide the treatm ent. B. help the client meet his or her goals in treatment. C. allow the client a narrow range of options for his or her behavior. D. use a database to formulate a treatment for the client. 21. Dr. Rossini is developing a training program to help a young woman with mental retardation to sort clothes in the laundry of the residential facility in which she lives. Whenever she performs her job according to the protocol, she receives a reward. If she does not stay on task, she receives no reward. Applying the principles of learning theory to the direct modification of human conduct is referred to as A . p ur e re se ar c h. B . b as ic re se ar c h. C . p s y c h o a n al y si s. D. the practice of psychology.

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22. The results of research in the study of the perceptual development of infants and lower animals is often useful in formulating the treatment of visual disorders in humans. A. pure B. basic C. controlled D. action 23. Applied research is research undertaken A. with humans. B. with lower animal s. C. for its own sake. D. to find solutions to specific problems. 24. The difference between pure and applied research is the difference between A. predictio n and control. B. practice and theory. C. research for its own sake and research to solve specific problems. D. application and explanation. 25. Research using computers to understand artificial intelligence is considered research. A. pure B. applied C. longitudinal D. none of the above 26. Dr. Langer is treating a college student for depression in his private practice. Most likely Dr. Langer is a(n) psychologist. A. counseling B. school C. educational D. clinical 27. Jean, a divorced mother with two children, married Harry, a widower with a teenage daughter. From the onset of her relationship with Harry, Jean had difficulty in relating to the daughter. Once married, the family problems between stepmother and stepdaughter became exacerbated. Who might be consulted? A. a developmental psychologist B. an educational psychologist C. a counseling psychologist D. a psychiatric social worker

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28. Diagnosing the severity of mental illness and behavior problems is usually the job of a(n) psychologist. A. clinical B. counseling C. school D. educational

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29. School psychologists are employed by school districts to A. develop achievement and aptitude tests. B. identify and assist students who have problems that interfere with their learning. C. assess the development of children in the school system. D. develop instructional methods for teachers to employ. 30. Interpretation of a client's symptoms is to a clinical psychologist as the development of an achievement test is to a(n) psychologist. A . s o c i a l B. de ve lo p m en tal C . e d u c a t i o n a l D . p e r s o n a l i t y 31. Dr. Kendall is interested in the effects of teacher style (warm and supportive versus formal and objective) on the learning of mathematics by sixth graders. Most likely, Dr. Kendall is a(n) 15 A .

psyc


e d u c a t i o n a l B . p e r s o n a l i t y C . s c h o o l D . e x p e r i m e n t a l 32.

psychologists study the relationship between genetic and environmental factors on growth of the individual through the life span. A . B i o c u l

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t u r a l B . P e r s o n a l i t y C. De vel op me nta l D . S o c i a l 33. The study of human traits and characteristics is of interest to A . c l i n i c a l B . p e r s o n a l i t y C

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psychologists.


. c o m m u n i t y D . s o c i a l 34.

psychologists are concerned with racism, sexism, and ageism. A . C o m m u n i t y B . P e r s o n a l i t y C . F o r e n s i c D .

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S o c i a l 35. A theory that divides human behavior into two basic traits, introversion and extraversion, was probably formulated by a psychologist. A. de ve lo p m en tal B . p e r s o n a l i t y C . b e h a v i o r a l D . c l i n i c a l 19


36. How the individual is affected by the group and the effects of the individual on the group are the concerns of psychologists. A. clinical B. socio logic al C. com munit y D. social 37. Which of the following psychologists is most likely to conduct pure research? A. experim ental B. organiz ational C. consum er D. human factors 38. The design of the instrument layout of a new helicopter was carried out by industrial engineers in consultation with psychologists. A. consumer B. experimental C. industrial D. human factors 39. Dr. Wang has just prescribed antidepressants for her patient. She must be a: A. clinical psychologist. B. social psychologist. C. marital counselor. D. psychiatrist . 40. The following psychologists have clients with adjustment problems but not serious psychological disorders. A. clinical psychologists B. counseling psychologists C. educational psychologists D. developmental psychologists 41. Dr. Correia is working with schizophrenics in a hospital setting. What type of psychologist is Dr. Correia? A. clinical psychologist B. counseling psychologist C. educational psychologist D. developmental psychologist 42. Which of the following is a difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist? A. Seeing people who have psychological 20 problems. B. Working in a hospital. C. Having an MD. D. Doing research on psychological therapies.


43. A main difference between educational psychologists and school psychologists is that school psychologists focus on: A. course planning. B. instructi onal methods . C. motivati on research . D. problems that interfere with learning. 44. Educational psychologists are most interested in research concerning: A. personal problems. B. instructional methods. C. unconscious behavior. D. problems that interfere with learning. 45. Worker satisfaction issues would most likely be studied by

psychologists.

A. clinical B. industrial C. educational D. health 46. Industrial psychologists are more likely to be involved in research examining which of the following topics? A. Designing factory workspace for better worker efficiency. B. The memory of rats in learning a maze. C. The effects of growth hormones on infant chimps. D. Juror selection in cases involving white collar crimes. 47. Dr. Bonds helps people develop better exercise routines, nutritional strategies, and relaxation techniques. What type of psychologist is Dr. Bonds? A. educational B. social C. organizational D. health 48. Shopping behavior would be studied by a

psychologist.

A. health B. clinical C. consumer D. organizational 49. Dr. Ippolito is interested in child rearing techniques of single parent families. She is most likely a/an psychologist. A. developmental B. counseling C. social D. health 21


50. Dr. James has just completed a study examining the effects of aggressive television programs on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. She is most likely a psychologist. A . d e v e l o p m e n t a l B . c o u n s e l i n g C . s o c i a l D . h e a l t h 51. Dr. Patil studies the development of attitudes among college students. He is a psychologist. A . d e v e l o p

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m e n t a l B . c o u n s e l i n g C . s o c i a l D . h e a l t h 52. After an advertising campaign with a catchy jingle failed to generate sales for a new shampoo, the advertising director hired Faith Broadside to analyze the defective campaign and to propose an alternative approach. Faith is most likely a(n) psychologist. A . c o n s u m e r B . s o c i a l C .

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o r g a n i z a t i o n a l D . h u m a n f a c t o r s 53. As much as she tried to lose weight, Pauline could not achieve her goal of 15% weight loss. Accordingly, she made an appointment to consult with Dr. Richman, a psychologist. A . c l i n i c a l B . c o u n s e l i n g C . h u

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m a n f a c t o r s D . h e a l t h 54. Club NoFat, a fitness center, introduced a new program that linked diet to the exercise program and was looking for someone to run the program. The club's director especially wanted to hire someone with a background in stress management in the control of health problems. Most likely, she was looking for a(n) A . pe rs o na l tr ai ne r. B. sports psych ologis t. C. health psych ologis t. D. aerob ics instru ctor. 55. The psychologist examines ways in which lifestyle, habits, and attitudes are related to heart disease, cancer and diabetes. A . c l i n i c

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a l B . h e a l t h C . c o u n s e l i n g D . f o r e n s i c 56. Yolanda gives a careful description of all of her thoughts, experiences, and emotions after she underwent a "near-death" experience in which she felt herself leaving her body. The method Yolanda and the researcher are using is called A . i n s i g h t . B . s e l f r e v e l a t i

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o n . C. recov ered mem ory. D. intro spect ion.

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57. Wilhelm Wundt founded the school of psychology called A. fun ctio nali sm. B. psy cho anal ysis . C. beh avi oris m. D. structuralism. 58. Under the school of structuralism, an analytic study of objective sensations and subjective feelings is accomplished through the method called A. conditioning. B. psy cho anal ysis . C. intr osp ecti on. D. insight. 59. The very first psychological laboratory was established by A. Wilh elm Wun dt. B. Willi am Jame s. C. Char les Dar win. D. Gust av Fech ner. 60. What distinguished Wilhelm Wundt's contribution from other contributions to psychology? A. He wrote the first textbook of psychology. B. He defined psychology as the 28 science of behavior. C. He established psychology as a laboratory science. D. He studied insight in lower animals.


61. Wilhelm Wundt felt that the object of psychology was the study of the mind as a natural event and that the best way to approach the study of psychology was to A. break down conscious experience into basic elements. B. focus on the continuity between conscious experience and behavior. C. analyze the relation between sensory stimuli and behavior. D. determine the functions of conscious experience. 62. Structuralism defined experience in terms of A. behavioral tendencies and habits. B. the continuity of consciousness and unconscious processes. C. the functions of consciousness. D. sensations, feelings, and mental images. 63. The early roots of psychology can be traced to the: A. Greek philosophers. B. Roman generals. C. German scientists. D. American medical doctors. 64. One of the first recorded books examining the mind was written by the early Greek philosopher: A. Hippocrates. B. Aristotle. C . O e d i p u s . D . P l a t o .

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65. The main method used in the school of structuralism was: A. introspection. B. stream of consciousne ss. C. observation. D. perception. 66. The founder of the American school of psychology known as functionalism was: A. Wilhelm Wundt. B. E.B. Titchner. C. Joh n B. Wat son. D. Will iam Jam es. 67. He was known as the first psychologist and the founder of structuralism. A. Wil hel m Wu ndt B. Wil lia m Jam es C. Joh n Wat son D. Aristotle 68. Functionalism was established by A. G. Stan ley Hall . B. Wil hel m Wun dt. C. John Wat son. D. William James.

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69. Which of the following statements is most likely to have been made by a functionalist psychologist?


A. The mind is composed of discrete elements. B. Perception is greater than the sum of its parts. C. The only object of psychology is the study of behavior. D. Adaptation to the environment is the purpose of mental processes and behavior. 70. The school of psychology that emphasizes the purposes of mind and behavior and views consciousness as a continuous, not discrete, process is called A. fu nc ti o na lis m . B. be ha vi or is m . C. st ru ct ur al is m . D. psychoanalysis. 71. A functionalist would agree with which of the following statements? A. Consciousness can be broken down into elemental parts. B. Consciousness is a continuous process. C. Both a and b. D. None of the above. 72. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution predicted that organisms that survived and reproduced were than those less fit. A. more intelligent B. better adapted to the environment C. more conscious of their surroundings D. better at problem solving

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73. The functionalists expanded the study of psychology to include behavior as well as consciousness and asked how mental processes and behavior A. were broken down into sensations, feelings, and thoughts. B. were part of the unconscious. C. led the individual to self-knowledge. D. assisted the organism to adapt to the environment. 74. One similarity between structuralism and functionalism was: A. unconscious behavior. B. they both focused on real world situations. C. int ro sp ect io n. D. observabl e behavior. 75. The main method used in the school of behaviorism was: A. introspection. B. stream of consciousnes s. C . o b s e r v a ti o n . D . p e r c e p ti o n . 76. John B. Watson argued for a psychology based on the study of A. stream of consciousnes s. B. unconscious mental processes.

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C. measurable behavior. D. sensation, feelings, and mental images. 77. John B. Watson established

as a school of psychology.

A. be ha vi ori sm B. fu nct io nal is m C. str uct ur ali sm D. psy cho anal ysis 78. John Watson proposed a definition of psychology that omitted all except A. mental proces ses. B. behavi or. C. con scio usn ess. D. feelings and thoughts. 79. Which of the following psychologists would have most in common with John B. Watson? A . B . F . S ki n n er

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B. Sigm und Freu d C. Willi am Jame s D. Wilh elm Wun dt 80. Watson is to behaviorism as Wundt is to A. int ros pe cti on B. str uct ur ali sm C. fu nct io nal is m D. psy cho anal ysis

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81. "Wholes are more than the sums of their parts" was the view of which of the following schools of psychology? A . b e h a v i o r i s m B . f u n c t i o n a l i s m C . s t r u c t u r a l i s m D . g e s t a l t

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82. Which of the following schools of psychology used perception as its chief method?


A . b e h a v i o r i s m B . f u n c t i o n a l i s m C . s t r u c t u r a l i s m D . g e s t a l t 83. The German word Gestalt translates roughly to: A. introspection. B. reinforcement.

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C. org ani zed wh ole . D. be ha vio r pat ter n. 84. Mr. B.F. Skinner made major contributions to A . s t r u c t u r a l i s m . B . f u n c t i o n a l i s m . C . b e h a v i o r i s m . D. Gestalt psychology.

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85. Ted taught his cat to turn in a circle every time he waved his hand in a circular motion. After the response Ted would pet the cat and give it a treat. From Skinner's perspective the treat would be considered a A. bribe. B . s t i m u l u s . C . r e i n f o r c e r . D . c o n t r o l . 86. Mr. B.F. Skinner studied learning in lower animals through the method of A . r e i n f o r c e m e n t . B . i

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n s i g h t . C . i n t r o s p e c t i o n . D . t r i a l a n d e r r o r . 87. The school of psychology that emphasized the organization of perceptual experience into wholes and the integration of separate stimuli into meaningful patterns is termed A . p s y c h o a n al y si s. B . fu n ct io n al

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is m . C . st ru ct ur al is m . D. Gestalt psychology. 88. Behaviorism is to learning theory as Gestalt psychology is to A. psychotherapy. B. adaptation to the environment. C. perception. D. habit.

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89. Freud is to Wundt as unconscious is to: A . p e r c e p t i o n . B . c o n s c i o u s . C . s u b c o n s c i o u s . D . i n s i g h t . 90. Psychoanalysis is to unconscious processes as behaviorism is to A . p e r c e

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p t i o n B . l e a r n i n g . C . s e n s a t i o n . D. introspection. 91. For the Gestalt psychologists, learning was largely a matter of A. trial and error. B. insight and understanding . C. rote practice and repetition. D. habit and environmental adaptation. 92. Watson and Skinner had one objective in common--the A. treatment of disorders. B. acquisition of behavior through conditioning/reinforcement. C. use of mental imagery. D. discovery of unconscious conflicts. 93. While historians rank as the most significant figure in the history of psychology, popular culture places at the top of its list of psychologists. A. John Watson; William James B. William James; Sigmund Freud C. Wilhelm Wundt; William James D. Wilhelm Wundt; Sigmund Freud 42 94. The school of psychology that places unconscious impulses and desires at the center of human behavior is

A. psychoanalysis.


B. humanismexistentialis m. C. functionalis m. D. Gestalt psychology. 95. Lisa, while contemplating her fourth failed relationship, came to the conclusion that maybe all men aren't jerks, but that she was making poor decisions. Gestalt psychologists would call this: A. insight. B . i n t r o s p e c t i o n . C . o v e r s i g h t . D. perceptual congruity. 96. Which of the following schools of psychology focused on unconscious conflict and ideas that originated in early childhood? A. Gestalt B . B e h a vi or is m C . F u n ct io n al

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is m D . P sy c h o a n al ys is

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97. The founder of psychoanalysis was: A. Wi lhe lm W un dt. B. Wi llia m Ja me s. C. Si gm un d Fr eu d. D. Jo hn B. W ats on. 98. Roger has just undergone several months of discussing his childhood events with his therapist. He talked about toilet training and other significant early events to help understand his conflicts in his present life. Roger was involved in: A . in si g ht tr ai ni n g. B . in tr os p ec ti o n. C. psychoanalysis. D. humanistic counseling. 99. Which one of the following perspectives of psychology no longer exists today? A. psychoanalysis B. humanism C. cognitive D. functionalism

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100.At the center of psychodynamic theory of human motivation is A. insight. B. th e un co ns ci ou s. C. be ha vi or. D. introspection. 101.Psychoanalysis differs from structuralism, functionalism and behaviorism in that it is also a method of A. scie ntif ic inq uiry . B. intr osp ecti on. C. se lfk n o w le d ge . D . ps yc h ot he ra p y. 102.Freud's technique of psychotherapy is called A . re al it y th er a

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p y. B . in si g ht th er a p y. C . p s y c h o a n al y si s. D. behavior therapy. 103.That people are motivated to satisfy unconscious urges and to avoid guilt feelings at the same time is an assumption of A. psychodynamic theory. B. the humanisticexistential approach. C. behaviorism. D. Gestalt psychology. 104.Which of the following statements distinguishes psychoanalysis from other schools of psychology? A. Unconscious processes have the greatest impact on behavior. B. Learning is the basis of behavior. C. Humans are potentially good. D. The sum of the parts is more important than the separate parts.

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105.

oriented psychologists use techniques such as CAT scans, PET scans, and electrical stimulation of the brain to show that specific sites in the brain mediate thoughts, emotions, and behavior. A . C o g n i t i v e l y B. Dev elop men tally C . B e h a v i o r a l l y D . B i o l o g i c a l l y

106.Dr. Levy studies the influences of hormones in determining maternal behavior and sexual behavior in rats. Levy is most probably a A. Gestalt psychol ogist. B. behavioral psychologi

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st. C. biological psychologi st. D. psychoanal yst. 107.The statement that the mental state associated with being in love can be reduced to chemical changes in the brain is most likely to be made by a psychologist taking the perspective. A . b i o l o g i c a l B . b e h a v i o r a l C . c o g n i t i v e D . d e v el o p m e nt al

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108.Which of the following is a mental process and not directly observable?


A . P E T s c a n B. sali vary resp onse C. men tal ima gery D. hear t rate 109."Survival of the fittest" would most likely be studied by which of the following types of psychologists? A . h u m a n i s t B . b e h a v i o r i s t C . s t r u

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c t u r a l i s t D . e v o l u t i o n i s t 110.

psychologists suggest that much human social behavior such as aggression and mate selection has its basis in heredity and genetics. A . E v o l u t i o n a r y B . G e s t a l t C . C o g n i t i

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v e D . H u m a n i s t i c 111.Cognitive psychologists would be least interested in A. mental representa tions. B. memory. C . p e r c e p t i o n . D. behavior in social settings. 112.Cognitive psychologists are specifically interested in studying A. animal learning and motivation. B. human thinking and memory. C. genetic and hormonal effects on behavior. D. introspection and behavioral disorders.

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113.Software is to a computer's hardware as mental processes are to A. the brain. B . p e r c e p t i o n s . C . s e n s a t i o n s . D . t h o u g h t s . 114.Neural processing is to the biological perspective as information processing is to the perspective. A. de ve lo p m en tal B. ps yc ho dy na mi c

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C. le ar ni ng D. cognitive 115.In reviewing the contents of several psychology journals, a graduate student noted a marked increase in the number of articles on memory and thinking over the past dozen years. He concluded that there was increased interest in the perspective. A. behavioral B. psychodynamic C. biological D. cognitive 116.The humanistic-existential perspective unites approach.

and

as central principles to its

A. brain; behavior B. self-fulfillment; free choice C. mental processes; consciousness D. culture; values 117.The chemical activity of hormones and the electrical activity of the brain are the main concern of psychologists. A . h u m a n i s t i c B . b e h a v i o r a l C . c o g n i t i

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v e D . b i o l o g i c a l 118.

stresses the capacity for self-fulfillment and the central role of consciousness, self-awareness, and decision making. A. Psychoanalysis B. Behaviorism C. Humanism D. Functionalism

119.The method of introspection, developed by the school of structuralism, has its biggest influence on what contemporary perspective of psychology? A . b i o l o g i c a l B . c o g n i t i v e C . h u m a n i s t i

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c D . e x i s t e n t i a l

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120.Humanism focuses on the

.

A. unconscious B. mental processes C. self D. structure of consciousness 121.The idea that we are free to choose what direction we go, is a central idea of which of the following perspectives? A. existentialism B. gestalt C. behaviorism D. functionalism 122."Neoanalysts" differ from the original followers of Sigmund Freud because they focus more on: A. unconscious sexual behavior B. conscious choice and self direction C. insight D. observable behavior 123.Lydia Corfield, a humanistic-existential psychotherapist, is most likely to make which of the following statements to her clients about their objectives for therapy? A. We will uncover the unconscious ideas that are at the source of your disorder. B. We will lay out a program to extinguish your disordered behavior and condition appropriate behavior. C. You will explore your perceptions and thoughts in order to discover who you really are. D. You need to identify the ethnic and social and environmental factors that may be at the root of your mental disorder. 124.Cathy was a very successful real estate agent. At age 36 she decided to donate her wealth to charity and become a missionary in Haiti, where she has been living in relative contentment for the past 2 years. Which perspective would best explain Cathy's behavior? A. psychodynamic B. social-cognitive C. humanistic-existential D. developmental 125.Critics of the humanistic-existential perspective might argue that psychology must confine itself to A. conscious mental processes. B. subjective experience. C. biologically related processes. D. observable events. 126.In comparison with traditional psychoanalysis, neoanalysts place less emphasis on A. conscious choice. B. unconsci ous processe s. C. scientific research. D. psychotherapy.

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127.Dr. Cooper treats her patients by exploring their unconscious conflicts using dream analysis. Self-direction and conscious choice are not part of the therapeutic intervention. Dr. Cooper's theoretical approach is A. humanisti cexistential . B. socialcognitive. C. ps yc ho an aly tic. D. ne oa nal yti c. 128.The notion that bizarre or atypical thoughts are expressions of unconscious processes was proposed by A. Sig mu nd Fre ud. B. Eri k Eri kso n. C. Wi llia m Ja me s. D. Jea n Pia get . 129.

psychologists take the position that learning is essential in describing, predicting, controlling, and explaining behavior. A. Neoanalytic B. Behavioral C. Developmental D. Biological

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130.Unconscious processes, dream analysis and sexual and aggressive impulses are ideas less likely to be used by which perspective?


A. psychoanalytic B. behavioral C. both a and b D. none of the above 131.Both social-cognitive theorists and behaviorists adhere to the

perspective.

A. humanistic-existential B. learning C. neoanalytic D. developmental 132.Five-year-old Todd watched his father at his workbench, hammering together a birdhouse. Soon Todd was next to his father, hammer in hand, tapping the workbench. Todd's behavior is best described by which perspective? A. social-cognitive B. behavioral C. sociocultural D. neoanalytic 133.A distinction between behavioral and social-cognitive perspectives is that the former emphasizes , and the latter emphasizes in learning. A. reinforcement; observation B. conditioning; development C. brain processes; social processes D. introspection; self-determination

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134.Jean Blake, a psychiatrist who is strongly influenced by the social-cognitive perspective, is most likely to take which approach in treating a male client who is extremely shy of females? A. Observe and imitate models engaged in social interactions with women. B. Condition positive emotional responses to women. C. Uncover the unconscious conflicts in the approach and avoidance of women. D. Prescribe that he take anti-anxiety medication before going out with a woman. 135.Modern social-cognitive theorists differ from early behaviorists because they allow for the influence of: A. reinforcement B. cognition C. learning histories D. unconscious conflict 136.Members of a/an history.

are united by their cultural heritage, race, language, and common

A . c u l t u r a l g r o u p B . e t h n i c g r o u p C . r a c i a l g

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r o u p D. nationality 137.The issues of ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status are the concerns of the perspective. A. sociocultural B. humanistic-existential C. psychoanalytic D. social-cognitive 138.Dr. Maloff is studying the effects of ethnic bias on the school performance of immigrant children. Most likely, Maloff is a psychologist. A. psychoanalytic B. behavioral C. sociocultural D. school 139.Which of the following is not likely the concern of sociocultural psychologists? A. alcohol abuse among ethnic minority groups B. racial bias C. gender roles D. color perception 140.Dr. Rabin is studying whether Asian men are more or less likely to seek treatment for clinical depression as part of a larger study of Asian men's attitudes toward health issues. Dr. Rabin is most likely a(n) A. humanistic B. sociocultural C. industrial D. personality

61


141.Dr. Jacobi is studying the effects of bilingualism on the intellectual development of children. She wants to know whether learning both English and Spanish simultaneously or sequentially impedes or enhances intelligence scores in both languages. Most likely, Dr. Jacobi follows a perspective. A. psychoanalytic B. humanistic C. gestalt D. sociocultural 142.The sociocultural perspective is concerned with the A. issues of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. B. behavior of society. C. makeup of social and cultural organizations. D. influence of a group on the behavior of the individual. 143.Membership in an ethnic group is defined by A. genetic variables. B. cultural heritage, language, and common history. C. socioeconomic status and political identity. D. attitudes, values, and religion. 144.The issues of gender, diversity, and ethnicity all fall into which of the following perspectives of psychology? A. sociocultural B . b e h a v i o r a l C . e x i s t e n t i a l D . b i o

62


l o g i c a l 145.The first woman to receive a PhD in psychology was: A. Anna Freud. B. Karen Horney. C. Margaret Floy Washburn. D. Elizabeth Loftus. 146.The first woman to receive a PhD in psychology and the author of The Animal Mind was A. Christine LaddFranklin. B. Margaret Floy Washburn. C. Anna Freud. D. Mary Whiton Calkins. 147.His research on the negative effects of school segregation on African American children was cited by the United States Supreme Court when it overturned the "separate but equal" school doctrine in 1954. A. Glibert Havens Jones B. Kenneth B. Clark C. Martin Luther King, Jr. D. J. Henry Alston 148.Christine Ladd-Franklin pursued a career in psychology and formulated a theory of A. visu al cons tanci es. B. colo r visio n. C. attitudes. D. animal behavior.

63


149.In the 1903 book, The Mental Traits of Sex, this early pioneer in the field of psychology was among the first to raise the issue of gender differences. A. Helen Bradford Thompson B . M a r g a r e t M e a d C . A n n a F r e u d D. Mar y S. Ains wort h 150.Known as the "father of ebonics," this African American psychologist has gained international recognition for his understanding of language differences among cultural groups. A. N oa m C ho m sk y B. R ob ert W illi a m s C. K en ne th

64


Cl ar k D. Mi cha el Hu bba rd 151.Empirical research must be supported by A . e v i d e n c e . B. referenc e to authorit y. C. commo n sense. D. deduct ive reason ing. 152.As a scientist, you try not to speculate or draw conclusions when you don't have evidence. This approach is consistent with your use of A . c o m m o n s e n s e . B. person al experi ence. C. good economic

65


decisions. D. the scientific method. 153.The scientific method allows us to A. support popular opinion. B. maintain traditions. C. just ify our val ues. D. test ideas and refine knowledge. 154.

invented the use of the correlational method so there would be a mathematical way to study the relationship between variables. A. Sir Fra nce s Dra ke B . C h a rl e s D a r w i n C. Sir Fran ces Galt on D . G a l i l e o

155.A(n) is a specific statement about 66 behavior or mental processes that is tested through research.


A . o b s e r v a t i o n B. sci ent ific me tho d C . t h e o r y D . h y p o t h e s i s 156.Which of the following is a valid hypothesis? A. Viewing TV violence increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children. B. Viewing TV violence may influence children's behavior. C . B o t h a a n d b .

67


D. Non e of the abov e.

68


157.A hypothesis is an assumption or a best guess that A. becomes a selection factor in research. B. is accepted if it is popular. C. can be tested by gathering evidence. D. provides an operational definition. 158.If a doctor concludes from evidence that having yearly physical exams helps people stay healthy but has not considered the risk of a selection factor bias, the doctor may ignore the possibility that A. healthy people may schedule exams more often than others. B. some people have better genes than others. C. people who are sick often go to the doctor often. D. hypochondriacs do the same thing. 159.The first step in the scientific method, according to the text is: A. hypothesis. B. formulating a research question. C . t h e m e t h o d . D . t h e d i s c u s s i o n . 160.One of the main reasons that the scientific method must be a precise step-by-step procedure is for the purpose of: A . b e

69


t t e r r e s u l t s . B . r e p l i c a t i o n . C. sa mp le sel ect ion . D. cle ar dis cus sio n. 161."People who smoke marijuana will have short term memory deficits." That statement in a scientific context would be the: A. operatio nal definiti on. B. indepen dent variable . C. hypothe sis. D . c o n c

70


l u s i o n . 162.A group of people that represent a particular population in a scientific study is called a: A. sample. B . s e g m e n t . C . c o m p o n e n t . D . f o c u s g r o u p . 163.Marvin wanted to know how his state was going to vote in the next presidential election. He polled every college student in the state and found that they were leaning toward the democratic candidate. What is wrong with Marvin's conclusion? A. His sample does not have enough subjects. B. His sample does not generalize accurately. C. His sample has too few subjects. D. There is nothing wrong with Marvin's sample. 71


164.When the results of an experiment are published, it is important to include details as to how the evidence was collected and evaluated. This allows other scientists to the research. A. read B. replicate C. select D. experience 165.In selecting research participants, the results can be generalized if the sample represents the A. ideas of the researcher. B. commonsense views of the times. C. target population. D. theory in question. 166.A

is a segment of a population that is targeted for study.

A . s a m p l e B . g r o u p C . t e a m D. all of the above 167.If you conclude that the participants in a study are a representative sample, then you can from the research sample to the larger population. A . r e p l i c a t e B

72


. s p e c u l a t e C . g e n e r a l i z e D . s a m p l e 168.Research samples often

women and minority groups.

A. over represent B. select C. sample D. under represent 169.In a participate. A. ran do m sa mp le B. sel ect ion sa mp le C. str ati fie d sa

, each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to

73


mp le D. fre e sa mp le 170.When each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected, the sampling method is called: A. statistical. B . m a t h e m a t i c a l . C . r a n d o m . D. generalized.

74


171.Sandy wanted to know how her state would vote in the next presidential election. She knew her state had 13% African-American, 11% Asian-American, 14% Hispanic-American and the rest were Caucasian-American and others. She designed her sample to reflect these percentages. What type of sampling did Sandy use? A. random B. generalizable C. stratified D. scrambled 172.If 12% of the population is African American, what percentage of a stratified population would be African American? A . a l l b u t 1 2 % B . 2 4 % C . 1 2 % D . 9 % 173.Would a sample of children from an affluent suburban school district be considered a representative sample of American children? A. Yes, because public education is available to all children. B. No, because affluent suburban schools tend to be less racially, ethnically, and economically diverse than the nation as a whole. C. No, because they are nothing like the average American child. D. Yes, because they have all the advantages and none of the disadvantages. 174.Joseph wanted to know the drug habits of his senior high school class. He sent out surveys to 300 of his fellow students. He got 130 surveys back all claiming significant drug use. Why should Joseph be careful about concluding that drug use was rampant 75 on his campus? A. Surveys are


meaningles s. B. Volunteer bias. C. Exper iment er bias. D. Contr ol group error. 175.The bias stemming from the likelihood that those who offer to participate in certain kinds of surveys differ systematically from those who are less likely to volunteer is known as A. sel ect ion fac tor s. B. vol unt eer bia s. C. self-selection. D. stratified selection. 176.

are information we collect about individuals or small groups. A. Anecdotes B. Journals C. Surveys D. Case studies

177.Case study methods are often used to study A. controversial B. rare C. stratified D. random

76

cases.


178.The method uses interviews and questionnaires to collect information from large numbers of people. A . c a s e s t u d y B . s c i e n t i f i c C . e x p e r i m e n t a l D . s u r v e y 179.One explanation for the failure of a survey to predict events is that the survey participants do not the general popula tion. A . i

77


n f l u e n c e B . s e l e c t C . r e p r e s e n t D . l i m i t 180.Working for a consumer research organization, a woman needs to learn about behavior that she can neither observe in its natural setting nor study experimentally. She probably will use the method. A . o b s e r v a t i o n a l B . c a s e

78


s t u d y C . e x p e r i m e n t a l D . s u r v e y 181.The film and book Three Faces of Eve discussed in your text was an example of which of the following types of research? A . c a s e s t u d y B. natura l observ ation C. correl ational study D. experi mental study 182.The main difference between naturalistic observation and 79

experiments has to do with: A. numbers of subjects. B. numbers


of treatments . C. control of variabl es. D. ethical standar ds. 183.The following type of research follows one person over a long period of time and collects detailed data on his or her life. A. naturalisti c observatio n B . c a s e s t u d y C. correl ationa l study D . s u r v e y 184.An advantage of survey research is that A. it is less subject to volunteer bias. B. it allows you to get indepth information. C. it allows you to have a large sample size. D. it allows you to work in a lab.

80


185.A disadvantage of survey research is . For example, people tend to overrate behaviors like church attendance and proper hygiene. A. inaccurate self-report B. too much detail C. that people are too honest D. too few survey companies 186.In

, researchers study behavior where it actually happens,

or "in the field." A. experiments B. correlational research C. naturalistic observations D. case studies 187.Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees by means of the

method.

A. case study B. naturalistic observation C. survey D. experimental 188.You are interested in studying whether preschool boys engage in more aggressive play than preschool girls. You decide to watch children playing in a day care setting. You are using the method. A. case study B. interview C. cause-effect D. naturalistic observation 189.If you want to be certain that the behavior of interest to your research is as natural as possible, you will want to use a(n) A. laborator y procedur e. B. expert interview er. C. naturalistic observation. D. validity scale. 190.Unobtrusive measures strive to minimize

during naturalistic observation.

A. experimenters' expectations B. the time involved C. inaccurate reporting D. interference with the behaviors being observed 191.You decide to observe the behavior of children in day care. A few days before you are to start data collection you go to the center and sit quietly to the side of the room. When the children speak to you, you respond as little as possible. You are A. probably not very good with children. B. not going to get good data if you do not interact. C. attempting to be unobtrusive. 81they notice you. D. trying to warm up the children so that


192.In your laboratory you observe the mating behavior of animals. Your research might be flawed if A. you are not unobtrusive enough. B. the behavior in the lab is different from the behavior in the natural habitat. C. you don't ask the right questions. D. you rely on a checklist. 193.By using the method, researchers investigate whether observed behavior or a measured trait is related to another trait or characteristic. A. correlational B. statistical C. experimental D. survey 194.A correlation coefficient is a number A. that expresses the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables. B. presenting the average relationship. C. representing a location on the normal curve. D. indicating the percentile of a score. 195.You design a test of intelligence. On the theory that intelligence is related to academic performance, you use to test the relationship between performance on your new test and grades in school. A. an experimental method B. a test-retest method C. the correlational method D. naturalistic observation 196.If you go to a restaurant to see whether overweight people eat more rapidly than average weight people you would be conducting which of the following types of research? A. natural observation B. case study C. experimental study D. correlational study 197.Lisa heard that sitting in the front of class was correlated with higher grades. She decided that sitting in the front of the class was all she needed to do to improve her grades. Which of the following is a flaw in Lisa's thinking? A. Correlations are not predictive. B. Correlations do not indicate cause and effect. C. This type of correlation actually hurt Lisa's grades. D. There is no flaw in Lisa's thinking. 198."The more you smoke, the shorter your life span" is an example of a: A. positive correlation. B. negative correlation. C. correlatio n coefficient . D. the third 82 variable effect.


199.Generally, study time and test scores are: A. positively correlated. B. negatively correlated. C. inversely correlated. D. not correlated. 200.When two variables decrease together, they are: A. positively correlated. B. negatively correlated. C. experimental ly related. D. coefficiently related. 201.Cigarette companies have maintained that smoking does not cause cancer. Their entire argument was based on the idea that: A. the number of cigarettes you smoke is unrelated to health. B. cigarettes are actually good for health. C. hazardous and cause are unrelated. D. correlations do not prove cause and effect. 202.The main difference between a correlation and an experiment is that with experiments you can: A. make predictions. B. indicate cause and effect. C. deceive your subjects. D. select variables. 203.Which represents the strongest correlation? A. +.97 B. -.90 C. +.09 D. -.99 204.Which of the following is most likely a correlation coefficient for a relationship between stress and health? A. -0.78 B. +1 C. 0 D. +0.98 205.Which of the following is reported as a negative correlation? A. studying and GPA B. stress

83


and health C. studying and academic achievement D. intelligence and academic achievement 206.Which of the following is likely to be reported as a positive correlation? A. salary and years of education B. age and incidence of illness C. studying and GPA D. all of the above

84


207.In correlational research, when one variable increases as the other variable decreases, it is a(n) correlation. A . p o s i t i v e B . d u b i o u s C . i n v a l i d D . n e g a t i v e 208.A correlation of -.90 between two sets of test scores indicates that people who earned high scores on the first test generally earned scores on the second. A. high B. average C. low D. reliable 209.There is a good chance that we will find a watching TV and grades in school. A . p e

85

correlation between time spent


r f e c t B . n e g a t i v e C . p o s i t i v e D . w e a k 210.Which of the following is the weakest negative correlation? A. 0 B. -.34 C. -.92 D. -.57 211.The preferred method for asking questions about cause and effect relationships is A . o b s e r v a t i o n . B . c

86


o r r e l a t i o n . C . a n e x p er i m e nt . D . a c as e st u d y. 212.In an experiment, a group of participants generally receives a . For example, they may receive a dose of caffeine or a change in room temperature. A. dependent variable B. treatment C. random effect D. consequence 213.If you wanted to study the effects of caffeine on sleep, you could vary the consumption levels of caffeine. The administration of caffeine is A . t h e t r e a t m e n t . B . t h e

87


c o n t r o l . C. unethical. D. the dependent variable.

88


214.For which of the following variables could a cause effect relationship be found? A. alcohol consumption and aggression B. caffeine and hyperactivity C. exercise and stress relief D. all of the above 215.In an experiment, the presence of a(n) its effects may be determined.

is manipulated by the researchers so that

A. dependent variable B. independent variable C. placebo D. intervening 216.If you were to conduct an experiment on the effects of temperature on aggressive behavior, temperature would be the variable. A. dependent B . i n d e p e n d e n t C . h y p o t h e s i s D . c o r r e l a t e d

89


217.The experimental group participants in an experiment receive A. the independent variable. B. the dependent variable. C. no treatment. D. the same treatment as the control subjects. 218.Dr. Devries wants to study the TV viewing habits of children at Oakbridge Elementary School. He selects 50 students to participate in his research. In this case all the children attending Oakbridge Elementary School would be considered the A . p o p u l a t i o n . B . s a m p l e . C. represen tative group. D. none of the above. 219.The measured outcomes or results in an experiment are called A. independ ent variables. B. treatment s. C. depend ent variable s. D. controls .

90


220.In an experiment to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on aggression, aggressive behavior would be the A. treatment. B. independ ent variable. C. control variable. D. dependent variable.

91


221.An experiment in which the independent variable is noise level and the dependent variable is resistance to distraction is conducted. The goal is to observe whether distractibility is a(n) noise. A. cause of B . c o r r e l a t e o f C . t r e a t m e n t f o r D . e f f e c t o f 222.Subjects in experimental groups receive

in an experimental design.

A. debriefing B. conditions C. the treatment D. the answers 223.Participants who go through an experiment but who do not receive any treatment or manipulation are called the group. A. self-selected B. random C. control D. treatment

92


224.You volunteer to participate in a research experiment. You participate in a variety of test procedures and interviews. Later, however, you learn that another group of participants had an experimental treatment that you and members of your group did not have. This is because you A. were disq ualif ied. B. faile d earli er tests. C. were in the control group. D. were in the treatment group. 225.Blind and double-blind procedures are one way to control for the effects of in experimental research. A. expectations B. high costs C. chance factors D. confounding variables 226.The variable that is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter is called the variable. A. independent B. dependent C. extraneous D. experimenter 227.The variable that is measured is called the A. independent B. dependent C. extraneous D. experimenter

93

variable.


228.Dr. Liu was interested in testing the effects of violent television on 6-year-old children. She showed one group of children a particularly violent episode of Power Rangers and another group watched a short non-violent episode of an old Bill Cosby show. She then observed the groups in the playground and measured their behaviors. What is the independent variable in this study? A. Bill Cosby and his family. B. Violent or nonviolent TV show. C. The behavior on the playground. D. The amount of time watching TV. 229.Independent variable is to dependent variable as manipulate is to: A. measure. B. control. C . r e p e a t . D . r e c o r d . 230.Dr. Barboza was interested in whether caffienated coffee enhances memory. He divided his class into two groups. Group 1 drank a cup of coffee and Group 2 drank a glass of a similar amount of water. After drinking, each group was shown a list of 30 words. Then they were asked to write down as many words as they could remember. What was the independent variable is this experiment. A. the type of drink B. the presented words C. the amount of words remembered D. the amount of coffee consumed 231.Dr. Barboza was interested in whether caffienated coffee enhances memory. He divided his class into two groups. Group 1 drank a cup of coffee and Group 2 drank a glass of a similar amount of water. After drinking, each group was shown a list of 30 words. Then they were asked to write down as many words as they could remember. What was the dependent variable is this experiment. A. the type of drink. B. the presented words. C. the amount of words remembered. D. the amount of coffee consumed.

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232.Dr. Liu was interested in testing the effects of violent television on 6-year-old children. She showed one group of children a particularly violent episode of Power Rangers and another group watched a short non-violent episode of an old Bill Cosby show. She then observed the groups in the playground and measured their behaviors. What is the dependent variable in this study? A. Bill Cosby and his family. B. Violent or nonviolent TV show. C. The behavior on the playground. D. The amount of time watching TV. 233.Real pill is to sugar pill as treatment is to: A. independent variable. B. effect. C. placebo. D. dependent variable.

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234.When both the experimenter and the subjects are unaware of who has gotten the treatment condition it is called: A. a correlation. B. expe rime nter bias. C. doub le blind . D. subject-experimenter error. 235.The effects of expectations are also called

effects.

A. experimenter B . s u b j e c t C . p l a c e b o D . v a r i a b l e 236.Dou ble blind studies: A. control for excessive independent variables. B. control for expectation effects. C. do not use control groups. D. use treatments that are known by only 96 the subjects. 237.Examples of a would be the use of a "sugar pill" instead of real medication or tonic water instead of an alcoholic beverage. However, the individual must believe that he or she is experiencing the real thing.


A. confederate B . p l a c e b o C . t r e a t m e n t D . b i a s 238.The purpose of the use of a placebo is to control for the

of research participants.

A. suspicions B. expectations/beliefs C. fears D. cooperation 239.Well-designed experiments control for the effects of expectations by creating conditions under which participants are unaware of, or , the treatment. A. blind to B. indifferent to C. unconscious of D. singled out for 240.Experimenters may believe that a certain kind of treatment is effective. Consequently, experimenter expectations can bias research outcomes. One way to control for experimenter and participant bias is to A. remind them of the importance of the research. B. debrief them. C. be sure they understand ethics. D. use the double-blind technique. 97


241.In a study, neither the experimenter nor the participants know who has obtained the real treatment. A . s i n g l e b l i n d B . d o u b l e b l i n d C . c o n f o u n d e d D . d e b r i e f e d 98 242.The Food and Drug Administration requires and sale of new drugs.

before it will allow the marketing


A. doubleblind studies B. psychol ogical testing C. surveys D. patient approval 243.When Lang demonstrated the belief that one has consumed alcohol influenced aggression, he demonstrated that controlling for does influence the outcome of research. A. alcohol B. experimenter bias C. aggression D. expectations 244.When you use procedures like placebos and double-blind conditions, you are attempting to set up for factors that would make your experimental findings questionable. A. controls B . t r e a t m e n t s C . s e l e c t i o n s D . c a s e s 99

245.In psychological research ethical standards ensure that psychologists do not undertake research methods or treatments that are . A. harmful


B. deceptive C. anxiety provoking D. all of the above 246.Ethical standards in research allow us to balance interests in acquiring new information with concern about A. applied science. B. unimpe ded progres s. C. public approva l. D. dignity and human welfare. 247.Your textbook makes an ethical critique of the Lang studies because the participants A. lacked informed consent. B. were not debriefed. C. electrically shocked a person with a heart condition. D. were deceived.

10 0


248.The purpose of a(n) is to review research studies and help researchers consider the areas of potential harm in their proposed studies. A. ethics review committee B. grantwriting techniques C. global communicati ons D. electronic methods 249.

procedures allow participants to review the demands of a research project before they participate and give them an opportunity to choose not to participate. A. Ethical review B. Debriefing C. Informed consent D. Confidentiality

250.Psychologists and other researchers must protect and respect the privacy of research participants. This concern recognizes the requirement for A. inform ed consen t. B. ethics. C. confidentiality. D. scientific progress at all costs.

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Chapter 1 Part A--What Is Psychology? Key 1.

Psychology is defined as the scientific study of A. behavior and mental processes. B. diagnosis and treatment of behavioral disorders. C. conscious and unconscious mental processes. D. the mind.

2.

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes describes A. B. C. D.

3.

behaviorism. psychoanalysis. psychology. clinical psychology.

Eduardo DeLeon is engaged in scientific research involving the study of behavior and mental processes. DeLeon is a A. psy cho the rap ist. B. psy cho ana lyst . C. psy chi atri st. D. psychologist.

4.

When a psychologist tells a client to use mental imagery in an attempt to help the person cope with a problem, she is attempting to reach which goal of psychology? A . d e s c r i b e B . e x p l a i n C

1


. p r e d i c t D . c o n t r o l 5.

A satisfactory theory of alcohol addiction should allow us to predict A. the types of individuals who are at risk for developing this problem. B. what type of intervention is successful for recovery. C. both a and b. D. none of the above.

6.

An educational psychologist who advises teachers on how to establish classroom discipline is applying which of the following goals of psychology? A. B. C. D.

7.

prediction control explanation description

An unsatisfactory psychological theory of thirst would not A. be able to predict when people will or will not drink. B. be able to describe age-related drinking behavior. C. both a and b. D. none of the above.

2


8.

A conception of apparent relationships among observed events defines A. B. C. D.

9.

science. theory. prediction. the school of psychology.

When a psychologist forms conclusions regarding a client's chance of recovery, he is attempting to reach which goal of psychology? A . d e s c r i p t i o n B . e x p l a n a t i o n C . p r e d i c t i o n D . c o n t r o l

10.

3

Which of the following is the best definition of psychology?


A. The study of human behavior. B. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. C. The study of why people behave in abnormal and unique ways. D. The study of how the mind works. 11.

Mary is crying in her teacher's office. Which goal of psychology does this represent? A . d e s c r i b e B . e x p l a i n C . p r e d i c t D . c o n t r o l

12.

Braden's score on his SAT suggests he will do very well in an advanced English class. Which goal of psychology does this example represent? A . d e s c r i b

4


e B . e x p l a i n C . p r e d i c t D . c o n t r o l 13.

Psychologists often help judges and juries decide whether a criminal in jail will commit another crime if released. Which goal of psychology does that example represent? A . e x p l a i n B . d e s c r i b e C . p

5


r e d i c t D . c o n t r o l 14.

Dr. Jones is interested in determining the effects of marijuana on learning in a classroom setting. This type of research is: A. pure. B . a p p l i e d . C . n a t u r a l . D. situational.

6


15.

research has no immediate application to personal or social problems and has been characterized as research for its own sake. A . P u r e B . A p p l i e d C . C o n c e p t u a l D . O b s e r v a ti o n a l

16. Research examining how the nervous system works conducted for no other reason than to determine "how it works" would be considered research. A . a p p l i e d

7


B . p u r e C . e x p e r i m e n t a l D . e x p l a n a t o r y 17.

Dr. Garces is interested in assessing the driving reaction times of the elderly for the purpose of driving improvement classes. She is doing what type of research? A . c l i n i c a l B . p u r e C . a p p l i

8


e d D . n a t u r a l i s t i c 18. as

Psychologists seek to formulate principles of human behavior through research such A. studies of memory disorders. B. surveys and experiments . C. introspectio n. D . i n s i g h t .

19.

Which of the following is not true of psychological theories? A. Theories make assumptions about behavior. B. Theories explain behavior and mental processes. C. Predictions are derived from theories. D. Theories are always discarded as new observations are made.

20.

The clinical psychologist's aim in applying prediction and control principles to a client's behavior is to A. decide the treatme nt. B. help the client meet his or her9 goals in treatment. C. allow the client a narrow range of options for his or her behavior. D. use a database to formulate a treatment for the client.


21.

Dr. Rossini is developing a training program to help a young woman with mental retardation to sort clothes in the laundry of the residential facility in which she lives. Whenever she performs her job according to the protocol, she receives a reward. If she does not stay on task, she receives no reward. Applying the principles of learning theory to the direct modification of human conduct is referred to as A. pu re res ear ch. B. ba sic res ear ch. C. ps yc ho an aly sis . D. the practice of psychology.

10


22.

The results of research in the study of the perceptual development of infants and lower animals is often useful in formulating the treatment of visual disorders in humans. A. B. C. D.

23.

pure basic controlled action

Applied research is research undertaken A. with humans. B. with lower anima ls. C. for its own sake. D. to find solutions to specific problems.

24.

The difference between pure and applied research is the difference between A. predictio n and control. B. practice and theory. C. research for its own sake and research to solve specific problems. D. application and explanation.

25. Research using computers to understand artificial intelligence is considered research. A. B. C. D. 26.

Dr. Langer is treating a college student for depression in his private practice. Most likely Dr. Langer is a(n) psychologist. A. B. C. D.

27.

pure applied longitudinal none of the above

counseling school educational clinical

Jean, a divorced mother with two children, married Harry, a widower with a teenage daughter. From the onset of her relationship with Harry, Jean had difficulty in relating to the daughter. Once married, the family problems between stepmother and stepdaughter became exacerbated. Who might be consulted? A. a developmental psychologist B. an educational psychologist C. a counseling psychologist D. a psychiatric social worker

11


28. a(n)

Diagnosing the severity of mental illness and behavior problems is usually the job of psychologist. A. B. C. D.

clinical counseling school educational

12


29.

School psychologists are employed by school districts to A. develop achievement and aptitude tests. B. identify and assist students who have problems that interfere with their learning. C. assess the development of children in the school system. D. develop instructional methods for teachers to employ.

30.

Interpretation of a client's symptoms is to a clinical psychologist as the development of an achievement test is to a(n) psychologist. A . s o c i a l B. dev elop men tal C . e d u c a t i o n a l D . p e r s o n a l i t y

31.

Dr. Kendall is interested in the effects of teacher style (warm and supportive versus formal and objective) on the learning of mathematics by sixth graders. Most likely, Dr. Kendall is a(n) A . e d u c a

13

p


t i o n a l B . p e r s o n a l i t y C . s c h o o l D. ex pe ri m en tal 32.

psychologists study the relationship between genetic and environmental factors on growth of the individual through the life span. A . B i o c u l t u r a l B . P e r s o n a l i t y

14


C. Dev elop ment al D . S o c i a l 33.

The study of human traits and characteristics is of interest to

psychologists.

A . c l i n i c a l B . p e r s o n a l i t y C . c o m m u n i t y D . s o c i a l 34.

15

psychologists are concerned with racism, sexism, and ageism.


A . C o m m u n it y B . P e r s o n a li t y C . F o r e n s i c D . S o c i a l 35.

A theory that divides human behavior into two basic traits, introversion and extraversion, was probably formulated by a psychologist. A. dev elop men tal B . p e r s o n a l i t y C

16


. b e h a v i o r a l D . c l i n i c a l

17


36.

How the individual is affected by the group and the effects of the individual on the group are the concerns of psychologists. A. clinical B. so ci ol og ic al C. co m m un ity D. so ci al

37.

Which of the following psychologists is most likely to conduct pure research? A. expe rime ntal B. orga nizat ional C. cons ume r D. human factors

38.

The design of the instrument layout of a new helicopter was carried out by industrial engineers in consultation with psychologists. A. B. C. D.

39.

consumer experimental industrial human factors

Dr. Wang has just prescribed antidepressants for her patient. She must be a: A. clinical psychologist. B. social psychologist. C. marital counselor. D. psychiatrist.

40.

The following psychologists have clients with adjustment problems but not serious psychological disorders. A. B. C. D.

clinical psychologists counseling psychologists educational psychologists developmental psychologists

41. Dr. Correia is working with schizophrenics in a hospital setting. What type of psychologist is Dr. 18 Correia? A. clinical psychologist B. counseling psychologist


C. educational psychologist D. developmental psychologist 42.

Which of the following is a difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist? A. Seeing people who have psychological problems. B. Working in a hospital. C. Having an MD. D. Doing research on psychological therapies.

19


43.

A main difference between educational psychologists and school psychologists is that school psychologists focus on: A. course planning. B. instructio nal methods. C. motivatio n research. D. problems that interfere with learning.

44.

Educational psychologists are most interested in research concerning: A. personal problems. B. instructional methods. C. unconscious behavior. D. problems that interfere with learning.

45.

Worker satisfaction issues would most likely be studied by A. B. C. D.

46.

psychologists.

clinical industrial educational health

Industrial psychologists are more likely to be involved in research examining which of the following topics? A. Designing factory workspace for better worker efficiency. B. The memory of rats in learning a maze. C. The effects of growth hormones on infant chimps. D. Juror selection in cases involving white collar crimes.

47.

Dr. Bonds helps people develop better exercise routines, nutritional strategies, and relaxation techniques. What type of psychologist is Dr. Bonds? A. B. C. D.

48.

educational social organizational health

Shopping behavior would be studied by a A. B. C. D.

psychologist.

health clinical consumer organizational

49. Dr. Ippolito is interested in child rearing techniques of single parent families. She is most likely a/an psychologist. A. B. C. D.

developmental counseling social health 20


50. Dr. James has just completed a study examining the effects of aggressive television programs on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. She is most likely a psychologist. A . d e v e l o p m e n t a l B . c o u n s e l i n g C . s o c i a l D . h e a l t h 51. Dr. Patil studies the development of attitudes among college students. He is a psychologist. A . d e v e l o

21


p m e n t a l B . c o u n s e l i n g C . s o c i a l D . h e a l t h 52.

After an advertising campaign with a catchy jingle failed to generate sales for a new shampoo, the advertising director hired Faith Broadside to analyze the defective campaign and to propose an alternative approach. Faith is most likely a(n) psychologist. A . c o n s u m e r B . s o c i a l

22


C . o r g a n i z a t i o n a l D . h u m a n f a c t o r s 53. As much as she tried to lose weight, Pauline could not achieve her goal of 15% weight loss. Accordingly, she made an appointment to consult with Dr. Richman, a psychologist. A . c l i n i c a l B . c o u n s e l i n g C . h u m

23


a n f a c t o r s D . h e a l t h 54.

Club NoFat, a fitness center, introduced a new program that linked diet to the exercise program and was looking for someone to run the program. The club's director especially wanted to hire someone with a background in stress management in the control of health problems. Most likely, she was looking for a(n) A. pe rs on al tra in er. B. sports psych ologis t. C. health psych ologis t. D. aerobi cs instru ctor.

55.

The psychologist examines ways in which lifestyle, habits, and attitudes are related to heart disease, cancer and diabetes. A . c l i n i c a l B .

24


h e a l t h C . c o u n s e l i n g D . f o r e n s i c 56.

Yolanda gives a careful description of all of her thoughts, experiences, and emotions after she underwent a "near-death" experience in which she felt herself leaving her body. The method Yolanda and the researcher are using is called A . i n s i g h t . B . s el fr e v el at i o n . C. recov ered mem ory.

25


D . i n t r o s p e c t i o n .

26


57.

Wilhelm Wundt founded the school of psychology called A. fu nct ion ali sm . B. ps yc ho an aly sis . C. be ha vio ris m. D. structuralism.

58.

Under the school of structuralism, an analytic study of objective sensations and subjective feelings is accomplished through the method called A. conditioning. B. psychoanalysis. C . i n t r o s p e c t i o n . D . i n s i g h t .

59.

The very first psychological laboratory was established by A. Wil hel m Wu ndt. B.

27


Wil lia m Jam es. C. Cha rles Dar win . D. Gus tav Fec hne r. 60. What distinguished Wilhelm Wundt's contribution from other contributions to psychology? A. He wrote the first textbook of psychology. B. He defined psychology as the science of behavior. C. He established psychology as a laboratory science. D. He studied insight in lower animals. 61.

Wilhelm Wundt felt that the object of psychology was the study of the mind as a natural event and that the best way to approach the study of psychology was to A. break down conscious experience into basic elements. B. focus on the continuity between conscious experience and behavior. C. analyze the relation between sensory stimuli and behavior. D. determine the functions of conscious experience.

62.

Structuralism defined experience in terms of A. behavioral tendencies and habits. B. the continuity of consciousness and unconscious processes. C. the functions of consciousness. D. sensations, feelings, and mental images.

63.

The early roots of psychology can be traced to the: A. Greek philoso phers. B. Roman general s. C. German scientists. D. American medical doctors.

64.

One of the first recorded books examining the mind was written by the early Greek philosopher: A. Hippocrates. B. Aristotle. C . 28 O e d


i p u s . D . P l a t o .

29


65.

The main method used in the school of structuralism was: A. introspection. B. stream of consciousne ss. C. observation. D. perception.

66.

The founder of the American school of psychology known as functionalism was: A. Wilhelm Wundt. B. E.B. Titchner. C. John B. Watson. D. William James.

67.

He was known as the first psychologist and the founder of structuralism. A. Wil hel m Wu ndt B. Wil lia m Jam es C. Joh n Wa tso n D. Aristotle

68.

Functionalism was established by A. G. Stan ley Hall . B. Wil hel m Wu ndt. C. Joh n Wat son. D. William James.

69. Which of the following statements is most likely to have been made by a functionalist psychologist? A. The mind is composed of discrete elements. B. Perception is greater than the sum of its parts.

30


C. The only object of psychology is the study of behavior. D. Adaptation to the environment is the purpose of mental processes and behavior. 70.

The school of psychology that emphasizes the purposes of mind and behavior and views consciousness as a continuous, not discrete, process is called A . fu n ct io n al is m . B . b e h a vi or is m . C . st ru ct ur al is m . D. psychoanalysis.

71.

A functionalist would agree with which of the following statements? A. Consciousness can be broken down into elemental parts. B. Consciousness is a continuous process. C. Both a and b. D. None of the above.

72. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution predicted that organisms that survived and reproduced were than those less fit. A. B. C. D.

more intelligent better adapted to the environment more conscious of their surroundings better at problem solving

31


73.

The functionalists expanded the study of psychology to include behavior as well as consciousness and asked how mental processes and behavior A. were broken down into sensations, feelings, and thoughts. B. were part of the unconscious. C. led the individual to self-knowledge. D. assisted the organism to adapt to the environment.

74.

One similarity between structuralism and functionalism was: A. unconscious behavior. B. they both focused on real world situations. C. intr osp ecti on. D. observable behavior.

75.

The main method used in the school of behaviorism was: A. introspection. B. stream of consciousness. C. ob se rv ati on . D. pe rc ep ti on .

76.

John B. Watson argued for a psychology based on the study of A. stream of consciousness. B. unconscious mental processes. C. measurable behavior. D. sensation, feelings, and mental images.

77.

John B. Watson established A. beh avi oris m B. fun ctio nali

as a school of psychology.

32


sm C. stru ctur alis m D. psyc hoan alysi s 78.

John Watson proposed a definition of psychology that omitted all except A. mental process es. B . b e h a v i o r . C. cons ciou snes s. D. feelings and thoughts.

79. Which of the following psychologists would have most in common with John B. Watson? A. B. F. Sk in ne r B. Sigmu nd Freud C. Willia m James D. Wilhe lm Wund t 80.

33

Watson is to behaviorism as Wundt is to

.


A. intr osp ecti on B. stru ctur alis m C. fun ctio nali sm D. psyc hoan alysi s

34


81.

"Wholes are more than the sums of their parts" was the view of which of the following schools of psychology? A . b e h a v i o r i s m B . f u n c t i o n a l i s m C . s t r u c t u r a l i s m D . g e s t a l t

82.

Which of the following schools of psychology used perception as its chief method? A . b e h

35


a v i o r i s m B . f u n c t i o n a l i s m C . s t r u c t u r a l i s m D . g e s t a l t 83.

The German word Gestalt translates roughly to: A. introspection. B. reinforcement. C. org aniz ed wh ole. D. beh avi or

36


patt ern. 84.

Mr. B.F. Skinner made major contributions to A . s t r u c t u r a l i s m . B . f u n c t i o n a l i s m . C . b e h a v i o r i s m . D. Gestalt psychology.

85.

Ted taught his cat to turn in a circle every time he waved his hand in a circular motion. After the response Ted would pet the cat and give it a treat. From Skinner's perspective the treat would be considered a A. bribe. B . s t i m u

37


l u s . C . r e i n f o r c e r . D . c o n t r o l . 86.

Mr. B.F. Skinner studied learning in lower animals through the method of A . r e i n f o r c e m e n t. B . i n s i g h t. C . i n t r o s

38


p e c t i o n . D . t r i a l a n d e r r o r . 87.

The school of psychology that emphasized the organization of perceptual experience into wholes and the integration of separate stimuli into meaningful patterns is termed A. ps yc ho an al ys is. B. fu nc tio na lis m. C. str uc tur ali s m. D. Gestalt psychology.

88.

Behaviorism is to learning theory as Gestalt psychology is to A. psychotherapy. B. adaptation to the environment. C . p e r c e p t

39


i o n . D . h a b i t .

40


89.

Freud is to Wundt as unconscious is to: A. perception. B. conscious. C . s u b c o n s c i o u s . D . i n s i g h t .

90.

Psychoanalysis is to unconscious processes as behaviorism is to A . p e r c e p t i o n B . l e a r n i n g . C . s

41


e n s a t i o n . D. introspection. 91.

For the Gestalt psychologists, learning was largely a matter of A. trial and error. B. insight and understandin g. C. rote practice and repetition. D. habit and environmental adaptation.

92.

Watson and Skinner had one objective in common--the A. treatment of disorders. B. acquisition of behavior through conditioning/reinforcement. C. use of mental imagery. D. discovery of unconscious conflicts.

93.

While historians rank as the most significant figure in the history of psychology, popular culture places at the top of its list of psychologists. A. John Watson; William James B. William James; Sigmund Freud C. Wilhelm Wundt; William James D. Wilhelm Wundt; Sigmund Freud

94.

The school of psychology that places unconscious impulses and desires at the center of human behavior is A. psychoanalysis. B. humanismexistentialis m. C. functionalis m. D. Gestalt psychology.

95.

Lisa, while contemplating her fourth failed relationship, came to the conclusion that maybe all men aren't jerks, but that she was making poor decisions. Gestalt psychologists would call this: A. insight. B . i n t r o s

42


p e c t i o n . C . o v e r s i g h t . D. perceptual congruity. 96.

Which of the following schools of psychology focused on unconscious conflict and ideas that originated in early childhood? A. Gestalt B . B e h a v i o ri s m C . F u n c ti o n a li s m D . P s y c h o a n a

43


l y s i s

44


97.

The founder of psychoanalysis was: A. Wil hel m Wu ndt. B. Wil lia m Jam es. C. Sig mu nd Fre ud. D. Joh n B. Wat son.

98.

Roger has just undergone several months of discussing his childhood events with his therapist. He talked about toilet training and other significant early events to help understand his conflicts in his present life. Roger was involved in: A. ins igh t tra ini ng. B. int ros pe cti on. C. psychoanalysis. D. humanistic counseling.

99.

Which one of the following perspectives of psychology no longer exists today? A. B. C. D.

100.

psychoanalysis humanism cognitive functionalism

At the center of psychodynamic theory of human motivation is A. insight. B. the unc ons cio us. C. beh avi or.

45


D. introspection. 101.

Psychoanalysis differs from structuralism, functionalism and behaviorism in that it is also a method of A. scie ntifi c inqu iry. B. intro spec tion. C. self-knowledge. D. psychotherapy.

102.

Freud's technique of psychotherapy is called A. reali ty ther apy. B. insig ht ther apy. C. psyc hoan alysi s. D. beha vior ther apy.

103.

That people are motivated to satisfy unconscious urges and to avoid guilt feelings at the same time is an assumption of A. psychodynamic theory. B. the humanisticexistential approach. C. behaviorism. D. Gestalt psychology.

104. Which of the following statements distinguishes psychoanalysis from other schools of psychology? A. Unconscious processes have the greatest impact on behavior. B. Learning is the basis of behavior. C. Humans are potentially good. D. The sum of the parts is more important than the separate parts.

46


105.

oriented psychologists use techniques such as CAT scans, PET scans, and electrical stimulation of the brain to show that specific sites in the brain mediate thoughts, emotions, and behavior. A . C o g n i t i v e l y B. De vel op me ntal ly C . B e h a v i o r a l l y D . B i o l o g i c a l l y

106.

Dr. Levy studies the influences of hormones in determining maternal behavior and sexual behavior in rats. Levy is most probably a A. Gestalt psycho logist.

47


B. behavioral psychologi st. C. biological psychologi st. D. psychoana lyst. 107.

The statement that the mental state associated with being in love can be reduced to chemical changes in the brain is most likely to be made by a psychologist taking the perspective. A . b i o l o g i c a l B . b e h a v i o r a l C . c o g n i t i v e D . d e v e l o p m e n

48


t a l 108.

Which of the following is a mental process and not directly observable? A . P E T s c a n B. sali var y res pon se C. me ntal ima ger y D. hea rt rate

109.

"Survival of the fittest" would most likely be studied by which of the following types of psychologists? A . h u m a n i s t B . b e h a v i o r i s

49


t C . s t r u c t u r a l i s t D . e v o l u t i o n i s t 110.

psychologists suggest that much human social behavior such as aggression and mate selection has its basis in heredity and genetics. A . E v o l u t i o n a r y B . G e s t a l t

50


C . C o g n i t i v e D . H u m a n i s t i c 111.

Cognitive psychologists would be least interested in A. mental represent ations. B. memory. C . p e r c e p t i o n . D. behavior in social settings.

51


112.

Cognitive psychologists are specifically interested in studying A. animal learning and motivation. B. human thinking and memory. C. genetic and hormonal effects on behavior. D. introspection and behavioral disorders.

113.

Software is to a computer's hardware as mental processes are to A. the brain. B . p e r c e p t i o n s . C . s e n s a t i o n s . D . t h o u g h t s .

114.

Neural processing is to the biological perspective as information processing is to the perspective. A. de vel op me nta l

52


B. ps yc ho dy na mi c C. lea rni ng D. cognitive 115.

In reviewing the contents of several psychology journals, a graduate student noted a marked increase in the number of articles on memory and thinking over the past dozen years. He concluded that there was increased interest in the perspective. A. B. C. D.

behavioral psychodynamic biological cognitive

116. The humanistic-existential perspective unites its approach. A. B. C. D.

and

as central principles to

brain; behavior self-fulfillment; free choice mental processes; consciousness culture; values

117. The chemical activity of hormones and the electrical activity of the brain are the main concern of psychologists. A . h u m a n i s t i c B . b e h a v i o r a l C .

53


c o g n i t i v e D . b i o l o g i c a l 118.

stresses the capacity for self-fulfillment and the central role of consciousness, self-awareness, and decision making. A. B. C. D.

Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Humanism Functionalism

54


119.

The method of introspection, developed by the school of structuralism, has its biggest influence on what contemporary perspective of psychology? A . b i o l o g i c a l B . c o g n i t i v e C . h u m a n i s t i c D . e x i s t e n t i a l

120. Humanism focuses on the . A. B. C. D.

unconscious mental processes self structure of consciousness

55


121.

The idea that we are free to choose what direction we go, is a central idea of which of the following perspectives? A. B. C. D.

122.

existentialism gestalt behaviorism functionalism

"Neoanalysts" differ from the original followers of Sigmund Freud because they focus more on: A. unconscious sexual behavior B. conscious choice and self direction C. insight D. observable behavior

123.

Lydia Corfield, a humanistic-existential psychotherapist, is most likely to make which of the following statements to her clients about their objectives for therapy? A. We will uncover the unconscious ideas that are at the source of your disorder. B. We will lay out a program to extinguish your disordered behavior and condition appropriate behavior. C. You will explore your perceptions and thoughts in order to discover who you really are. D. You need to identify the ethnic and social and environmental factors that may be at the root of your mental disorder.

124.

Cathy was a very successful real estate agent. At age 36 she decided to donate her wealth to charity and become a missionary in Haiti, where she has been living in relative contentment for the past 2 years. Which perspective would best explain Cathy's behavior? A. B. C. D.

psychodynamic social-cognitive humanistic-existential developmental

125. Critics of the humanistic-existential perspective might argue that psychology must confine itself to A. conscious mental processes. B. subjective experience. C. biologically related processes. D. observable events.

56


126.

In comparison with traditional psychoanalysis, neoanalysts place less emphasis on A. conscious choice. B. unconscio us processes. C. scientific research. D. psychotherapy.

127. Dr. Cooper treats her patients by exploring their unconscious conflicts using dream analysis. Self-direction and conscious choice are not part of the therapeutic intervention. Dr. Cooper's theoretical approach is A. humanist icexistentia l. B. socialcognitive . C. ps yc ho an al yt ic. D. ne oa na ly tic . 128.

The notion that bizarre or atypical thoughts are expressions of unconscious processes was proposed by A. Si g m un d Fr eu d. B. Eri k Eri ks on. C. W ill ia m Ja m

57


es . D. Je an Pi ag et. 129.

psychologists take the position that learning is essential in describing, predicting, controlling, and explaining behavior. A. B. C. D.

130.

Unconscious processes, dream analysis and sexual and aggressive impulses are ideas less likely to be used by which perspective? A. B. C. D.

131.

psychoanalytic behavioral both a and b none of the above

Both social-cognitive theorists and behaviorists adhere to the A. B. C. D.

132.

Neoanalytic Behavioral Developmental Biological

perspective.

humanistic-existential learning neoanalytic developmental

Five-year-old Todd watched his father at his workbench, hammering together a birdhouse. Soon Todd was next to his father, hammer in hand, tapping the workbench. Todd's behavior is best described by which perspective? A. B. C. D.

social-cognitive behavioral sociocultural neoanalytic

58


133. A distinction between behavioral and social-cognitive perspectives is that the former emphasizes , and the latter emphasizes in learning. A. B. C. D. 134.

reinforcement; observation conditioning; development brain processes; social processes introspection; self-determination

Jean Blake, a psychiatrist who is strongly influenced by the social-cognitive perspective, is most likely to take which approach in treating a male client who is extremely shy of females? A. Observe and imitate models engaged in social interactions with women. B. Condition positive emotional responses to women. C. Uncover the unconscious conflicts in the approach and avoidance of women. D. Prescribe that he take anti-anxiety medication before going out with a woman.

135.

Modern social-cognitive theorists differ from early behaviorists because they allow for the influence of: A. B. C. D.

reinforcement cognition learning histories unconscious conflict

136. Members of a/an common history. A . c u lt u r al g r o u p B . et h n ic g r o u p C . r a ci al g r o u p

are united by their cultural heritage, race, language, and

59


D. nationality 137. The issues of ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status are the concerns of the perspective. A. B. C. D.

sociocultural humanistic-existential psychoanalytic social-cognitive

138. Dr. Maloff is studying the effects of ethnic bias on the school performance of immigrant children. Most likely, Maloff is a psychologist. A. B. C. D. 139.

psychoanalytic behavioral sociocultural school

Which of the following is not likely the concern of sociocultural psychologists? A. B. C. D.

alcohol abuse among ethnic minority groups racial bias gender roles color perception

60


140.

Dr. Rabin is studying whether Asian men are more or less likely to seek treatment for clinical depression as part of a larger study of Asian men's attitudes toward health issues. Dr. Rabin is most likely a(n) psychologist. A. B. C. D.

141.

Dr. Jacobi is studying the effects of bilingualism on the intellectual development of children. She wants to know whether learning both English and Spanish simultaneously or sequentially impedes or enhances intelligence scores in both languages. Most likely, Dr. Jacobi follows a perspective. A. B. C. D.

142.

humanistic sociocultural industrial personality

psychoanalytic humanistic gestalt sociocultural

The sociocultural perspective is concerned with the A. issues of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. B. behavior of society. C. makeup of social and cultural organizations. D. influence of a group on the behavior of the individual.

143.

Membership in an ethnic group is defined by A. genetic variables. B. cultural heritage, language, and common history. C. socioeconomic status and political identity. D. attitudes, values, and religion.

144.

The issues of gender, diversity, and ethnicity all fall into which of the following perspectives of psychology? A. sociocultural B . b e h a v i o r a l C . e x i s t e n t i a l

61


D . b i o l o g i c a l 145.

The first woman to receive a PhD in psychology was: A. Anna Freud. B. Karen Horney. C. Margaret Floy Washburn. D. Elizabeth Loftus.

146. was

The first woman to receive a PhD in psychology and the author of The Animal Mind A. Christine LaddFranklin. B. Margaret Floy Washburn. C. Anna Freud. D. Mary Whiton Calkins.

62


147.

His research on the negative effects of school segregation on African American children was cited by the United States Supreme Court when it overturned the "separate but equal" school doctrine in 1 9 5 4 . A. Glibert Havens Jones B. Ken neth B. Clar k C. Martin Luther King, Jr. D. J. Henry Alston

148.

Christine Ladd-Franklin pursued a career in psychology and formulated a theory of A. visua l const ancie s. B . c o l o r v i s i o n . C . a t t i t u d e s .

63


D. ani ma l be ha vio r. 149.

In the 1903 book, The Mental Traits of Sex, this early pioneer in the field of psychology was among the first to raise the issue of gender differences. A. Helen Bradford Thompson B . M ar g ar et M ea d C . A n n a F r e u d D. Mary S. Ains worth

150.

Known as the "father of ebonics," this African American psychologist has gained international recognition for his understanding of language differences among cultural groups. A. No am Ch om sk y B. Ro ber t Wi llia ms C. Ke nn eth

64


Cl ark D. Mic hael Hub bar d 151.

Empirical research must be supported by A . e v i d e n c e . B. referenc e to authorit y. C. common sense. D. deducti ve reasoni ng.

152.

As a scientist, you try not to speculate or draw conclusions when you don't have evidence. This approach is consistent with your use of A . c o m m o n se n se . B. person al experi ence. C. good economic decisions. D. the scientifi

65


c method. 153.

The scientific method allows us to A. support popular opinion. B. maintain traditions. C. justi fy our valu es. D. test ideas and refine knowledge.

66


154.

invented the use of the correlational method so there would be a mathematical way to study the relationship between variables. A. Sir Fran ces Drak e B. C ha rle s D ar wi n C. Sir Franc es Galto n D . G a l i l e o

155. A(n) is a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research. A . o b s e r v a t i o n B. scie ntifi c met hod C . t h e

67


o r y D . h y p o t h e s i s 156.

Which of the following is a valid hypothesis? A. Viewing TV violence increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children. B. Viewing TV violence may influence children's behavior. C . B o t h a a n d b . D. None of the above .

157.

A hypothesis is an assumption or a best guess that A. becomes a selection factor in research. B. is accepted if it is popular. C. can be tested by gathering evidence. D. provides an operational definition.

158.

If a doctor concludes from evidence that having yearly physical exams helps people stay healthy but has not considered the risk of a selection factor bias, the doctor may ignore the possibility that A. healthy people may schedule exams more often than others. B. some people have better genes than others. C. people who are sick often go to the doctor often. D. hypochondriacs do the same thing. 68

159.

The first step in the scientific method, according to the text is: A. hypothesis.


B. formulating a research question. C . t h e m e t h o d . D . t h e d is c u s si o n . 160.

One of the main reasons that the scientific method must be a precise step-by-step procedure is for the purpose of: A . b e t t e r r e s u l t s . B . r e p l i c a t i o

69


n . C. sam ple sele ctio n. D. clea r disc ussi on. 161.

"People who smoke marijuana will have short term memory deficits." That statement in a scientific context would be the: A. operatio nal definitio n. B. independ ent variable. C. hypothes is. D . c o n c l u s i o n .

70


162. a:

A group of people that represent a particular population in a scientific study is called A . s a m p l e . B . s e g m e n t . C . c o m p o n e n t . D . f o c u s g r o u p .

163.

Marvin wanted to know how his state was going to vote in the next presidential election. He polled every college student in the state and found that they were leaning toward the democratic candidate. What is wrong with Marvin's conclusion? A. His sample does not have enough subjects. B. His sample does not generalize accurately. C. His sample has too few subjects. D. There is nothing wrong with Marvin's sample. 71

164.

When the results of an experiment are published, it is important to include details as to how the evidence was collected and evaluated. This allows other scientists to the research.


A. B. C. D.

read replicate select experience

165. In selecting research participants, the results can be generalized if the sample represents the A. ideas of the researcher. B. commonsense views of the times. C. target popula tion. D. theory in questi on. 166.

A

is a segment of a population that is targeted for study.

A . s a m p l e B . g r o u p C . t e a m D. all of the above 167.

If you conclude that the participants in a study are a representative sample, then you can from the research sample to the larger population. A . r e p l i c a t e

72


B . s p e c u l a t e C . g e n e r a l i z e D . s a m p l e 168.

Research samples often A. B. C. D.

women and minority groups.

over represent select sample under represent

169. In a participate. A. rand om sam ple B. sele ctio n sam ple C. strat ified sam ple D. free

, each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to

73


sam ple

74


170.

When each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected, the sampling method is called: A. B. C. D.

171.

statistical. mathematical. random. generalized.

Sandy wanted to know how her state would vote in the next presidential election. She knew her state had 13% African-American, 11% Asian-American, 14% Hispanic-American and the rest were Caucasian-American and others. She designed her sample to reflect these percentages. What type of sampling did Sandy use? A. B. C. D.

random generalizable stratified scrambled

172. If 12% of the population is African American, what percentage of a stratified population would be African American? A . a l l b u t 1 2 % B . 2 4 % C . 1 2 % D . 9 % 173.

Would a sample of children from an affluent suburban school district be considered a representative sample of American children? A. Yes, because public education is available to all children. B. No, because affluent suburban schools tend to be less racially, ethnically, 75nation as a whole. and economically diverse than the C. No, because they are nothing like the average American child. D. Yes, because they have all the advantages and none of the disadvantages.


174.

Joseph wanted to know the drug habits of his senior high school class. He sent out surveys to 300 of his fellow students. He got 130 surveys back all claiming significant drug use. Why should Joseph be careful about concluding that drug use was rampant on his campus? A. Surveys are meaningless. B. Volunteer bias. C. Experi menter bias. D. Contro l group error.

175.

The bias stemming from the likelihood that those who offer to participate in certain kinds of surveys differ systematically from those who are less likely to volunteer is known as A. selection factors. B . v o l u n t e e r b i a s . C . s e l f s e l e c ti o n . D. stratified selection.

176.

are information we collect about individuals or small groups. A. B. C. D.

Anecdotes Journals Surveys Case studies 76


177.

Case study methods are often used to study

cases.

A . c o n tr o v e rs ia l B . r a r e C . s t r a t i f i e d D . r a n d o m 178.

The method uses interviews and questionnaires to collect information from large numbers of people. A . c a s e s t u d y B .

77


s c i e n t i f i c C . e x p e ri m e n ta l D . s u r v e y 179. One explanation for the failure of a survey to predict events is that the survey participants do not the general population. A . i n f l u e n c e B . s e l e c t C . r e p r e

78


s e n t D . l i m i t 180.

Working for a consumer research organization, a woman needs to learn about behavior that she can neither observe in its natural setting nor study experimentally. She probably will use the A . o bs er v at io n al B . c a s e s t u d y C . e x p e ri m e n ta l D . s u r v e y

181.

The film and book Three Faces of Eve 79 discussed in your text was an example of which of the following types of research?

met


A . c a s e s t u d y B. natural observa tion C. correlat ional study D. experi mental study 182.

The main difference between naturalistic observation and experiments has to do with: A. numbers of subjects. B. numbers of treatments. C. control of variable s. D. ethical standard s.

183.

The following type of research follows one person over a long period of time and collects detailed data on his or her life. A. naturalistic observation B . c a s e s t u d y C. correla tional study D .

80


s u r v e y

81


184.

An advantage of survey research is that A. it is less subject to volunteer bias. B. it allows you to get indepth information. C. it allows you to have a large sample size. D. it allows you to work in a lab.

185.

A disadvantage of survey research is . For example, people tend to overrate behaviors like church attendance and proper hygiene. A. inaccur ate selfreport B . t o o m u c h d et ai l C. that people are too honest D. too few survey companies

186.

In

, researchers study behavior where it actually happens,

or "in the field." A. experiments B. correlat ional researc h C. naturalisti c observatio ns D . c a s e s t u d i e s

82


187.

Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees by means of the

method.

A . c a s e s t u d y B. naturalist ic observati on C . s u r v e y D . e x p e r i m e n t a l 188.

You are interested in studying whether preschool boys engage in more aggressive play than preschool girls. You decide to watch children playing in a day care setting. You are using the method. A . c a s e s t u d y

83


B . i n t e r v i e w C . c a u s e e f f e c t D. naturalist ic observati on 189.

If you want to be certain that the behavior of interest to your research is as natural as possible, you will want to use a(n) A. laborat ory proced ure. B. expert intervie wer. C. naturalisti c observatio n. D. validity scale.

190.

Unobtrusive measures strive to minimize A. experimenter s' expectations B. the tim e inv olv ed C. inacc urate

84

during naturalistic observation.


report ing D. interference with the behaviors being observed

85


191.

You decide to observe the behavior of children in day care. A few days before you are to start data collection you go to the center and sit quietly to the side of the room. When the children speak to you, you respond as little as possible. You are A. B. C. D.

probably not very good with children. not going to get good data if you do not interact. attempting to be unobtrusive. trying to warm up the children so that they notice you.

192. In your laboratory you observe the mating behavior of animals. Your research might be flawed if A. you are not unobtrusive enough. B. the behavior in the lab is different from the behavior in the natural habitat. C. you don't ask the right questions. D. you rely on a checklist. 193.

By using the method, researchers investigate whether observed behavior or a measured trait is related to another trait or characteristic. A. B. C. D.

correlational statistical experimental survey

194. A correlation coefficient is a number A. that expresses the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables. B. presenting the average relationship. C. representing a location on the normal curve. D. indicating the percentile of a score. 195.

You design a test of intelligence. On the theory that intelligence is related to academic performance, you use to test the relationship between performance on your new test and grades in school. A. B. C. D.

196.

If you go to a restaurant to see whether overweight people eat more rapidly than average weight people you would be conducting which of the following types of research? A. B. C. D.

197.

an experimental method a test-retest method the correlational method naturalistic observation

natural observation case study experimental study correlational study

Lisa heard that sitting in the front of class was correlated with higher grades. She decided that sitting in the front of the class was all she needed to do to improve her grades. Which of the following is a flaw in Lisa's thinking? A. Correlations are not predictive. B. Correlations do not indicate cause and effect. C. This type of correlation actually hurt Lisa's grades. D. There is no flaw in Lisa's thinking. 86


198.

"The more you smoke, the shorter your life span" is an example of a: A. positive correlation. B. negative correlation. C. correlation coefficient . D. the third variable effect.

199.

Generally, study time and test scores are: A. positivel y correlate d. B. negative ly correlate d. C. inversel y correlate d. D. not correlate d.

200.

When two variables decrease together, they are: A. positively correlated . B. negativel y correlated . C. experime ntally related. D. coefficien tly related.

201.

Cigarette companies have maintained that smoking does not cause cancer. Their entire argument was based on the idea that: A. the number of cigarettes you smoke is unrelated to health. B. cigarettes are actually good for health. C. hazardous and cause are unrelated. D. correlations do not prove cause and effect.

202.

The main difference between a correlation and an experiment is that with experiments you can: A. make predictions. B. indicate cause and effect. C. 87 deceive your subjects.


D. select variables . 203.

Which represents the strongest correlation? A. B. C. D.

204.

Which of the following is most likely a correlation coefficient for a relationship between stress and health? A. B. C. D.

205.

+.97 -.90 +.09 -.99

-0.78 +1 0 +0.98

Which of the following is reported as a negative correlation? A. B. C. D.

studying and GPA stress and health studying and academic achievement intelligence and academic achievement

88


206.

Which of the following is likely to be reported as a positive correlation? A. salary and years of education B. age and incidence of illness C. studying and GPA D. all of the above

207. In correlational research, when one variable increases as the other variable decreases, it is a(n) correlation. A . p o s i t i v e B . d u b i o u s C . i n v a l i d D . n e g a t i v e 208.

89 of test scores indicates that people who A correlation of -.90 between two sets earned high scores on the first test generally earned scores on the second.

A. high


B. average C. low D. reliable 209.

There is a good chance that we will find a watching TV and grades in school.

correlation between time spent

A . p e r f e c t B . n e g a t i v e C . p o s i t i v e D . w e a k 210.

Which of the following is the weakest negative correlation? A. B. C. D.

211.

0 -.34 -.92 -.57

The preferred method for asking questions about cause and effect relationships is A . o b s e r

90


v a t i o n . B . c o r r e l a t i o n . C . a n e x p er i m e nt . D . a ca se st u d y. 212.

In an experiment, a group of participants generally receives a . For example, they may receive a dose of caffeine or a change in room temperature. A. B. C. D.

dependent variable treatment random effect consequence

91


213.

If you wanted to study the effects of caffeine on sleep, you could vary the consumption levels of caffeine. The administration of caffeine is A . th e tr e at m e nt . B . th e c o nt r ol . C. unethical. D. the dependent variable.

214.

For which of the following variables could a cause effect relationship be found? A. alcohol consumption and aggression B. caffeine and hyperactivity C. exercise and stress relief D. all of the above

215.

In an experiment, the presence of a(n) its effects may be determined. A. B. C. D.

216.

is manipulated by the researchers so that

dependent variable independent variable placebo intervening

If you were to conduct an experiment on the effects of temperature on aggressive behavior, temperature would be the variable. A. dependent B . i n d e p e n d e n t C

92


. h y p o t h e s i s D . c o r r e l a t e d 217.

The experimental group participants in an experiment receive A. the independent variable. B. the dependent variable. C. no treatment. D. the same treatment as the control subjects.

218.

Dr. Devries wants to study the TV viewing habits of children at Oakbridge Elementary School. He selects 50 students to participate in his research. In this case all the children attending Oakbridge Elementary School would be considered the A . p o p u l a t i o n . B . s a m p l

93


e . C. represent ative group. D. none of the above. 219.

The measured outcomes or results in an experiment are called A. independe nt variables. B. treatments . C. depende nt variable s. D. controls.

94


220.

In an experiment to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on aggression, aggressive behavior would be the A. treatment. B. indepen dent variable . C. control variable . D. dependent variable.

221.

An experiment in which the independent variable is noise level and the dependent variable is resistance to distraction is conducted. The goal is to observe whether distractibility is a(n) A. cause of B . c o r r e l a t e o f C . t r e a t m e n t f o r D . e f f e c t o f

222.

95

Subjects in experimental groups receive

in an experimental design.

no


A. B. C. D. 223.

Participants who go through an experiment but who do not receive any treatment or manipulation are called the group. A. B. C. D.

224.

debriefing conditions the treatment the answers

self-selected random control treatment

You volunteer to participate in a research experiment. You participate in a variety of test procedures and interviews. Later, however, you learn that another group of participants had an experimental treatment that you and members of your group did not have. This is because you A. were disq ualifi ed. B. faile d earli er tests. C. were in the control group. D. were in the treatment group.

225.

Blind and double-blind procedures are one way to control for the effects of in experimental research. A. B. C. D.

expectations high costs chance factors confounding variables

226. The variable that is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter is called the variable. A. B. C. D.

independent dependent extraneous experimenter

96


227.

The variable that is measured is called the A. B. C. D.

228.

variable.

independent dependent extraneous experimenter

Dr. Liu was interested in testing the effects of violent television on 6-year-old children. She showed one group of children a particularly violent episode of Power Rangers and another group watched a short non-violent episode of an old Bill Cosby show. She then observed the groups in the playground and measured their behaviors. What is the independent variable in this study? A. Bill Cosby and his family. B. Violent or nonviolent TV show. C. The behavior on the playground. D. The amount of time watching TV.

229.

Independent variable is to dependent variable as manipulate is to: A . m e a s u r e . B . c o n t r o l . C . r e p e a t . D. record.

230.

Dr. Barboza was interested in whether caffienated coffee enhances memory. He divided his class into two groups. Group 1 drank a cup of coffee and Group 2 drank a glass of a similar amount of water. After drinking, each group was shown a list of 97 down as many words as they could 30 words. Then they were asked to write remember. What was the independent variable is this experiment. A. the type of drink


B. the presented words C. the amount of words remembered D. the amount of coffee consumed 231.

Dr. Barboza was interested in whether caffienated coffee enhances memory. He divided his class into two groups. Group 1 drank a cup of coffee and Group 2 drank a glass of a similar amount of water. After drinking, each group was shown a list of 30 words. Then they were asked to write down as many words as they could remember. What was the dependent variable is this experiment. A. the type of drink. B. the presented words. C. the amount of words remembered. D. the amount of coffee consumed.

232.

Dr. Liu was interested in testing the effects of violent television on 6-year-old children. She showed one group of children a particularly violent episode of Power Rangers and another group watched a short non-violent episode of an old Bill Cosby show. She then observed the groups in the playground and measured their behaviors. What is the dependent variable in this study? A. Bill Cosby and his family. B. Violent or nonviolent TV show. C. The behavior on the playground. D. The amount of time watching TV.

98


233.

Real pill is to sugar pill as treatment is to: A. indepen dent variable . B. effect. C. placebo. D. dependent variable.

234.

When both the experimenter and the subjects are unaware of who has gotten the treatment condition it is called: A. B. C. D.

235.

a correlation. experimenter bias. double blind. subject-experimenter error.

The effects of expectations are also called A. experimenter B . s u b j e c t C . p l a c e b o D . v a r i a b l e

236. Double blind studies: A. control for excessive independent99variables. B. control for expectation effects. C. do

effects.


not use control groups. D. use treatments that are known by only the subjects. 237.

Examples of a would be the use of a "sugar pill" instead of real medication or tonic water instead of an alcoholic beverage. However, the individual must believe that he or she is experiencing the real thing. A. confederate B . p l a c e b o C . t r e a t m e n t D . b i a s

238.

The purpose of the use of a placebo is to control for the A. B. C. D.

239.

of research participants.

suspicions expectations/beliefs fears cooperation

Well-designed experiments control for the effects of expectations by creating conditions under which participants are unaware of, or , the treatment. A. B. C. D.

blind to indifferent to unconscious of singled out for

10 0


240.

Experimenters may believe that a certain kind of treatment is effective. Consequently, experimenter expectations can bias research outcomes. One way to control for experimenter and participant bias is to A. remind them of the importance of the research. B. debrief them. C. be sure they understand ethics. D. use the double-blind technique.

241.

In a study, neither the experimenter nor the participants know who has obtained the real treatment. A . s i n g l e b l i n d B . d o u b l e b l i n d C . c o n f o u n d e d D . d e b r

10 1


i e f e d 242.

The Food and Drug Administration requires and sale of new drugs.

before it will allow the marketing

A. doubleblind studies B. psychol ogical testing C. surveys D. patient approval 243.

When Lang demonstrated the belief that one has consumed alcohol influenced aggression, he demonstrated that controlling for does influence the outcome of research. A. B. C. D.

alcohol experimenter bias aggression expectations

244. When you use procedures like placebos and double-blind conditions, you are attempting to set up for factors that would make your experimental findings questionable. A. controls B . t r e a t m e n t s C . s e l e c t i o n s D . c

10 2


a s e s 245.

In psychological research ethical standards ensure that psychologists do not undertake research methods or treatments that are . A. B. C. D.

246.

harmful deceptive anxiety provoking all of the above

Ethical standards in research allow us to balance interests in acquiring new information with concern about A. applied science. B. unimpe ded progres s. C. public approva l. D. dignity and human welfare.

10 3


247.

Your textbook makes an ethical critique of the Lang studies because the participants A. lacked informed consent. B. were not debriefed. C. electrically shocked a person with a heart condition. D. were deceived.

248.

The purpose of a(n) is to review research studies and help researchers consider the areas of potential harm in their proposed studies. A. ethics review committee B. grant-writing techniques C. global communication s D. electronic methods

249.

procedures allow participants to review the demands of a research project before they participate and give them an opportunity to choose not to participate. A. B. C. D.

Ethical review Debriefing Informed consent Confidentiality

250. Psychologists and other researchers must protect and respect the privacy of research participants. This concern recognizes the requirement for A. informed consent. B. ethics. C. confidentiality. D. scientific progress at all costs.

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