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Indianapolis WATER STOP [southside water center]

How the provision of clean water can remediate land, people, and community Rebecca A. Staley

[southside water center] How the provision of clean water can remediate land, people, and community

Rebecca A. Staley | ARCH 602 | spring 2011 Advisors: Wes Janz + Ana de Brea

Table of Contents Introduction Taxonomy

Abstract

Research Case Studies Critical Vehicles

Portland Loo Bubble House Zero Yen House Urban Rest Stop

Context Indianapolis Service Network

Site

Analysis Conditions Resources

Water Stop Why Water

Program Water Systems Details

Summary Conclusion

Future Potentials

Appendix

1

appendix

summary

Bankruptcy/Job Loss

2

water stop

site

context

case studies

research

introduction

Story after story from cities large and small across the United States indicate that every day, millions of Americans could be one job loss, one major illness, one family divorce or death, one fire, one natural disaster or accident away from falling into disaster. This constant near-proximity to disaster is often unrecognized by the general population, and consequently, effective responses are not addressed in enough detail to provide lasting results. 3

case studies

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introduction The nature of each type of disaster leads to varying circumstances within each location and context, but a commonality among most is often the need for basic shelter and sanitation. Regardless of the scale, such episodes often result in homelessness or poverty in some form or another. The United States is regarded as one of the most prosperous nations in the world, yet every night there are hundreds of thousands of citizens who do not have a safe place in which to sleep, a secure source of food, a way to maintain basic hygiene, adequate health services, or secure storage for belongings. Once a person enters this cycle, he or she frequently loses access to the cohesive structure needed to regain footing in society. Without a network of reinforcement, people have extreme difficulty overcoming these hurdles.

context

Additionally, thousands of smaller scale events with disastrous effects happen every day with little to no awareness from the majority of the population. For the people involved, however, the effects can be permanent and life altering.

site

job loss, property loss, injury, chronic illness, poverty, addiction, depression, and broken family and support networks.

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Commonly overlooked is the less-visible array of after-effects spurred by disastrous events, which often have equally devastating results:

summary

The most commonly recalled disasters are the largest scale events with highly visible, widespread effects: the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, Hurricane Katrina, the BP oil spill, the earthquake in Haiti, or flooding in Pakistan.

appendix

Entering this project on the topic of disaster, consequences, and relief efforts, a taxonomy was created to chart types of disasters and their results. It quickly became apparent that no location on Earth exists without the potential of a disastrous occurrence. Whether natural or man-made, disasters can occur at any place and at any time. One can strike in an instant or creep up in a slow progression; however, no matter the time frame, the effects can be devastating for individuals, cities, and entire nations.

introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

here are some of those stories: People displaced by Hurricane Katrina were scattered around the country in order to escape destruction. This in turn led to financial and emotional destruction of many who escaped the initial environmental disaster. For example, James Scott took his brother, his sister, and his sister’s two children to Atlanta, GA, for refuge. Once there, they were forced to live out of James’s car because they had run out of money. James attempted to panhandle at a mall in the wealthy Buckhead neighborhood to earn enough money for a hotel. Due to Atlanta’s harsh solicitation laws, James was instead arrested even after showing proof that he was a Katrina evacuee. In James’s case, a large scale disaster led to his arrest and his family’s homelessness in Atlanta (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2005). A large scale man-made disaster, such as the current economic crisis also has widespread personal effects. In the United States, the land of opportunity, the work has dried up leaving families stranded without income. Interviewed by the New York Times in January 2010, Rodrigo Saldaña lives in New York City while his wife and five children live in Ecuador. He has not worked in the last month and sleeps on trains or by the railroad tracks at night. “‘Do you want to know what the worst part is?’ Mr. Saldaña said. ‘My wife says I’m lying when I tell her there’s no more work in New York’” (Santos, 2010). At the other end of the spectrum are individual disasters. Nathaniel Ayers studied music at Julliard 30 years ago. He suffered a breakdown that landed him on Skid Row in Los Angeles, CA, where he battles schizophrenia in addition to being homeless (Lopez, 2005). “Grandpa,” an 84-year-old homeless man has grossly swollen, maggot-infested legs. His advanced peripheral vascular disease is exacerbated by being constantly on his feet. His legs and feet stay dirty, a focus of gangrene and flies in summer. Constant elevation of his feet is needed to drain the fluid and reduce the swelling, but this isn’t possible living on the street. Police won’t let him sit or lie down anywhere for long. Grandpa is representative of a large group of homeless street folk (“bag people”) whose mental illness is the gravitational force around which everything else orbits. A mild paranoid schizophrenic, his symptoms aren’t bad enough to warrant institutionalization, according to judges who have repeatedly overruled requests for his admission (Post, 1998).

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case studies

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introduction 5

appendix

summary

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context

How can a community address basic needs in an open, non-binding, non-judgmental, dignified manner? How can personal infrastructure generate stability in social or economic realms while working alongside the people of a neighborhood?

introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

According to a 2010 count conducted by the Indiana University Public Policy Institute, 4,500 to 7,500 people are homeless in Indianapolis each year. On the day of the count, there were 1,500 homeless, and 39% were families. Additionally, more than 25,000 households, not individuals, are earning 30% or less of the city’s mean income, or $14,000 per year: the US poverty line as defined for a family of two.

6

Encompassing the need for clean drinking water and water for bathing and washing clothes, the Water Stop provides short and long term infrastructure and resources to the near-southeast side of Indianapolis. It would provide users the ability to remain clean in order to gain or maintain employment and to reduce health risks caused by inadequate sanitation. Additionally, it offers gathering and socialization space in conjunction with a proposed cafÊ and an existing neighborhood farmers’ market. By engaging a strong, but overlooked neighborhood, it aims to integrate into and strengthen the Indianapolis network by adding a unique set of services and amenities.

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context

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introduction The design investigation addresses one of the most basic human needs: WATER.

site

A city map was generated to identify and categorize the existing components in Indianapolis, such as meal suppliers, shelters, medical services, affordable housing, day centers, and other social services. This research located strong areas and gaps, and when overlaid with the city’s target areas for future development, foreclosure rates, and income as compared to the city average, it led to a site selection on the near-southeast side. Located adjacent to a massive inactive industrial plant, the facility will assist in preliminary remediation of the economic and environmental surroundings.

water stop

This project synthesizes issues from three scales of proposals aimed to serve homeless or impoverished people in Indianapolis. On a broad scale, first-hand videos, personal blogs, community service data, and a study of successful homeless-serving efforts around the US built a knowledge base for the project. An investigation of small scale personal infrastructure, i.e. acquired, modified, or created carts to house personal belongings and wares, looked at individual responses to personal security and storage common among homeless people. A study of local affordable housing options reinforced the need for large scale, permanent services in a community for long term impact.

summary

Such complex issues as homelessness and poverty cannot be changed overnight or with isolated efforts.

appendix

Responses must work within a larger network woven through the city.

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research

introduction research case studies context

Risks include destruction of property or the theft of possessions by the general public, other homeless people, or law enforcement agencies removing settlements from public spaces. During street sweeps, people are frequently relocated and possessions are destroyed or discarded. This is often an attempt to force relocation and motivation to find housing. Instead, it puts the displaced at an even higher disadvantage. These measures conducted by a city can also result in the homeless being jailed, and consequently, being placed in the court systems, instead of a rehabilitation program. Once the person is released from jail, he or she is still homeless.

“I have a bicycle with a trailer attached. This is a good solution to having to constantly carry around one’s belongings. It’s a lot more useful, and less ‘unattractive’ than the stereotypical shopping cart. However, shelters typically do not offer any kind of secure options for one’s belongings, usually severely limiting how much one can even carry in. This forces people to a ridiculous minimum of belongings; one of the factors that actually contributes to perpetuating a person’s homeless predicament” (Why I Choose Streets Over Shelter, 2009).

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water stop summary

“Inside the shelter, there’s usually no place to store one’s stuff. Many people sleep fully clothed, shoes and all, to make sure that nothing is stolen. Add to that the questionable hygiene and mental instability of the person on the cot next to you, and it can be quite scary” (Raymond, 2010). .

appendix

site

Homeless or displaced persons are often at high risk levels on a daily basis. Lack of personal or private space can lead to victimization through harassment, violence, law enforcement efforts, and property destruction.

“Staying in many emergency shelters [can] lead to lice, bed bugs, athlete’s foot, the common cold, and lots of other things that are no big deal if you can stay home in bed, but can kill you if you’re homeless” (Raymond, 2010).

introduction

“why don’t the homeless just go to a shelter?”

Lack of access to affordable, regular health care keeps these seemingly common, treatable conditions among the housed population a source of deadly risks for the homeless. Many conditions could be significantly reduced if adequate hygiene was readily attainable. The rarity of facilities such as the Urban Rest Stop in Seattle, WA, speaks to this massive need for personal hygiene resources for homeless and near-homeless populations.

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In addition to high disease risks, individuals can easily slip into a cycle of illness and homelessness that is selfperpetuating. Mental disorders, addiction, violence, and infectious diseases are known to be “conditions that increase the risk of homelessness,” but they also fall into the category of “conditions that homelessness may cause or exacerbate” (Herman & Manuel, 2008). Also included in the latter category are complications from exposure, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, accidents, asthma, and cancer.

summary

“Exposed to numerous deprivations and adverse environmental influences, such as inadequate nutrition, poor hygiene, exposure to the elements, and victimization, homeless adults are at increased risk of developing a broad range of physical health problems. During periods of shelter living, homeless persons typically stay in unclean and overcrowded settings in which infectious diseases are easily transmitted” (Herman & Manuel, 2008).

appendix

According to blog author known only as “SlumJack Homeless,” “shelters are often euphemized as ‘emergency shelter’...but the emergency is that you have nowhere else to just be and operate, so being at a shelter is the emergency” (Why I Choose Streets Over Shelter, 2009).

research

To some, the answer is simple:

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In addition to the safety, security, and health risks of numerous facilities within the current shelter system, another series of qualities makes them largely unsuccessful. The rigid rule structure of many shelters, designed to eliminate alcohol or drug abuse and other illegal activities from the premises, is highly restrictive to individuals who wish to spend their evenings socializing, working, job searching, or participating other activities. According to homeless advocate, Eric Sheptock, people frequently have to make difficult decisions, such as, check into a shelter at 4:00 PM or 5:00 PM, or work one’s scheduled hours at job from 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM. If the person chooses to earn the money, he sleeps on the street. If he checks into a shelter, he loses the money, and possibly even the job. (Sheptock, 2010).

“we should see housing as a human right. Housing should not be treated as a commodity sold to the highest bidder. It should be...treated as a necessity to be afforded to everyone” (Sheptock, 2010). Eric also states that

The emergency shelter system is not the sole approach to housing. Housing units range from single-person sleeping units scattered in a city, tent cities, SRO’s, and large shelters. The diverse types of people living on the streets, much like the diverse housed populations, cannot all be placed into the same “one-size-fits-all” housing approach. The book Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works explains that in order for shelters to succeed, they must be much more than just a bed in a space. A sense of belonging and personal responsibility is key to becoming part of a community and working toward a more stable life situation.

Shelters must fit into the city context and add to the local quality of life. They must reach farther than just the immediate clients served. A shelter cannot succeed alone. It must connect with a system of transitional housing, long term housing, and support networks such as public space, local businesses, public transit, and community organizations.

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Approximately 60% of the Urban Rest Stop clients are employed. They use the facility to clean before work each day. This potentially provides assistance in maintaining a job to thousands of people in the city of Seattle. Even with a steady job, there is a growing disparity between the living wage and earning minimum wage: $7.25 per hour in Indiana in 2011. A 40 hour work week earns a person $1160 per month before taxes. Affordable housing, defined as paying 30% of one’s income, equates to slightly less than $350 a month for rent. The average rent for a two-bedroom apartment is $765 per month, indicating that minimum wage earners are unlikely to access to affordable housing. Paying such high percentages, 50% or more, of their earnings for housing is unsustainable and prevents one from covering other costs, such as utilities, food, transportation, and childcare.

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introduction research case studies context site

A key element to the journey out of homelessness is steady source of income. According to Ronni Gilboa:

water stop

The Culinary Job Training program run by Second Helpings in Indianapolis employs the homeless and unemployed while teaching on-the-job kitchen skills. Upon completion of the program, students are assisted with job placement. It is life-changing for those with the opportunity to enroll, but the unemployment rates still far outweigh the available training positions in these types of programs.

summary

“I don’t have the best work history and have had a few run-ins with the law…when an intelligent man has a checkered past, his knowledge and skills are no longer desired by society.” (Sheptock, 2010)

appendix

Many individuals remain employed during time without housing, but maintaining a job becomes increasingly difficult. How does one stay clean and presentable when living outdoors or in emergency shelters? For those searching for employment, how do they find someone willing to hire a person without a regular place to stay? And for those out of work for lengthy periods of time, how do they regain necessary job skills to succeed?

introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

Within an urban context, numerous service-oriented projects infill existing structures, often directly on the street front with little or no indoor waiting area.

How do people feel when they must line up along the side of a building in the sidewalk, street, or other place within the public realm in order to get a meal, a shower, or wash clothing?

How does it affect one’s dignity when he or she must bring all his or her personal items and valuables along? How long must one wait while being stared at, judged, and even harassed by passers-by?

In less-urban areas, service buildings are often isolated, neglected, and enclosed. Rarely can one see into or out of homeless services buildings in a way that connects people with the local context. Many are enclosed for security reasons, but enclosure creates unrelatable and outcast areas. Often the design or re-design process comes in a “top-down� manner, with the big ideas coming from investors, government officials, professional designers, and program managers.

But what about the people who will be USING the space?

What can we learn from a person living in a storage shed, a portable bathroom, a tent, a car, or under a bridge? Budget constraints in projects for the homeless are typically the driving force in the design for a facility. However, some of the most successful programs are very well designed within strict material and financial limits.

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“Design must allow for people to have dignity in receiving aid or utilizing services. They must be integrated into the community, not shoved in some back alleyway. Hiding these resources is an attempt to hide people and disassociate from those who do not fit in with how the majority views a city or region.” Conversation with Ronni Gilboa Manager of Seattle’s Urban Rest Stop October 2010 15

introduction context site water stop

Other times, directors are willing to spend the extra money for a quality product. According to Father Joe from the Joan Kroc Center in San Diego, “good architecture is critical to helping the homeless, even though it requires more money. His architects often suggested ways to reduce costs, but he argued that these cost savings would be counterproductive...details and embellishments are integral to the success of the building and the programs within” (Davis, 2004).

summary

In addition to meeting the required spatial needs, the center provides a generous landscaped entry and courtyard where guests can wait off of the streets in a calm area. Attention to scale, lighting, and proportion can change a structure from imposing to inviting in the simplest design moves.

appendix

The material palette is simple: concrete, wood, and landscape elements, but the connections and color palette are well refined and detailed.

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A highly regarded example is the Downtown Drop-In Center near Skid Row in Los Angeles, California. “The building was built on a very tight budget...but contains architectural elements usually reserved for private, more expensive buildings” (Kimm, 2001).

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“An initial proposal, the project is not put forward as a finished product, ready for use on the streets. Rather, it is conceived as a starting point for further collaboration between skilled designers and potential users. Both parties will have to play roles in the design and production of future versions of the vehicle...Only through such cooperation can the vehicle function usefully.” (Wodiczko, 1999) Designed to call attention to the issue of homelessness in the city, the carts have a larger profile than a typical shopping cart and contain secure areas for storage of belongings and sleeping. Wodiczko synthesized feedback from local homeless people in an attempt to make a vehicle more optimized for life on the streets: welded steel, wire mesh, and large wheels. The carts expand or rotate to accommodate various functions. “Although never intended as a solution to the problem of homelessness, these vehicles, designed in consultation with homeless men, do provide temporary refuge for those unwilling to subject themselves to the institutionalized system of shelters” (Ascher).

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summary

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In 1988 the artist Krzysztof Wodiczko explored the traditional shopping cart used by much of the homeless population in New York City. He designed new variations and had homeless people test them in the city. After a period of use, Wodiczko had a dialogue about the strengths and failures of the carts.

Wodiczko understood the power of DESIGNING WITH NOT FOR his client. By sharing ownership of the process and product, he created something much more meaningful than a donation.

The research issues of safety and security and health and hygiene are addressed in a short term manner by Wodiczko’s Critical Vehicles and the Portland Loo. They provide basic resources but are not designed to solve large-scale complex issues such as homelessness and poverty. They do, however, express the need for: a range of facilities

from the scale of an individual to that of a city, working together, to provide services for all members of the community.

Toilet , button-activated hand wash feature

Lighting: Skylight, PV powered battery light, motion sensors Use:

Up to 20 minutes per use, 400 uses a day

Ventilation: Accessibility: Module: Image:

Upper & lower louvers angled for privacy Large enough for bike/cart, ADA compliant Size of a single city parking space

Contemporary, poster space on outside of door

Cost $60,000 to manufacture, $1500/month to maintain [Much less than clean-up + social impact of not having it]

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introduction research summary

Systems:

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Steel, replaceable side panels, graffiti-proof

appendix

Materials:

case studies

To begin addressing public health and hygiene issues, cities must consider resources that will benefit a wide variety of people. A small, simple piece like the Portland Loo is inviting, widely accommodating, easily maintained, and functional. Something that can be embraced by the surrounding neighborhood can promote local ownership and unofficial monitoring of the facility by the community. If the area feels a sense of ownership and accessibility, the piece will have increased longevity.

context

It serves ANYONE in the area, providing a dignified place to use the restroom.

site

This public restroom unit located in Portland, Oregon, is a designed response to the lack of restroom facilities open to the public. It currently exists in three locations, one being near Union Station and the Greyhound bus terminal due to higher amounts of neighborhood complaints of people using any available surface as a restroom.

introduction research

Homeless and near-homeless people are frequently forced to pack up and move to new locations. Moving can provide access to much needed services or be the result of forced evacuation.

High levels of mobility wear heavily on a person.

Single-person dwelling units exist worldwide in response to homelessness, poverty, mobility, and design-romanticized ideas about temporality. While vastly different in appearance, the Bubble House and the Zero Yen Solar House attempt to resolve similar issues. Originating from opposite ends of the design spectrum, one from an architectural firm in Spain seeking to explore upward mobility, and the other from a homeless man in Japan seeking basic shelter and security. Both saw a need for shelter, storage, and basic utilities and created a shelter based on the resources available to them. The Bubble House, a prototype of a temporary living space for one or two individuals developed by Studio MMASA, was installed in various locations to study relationships that citizens exhibit with new objects in the urban landscape. The designers see the dwelling unit as a part of a contemporary lifestyle allowing people to “gradually settle in the city� (Bubble, 2010). They imply that it could also be applied to displacement situations but provide no further exploration into such conditions or the required

appendix

summary

context site

The act of moving one’s belongings on a regular basis is physically and mentally draining. It makes accumulation and retention of possessions, even just the basics, extremely difficult. Personal items and documents often get lost or taken during the moving process. Many people who stay in shelters are limited on personal items due to lack of storage space and the risk of theft.

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How does continuous mobility affect people mentally, physically, and emotionally?

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e l e c t r i c i t y w a t e r. s u p p l y

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issues p r i v a c y s e c u r i t y

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Both houses have been represented in nearly the same manner from opposite sides of the world: a clear step-by-step assembly, disassembly, and transportation. Each requires one to two people to unload and assemble the unit. Both developers illustrate sections to convey three-dimensional qualities and systems. They draw each individual component to indicate quantity of pieces and location within the design. Each structure is an individual solution to an individual or personal set of thoughts, issues, and locations.

summary

The Zero Yen Solar House is an ongoing work by a homeless man who has built it as his own mobile personal shelter. As he finds new materials, he adds to and changes the unit to function better. Like Studio MMASA, the man understands every detail about his shelter. Fully documented by designer Kyohei Sakaguchi, it contains arguably a much more in-depth level of detail and analysis than the Bubble House since it is based in the trial and error of daily life over time.

appendix

adaptations for disaster use. Such an application would be vastly different from an installation merely for observation and interaction.

introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

The Urban Rest Stop is an infill project in Seattle, Washington. The program is simple: a laundry facility, restrooms, and shower rooms serving thousands in downtown Seattle. An open laundry area occupies the front of the building with bathroom facilities behind. There are large men’s and women’s restrooms and five separate shower rooms. All areas are available on a first-come, first-served sign-up basis. Soap, shaving cream, razors, toothbrushes, towels and other hygiene supplies are all available upon request. The rest stop recently celebrated 10 years of service to nearly 30,000 unduplicated individuals.

“One has to wonder what people did before we opened our doors.” (Gilboa, 2010) The use of an historic building allows the rest stop to recede into the cityscape and maintains the architectural character of the block. A small extended sign states the name, but the

most important feature is the rest stop’s ability to blend into its context. The storefront windows were maintained, ensuring visibility to and from the street. Nothing says, “homeless services” or “free laundry service,” just simply “Urban Rest Stop.” During an interview with Ronni Gilboa, she expressed the importance of not hiding such facilities off of back alleyways. People using the services must be allowed dignity. Attempting to hide these resources is an attempt to hide a group of people and disassociate from those who do not fit it with the majority in a city or region. She discussed the value of dignified projects that encourage clients to become more integrated into the local community. This facility allows visitors to use the same streets and public realm as the local housed population.

“Thirty years ago when I went to England, they had public restrooms and showers. They have them in Rome and in Paris and there’s no reason why we can’t have them here, too.” Ronni Gilboa (Willis,1999)

introduction research case studies 23

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context According to Healthcare for the Homeless: A Family Medicine Perspective, the two main underlying issues with diseases are unsanitary living conditions and poor hygiene. These contribute to skin conditions, dental issues, infections, and many other problems. Since access to healthcare services is often unpredictable, increased personal hygiene could reduce strain on the immune system and lessen the frequency of need for health services. Hygiene services can also increase one’s ability to care for and clean wounds or injuries.

summary

“Urban Rest Stop - 10 year track record - 29,000 served” “Urban Rest Stop, A Clean Break” “Julie Apartments To House Seattle’s 1st Public Hygiene Center” “Remodeled Downtown Hygiene Center Already at Capacity” “Urban Rest Stop lifts up the city’s down and out” “A unique appoach to helping Seattle’s homeless” “Rest Stop an urban oasis for Seattle’s homeless” “Urban Rest Stop - City should be commended”

appendix

headlines

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context

introduction Interstate 65

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affordable housing social services health services food supplier industrial business auto sales/services retail education fast food/drink parks + public areas religious

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Interstate 70

Monument Circle

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E. Washington St. Pleasant Run Creek

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TE SI

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1/2 mile radius 1 mile radius 2 mile radius

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Indianapolis homeless data gathered by the Indiana University Public Policy Institute in January 2010

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in n o s

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15%

eing fletic s nce

26%

wom do m e n viol e e

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To address heath and hygiene issues, basic human comfort, and access to clean water, the Water Stop would be situated immediately north of Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market.

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Within a 1-mile radius of the site, further analysis was conducted to identify features vital to a community’s potential for success: educational facilities, religious organizations, businesses, retail and commercial areas, and recreational space. (Details in appendix.)

34%

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cited as ss son foesrs a lessn

A site on the near-southeast side at the corner of South Keystone Avenue and Prospect Street was selected due to its connection to an existing farmers’ market, industrial adjacency, and active but struggling surrounding neighborhood.

er emb s

In order to determine that context, the map to the left was created to label and locate all service-oriented organizations and facilities within the city. These consist of affordable housing, transitional housing, medical services, food services, social services, and public transportation.

ge

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24%

child a re

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A key component to siting a project is the existing network of Indianapolis service entities. The success and longevity of the project hinges on how it would integrate into its context.

22%

vete r

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Analysis of Marion County data on foreclosure densities, percentages at or below of the area’s median income, and target areas of Indianapolis neighborhood stabilization programs pointed to the near-southeast side of the city as potentially needing additional resources. (See maps in appendix.)

39%

fa m il

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Responses to such complex issues as homelessness and poverty must work within a larger network woven through the city. This proposal synthesizes issues from three scales of proposals aimed to serve homeless or impoverished people in Indianapolis.

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site

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The surrounding residential and industrial neighborhoods contain decaying and dilapidated but mostly occupied homes and businesses. The area is underserved by public amenities but does not lack in community spirit. Many residents have been in the area for years, even decades, and take pride in the neighborhood, as evidenced by the work done by the South East Community Organization (SECO).

M. Heidelberger

appendix

summary

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The site is bounded to the north and east by an inactive heavy industrial plant. An industrial coke plant for nearly 100 years, the property poses numerous environmental hazards as it slowly becomes reappropriated into lighter industrial and commercial lots. (Citizens Gas Utility Plan)

M. Heidelberger

introduction research Co ke U

til

ity

Coke Utility Gas Storage

Prospect St.

Run

context To the immediate south of the site, the familyowned Wilcher’s Southside Farmers Market is an area staple but is also struggling to survive tough economic conditions.

N.

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Google

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Pleasant

Pleasant EK CRE

Trail

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Wilcher’s Market

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S. Keystone Ave.

Twin Aire Drive-In

people living in shelters employed.people

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unsheltered homeless

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W A T E R . S T O P V I S I T O R S

housed.people unemployed.people on.the.way.to.work on.the.way.to.school after.work.or.school

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industrial.workers overcrowded.families unaccompanied.youth market.truck.drivers farmers.market.vendors job.applicants community.gardeners market customers

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summary

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one-stop-shop style facilities cannot solve a community’s problems all in one place

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introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

“There’s this bogus theory that if people get hungry and dirty enough, they’ll get a job. But how can you get a job if you’re not clean? If we want people clean and healthy, if we want a healthy community, we need to do this.” Ronni Gilboa on Seattle’s Urban Rest Stop, January 2008

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introduction research

Access to clean water has the ability to offer personal infrastructure to individuals or families working to live their lives in the best way they can. It is a basic human need.

case studies

reduced risk of infection decreased healing time of prior infections reduced aggravation of other conditions reduced demand for medical attention drinking water for pets of the homeless

bio-remediation landscape helps filter industrial toxins out of ground water and soil on the site filtered land provides community garden area rain water collection and gray water reuse lessen burden on city’s aging water infrastructure provides a hub in an underserved neighborhood draws people and support to an existing market 37

appendix

ability to wash personal carts/bikes outdoors ability to clean blankets + household linens

summary

water stop

water for housed lacking adequate plumbing additional facilities for overcrowded families allows industrial workers to clean up after work

site

context

employee cleanliness clothing cleanliness enables job searches and clean appearance at interviews

introduction research case studies context

Welcoming Entry: Entrance area extends onto sidewalk, includes outdoor seating space Wilcher’s

appendix

summary

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site

Site Visibility: Guests using laundry facilities can see out to storage area and garden plots to the north

existing site including Wilcher’s Southside Farmer’s Market

W A T E R - S T O P water core

collection filtration redistribution

laundry + shower facility adjacent café extended farmers’ market bio-remediation landscape

Water core bisects the building between main hygiene area and café. 38

appendix

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introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

Phasing Stage 1: Repair roof and structure of Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market Add front windows and door to proposed expanded market area Build arbor over proposed outdoor market Stage 2: Plant bio-remediation gardens to pull toxins out of the ground. Trees and large plants are removed and replaced after 5 years. Replace topsoil for community garden plots north of Water Stop Stage 3: Build Water Stop facility and surrounding outdoor seating spaces Build adjoining café and community kitchen space

Site Movement Vehicle traffic, deliveries Delivery truck parking Market food movement, sales to community, supply to cafe kitchen

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Water is the focus inside and out: Rain water collected from all major roof surfaces (including the Water Stop and Wilcher’s Market) is directed to storage and filtration for use in the Water Stop’s facilities. At the front of the Water Stop is a twostory water collection meter indicating the amount of rainwater available for reuse within the building at any given time. This also pushes water conservation into the community dialogue.

*Demand calculated as an average monthly need of 177,000 gallons

[ [ [ [ [

] ] ] ] ]

rain water filtration gardens rooftop rain collection area

permeable outdoor market area rooftop rain collection area

permeable truck parking area

SITE WATER MOVEMENT

introduction research case studies

supplied by Indianapolis Water

context

supplied by collected gray water

site

] ] ]

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Building Water Cycles

[ [ [

supplied by harvested rain water

summary

Large potentials for rain water harvesting and subsequent use onsite demonstrates the need for resource conservation regardless of project type. A facility with such high water consumption as this one must take advantage of natural resources in order to lessen the burden on aging city infrastructure.

WATER NEEDS

appendix

Sustainable design, planning, and construction practices are not to be reserved only for the elite clients. They should be available to all client bases and project types.

introduction research

OVERALL WATER SYSTEM NETWORK

Water Stop conceptual section showing water circulation through building.

case studies context site water stop summary appendix

Rain water

Ra

in

wa ter

fro

m

W

ilc

he

r ’s

ply ter sup City wa

Ma

rke t

ection

ll ater co Gray w

Supplies 36% of needs uses: washing machines showers

Wa ter

co ll

ec

tio

nf

ro m

ma

rke t

introduction collected from sinks, washing machines

city water

gray water

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uses: toilets, landscape

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rain water

Supplies 8% of building needs

site

context

Amount collected from building

Supplies 56% of needs

Additional calculations and data on water collection, estimated water demand, rain fall, and gray water catchment can be found in the appendix.

45

[

]

reference: average monthly residential water use for a = family of 4 or 12,000 gallons

appendix

summary

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uses: sinks, drinking water, dishwasher, showers not supplied by rain water

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the WATER STOP

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1

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Offering socialization spaces in conjunction with an adjacent café and the existing family-owned Wilcher’s farmers’ market and truck service, the Water Stop allows people to be productive while waiting on laundry or in line for shower rooms.

1 laundry area, comfortable seating, computer work stations 2 individual shower rooms + storage space 17 3 facility storage, loading dock, staff room 4 entry courtyard with seating and rain water collection feature 5 front desk check-in area 6 public restroom area, shared sinks 7 café dining area, waiting area 14 8 café counter 9 café kitchen + community kitchen 10 rain water storage area 11 cart + bike storage 20 12 outdoor spigot 13 bio-remediation + community gardens (see appendix)

Engaging a strong but overlooked neighborhood, it aims to integrate and strengthen the Indianapolis network by adding a unique set of services and amenities.

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7

8

9

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15

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6

Encompassing the need for clean drinking water and water for bathing and washing clothes, the Water Stop provides short and long term infrastructure and resources to the near-southeast side of Indianapolis. It would provide the ability to remain clean in order to gain or maintain employment and reduce health risks caused by inadequate sanitation.

14 15 16 17 18 19 20

outdoor market expansion area temporary market stands herb garden plot for café truck + delivery entrance additional truck parking covered outdoor eating + gathering area shared parking for Wilcher’s Market, Water Stop, and Café

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second floor

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basement 1 shared kitchen for apartment rooms 2 short-stay apartments for emergency shelter 3 facility storage + staff space 4 comfortable seating + children’s play area 5 private shower room 6 office space for case work, counseling, etc. 7 administration office 8 gray water collection + filtration 9 rain water filtration 10 rain water storage area

summary

Opportunities while waiting: Reading or studying at desk space or in other seating Internet use at desk space Eating a meal at the paywhat-you-can style café Preparing food in the community portion of the café kitchen Sitting in outdoor spaces Visiting market

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introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

1 B I O F I LT E RS Planted beds used to filter discharged excess gray water on site. Will provide filtered water for adjacent community garden plots.

L A R G E LO C K E R S for carts, bikes, or other possessions, visible from the laundry area. A place welcoming to carts and personal storage offers an added layer of comfort and security to those using the Water Stop.

O U T D O O R S EAT I N G for individuals and groups facing both the street and onsite garden areas. Seating will invite people to gather and linger on the 1 site, encouraging neighborhood discourse and connection.

3

WAT E R G UAG E to indicate current levels of rain water stored on site. Places water at the forefront of the facility.

2

S TO R AG E Lockers T R U C K AC C E S S for deliveries and back access to all buildings.

OUTDOOR MARKET for local vendors to sell produce and other wares.

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PLANTED BUFFER zone between café seating and parking.

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C A R T E N T RY for facility users bringing larger items or carts into shower rooms.

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SHADED OUTDOOR seating area at south café façade, facing Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market.

OUTDOOR spigots for cart washing.

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introduction N E W W I N D OW S and doors for added visibility into and out of Wilcher’s Market.

LOA D I N G D O C K for donations, supplies, and mechanical access.

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WAT E R STO R AG E for rain water collected from roofs.

3 47

appendix

OUTDOOR MARKET addition to Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market. Provides a connection to the Water Stop outdoor seating and increases market visibility.

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2

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D R I N K I N G WAT E R station containing free, clean drinking water open to the public.

WA I T I N G A R EA for shower rooms or laundry machines. Seating also lines the main hallway through the Water Stop, following skylights and the path of collected rain water.

1

summary appendix

2 CafĂŠ seating looking at front entry and laundry area

R A I N C O L L EC T I O N from the roof is visible on the main axis of the building. Water is stored in holding tanks immediately outside and filtered in basement.

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The main underlying issues in diseases among the homeless and near-homeless are unsanitary living conditions and poor hygiene. These contribute to skin conditions, dental issues, infections, and other health issues. Since access to healthcare services is often unpredictable, increased hygiene could reduce strain on one’s immune system and lessen the need for emergency health services. Hygiene services can also increase one’s ability to care for and clean wounds or injuries, preventing them from becoming larger health problems.

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C H EC K- I N D E S K for reserving shower and laundry times. The desk also contains information and referrals to other social services in the Indianapolis area, promoting a connected network.

introduction research case studies 3 1

2

I N D I V I D UA L S H OW E R RO O M S with storage area and space for personal belongings that clients do not wish to leave in lockers. Individual rooms allow for clients’ privacy and dignity.

LIVING ROOM S T Y L E S EAT I N G L AU N D RY M AC H I N E S for relaxed waiting 10 washing machines during laundry time and 12 dryers. or in shower line. 4

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F O L D I N G TA B L E S

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WIDE AISLES for easy movement of carts, laundry bins, and other storage methods.

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4

F O L D I N G S PAC E with views to outdoor storage area and bioremediation gardens.

appendix

WO R K STAT I O N S with computer space so users can maintain online contacts, check email, job listings, and news.

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3

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summary

introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

In focusing on a single element, water, the Water Stop is specific in program but able to serve a broad range of people. By providing resources needed by multiple groups of people, it becomes flexible to a neighborhood’s needs.

The aim is not to solve an entire city’s problems but to demonstrate that one resource, well-thought out and highly detailed, can fit into its context and reinforce the other existing resources of a community. It can provide additional support to people working to support themselves. The resource is layered to address varied issues surrounding water. At the site level, rain water is harvested to help supply the fixtures without overburdening local infrastructure. Carefully selected plants absorb toxins from industrially-polluted ground water and soil. After bio-remediation and soil renewal, the landscape will provide space for community members to maintain small garden patches. The building collects and filters gray water for reuse inside the facility and to help maintain the planted areas at the north end of the site. Its footprint is small enough to allow the Wilcher family to continue occupying a large portion of the site for their trucking company. People who use the Water Stop can benefit from a clean water source for drinking, bathing, cleaning clothes or other possessions, reducing health and infection risks, all while maintaining personal dignity. As a water destination, the wide range of people using the site would bring new traffic to the adjacent farmers’ market. It could encourage interaction among various factions of the neighborhood, and strengthen the community dialogue.

Most importantly, the Water Stop demonstrates that EVERYONE deserves dignified access to clean water. 52

Recreation: Showers and bathrooms could partner with biking and other excercise activity along the Monon Trail and other trails linked throughout the city.

Clothing: Laundry facilities could join local used clothing businesses to create a clothing and household linens exchange.

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Social Areas: Near the downtown bar areas and around concert and festival venues, the Water Stop could have additional single public bathroom units much like in the sports areas.

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Sports Arenas: Near the various sports facilities in the city, the Water Stop could provide single public bathroom units in areas where large groups of fans congregate before and after sports games.

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Downtown: A commuter biking hub could serve downtown workers who bike into and around the city on a regular basis. It would house showers and individual bathrooms, bike storage, bike repairs, and a coffee shop.

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If successfully developed, the Water Stop could become part of its own new network weaving through Indianapolis with satellite facilities based on individual neighborhood characteristics.

appendix

Future expansion and development potential:

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Contents Indianapolis + Marion County Maps: Neighborhood Analysis Indianapolis Service Network Map Site mapping data Rain water collection calculations, building water calculations Site Zoning

Bio-Remediation Data

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summary

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Indianapolis Homeless Study Data

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SITE

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SITE summary

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SITE

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Property Development at PIHDC

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While not strongly reliable, this system is often the only transit available to people using the network of services listed. Riders often wait long periods of time in harsh weather, as the majority of stops consist of nothing more than a sign with a route number. Few have benches, and even fewer have shelters to escape rain, wind, and snow.

water stop

SUPPORT SERVICES: Catholic Charities Coalition for Homelessness Intervention & Prevention[CHIP] Coburn Place Compassion Center (Partners in Housing Development Corporation) Damien Center Danny’s Closet of Hope Amber Woods Cooperative Dayspring Center Beechwood Gardens Dress for Success Bishop Joseph D. Farris Living Good Shepherd Community Center Center Holy Family Shelter Blackburn Terrace Hoosier Veterans Assistance Byrne Court Apartments Foundation (HVAF) Concord Village Horizon House Hawthorne Place Indy Housing Authority Holy Family Transitional Housing John H. Boner Community Center Indiana Ave. Apartments Lighthouse Mission John J. Barton Apartments Neighborhood Christian Legal Clinic Laurelwood Apartments Outreach Indiana Lugar Tower Apartments Salvation Army Women and One Step Two Steps Children’s Shelter Red Maple Grove Salvation Army Center Rowney Terrace Salvation Army Food Center Twin Hills Salvation Army Worship Center & FOOD SERVICES: Adult Rehabilitation Services Cathedral Kitchen School on Wheels Gleaners Food Bank Wheeler Mission Second Helpings Wheeler Mission Center for St. Vincent de Paul Food Pantry Women and Children HEALTH SERVICES: OTHER: Gennesaret Free Clinic Indianapolis Central Library Gennesaret Dental Clinic Pogue’s Run Grocery Co-Op Gennesaret Mobile Clinics *visited December 22, 2010 with Ashley Smith, former Director of HealthNet Care Center

IndyGo BUS ROUTES: Routes run across Washington Street and cross the city in several north/south routes. Most run from the edge of the city to the center and back over the course of the day.

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HealthNet Dental Center HealthNet OB/GYN HealthNet Administration Office Health Recovery Program

appendix

HOUSING: Blue Triangle Burton Apartments Colonial Park* Crown Pointe Apartments The Georgetown Gladstone* Guerin Place Linwood Manor Mapleton Park Mozingo Place*

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INDUSTRIAL BUSINESSES: Advanced Municipal Equipment Appliance Recycling Dairy Plant Engineered Coatings Ewing Light Metals Hydraulics Indianapolis Drum Services Indy Recycling and Transfer Station Interstate Warehousing Materials Handling Warehouse Metal Finishing Midwest Machinery OmniSource Metals Plywood Distribution Storage Facility Tool + Supply Shop Toyoshima Steel

FOOD + BEVERAGE Bar Fast Food Grocery Store Liquor Store (2) Restaurant (2) SUPPORT SERVICES (5) see previous page AFFORDABLE HOUSING (6) previous page COMMERCIAL + RETAIL Ace Hardware Appliance Sales + Service Barber Cash Advance Family Dollar Gas Station (2) Roofing Company (2)

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AUTO SERVICES: Auto Parts (3)

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The dashed yellow triangle is the site selected for the Indianapolis Water Stop facility and bioremediation gardens

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PARKS + RECREATION: Parks (4) Pleasant Run Trail Southeast Community Organization EDUCATION: Christian School Daycare Early Childhood Center Elementary School (2)

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RELIGIOUS FACILITIES (12)

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Auto Sales (2) Auto Service + Repair (6) Tire Sales (2)

SITE SELECTION: The dashed box in the 3000 block of E. Washington St. is a potential historic renovation of the 1924 P.R. Mallory Building into affordable housing units.

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Total Daily Use Collected Gray Water

summary

Total % Demand 31,912 18.0% 34,687 19.6% 52,724 29.8% 51,337 29.0% 55,499 31.4% 48,562 27.4% 62,436 35.3% 49,949 28.2% 40,237 22.7% 36,074 20.4% 45,787 25.9% 45,787 25.9% 554,991 annually

Estimated Water Needs for Facility Fixtures Shower Washing mach. Bathroom sink Toilet Kitchen sink Drinking water Dish washer

appendix

(in ft.) 0.192 0.208 0.317 0.308 0.333 0.292 0.375 0.300 0.242 0.217 0.275 0.275

Rainfall data source: http://countrystudies.us/united-states/weather/indiana/indianapolis.htm

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Month Inches Jan 2.3 Feb 2.5 Mar 3.8 Apr 3.7 May 4 Jun 3.5 Jul 4.5 Aug 3.6 Sep 2.9 Oct 2.6 Nov 3.3 Dec 3.3 Totals

Water Stop Roof Collection Wilcher’s Roof Collection 3 3 Ft. Gallons Ft. Gallons 1,449 10,837 2,818 21,075 1,575 11,779 3,063 22,908 2,394 17,905 4,655 34,819 2,331 17,434 4,533 33,903 2,520 18,847 4,900 36,652 2,205 16,491 4,288 32,071 2,835 21,203 5,513 41,234 2,268 16,962 4,410 32,987 1,827 13,664 3,553 26,573 1,638 12,251 3,185 23,824 2,079 15,549 4,043 30,238 2,079 15,549 4,043 30,238 25,197 188,471 49,000 366,520

Qty 11 10 19 18 3 2 1

Supply gray gray gray gray city city city

Collect yes yes no no no n/a yes

Outflow gray gray black black black minimal gray

GPM 2 2 0.5 1.6 1 0.5 2

Gal/Use Time (mins)Daily Use Units 20 10 170 washes 15 25 100 washes 2.5 5 600 mins 1.6 n/a 300 ushes 10 10 10 users 1 2 100 users 10 60 2 washes Total:

5900 4674

79.2% recovered

Montly Water Demand total water 100% 177,000 gallons rain water

36%

63,796 gallons

gray water

8%

14,400 gallons

city water

56%

99,120 gallons

Gal/Day Gal/Mon. Collect/Day Collect/Mon. 3400 102000 3230 96900 1500 45000 1425 42750 300 9000 480 14400 100 3000 100 3000 20 600 19 570 5900

177000

4674

140220

Selected I-3-U Development Standards: Minimum building side & rear yards: 10 feet. Minimum building front transitional yard: 40 feet. Minimum building side & rear transitional yards: 40 feet. Minimum transitional yards abutting a railroad or spur: 0 feet. Maximum building height not along a transitional yard: 35 feet. Maximum building height along a transitional yard:* 22 feet. * Height may increase 1 foot for each 1 foot increase in transitional yard, up to a maximum height of 35 feet. Minimum Required Parking computed on the basis of the greatest estimated number of persons at any period: One space per 2 persons Outside operations & storage area limitation as a % of the total gross floor area of enclosed structures and buildings: 50% All operations, servicing or process must be enclosed operations if located within 300 feet of a protected district. Outside storage must be enclosed by 6-10 ft. fence and screened if located within 300 feet of a protected district. 65

SU-1

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C-4

D-5

I-2-U Uses: Bottling of beverages. Contractors. Industrial schools or training facilities. Printing & publishing. Upholstering shops. Manufacture, assembly, or repair: biological products, computers, electrical components, milk & dairy products, pharmaceutical goods, tools, etc. I-1-U uses. Citizens Gas Coke Utility: Zoned I-4-U [Heavy Industrial Urban District] Surrounding Land: D-5 [Medium Density Urban Dwelling] C-4 [Community-Regional Commercial District] SU-1 [Religious Use] Sources: Indianapolis Zoning Browser http://imaps.indygov.org/Zoning/ Zoning Synopsis http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/ DMD/Planning/Zoning/ordinances/ Zoning%20Synopsis.pdf

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Selected I-3 Permitted Uses: Industrial bakery. Electroplating operations. Motor Truck Terminals. Power Plant: electric, steam, thermal. Rolling or extruding of metal. Vehicle storage. Manufacture, assembly, or repair of: Household appliances, boats, motor vehicles, Glass, paints & dyes, paper, Structural metal, Textile mills, etc. I-2-U uses.

I-3-U

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Because of the nature of these industries, the district will be located away from protected districts and buffered by lighter industrial districts. Where this district abuts protected districts, setbacks are large and enclosure of activities and storage is required.�

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“This district is designed as an intermediate central city district for industries which are heavier in character than those permitted in the Light Industrial Urban District but which are not of the heaviest industrial types.

I-4-U

appendix

Zoning District Synopsis: I-3-U Medium Industrial Urban District

introduction research case studies context site water stop summary appendix

“According to HUD’s definition, a person is considered homeless if he or she meets one of two different classifications: 1) resides in a place not meant for human habitation, such as a car, park, sidewalk, abandoned building, or on the street (unsheltered homeless); or 2) resides in an emergency shelter or transitional housing for persons who originally came from the streets or emergency shelters (sheltered homeless).” Findings: “There were 1,488 individuals experiencing homelessness in Marion County on the date of the count (January 21, 2010). According to Table 1, that is an increase of 34 people from the Winter 2009 count. The number of people in emergency shelters decreased while the numbers in transitional housing increased and the number of unsheltered that we found decreased. As discussed below, an additional 143 individuals would have been homeless at some point leading up to and possibly including the night of the count but for the positive impact of prevention initiatives and a new federal program for prevention and intervention with individuals with low barriers to housing. In addition, anecdotal information available from shelters and service providers suggests that the number of unsheltered individuals found on the night of the count would be higher but for the negative impact of the inclement weather on that night and individuals who elected not to participate in the survey.” Of those who answered the question (825 adults), a total of 19 percent reported that they were employed (down from 25 percent in 2009), and another 15 percent reported that they were in school (up from 12 percent in 2009).

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Source: Indiana University School of Public Policy http://www.policyinstitute.iu.edu/PubsPDFs/ Homeless_PPI_Pr4.pdf

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Sources: http://www.superorg.net/archive/proposal/plant%20species%20phyto.pdf http://www.clu-in.org/download/remed/phytotechnologies-factsheet.pdf

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The following plants would help to clean the Water Stop site and lessen the negative environmental impact of the industrial site. Plant name (toxin absorbed) Birch Trees (chromium) Broadleaf Arrowhead & Water Hyacinth (selenium) Perennial Ryegrass (petroleum products) Winter Vetch (petroleum products) Willow Trees (benzene)

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The bio-remediation areas would line the property edge shared by Wilcher’s and the railroad and occupy the northern part of the site closest to the utility plant.

summary

In order to begin detoxifying the area surrounding the now-inactive Indianapolis Coke Utility, plants known to absorb chemicals and metals from the ground or to filter water.

appendix

bio-remediation

Images 10 __ Bicycle Storage Cart http://news.change.org/stories/why-i-choose-streets-over-shelter

11 __ Urban Rest Stop client

http://www.seattlepi.com/default/article/Rest-Stop-an-urban-oasis-for-Seattle-s-homeless-1182095.php#

12 __ Partners in Housing, Colonial Park Apartments Google street view

12 __ Resource Access Center, Portland, OR

http://chatterbox.typepad.com/portlandarchitecture/2009/09/resource-access-center-for-homeless-goingforward-after-urban-renewal-settlement.html

13 __ Second Helps Culinary Job Training School

http://www.secondhelpings.org/culinary-job-training

15 __ Downtown Drop In Center

images 1 - 3: http://www.lehrerarchitects.com/inst/dropin/dropin.htm images 4 - 5: http://www.architectureweek.com/2001/0411/design_2-1.html

18 __ Critical Vehicles

sketch: http://www.xcp.bfn.org/ascher.html images: http://www.xcp.bfn.org/ascher.html http://evictionart.blogspot.com/2008/12/name-of-artist-title-of-piece.html

19 __ Portland Loo

http://www.portlandonline.com/water/index.cfm?c=51250&

20 __ Bubble House

http://bubbleprototype.blogspot.com/

21 __ Zero Yen House

sketches + image: http://www.0yenhouse.com/en/A_Solar_Zero_Yen_House/

22 __ Urban Rest Stop left: Google street view top right: http://www.urbanreststop.org/ bottom right: http://www.urbanreststop.org/urban-rest-stop-laundry.html

30 __ Indianapolis Citizens Gas Coke Utility top: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmheidelberger/tags/indianapoliscoke/ sewer: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmheidelberger/4302031326/ industry: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmheidelberger/sets/72157613726407062/ with/3274912875/

31 __ Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market Google street view

32 __ Neighborhood houses Google street view

57 __ Neighborhood Stabilization + Density Maps

http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/DMD/Community/Pages/home.aspx

66 __ Indianapolis Homeless Count charts: http://www.chipindy.org/uploaded/ 2010%20Homeless%20Count%20Report%20Final.pdf

69 __ Bio-remediation

birch tree: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/28024716 broadleaf arrowhead: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALA2 water hyacinth: http://amuraquatics.com/problemweeds1.html ryegrass: http://www.dlfis.com/R_and_D/Forage_Breeding/Italian_ryegrass.aspx vicia villosa: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vicia_villosa.jpeg willow tree: http://www.dlfis.com/R_and_D/Forage_Breeding/Italian_ryegrass.aspx

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“A Dream Denied: The Criminalization of Homelessness in U.S. Cities.” National Coalition for the Homeless. Web. 25 Nov. 2010. <http://www.nationalhomeless.org/publications/crimreport/ meanestcities.html>. Citizens Energy Group. Proposed Reuse Vision. Rep. Indianapolis: CAMS, 2009. City of Indianapolis and Marion County. Web. <http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/DMD/Community/Pages/ home.aspx>. Davis, Sam. Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works. Berkeley: Univ. of California, 2004. “Design.” BuBbLe. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://bubbleprototype.blogspot.com/>. Gilboa, Ronni. Personal interview. 05 Oct. 2010. Herman, D B, and J. Manuel. “Populations at Special Health Risk: The Homeless.” (2008): 261-68. Elsevier. Web. Invisiblepeopletv. “Eric.” YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=6g2gewmzx6U&feature=player_embedded>. Kimm, Alice. “ArchitectureWeek - Design - Downtown Drop-In Center - 2001.0411.” ArchitectureWeek - 2010.1201. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.architectureweek.com/2001/0411/design_2-1.html>. Libby, Brian. “The Portland Loo: Design, Entrepreneurship, NIMBYism.” Chatterbox. 24 Sept. 2010. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. <http://chatterbox.typepad.com/portlandarchitecture/2010/09/the-portland-loo-designentrepreneurship-nimbyism.html>. Littlepage, Laura, and Jaree Ervin-Weeks. Focusing on Rapid Re-Housing Combats Family Homelessness in Indianapolis. Rep. Indiana University Public Policy Institute, Jan. 2010. Web. Nov. 2010. <http://www. chipindy.org/uploaded/2010%20Homeless%20Count%20Report%20Final.pdf>. Lopez, Steve. “Life on the Streets.” Los Angeles Times. 2005. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www. latimes. com/news/local/la-me-lopez16oct16-series,1,1478819.special>. Post, Pat, ed. “Operation Safety Net: Outreach to Unsheltered Homeless People.” Healing Hands 2 (Nov. 1998): 1. Breaking the Links between Poor Health and Homelessness. National Healthcare for the Homeless Council, Nov. 1998. Web. Feb. 2011. <http://www.nhchc.org/Network/HealingHands/1998/ hh.11_98.pdf>.

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Raymond, Josie. “Why Many Homeless People Choose Streets Over Shelters.” Good News. Web. 08 Dec. 2010. <http://www.tonic.com/article/why-many-homeless-people-choosestreets-over-shelters/>. Santos, Fernanda. “In the Shadows, Day Laborers Left Homeless as Work Vanishes.” New York Times. 01 Jan. 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/02/nyregion/ 02laborers. html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=In%20the%20Shadows,%20Day%20Laborers&st=cse>. Schmader, David. “A Clean Break: Urban Rest Stop.” The Stranger - Seattle’s Only Newspaper. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/Content?oid=490774>. SlumJack. “Why I Choose Streets Over Shelter.” Web log post. Poverty in America. 03 June 2009. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. < http://news.change.org/stories/why-i-choose-streets-over-shelter >. Usatine, Richard P., Lillian Gelberg, Mary H. Smith, and Janna Lesser. “Health Care for the Homeless: a Family Medicine Perspective.” American Family Physician 49.1 (1994): 139-46. Willis, Ragan. “Julie Apartments Will Combine Seattle’s First Public Hygiene Center and Lowincome Housing.” Seattle DJC Newspaper. 18 Oct. 1999. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. <http://www.djc. com/news/re/10059535.html>. Wodiczko, Krzysztof. Critical Vehicles: Writings, Projects, Interviews. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1999. “YouTube - MsBassgurl’s Channel.” YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. June-July 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/user/MsBassgurl>.

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Indianapolis Water Stop: Southside Water Center